• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Operating instructions
 Input for the feeding program
 Economic input
 Output tables of the simulation...
 Appendix A: Forages in Florida
 Appendix B: Accessing the IFAS...
 Appendix C: Backgrounding input...
 References
 Back Cover






Group Title: Computer series Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: Beef gain analysis program
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095255/00002
 Material Information
Title: Beef gain analysis program
Alternate Title: BEEF
User's guide to the Florida beef cattle backgrounding simulation model "BEEF."
Physical Description: 1 computer disk : ; 5 1/4 in. +
Language: zxx
Creator: Spreen, Thomas H.
Pheasant, Jim W
Peterson, Steven C.
Kunkle, William E.
Moore, John E.
Publisher: IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1986
Edition: Version 2.10.
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
BEEF (Computer program)   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Summary: This "decision aid" software package (BEEF) estimates the weight gains and costs associated with backgrounding programs.
System Details: System requirements: IBM PC or compatible; 128K RAM; Version 2.0 or higher of MS-DOS or compatible; at least 1 disk drive. Optional: printer.
General Note: Referred to in documentation as: BEEF.
General Note: Title of documentation: User's guide to the Florida beef cattle backgrounding simulation model "BEEF."
General Note: Description based on: disk label.
Statement of Responsibility: Jim W. Pheasant ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095255
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20744595

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Operating instructions
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Input for the feeding program
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Economic input
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Output tables of the simulation model
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Appendix A: Forages in Florida
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Appendix B: Accessing the IFAS VAX network
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Appendix C: Backgrounding input form
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    References
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text
D 0e

December 1986


Disk(s) under separate cover


Circular 736


User's Guide to the Florida Beef Cattle

Backgrounding Simulation Model "Beef"


COMPUTER SERIES I


Central Science
Library
JAN 30 1990


Jim W. Pheasant, Thomas H. Spreen, Steven C. Peterson, University of Florida
William E. Kunkle, John E. Moore


,!MMg


101 Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woest*, Dean
F636c
736
guide
























USER'S GUIDE TO THE FLORIDA BEEF CATTLE BACKGROUNDING


SIMULATION MODEL "BEEF"



by



Jim W. Pheasant, Thomas H. Spreen, Steven C. Peterson,


William E. Kunkle, John E. Moore*




















The authors are former Assistant In, Associate Professor, and research assistant in the
Food and Resource Economics Department, and Associate Professor and Professor in the
Animal Science Department, respectively, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.









TABLE OF CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1
Program Overview . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS ............................ 4
Making a Working Diskette ............................ 4
Starting BEEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Entering Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Exiting BEEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
The M ain M enu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

INPUT FOR THE FEEDING PROGRAM .............. ......... 7
Entering Data . . . . . . . . . . . * * *. 8
Feeding Program Worksheet . . . . .. . . . . .. ..... 8
Explanation of questions . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 10
The Monthly Feeding Plan ............................ 12
R review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

ECONOMIC INPUT .................................. 14

OUTPUT TABLES OF THE SIMULATION MODEL . . . . . . . . . 17
Generating Tables . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 17
Output Tables From the Biological Simulation . . . . . . . . . 18
Output From the Budget Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

APPENDIX A FORAGES IN FLORIDA ........................ 28
Forage Quality Index . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

APPENDIX B ACCESSING THE IFAS VAX NETWORK . . . . . . . ... 34

APPENDIX C BACKGROUNDING INPUT FORM . . . . . . . . . 36


. . 39


References .








USER'S GUIDE TO THE FLORIDA BEEF CATTLE BACKGROUNDING

SIMULATION MODEL "BEEF"



INTRODUCTION



The intermediate stage in U.S. beef production is called backgrounding. Newly weaned

calves normally graze forages until they enter a feedlot. During this stage, grazing may be

supplemented with concentrates to increase calf gains, to increase stocking rate (animals per

acre), or to substitute for inadequate forage supplies.

Backgrounding programs vary widely in Florida because of the diversity in soils, forages,

climates, breeds, and supplemental feeds. Faced with several types of backgrounding programs,

cattle producers need an accurate and easy method of comparing the profitability of various-

programs. Two key items in comparing backgrounding programs are estimated weight gains

and the corresponding costs involved in achieving those gains. An individual producer,

however, is not likely to have the time, data, and resources necessary for systematic

evaluation of more than a few of the many options available. Thus, there is a need for some

tool to allow rapid and concise comparison of various backgrounding programs.

Recognizing this need, the Food and Resource Economics and the Animal Science

-Departments at the University of Florida have developed a computerized decision aid. This

computer software package (BEEF) estimates the weight gains and costs associated with

backgrounding programs. BEEF allows a wide range of native and improved pastures,

supplements, time of year, animal characteristics, and weather conditions to be considered

when evaluating backgrounding programs.

This manual describes the use of BEEF for evaluating alternative forage-based

backgrounding programs. BEEF is currently available for the IBM-PC and IBM-compatible

microcomputers and the IFAS VAX computer network. Operating instructions presented in this








2

manual are specific to the IBM-PC. Those readers interested in the mathematical simulation

model may read a companion document (Spreen, et. al.), in which the mathematical foundation

of the computer program is presented.



Program Overview

BEEF has two main components joined together as shown in Figure 1. Part one

simulates the growth of feeder cattle on a forage-based feeding program. Based on initial

animal weight, grazing season, and forage quality, the daily intake of forage is calculated. If

supplements are fed, forage intake is adjusted. Intake above that required for maintenance is

assumed to be available for gain. Daily weight gain is calculated using equations from the

SNutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council). The calculated weight gains

are used in the economic model to estimate the costs associated with the backgrounding

program. The input and output segments of the model are indicated by rectangles in Figure 1,

whereas the ovals indicate computational segments of the model.




































Output: Cost of Gain
Breakeven Prices

Figure 1. Integration of the growth simulation and the cost accounting components of the model.








4

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS



Making a Working Diskette

BEEF requires an IBM-PC or an IBM-compatible machine. The minimum configuration is

at least one disk drive, 128K of memory, and version 2.0 or higher of MS-DOS or a compatible

operating system. Two disk drives make the task easier, though one is sufficient. A printer

is necessary to obtain hard copies of reports but not to run the program. The master disk

for BEEF has no operating system on it. This means that the master disk will not be able to

start or "boot" the computer. To create a working disk that performs this task, use the DOS

FORMAT/S command on a blank disk, then use the COPY command to copy all of the files

from the master disk onto the working disk. These files are BEEF.COM, BEEF.000, BEEF.HLP,

and BEEF.FOR. The master disk should then be stored as a backup while using the working

disk for everyday activity.



Starting BEEF

Once a working disk has been made, the program can be run. Put the working disk in

the boot drive and turn the machine on. When the DOS prompt (>A) appears, type BEEF and

then press . This will start the BEEF program.


Entering Data

All data is entered in the same format, whether it is numbers, words, or simple

character responses. A typical question reads as follows:

LENGTH OF FEEDING PROGRAM IN MONTHS (1-12) [1] :

The numbers in parentheses are the range of acceptable values. The number in square

brackets is the default value for that question. The default is the value used by BEEF if only

is pressed. In this example, the number to be entered can be from 1 to 12. If

is pressed, BEEF fills in the value of 1. Another example:








5

DO YOU WISH TO SEE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS ? (Y / N) [N] :

In this example, the acceptable responses are the letter Y or the letter N. If is

pressed, without having entered Y, BEEF fills in the default value of N.


