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Title: Courier (English)
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Publisher: Hegel Goutier
Place of Publication: Brussels, Belgium
Publication Date: 05-2011
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REPOR T Papua New Guinea Island Continent Will gas re development? DISCOVERING EUROPE Greece Athens, Rhodes So much more to discover DOSSIER Military forces in ACP countries N. 23 N. E MAY JU N E 2011C urierThe The magazine of Africa Caribbean Pacific & European Union cooperation and relationswww.acp-eucourier.info

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C urierThe Table of ContentsTHE COURIER, N.23 NEW EDITION (N.E)EDITORIAL 3 PROFILE Mercedes Bresso, President of the Committee of the Regions 4 Muengo 5TO THE POINT David Matongo of Zambia, Co-President of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly 6ROUND UP Local government assizes on cooperation 8 Bill Gates visits the European Parliament 10 Ivory Coast update 11 Haiti follow up 11 Bridging the Missing gap in Africa 12 UN Joint Parliamentary Assembly, Istanbul, Turkey 13 Extension of Agriculture 14 Renewal of fisheries agreement with the Comoros DOSSIERThe Role of the Military in ACP Countries From economic cooperation to conflict prevention 16 The African test 17 Supporting peace in Africa 17 The new mercenaries 19 Europeans and Africans train a new Somali Army: a first for the EU 20 The fight against drug trafficking, a priority for the EU-Caribbean partnership 22 Fiji, the Pacific exception 23 DOSSIER 16 ROUND UP 8 Editorial Board Co-chairs Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary General Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacic Group of States www.acp.int Fokion Fotiadis, Director General, EuropeAid European Commission ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm Core staff Editor-in-chief Hegel Goutier Journalists Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief) Debra Percival Editorial and Production Assistant Anna Bates Production Assistant T elm Borrs Contributed to this issue Sylvia Arthur, Anna Patton, Anne Marie Mouridian, Sandra Frederici, Andrea Marchesini, Eugenio Orsi, Alfred Sayila, Nicholas Gros, Okey Umelo, Malum Nalu Project Manager Gerda V an Biervliet Artistic Coordination Gregorie Desmons Graphic Conception Loc Gaume Public Relations Andrea Marchesini Reggiani Distribution Viva Xpress Logistics www.vxlnet.be Photo Agency Reporters www.reporters.be Cover Secret Garden by Jeffry Feeger J Feeger Contact The Courier 45, Rue de T rves 1040 Brussels Belgium (EU) info@acp-eucourier.info www.acp-eucourier.info T el: +32 2 2345061 Fax: +32 2 280 1912 Published every two months in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese For information on subscription, Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourier.info Publisher responsible Hegel Goutier Consortium Gopa-Cartermill Grand Angle Lai-momo The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the ofcial view of the European Commission or of the ACP countries. Neither the European Commission nor the ACP countries, or any person acting on their behalf, may be held responsible for the use to which information contained in this publication may be put, or for any errors, which, despite careful preparation and checking, may appear.

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N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011REPORT Papua New Guinea Exciting prospects but MDGs trail 46 The battle of the major powers in terra incognita 47 The race for PNGs gas 49 Dame Carol Kidu, standing up for the marginalised 51 Interview with Martin Dihm, the EUs Ambassador to PNG 53 Donors collaborate in PNG 55 Building governance in Bougainville, post-conflict 56 Jeffry Feegers art takes the pulse of PNG 57 CREATIVITY A marvellous chaos: Haiti, Kingdom of this World Exhibition, Paris 58 Arat Kilo: The sweet essence of Ethiopian jazz, distilled in France 59 From slums to the stage: How creativity can make the difference 60 Uganda Museum under Threat 61 Badilisha: Changing, Exchanging and Transforming African Creativity on the Web 62 FOR YOUNG READERS Sport 63 YOUR SAY/CALENDAR 64TRADE Taxing the mining industry: the case of Zambia 24 OUR PLANET The fight to halt climate change 26 DISCOVERING EUROPE Greece Ancient history, the charms of the islands, and so much more to discover 28 Greek Development Policy 30 NGO ActionAid Hellas on development policy in Greece 31 Yvette Jarvis: Voice of Immigrants 32 Renewables. A boon for developing countries 33 The Greek spirit: Byzantium as a reference point 34 So much beauty 35 ZOOM Stories matter: a glimpse into the world of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 36 INTERACTIONSBenin, Bhutan and Costa Rica cooperating across continents 38 The EU remains the worlds principal donor without achieving its aims 40 40 Challenging self-interest 41 Launch of Second EU/ACP Microfinance Framework Programme 42 ACP forges ties with UNIDO 43 CIVIL SOCIETY ON THE MOVEResettling the Carteret Islanders: victims of climate change 44 The social cost of the EUs renewable energy policy 45 REPORT 46DISCOVERING EUROPE 28OUR PLANET 26CREATIVITY 58

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2C urierThe Killy, 'installation 'Croix des Bossales', 2011, (part of the installation), Monotypes on paper, sequin paper, wood sculptures and recycled rubber. Exhibition 'Hati, Royaume De Ce Monde' gallery Agns B, Paris @ Hegel Goutier. The same exhibition is presented at the Haiti pavillion, Venice Biennale 2011, 54th International Art Exhibition.

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N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 3The presence of the African Union Commission at the G8 Summit in Deauville (26-27 May 2011) underlined the importance of reinforced partnership between the G8 and Africa. Africa is on the move and becomes a new pole of worldwide growth, in spite of remaining difficulties, notably in the least developed and vulnerable countries. Both sides promised to work jointly during this crucial period of change, to continue promoting shared values like peace, human rights, democratic governance, transpar -ency and sustainable development.Forty billion dollars were promised as a reward for those North African countries which have come out in force to reject dictatorial regimes, and the G8 promised similar generosity to the peoples of Africa that choose democracy peacefully, without allowing themselves to be fooled by the siren calls of demagogues and extremists who make their living out of the poverty of the many. Time will tell. According to David Matongo, the co-pres -ident of the ACP-EU joint parliamentary assembly, poverty is the major threat to democracy, or so he said in his interview with The Courier entitled "No turning back". A concerned Matongo stressed that devel -opment strategies must endorse the eco -nomic partnership agreements between the EU and the ACP. Otherwise, to paraphrase his views, the only freedom involved would be that of a wolf in a sheep's clothing, given the reality of American, European and other Western farmers receiving 400 million dol -lars a year in subsidies. In the wake of the Deauville summit, the presidents of the European Council and Commission, Herman Van Rompuy and Jos Manuel Barroso, made a commit -ment to present by October draft legisla -tion requiring greater transparency from the European mining corporations which operate in Africa, in particular. Our gen -eral news round-up also highlights the concerns which the fishermen of West Africa, for example, have expressed to the European Parliament as regards overfishing by European trawlers in African waters. The major feature of this issue of The Courier is devoted to defence and security, including questions such as the role of mercenaries. Military force, like the tongue in Aesops fable, may be the worst and also the best option as regards defence and security out -side the borders of developed nations, which have recently seen fit to intervene in Cte dIvoire and again in Libya in support of democracy, as well becoming involved in genuine wars such as in Afghanistan. As we shall discover, Africa may soon become the laboratory for European defence and security policy, in which intervention is based on a whole gamut of legal instru -ments, including the Cotonou Agreement.The Courier also provides an overview of defence and security initiatives in Africa itself, the most promising of which is the creation by the African Union of an African Rapid Response Force. Another impor -tant development described is the formation of a true army in Somalia, and, on another continent, the regional and international pressures on Fiji which have led to a series of military coups during the three last decades. The major report in this issue deals with Papua New