Exiting. BEEF

Option 7 on the main menu allows the user to exit the program. If the user does not

choose to return to the main menu, it is always possible to terminate (or exit) BEEF by

pressing . Be careful, for in doing this, it is possible to lose data that

perhaps should have been saved on disk. Leaving BEEF by option 7 allows the opportunity to

save data files on disk.


The Main Menu

After activating the program by typing BEEF, the title screen is followed by some

general credits. These identify the authors and provide sources for more techincal

information. Next is the main menu:

BEEF BACKGROUNDING SIMULATOR MAIN MENU

1. Introduction

2. Start New Feeding Program

3. Review Current Feeding Program None in Use

4. Start New Budget

5. Review Current Budget None in Use

6. Generate Tables

7. Exit Program

ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE (1-7) [2]

From the main menu seven different procedures can be done. To do any of them, enter

the appropriate number and then press . For instance, to start a new feeding

program press number 2 and . The possibilities are as follows:











1. INTRODUCTION
This section is several screens of introductory material. It is a good idea for the new
user to read through these screens to learn of the types of data expected by the
simulation program. The more experienced user can bypass this option.

2. START NEW FEEDING PROGRAM
This option allows entering of a set of feeding data. A new worksheet of data can be
entered directly from the keyboard or read from a diskette where it had been previously
saved. This option must be selected before a simulation can be done.

3. REVIEW CURRENT FEEDING PROGRAM
This option is to change any part of the current feeding program data base. Before
reviewing a feeding data set, option 2, which starts the feeding program, must be used.
Option 3 is useful for going through "what if" situations. Any number of values in the
feeding program can be changed prior to executing the simulation to see new results.
After each review of the data, the opportunity to save the data base on a diskette is
provided.

4. START NEW BUDGET
This option enables the creation of a new budget worksheet. A new budget worksheet
can be entered directly from the keyboard or read from a previously saved file. Using a
budget worksheet with the simulation is optional.

5. REVIEW CURRENT BUDGET
This is for changing any part of the current budget (if there is one). Like its
counterpart, the review current feeding program option, it is a good aid in testing "what
if" propositions. After every review, the opportunity to save the new budget on a
diskette is provided.

6. GENERATE TABLES
This option tells BEEF to run the simulation based on the current feeding data base and
the optional budget worksheet. Upon finishing, a menu screen appears, providing the
option to view and/or print any of eight different tables generated by the simulation.

7. EXIT PROGRAM
This option provides an exit from BEEF for saving of data files while returning to DOS
or CP/m operating systems.



Ordering Information

For more information on this and other IFAS microcomputer software, contact your

county extension agent or write to IFAS Software Communication and Distribution, G022


McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.








7

INPUT FOR THE FEEDING PROGRAM


Several types of input data are expected by BEEF. With respect to cattle, the user

provides initial animal weight, sex classification, an estimate of the animal's potential to gain

weight, and the time frame for the simulation.

A basic assumption within the model is that only one forage is designated per month as

the primary energy source. For each month that a particular forage is grazed, forage total

digestible nutrients (TDN) on a dry matter basis, forage quality index (FQI), and dry matter

production (in pounds per acre) are specified by the user. This information is provided on the

master diskette for 20 common Florida forages (see Appendix A). For a more detailed report

on forages in the state of Florida, see Appendix A of the companion research bulletin (Spreen

et al). The forage data base values were compiled by summarizing statewide results and may

not reflect the unique conditions of a particular area. Ideally, this forage information should

be known by the user for each forage under consideration. The user is given an opportunity

to override the stored values with the user's own forage data during the review stage. The

Florida Forage Testing Program, available through county extension agents, provides the user

an opportunity to analyze forages grown on a farm or ranch.

Supplements, as defined for the model, are any energy source given to the cattle other

than the primary forage. BEEF assumes that all of the supplement provided daily to the

cattle is consumed. Forage consumption by the animal is expected to adjust accordingly. A

caution is that the sum weight of supplements provided to the cattle on a daily basis should

not exceed 1 percent of the animal's body weight. This is because the mathematical

relationships used to predict animal performance on a lower energy diet (forages) are different

from those used to predict performance on a higher energy diet (feedlot). BEEF flags

excessive supplemental feeding, and the validity of the results of the simulation may be in

doubt. For each supplement fed in a given month, the user specifies pounds fed per day per

animal (as fed basis), moisture percentage, TDN (as fed basis), and cost in dollars per








8

hundredweight. For each supplement, the user has the option of indicating whether a feed

additive such as Rumensin or Bovatec was included in the supplemental feed. If a cost

analysis is desired by the user, cost data are needed for forage, supplemental feed, animal

procurement, initial animal cost, medication and minerals, and marketing.



Entering Data

To start entering input, choose option 2 from the main menu. This allows entering of

data directly from the terminal or from a previously stored data set. BEEF sends these

prompts to the screen :

DO YOU WANT TO ENTER DATA FROM A PREVIOUSLY SAVED FILE ? (Y / N) [N]
To answer YES implies the simulation has been run sometime previously and the input
from that session was stored -onto the diskette. A NO response results in BEEF
prompting for data directly entered at the terminal.

YOUR AVAILABLE FILES ARE : ...
BEEF displays the name(s) of previously stored data files. This response will be
displayed only if the previous question had been answered YES.

ENTER NAME OF DATA FILE TO READ FROM [ ]
Enter one of the names displayed above as an available file. If none of the choices are
desired, press without entering a name and BEEF displays the main menu. This
question will be displayed only if the first question was answered YES.



Feeding Program Worksheet

The feeding program worksheet summarizes the input data necessary for doing a

simulation run. If a new backgrounding program is to be examined, the first step is to

complete a worksheet. A blank worksheet form for use when gathering data prior to starting

the computer program is contained in Appendix C. Collection of data is the most crucial step

in analyzing backgrounding programs. Quality results will occur only if quality data is

entered. An example of the input form that would be displayed at the terminal by the

computer program after data has been entered is shown in Table 1.










TABLE 1. ECHO OF THE INPUT TO THE FEEDING PROGRAM


INITIAL WEIGHT OF ANIMAL (LBS)
THE ANIMAL'S SEX : 1=STEER, 2=HEIFER
LENGTH OF FEEDING PROGRAM IN MONTHS
THE NUMBER OF THE MONTH PROGRAM BEGINS
THE NUMBER OF FORAGES OR FIELDS GRAZED ON.........
THE NUMBER OF SUPPLEMENTS USED
ANIMAL'S PHYSICAL CONDITION: I=SUPER, 2=AVG, 3=POOR
DO YOU WANT TO ACCOUNT FOR HEAT STRESS ?
FOR HEAT STRESS, IS THE ANIMAL 3/8 OR MORE BRAHMAN?
FOR HEAT STRESS, ARE THE CATTLE SOUTH OF 1-4 ?
HOW MANY ANIMALS ARE IN THE FEEDING PROGRAM ?


(12) FORAGES
FORAGE:
COST / ACRE:
ACRES USED:


(13) SUPPLEMENTS
SUPPLEMENT:
TDN:
% MOISTURE:
COST / CWT:
HAS ADDITIVE:


PCOLA BAHAI
20.00
0


CORN
80
15
8.00
NO


RYE-RGRS-CLV
100.00
0


COTTNSD MEAL
68
8.5
14.00
NO


FORAGE USED:
TDN OF FORAGE:
QUALITY INDEX:
LBS DRY MAT/ACRE:
SUPPS. USED @ LBS:



FORAGE USED:
TDN OF FORAGE:
QUALITY INDEX:
LBS DRY MAT/ACRE:
SUPPS. USED @ LBS:


1 SEP
PCOLA BA
50
1.30
480
CORN@2.0
COTT@1.0

5 JAN
RYE-RGRS
66
2.00
1170


2 OCT
PCOLA BA
56
1.50
240
CORN@2.0
COTT@1.0

6 FEB
RYE-RGRS
64
1.90
1820


3 NOV
RYE-RGRS
52
1.10
240
CORN@3.0
COTT@1.0

7 MAR
RYE-RGRS
62
1.80
1430


4 DEC
RYE-RGRS
68
2.10
650



8 APR
RYE-RGRS
62
1.70
845


BEEF prompts for all of the values shown on the input form when entering data from

the terminal. The following is a list of the questions asked and a brief explanation.

Remember that for every question, a range of possible values is given in parentheses (e.g.,


(250-700)) and a default value is given in square brackets (e.g., [400]).


( 1)
( 2)
( 3)
(4)
( 5)
(6)
(7)
( 8)
(9)
(10)
(11)


400
1 '
8
9
2
2
2
NO
NO
NO
0











Explanation of questions


INITIAL WEIGHT OF ANIMAL (LBS) (250-700) [0]
Average weight of the cattle entering the backgrounding program.

THE ANIMAL'S SEX : I-STEER, 2-HEIFER (1-2) [0]
Different gain equations are used for steers and heifers.

LENGTH OF FEEDING PROGRAM IN MONTHS (1-12) [0]
Number of months for which the simulation will be run. A maximum of 12 months
is allowed.

THE NUMBER OF THE MONTH PROGRAM BEGINS (1-12) [0]
Enter the number between 1 and 12 corresponding to the beginning month of the
backgrounding program : JAN=I, DEC=12. The computer program reorders the
calendar months to allow the indicated starting month to be shown first in all of
the output tables. A 5-month program starting in November will have data
displayed as follows: NOV, DEC, ... MAR.

THE NUMBER OF FORAGES OR FIELDS GRAZED ON (1-4) [0]
This is the number of different forages or fields on which the cattle graze during
the backgrounding period. Only one forage or field can be designated for a given
month.

THE NUMBER OF SUPPLEMENTS USED (1-4) [0]
This is the number of different supplements fed to the cattle during the simulation
period. A maximum of four may be fed in any one month.

ANIMAL'S PHYSICAL CONDITION: 1-SUPERIOR, 2-AVG, 3-POOR (1-3) [0]
The user makes a subjective judgement regarding the cattle in an attempt to
classify them as superior, average, or poor. A superior animal is assumed to have a
10 percent faster rate of gain than an average animal. Likewise, a poor rating
means a 10 percent penalty versus the average. Two major factors involved in this
judgement are the genetic capability for weight gain and the overall condition of
the cattle.

DO YOU WISH TO ACCOUNT FOR HEAT STRESS ? (Y / N) [N]
Heat stress is a problem often encountered in backgrounding programs during
months with high temperatures and humidity. During these months, forage intake is
decreased.

FOR HEAT STRESS, IS THE ANIMAL 3/8 OR MORE BRAHMAN ? (Y / N) [N]
It is assumed that an animal having 3/8 or more Brahman blood has an increased
tolerance to the effects of heat stress. Response to this question is relevant only
if heat stress is being considered.

FOR HEAT STRESS, ARE YOUR CATTLE SOUTH OF 1-4 ? (Y / N) [N]
The months where heat stress are a factor are May through September for locations
south of Interstate 4 and June through August for locations in Florida north of
Interstate 4. Response to this question is relevant only if heat stress is being
considered.










HOW MANY ANIMALS ARE IN THIS FEEDING PROGRAM ? (0-500) [0]
Enter the number of cattle that are to be backgrounded. If or zero is
entered for this question, the program calculates how many cattle could be
backgrounded based on the amount of forage and supplements available. This is a
useful option for testing the capacity of the land and its forages. The stocking
rate will be determined by the month when forage availability is most limiting.

FORAGES
BEEF now asks a series of questions regarding the forages to be used.

THE NAME OF FORAGE 1/2/3/4
The user may name his own forage or indicate a forage from those listed in a table
on the screen (see Appendix A). BEEF has a data base of 20 of the most common
forages used in Florida. This data base has information related to the monthly dry
matter yields of a given forage, monthly TDN, and monthly FQI. When designing an
actual feeding program, this information is taken directly from the database if I of
the 20 forages is chosen. Otherwise, if a forage is used that is not in the
database, prompts are given for monthly entries. The opportunity to override any
forage value taken from the database is also provided.

WHAT ARE THE VARIABLE COSTS FOR ONE ACRE OF Pcola Bahia ?
This value is used in the cost budgets. Variable costs include expenditures for
items such as fertilizer, lime, and seed.

HOW MANY ACRES OF [Pcola Bahia] DO YOU HAVE ? (0-2500) [0]
This value is used in determining how much forage is available to be consumed. If
a zero (0) is entered for the number of acres and a positive value for the number
of cattle in the program, BEEF will calculate the number of acres that are
necessary to support those cattle. If a zero (0) is entered for both this value and
the number of cattle, the program assumes 100 acres of each forage and calculates
how many head could be backgrounded on each forage.

SUPPLEMENTS
BEEF now asks a series of questions about supplements, which are any energy
source provided to the animal in addition to the primary forage.

NAME OF SUPPLEMENT 1/2/3/4
The name of the current supplement. BEEF uses this as an identifier in later
questions and as a label in the output.

DOES CONTAIN RUMENSIN OR BOVATEC ? (Y / N) [N]
The presence of these additives results in a 10 percent increase in efficiency of
energy conversion for maintenance and gain. The additive should be present in at
most one of the supplements being fed in a given month.

ENTER TDN (AS FED) OF (1-100) [0]
Make sure this is TDN AS FED. BEEF adjusts this value based upon the moisture
percent at which the supplement is fed.

IS FED AT WHAT PERCENT MOISTURE ? (0-100) [0]
This figure is used to determine the dry matter basis TDN and pounds of dry
supplement actually fed to the animal.








12

ENTER DOLLAR COST ($ PER CWT) OF (0.00-30.00) [0]
This figure is used in the cost budgets. The user should ensure that the cost
figure entered is expressed in dollars per hundredweight.



The Monthly Feeding Plan

After having entered all of the basic information about the structure of the

backgrounding program, the next step is to decide upon the exact monthly feeding plan.

BEEF aids in this by asking a series of questions for each month of the program. These

questions guide the user through selecting a forage and supplement for a given month.

The questions asked each month are as follows:

ENTER DATA FOR THE MONTH OF (0-12) [0]

ENTER FORAGE USED 1-Pcola Bahia, 2-Rye-Rgrs-clv (1-2) (1]
Choose from the forages that were indicated earlier by name. If the forage chosen
is one of those in the forage database, BEEF knows automatically the- TDN, the
FQI, and the DRY MATTER YIELD for that forage for that month. If the table
values are zero or the forage is not included in the database, the user will have to
enter the information by answering the next three questions. In the forage table,
each forage is fully named and the abreviation that will be used within the program
is shown, e.g., Rye-Ryegrass-clover -- Rye-Rgrs-clv.

The information in the forage database is based on research gathered over the years

by IFAS. The values for each forage in the database are guidelines, and each user is

encouraged to change the TDN, the FQI, or the DRY MATTER YIELD to more closely match

their particular forage. Editing forage data is discussed in a later section. A listing of all

the forages in the database with their monthly values is shown in Appendix A.


ENTER TDN FOR (40-70) [0]
For the month indicated, enter TDN of the forage. This value must be within the
TDN range of 40 to 70 for the equations used in the simulation to remain valid.

ENTER FORAGE QUALITY INDEX FOR (0.8-2.2) [0]
Enter the FQI for the month indicated. FQI is a measure of forage consumption.
FQI may change from month to month as the weather affects the condition of the
forage. The FQI is scaled so that if a forage has an index of 1.0, the intake of
the animal will be exactly equal to its maintenance requirements. If a forage has
an index of 2.0, forage intake is twice as much as maintenance requires.








13

ENTER LBS DRY MATTER PER ACRE FOR (0-4000) [0]
A forage will yield different amounts of dry matter depending on the month and
weather conditions. The amount is important when used with the stocking rate, as
it determines forage availability for each animal in a given month. The forage
yields in the database represent the estimated quantity grown each month. Residual
forage remaining from prior months is not estimated.

FOR ENTER SUPPLEMENTS USED.
ENTER THE NUMBER OF THE SUPPLEMENT THAT YOU WANT TO ADD.
IF THE SUPPLEMENT ENTERED IS ALREADY PRESENT, ENTERING ITS NUMBER WILL
REMOVE IT.
ENTER 0 WHEN FINISHED, 1=corn, 2=cttnsd meal (0-2) [0]
Indicate which supplement is to be used by entering the number by its name. A
maximum of 4 supplements may be fed per month.

FOR ENTER LBS OF FED PER DAY (AS FED) [0.00]
Enter pounds of supplement to be fed per animal per day.



Review

After completing the feeding data, the initial data entry is over and BEEF returns to the

main menu. Usually, data review is the next step selected and this is done by choosing option

3. Reviewing provides the opportunity to check for and correct any mistakes. At the end of

each review session, the option of saving the data entered in a disk file is provided.

During review, any of the values entered may be changed. There are two review pages.

The first review page contains all of the basic information about the backgrounding program.

Changing a value usually involves typing in a number found in parentheses to the left or just

below the value to be changed on the screen, typing a comma and the new value, and then

pressing . BEEF will then reset the screen. Only at the end of every review session

is an opportunity provided for saving the information on a diskette.









14

ECONOMIC INPUT



The economic input (budget) section is initiated via option 4 of the main menu. This

input is necessary to estimate the costs of a feeding program, but it is not needed for only

evaluating the growth segment of a feeding program. Four of the output tables that could be

generated during a model run are related to the cost information contained in the budget.

These tables are not accessible for viewing without the budget data.

The user is asked to supply cost information relating to the weaned feeder calf; forage;

supplements; and other operating costs, including medication and minerals, growth stimulants,

maintenance and repairs for equipment, and interest costs. Other costs to be indicated by the

user are marketing, labor, and land costs. The model is highly adaptable in that the user can

specify a wide array of purchase and/or selling arrangements, adjust labor costs, and account

for land rental costs. These costs are allocated between cash (out-of-pocket) and noncash

costs. The cost categories are totaled separately and used in printing a "budget" detailing the

cost information provided by the user. Using these totals and a predicted ending weight from

the growth section, a "breakeven" price is calculated, which is the price at which the

backgrounded animal must be sold to cover costs. Breakeven prices are calculated for both

cash costs and total costs.








15

The following is an example of an input worksheet:

TABLE 2. ECHO OF THE ECONOMIC INPUT

( 1) WHAT ARE THE FIXED COSTS FOR ONE AC OF Pcola Bahia ? 20.00
(2) WHAT ARE THE FIXED COSTS FOR ONE AC OF Rye-rgrs-Clv ? 30.00
( 3) CALF PRICE, DOLLARS PER CWT 55.00
(4) ORDER BUYING COST, DOLLARS PER CWT 0.00
(5) TRANSPORTATION IN, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 0.00
(6) PERCENT DEATH LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH PROCUREMENT 0.00
( 7) PERCENT PURCHASE SHRINK 0.00
(8) MEDICATION, MINERALS, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 2.00
(9) NUMBER OF IMPLANTS PER ANIMAL 1.00
(10) DOLLAR COST PER UNIT OF IMPLANT 1.00
(11) OTHER OPERATING COSTS, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 2.50
(12) PERCENT INTEREST RATE 13.00
(13) PERCENT DEATH LOSS DURING PASTURING OR FEEDING 1.00
(14) OVERHEAD COSTS, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 5.00
(15) LABOR COSTS, DOLLARS PER HOUR 3.50
(16) HOURS OF LABOR PER ANIMAL OVER ALL MONTHS 0.67
(17) PERCENT SALES SHRINK 3.00
(18) AUCTION CHARGE, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 5.00
(19) TRANSPORTATION OUT, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 4.00
(20) OTHER MARKETING COSTS, DOLLARS PER ANIMAL 1.50

The budget can handle multiple forages. The variable cost of each forage entered in the

feeding program should reflect the cash costs incurred from grazing cattle on the forage

during the months specified. For a permanent pasture, the cost may be very small. For a

temporary pasture, the cost is the cost of seed, fertilizer, lime, etc. used to cultivate the

pasture. Fixed costs for each forage are those costs associated with land above variable costs

of the forage. In particular, it may be land rent or a charge to reflect the opportunity cost

of land.

The stocker calf or weaned feeder calf refers to the calf entering the backgrounding

program. If the calf is not purchased, then its "cost" is not a cash cost. This budget

assumes the cost of the calf is a cash cost. The appropriate price to enter would then be

what price the calf would bring at the time the backgrounding program is initiated.

Medication and minerals are figured on a total cost basis only as are other operating

costs, such as maintenance and repairs, that may be incurred. A per animal number is the

expected entry.









16

An interest charge is calculated on the capital required to operate the backgrounding

program. If all capital is borrowed, the interest charge reflects the cost of capital. The

model assumes all capital requirements are met through borrowing and not by owner financing.

All death loss is assumed to occur at the beginning of the program, so that it is

calculated on the purchase cost of the calf only.

Other costs include the cost of .procurement, marketing, labor, and other overhead.

Procurement costs are incurred only if feeder calves are purchased. Depending upon the

method of purchase, they may include order buyer fee, transportation in, and death loss

incurred in transport.

Marketing costs are those costs associated with selling the backgrounded cattle. They

may include order buyer fees, transportation out, and any miscellaneous fees.

Whenever cattle are transported, weight loss may occur. This weight loss is called

"shrink." A backgrounding operation may incur both purchase and sales shrink. The

percentages you enter for these shrinks are used to adjust the beginning and ending weight of

the animal as calculated by the model. This allows the model accounting to be done on a pay

weight to pay weight basis.

Labor is the hours required per calf to cultivate pasture (if not included in pasture

cost) and manage the cattle. If labor is hired, the cost per hour is fairly easy to determine.

If labor is not hired, the work is done by the owner and family, and an opportunity cost for

that time should be entered. This rate might be the prevailing off-farm work rate for the

general area.

Overhead costs are items such as depreciation, insurance, taxes, and interest on

investment.

Data for a budget may be entered either question by question or by reading a previously

stored budget from disk by choosing option 4 from the main menu. BEEF prompts through all








17

of the above statements in the same pattern used for entering values for the growth

simulation.

A blank form to use as a worksheet while gathering budget data is in Appendix C. BEEF

returns to the main menu following the last question. A review of the budget is done by

choosing option 5. The review procedure is similar to that of the feeding section. Upon

completion of the budget review, the data may be saved on a diskette. The user might want

to save the budget in a different file from the feeding data if the feeding data had not been

saved or if the budget data is such that it could be used with a number of different feeding

scenarios.



OUTPUT TABLES OF THE SIMULATION MODEL-


Generating Tables
To run a simulation of the feeding program and generate the associated tables, press
option 6 of the main menu. It can take up to 2 minutes for the machine to complete
calculations. During this time an asterisk (*) will appear on the screen for each day of each
month of the simulation period. After the simulation has finished, the screen shown in Figure
2 appears:


Figure 2. Output Tables Menu.


OUTPUT TABLES MENU
1. INPUT VERIFICATION
2. BUDGET VERIFICATION
3. RATION COMPOSITION
4. FORAGE UTILIZATION
5. ENERGY AND TDN ANALYSIS
6. ESTIMATED FEEDING BUDGET
7. BREAK EVEN PRICES
8. ESTIMATED COSTS FOR LBS GAINED
9. PRINT ALL TABLES

WHICH OF THE ABOVE TABLES DO YOU WANT TO SEE.
0 TO QUIT (0-9) [0]









18

The tables may be selected for viewing in any order. After viewing each table, the

option of printing that table is provided. Notice also option 9, which sends a copy of all

tables to the printer. The program displays a message to the screen if the print option is

selected and the printer is not turned on or is out of paper. It is possible to reprint each

table as often as desired. Selecting zero (0) exits the print menu and returns the user to the

main menu. No option is provided for storing output on the diskette.



Output Tables From the Biological Simulation

Output from BEEF related to animal performance is presented in tables 1, 3, 4, and 5.

Tables 2, 6, 7, and 8 show information related to the economic analysis.

Tables 1 and 2 (presented earlier) are copies of the feeding program input and budget

input, respectively. Their headings show the input data provided by the user in tabular form.

These headings indicate those questions which were answered in building the data set. The

user should examine these tables carefully as verification that all data was entered correctly,

before drawing any conclusions about the results in the remaining tables.

The average ration composition for each month of the feeding program is shown in Table

3. A breakdown of the ration on a per pound (dry matter) and percentage basis is given.

Since the amounts of supplements fed are specified by the user, the model calculates the

amount of forage that is consumed; the resulting sum is daily intake on a dry matter basis. It

should be remembered that the theoretical (biological) intake limit may not always coincide

with the actual intake of the animal, due to insufficient availability of forage resulting from a

user-specified stocking rate exceeding the carrying capacity of the forage. In this case,

intake is less than the intake limit and their difference is the pounds (dry matter) of

additional forage per day that the animal would consume if available.

A weight accounting of the growth simulation is provided in part 2 of Table 3. The

purchase weight of the animal and the purchase shrink, if any, which is applied before the















TABLE 3. PART 1 RATION COMPOSITION (DRY MATTER BASIS)


SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR


FORAGE CONSUMED LBS 8.29 9.07 7.99 13.27 14.15 14.86 15.44 15.19
(% ) 76.02 77.62 69.75 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


CORN LBS 1.70 1.70 2.55 0.00 0.00 0.00
(% ) 15.59 14.55 22.26 0.00 0.00 0.00

COTTONSEED MEAL LBS 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.00 0.00 0.00
(% ) 8.39 7.83 7.99 0.00 0.00 0.00


INTAKE
INTAKE LIMIT


0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00


LBS 10.91 11.69 11.45 13.27 14.15 14.86 15.44 15.19
LBS 10.91 11.69 11.45 13.27 14.15 14.86 15.44 15.19


TABLE 3. PART 2 RESULTS FOR STEER ON THE ABOVE FEEDING PROGRAM

PURCHASE WEIGHT 400 LBS ENDING WEIGHT 730 LBS
PURCHASE SHRINK 0.00 %


NAME


SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR


AVERAGE DAILY GAIN LBS 1.23 1.40
INITIAL WEIGHT LBS 400 437
ENDING WEIGHT LBS 437 480
SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 0.36 0.50


1.19 1.71 1.56 1.42
480 516 569 617
516 569 617 657
0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00


NAME


1.27
657
697
0.00


1.12
697
730
0.00








20

simulation begins is shown. Monthly summaries for average daily gain and the

forage/supplement substitution factor are shown along with initial monthly weight. It is only

during the months that supplements are fed that the substitution factor may take on a

nonzero value.

At the bottom of this table, a warning message may appear. This warning indicates that

in a given month insufficient intake is available to maintain the animal's weight. When this

situation occurs, the simulation interrupts the calculation stage on the first day the shortfall

occurs. The forage input should be reviewed to see that all entries are of sufficient

magnitude for the size animal under evaluation.

The estimated amount of unharvested forage for each month of the backgrounding

program is shown in Table 4. In the example, neither the number of animals nor the number

of acres of each pasture was specified. The model, then, defaulted and assigned 100 acres to

each type of forage. Estimated carrying capacity of Pensacola bahiagrass is projected to be

0.85 animals per acre as determined by the forage availability in October. To increase the

carrying capacity determined by the model for the Pensacola bahiagrass grazed in September,

October, and November, increased supplementation is necessary in the constraining month of

October. Similar information is given on the utilization of the rye-ryegrass-clover pasture

used in the example. December is the constraining month which determines the carrying

capacity of 1.50 animals per acre. Increased supplementation in this month would lead to a

higher carrying capacity for this pasture. For both of these forages, the month selected by

the program as having the lowest or constraining carrying capacity is indicated by an asterisk

to the right of the name for that month.

In the present form of the model, unharvested forage in one month is not carried over

to the next month. Future work on the model is required to account for forage carryover and

to create parameters to indicate the quality of carried-over forage.















TABLE 4. FORAGE UTILIZATION

FORAGE 1: BAHIA

Assuming 100 acres available, then 85 animals can be pastured at a carrying capacity of 0.85
animals/acre.

UNHARVESTED FORAGE


TOTAL POUNDS
DRY MATTER


MONTH


SEP
OCT *
NOV


QUALITY
INDEX


TDN


26770.
0.
3544.


Indicates month with lowest carrying capacity




FORAGE 2: RY-RYGR-CLVR

Assuming 100 acres available, then 158 animals can be pastured at a carrying capacity of 1.58
animals/acre.

UNHARVESTED FORAGE


TOTAL POUNDS
DRY MATTER


0.
47729.
116292.
67390.
12526.


* Indicates month with lowest carrying capacity


MONTH


DEC *
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR


QUALITY
INDEX


TDN









22

A nutritional accounting of the feeding program, on an average daily basis, is provided in

Table 5. The simulation model converts TDN intake to metabolizable energy (ME). The

efficiency of ME use for maintenance and for gain differ. These efficiencies are reported

along with the net energy available for gain. The feed required for maintenance and available

for gain are indicated.



Output From the Budget Analysis

The second part of the program is the cost analysis model. Output from the growth

simulation section, including ending weight, stocking rate, and total intake of supplements, is

input to the cost model. Variable costs per acre for forages and supplement costs are also

passed- to the cost model. Results are presented in a budget which summarizes the cost of the

backgrounding program, and the breakeven prices required to cover cash costs and total costs

are reported.

The estimated costs for pasturing a 400-pound calf to 708 pounds beginning in September

and ending in April, in budget format, are shown in Table 6. Notice that sales shrink, if

provided, is deducted from the ending weight so the weight accounting is done on a pay

weight to pay weight basis. Costs grouped at the top of the table are those which are

typically out-of-pocket costs or cash costs. The costs listed in the lower section of the table,

such as procurement, marketing, overhead, etc., may or may not be cash costs for some

producers and are grouped separately from those most commonly thought to be cash costs.

Breakeven prices per hundredweight are shown in Table 7. For the illustrative example,

the breakeven prices to cover cash costs and all costs are $52.73/cwt and $57.19/cwt,

respectively.

Another budget and set of breakeven prices for only the weight gained by the animal

while on this backgrounding program are presented in Table 8. As shown in the table, ending

weight is adjusted for the appropriate shrink figures provided by the user. Table 8 differs








23

from Table 6 in that the initial cost of the animal is excluded. The cost per hundredweight

of gain is reported in the bottom part of Table 8.
















TABLE 5. ENERGY ANALYSIS OF RATION


NAME, SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR


TOTAL ME ENERGY AVAIL. (MCAL)
ME REQ. FOR MAINT. (MCAL)
EFF. FOR MAINT.

ME AVAIL. FOR GAIN (MCAL)
EFF. FOR GAIN
NET ENERGY AVAIL. GAIN (MCAL)


FEED FOR MAINT. (LBS DM BASIS)
FEED FOR GAIN (LBS DM BASIS)


10.81
6.05
0.65

4.76
0.34
1.62


12.07
6.49
0.65


11.86
6.85
0.66


14.80
7.49
0.64


5.58 5.02 7.32
0.36 0.36 0.38
1.98 1.78 2.79


15.31
8.01
0.64

7.30
0.37
2.71


15.59
8.46
0.64

7.14
0.36
2.58


15.70
8.85
0.64

6.85
0.35
2.40


15.44
9.21
0.64

6.23
0.35
2.18


6.11 6.29 6.61 6.71 7.40 8.06 8.71 9.06
4.80 5.40 4.84 6.56 6.75 6.80 6.73 6.13


ACTUAL INTAKE (LBS DM BASIS) 10.91


11.69 11.45


13.27 14.15 14.86 15.44 15.19











TABLE 6. ESTIMATED COSTS FOR PASTURING SEP THROUGH APR (note A)

NAME QUANTITY PRICE ($) COST/HEAD

STOCKER CALF 400 LBS 55.00 /CWT $ 220.00


FORAGE(s)
BAHIA
RY-RYGR-CLVR

SUPPLEMENT(s):
CORN
COTTONSEED MEAL


MEDICATION, MINERALS, ETC.
GROWTH STIMULANT

OTHER OPERATING COSTS (note B)
INTEREST ON OPERATING CAPITAL
DEATH LOSS


TOTAL CASH COSTS


PROCUREMENT COSTS (note C)
MARKETING COSTS (note D)
LABOR
OVERHEAD COSTS (note E)
LAND COSTS, PASTURE (note F)


1.17 AC
0.63 AC


212.00 LBS
91.00 LBS


13.00 %
1.00 %


0.67 hr


20.00 /AC
100.00 /AC


8.00 /CWT
14.00 /CWT


1.00


341.94
220.00


3.50 /hr


TOTAL ALL COSTS


(A) PAY WEIGHT TO PAY WEIGHT, 400 LBS TO 708 LBS
SALES SHRINK USED : 3.00 % PURCHASE SHRINK USED : 0.00 %

(B) MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS

(C) $ 0.00 /HD ORDER BUYING = $ 0.00 /CWT 4.00 CWT
$ 0.00 /HD TRANSPORTATION IN
$ 0.00 /HD DEATH LOSS = $220.00 /HD 0.00 %


(D) $ 5.00 /HD
$ 4.00 /HD
$ 1.50 /HD


AUCTION CHARGE
TRANSPORTATION OUT
OTHER MARKETING COSTS


(E) DEPRECIATION, INTEREST ON INVESTMENT, TAXES, INSURANCE


(F) 0.84 AC/CALF AT $26.24 /AC /YEAR FOR 242 DAY


23.44
63.30


16.96
12.74

2.00
1.00

2.50
29.47
2.20


$ 373.61


$ 0.00
10.50
2.35
5.00
13.70


$ 405.16















TABLE 7. BREAKEVEN PRICES


NAME

CASH COSTS

PROCUREMENT COSTS

MARKETING COSTS

LABOR, OVERHEAD, AND LAND

TOTAL ALL COSTS


TOTAL PRICE


TOTAL
PER HEAD

$373.61

0.00

10.50

21.04

$405.16


PRICE
PER CWT

$52.73

0.00

1.48

2.97

$57.19










TABLE 8. PART I ESTIMATED COSTS FOR 308 LBS OF GAIN (note A)

NAME QUANTITY PRICE ($) COST/HEAD

FORAGE(s)
BAHIA 1.17 AC 20.00 /AC $ 23.44
RY-RYGR-CLVR 0.63 AC 100.00 /AC 63.30

SUPPLEMENT(s):
CORN 212.00 LBS 8.00 /CWT 16.96
COTTONSEED MEAL 91.00 LBS 14.00 /CWT 12.74

MEDICATION, MINERALS, ETC. 2.00
GROWTH STIMULANT 1 1.00 1.00

OTHER OPERATING COSTS (note B) 2.50
INTEREST ON OPERATING CAPITAL 13.00 % 121.75 10.51

TOTAL CASH COSTS $132.45


LABOR 0.67 hr 3.50 /hr $ 2.35
OVERHEAD COSTS (note E) 5.00
LAND COSTS, PASTURE (note F) 13.70

TOTAL ALL COSTS $ 153.50


(A) PAY WEIGHT TO PAY WEIGHT, 400 LBS TO 708 LBS
SALES SHRINK USED : 3.00 % PURCHASE SHRINK USED : 0.00 %

(B) MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS

(E) DEPRECIATION, INTEREST ON INVESTMENT, TAXES, INSURANCE

(F) 0.84 AC/CALF AT $26.24 /AC /YEAR FOR 242 DAYS


TABLE 8. ESTIMATED COSTS FOR 308 LBS OF GAIN
TOTAL COST PER
NAME PER HEAD CWT GAIN

CASH COSTS $132.45 $43.00

LABOR, OVERHEAD, AND LAND 21.05 6.83

TOTAL ALL COSTS $153.50 $49.87








28

APPENDIX A

FORAGES IN FLORIDA

High quality forages play a central role in backgrounding feeder calves. The purpose of

this appendix is to give more detail about the types of forages that may be used in various

grass and legume pastures, summer annual grasses and legumes, and temporary cool season

crops such as rye grass and small grains. Improved permanent grass pastures provide abundant

feed from May to September, but forage production is low from October to April. Temporary

annual forages can partially fill this void and provide high quality forage, but production is

highly dependent upon receiving adequate moisture and these forages require large amounts of

fertilizer.

Tables A.1 (perennial summer grasses for North Florida), A.2 (perennial summer grasses

for South Florida), A.3 (winter annual small grains and grasses), and A.4 (summer annual

grains and legumes) show estimates of monthly dry matter yields, monthly TDNs, and monthly

FQIs for selected forages. These tables were constructed to typify expected yields and forage

quality of a normal production year for an average Florida producer. They are designed to be

used as a guideline for input data by a user of the growth simulation model who can modify

the required input to meet the particular situation.

Notice that for some months no forage production is estimated for the perennial summer

grasses. A producer may choose not to graze a forage during its growth period. In this case,

estimates of TDN and FQI should be revised downward if a forage has been reserved for

grazing during the cool season months. There is also a possibility that when dormant pastures

first start growing in the spring, there may be both old forage and small amounts of new

forage available. This situation creates a problem in estimating TDN and FQI for the spring

months. Only new growth was considered for the TDN and FQI values shown. If there is a

combination of both, the user could adjust these numbers presuming that the animal will eat

some of the residual forage.








29

The estimated production levels shown in all four tables assume typical soils for that

forage, adequate moisture, and adequate fertilization. The reader should note the footnotes at

the bottom of each table which show the amount and time of nitrogen application which gave

the yield estimates shown. Observed production levels for any particular field will probably

deviate from the estimates shown in the tables. As such, the tables serve only as a guideline

to prospective users of the simulation model.



Forage Quality Index

FQI is an overall quality estimate based on the voluntary intake of TDN expressed as a

multiple of maintenance requirement for TDN (Moore et al.). Intake of TDN is an overall

measure of forage quality in that it combines both forage intake and digestibility. When

forages are fed "free choice," animal performance is closely related to the intake of TDN. A

study was conducted to determine the FQI for tropical summer grass hays grown in Florida

(Moore et al., 1984). Sheep were fed tropical grass hays and voluntary intake of TDN was

determined. FQI was calculated by dividing the actual TDN intake by the TDN maintenance

requirement of sheep as stated in the National Academy of Sciences' Nutrient Requirements of

Sheep. The result was expressed as a multiple of maintenance requirement; a value of less

than 1.0 is considered a low quality forage, while a forage with greater than 1.8 denotes a

high quality forage. The results were used in compilation of the FQI values shown in Tables

A.1, A.2, A.3, and A.4. FQI usually ranges between 0.80 and 2.2, although some clovers and

alfalfa may exceed the 2.2 level for short periods of time, depending upon the stage of

maturity.






Table A.1. Perennial warm season forages North Florida.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total


Coastal Bermudagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Alicia Bermudagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Tifton 44 Bermudagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Bahiagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

White Clover-Bahiagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production


64 63 62 58 55 53 55 55
1.9 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4
220 660 1650 2310 2970 1540 1210 440
2 6 15 21 27 14 11 4


64 63 60 55 52 50 52 52
1.9 1.8 1.7 1.5 13 1.0 13 13
150 550 1600 2100 2700 1400 1100 400
1 5 16 21 28 14 11 4


64 63 61 57 54 52 54 54
1.9 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4
120 600 2400 2640 3240 1680 1200 120
1 5 20 22 27 14 10 1


65 65 64 60 54 50 52 54
1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5
266 798 1164 1596 1330 798 399 190
4 12 19 24 20 12 6 3


70 70 66 65 60 54 50 52 54
2.2 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5
380 760 1425 1805 1900 1615 1045 380 190
4 8 15 19 20 17 11 4 2


11,000b
100




10,000
100


12,00(0


6,650d
100




9,500c
100


bAll dry matter yields are expressed as pounds' per acre.
Expected North Florida yields fertilized with 100 lbs of nitrogen annually in split application (Burton, 1967).
TExpected North Florida yields fertilized with 100 lbs of nitrogen annually in split application.
Average 10-year dry matter yield of Pensacola bahiagrass on Leon fine sand fertilized with 100 lbs of nitrogen yearly (Blue, 1974).





Table A.2. Perennial warm season Forages South and Central Florida.


Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec


Bahiagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

White Clover-Bahiagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Pangola Digiterass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

White Cover-Pangola Digitgrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Stargrass and Bermudagrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Hemarthria
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production


65 65 64 60 54 50 52 56
1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2 13 1.5
160 800 1600 2000 1680 1040 480 240
2 10 20 25 21 13 6 3


70 70 68 68 65 60 54 50
2.2 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.2
110 440 990 1650 2090 2310 1650 990
1 4 9 15 19 21 15 9


52 54
13 1.5
550 220
5 2


66 65 63 58 55 55 58 58
2.0 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.6
300 1200 3000 2000 1600 1000 600 300
3 12 30 20 16 10 6 3


70 70 68 68 67 63 58 55 55 58 58
2.2 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.6
130 390 910 1560 2080 2340 2080 1560 1040 650 260
1 3 7 12 16 18 16 12 8 5 2


65 65 62 60 53 52 55 57 57 57
1.9 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.6 .1.6 1.6
120 600 1200 3000 1800 1680 1440 960 840 360
1 5 10 25 15 14 12 8 7 3


65 65 65 65 63 60 58 58 62 63 63 63
1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
100 100 200 500 1100 2200 2000 1600 1200 700 200 100
1 1 2 5 11 22 20 16 12 7 2 1


Total


8,000b
100


11,000
100


10,0000
100




13,000c
100




12,000c
100




10,000b
100


bAll dry matter yields are expressed as pounds per acre.
Expected Central and South Florida yields fertilized with 100 lbs of 12-6-6 annually in split application.
SExpected South Florida yields fertilized with 100 lbs of 20-10-20 annually in split application.
Rotationally grazed with 8-week regrowth periods.


Table A.2. Perennial warm season Forages South and Central Florida.









Table A.3. Winter annual forages.


Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec


Ryegrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Rye Pasture
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Oats Pasture
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Wheat Pasture
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Rye-Ryegrass and Clover
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production


67 67 63 60 58
2.1 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5
1008 1288 1456 1008 560
18 23 26 18 10


66 66 60 57 54
2.0 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4
1200 1650 1300 300 50
24 33 26 6 1


68 64 62 59
2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6
1125 1350 1125 225
25 30 25 5


68 65 61 58 55
2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.3
880 1200 1000 400 120
22 30 25 10 3


66 64 62 62 59
2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6
1170 1820 1430 845 585
18 28 22 13 9


'All dry matter yields are pounds/acre.


Total


5,600
100




5,000
100




4,500
100




4,000
100




6,500
100


68
2.1
650
10









Table A.4. Summer annual forages.


Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec


Tifleaf Millet
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Pearl Millet
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Sorghum Sudangrass
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production

Aeschynomene
TDN, %
Forage quality index
Dry matter yield
% monthly production


68 68 66 64 -
2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 -
1440 2040 1440 1080 -
24 34 24 18 -


66 64 60 60
1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6
2800 3200 1600 400
35 40 20 5


64 62 60 56 54
1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.4
2200 3300 3300 1870 330
20 30 30 17 3


- 64 64 62 60
- 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
- 300 1050 1050 600
- 10 35 35 20


6,000b
100




8,000b
100


11,000b
100


3,000
100


bAll dry matter yields are pounds/acre.
Expected yields harvested by grazing when 120 lbs nitrogen applied in split application.


Total









34

APPENDIX B

ACCESSING THE IFAS VAX NETWORK

BEEF is currently available on the IFAS VAX network at the Gainesville, Quincy, and

Lake Alfred sites. A data terminal and modem is all that is needed for accessing, but some

form of printing device is necessary for hard copy output. Computer services are normally

available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Contact your county agent about obtaining VAX

computer accounts. Terminal switches should be set before dialing the computer. Terminals

will vary as to the number of switch settings required. The more common switches and

settings for using the IFAS VAX 11/750 are as follows:


SWITCHES SETTINGS

Line Feed Single or double
Speed 300 or 1200 baud
Duplex Full
Parity Odd
On-line key Depressed
Power On


Dial IFAS VAX at Gainesville, FL (904) 392-5760 and after hearing the "tone," attach

the telephone to the acoustic coupler on the modem as diagrammed or turn the appropriate

switch on the modem and return the phone to its cradle. The indicator (carrier) light is

visible once the circuit is complete. If the indicator light does not come on, set switches to

the off position and dial the number again. The following steps are necessary to sign on and

engage the program:

Step 1. Push the return key
Step 2. Computer responds with USERNAME:
(enter your user name), press
Step 3. Computer responds with PASSWORD:
(enter your own), press
(NOTE: The password is not echoed back to your
terminal for security reasons.) If logon has
been successful, the VAX computer responds with
WELCOME TO VAX...and then the dollar sign ($) prompt.








35

Step 4. Type (BEEF), press . The computer responds
with a screen giving the program name and an option
for looking at the program credits.

Once the user has exited BEEF and has returned to the dollar sign ($) prompt, the VAX

command to exit from the system is (LOGOFF.). This should be typed following the prompt.

This is the proper way to exit from the VAX system, allowing for all files to be safely closed

and your terminal session to be completed without someone else gaining access to your

account. User accounts can be obtained through the IFAS Computer Network, Bldg. 810,

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Their phone number is (904) 392-5180.











APPENDIX C


BACKGROUNDING INPUT FORM


COMPUTER DATA
COMPUTER OUTPUT


FILE NAME
FILE NAME


Worksheet for Growth Simulation Model


Initial weight in pounds
Sex: 1 Steer 2 Heifer
Length of feeding program in months (1-12)
Number of the month program begins in (Jan-l,Feb-2,...Dec-12)
Number of forages or fields grazed on (1-4)
Number of supplements used (0-10)
Number of animals (0-500)
Animal quality effect. potential for gain
(Superior =S Average = A Inferior = I)
Is heat stress to be accounted for ? (Yes/No)
Is this animal (3/8) or more Brahman ? (Yes/No)
Are the cattle backgrounded south of Interstate-4? (Yes/No)


Forage Name
(20 letters)


Acres
(0-2500n


Variable Costs
(S ner acre)


Grazing Months (1-12)
Reiin End


FOR EACH FORAGE ENTER THESE THREE ITEMS

1. TDN -- total digestable nutrients (dry matter basis, range: 40-70)
2. FQI -- forage quality index (range: 0.8-2.4)
3. DM -- forage dry matter production in pounds/acre (range: 0-2,500)

Forage Name (1)

Jan Feb Mar Ant May Jun Jul Aug Se Ot Nov Dec

1. TDN
2. FQI
3. DM

Forage Name (2)

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun hJl Aug Sn Oct Nov Dec

1. TDN
2. FQI
3. DM











Forage Name (3)

Jan Feb Mar Aor May Jun Jul Aug Sem Oct Nov Dec

1. TDN
2. FQI
3. DM

Forage Name (4)

Jan Feb Mar r Mar A May Jun Jul Ag e Nov De

1. TDN
2. FQI
3. DM

Supplement feeding information:

Bovatec or
Name TDN Cost Rumensin
(20 characters) as fed (/cwt) (Yes/No)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Enter the pounds of supplement fed per animal per day

an Feb Mar Aor May Jun Jul Aug Se Oct Nov Dec

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.









38

COMPUTER DATA FILE NAME

Worksheet for Budget Analysis


Run 1 Run 2 Run 3


Fixed costs) dollars per acre of land, forage -1

Fixed costs) dollars per acre of land, forage -2

Fixed costs) dollars per acre of land, forage -3

Fixed costs) dollars per acre of land, forage -4

Calf price, dollars per cwt

Order buying cost, dollars per cwt

Transportation in, dollars per animal

Percent death loss associated with procurement

Percent purchase shrink

Medication, minerals, dollars per animal

Number of implants) per animal

Dollar cost per implant

Other operating costs, dollars per animal

Percent interest rate

Percent death loss during pasturing or feeding

Overhead costs, dollars per animal

Labor cost, dollars per hour

Hours of labor per animal over all months

Percent sales shrink

Auction charge, dollars per animal

Transportation out, dollars per animal

Other marketing costs, dollars per animal











References

Moore, J.E. 1978. "Forage Quality and Animal Performance." Proc.. Forage and
Grassland Conference, American Forage and Grassland Council, Raleigh, NC pp.
27-34.

Moore, J.E. 1981. "Principles of Forage Quality Evaluation." In King Visiting Scholar
Lectures, Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Special Report 93. April, 1981. pp. 66-87.

Moore, J.E. 1983. "Florida Pilot Forage Testing Program." Proceedings. 32nd Annual
Beef Cattle Short Course. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. May, 1983. pp.
135-140.

Moore, J.E., W.E. Kunkle, K.A. Bjorndal, R.S. Sand, C.G. Chambliss, and P. Mislevy.
1984. "Extension Forage Testing Program Utilizing NearInfrared Reflectance
Spectroscopy." Proceedings. 1984 Forage and Grassland Conference, American
Forage and Grassland Council, Houston, TX.

Moore, J.E., M.A. Worrell, S.M. Abrams, W.R. Ocumpaugh, and G.O. Mott. 1981. "Quality
of Tropical Perennial Grass Hays." 1981 Beef Cattle Research Report. Animal
Science and Agronomy Departments, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL. pp. 40-44.

National Research Council (NRC). 1976. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 5th ed.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.

National Research Council (NRC). 1975. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.

Ruelke, O.C., and G.B. Killinger, 1976. "Forages and Pastures." In Beef Cattle in
Florida. Bul. No. 28, Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and
Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Univ. of Florida. Sept. 1976. pp.
143-146.

Spreen, T.H., J.A. Ross, J.W. Pheasant, J.E. Moore, and W.E. Kunkle. A Simulation Model
for Back2rounding Feeder Cattle in Florida. Bul. No. 850 (technical), Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida. May, 1985.



































































This publication was produced at a cost of $831.83, or $2.77 per copy, to provide information about a microcomputer
program in which backgrounding programs can be evaluated. 12-300-86


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and \buth publicea-
tions) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-o-sate purchasers is
available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication,
editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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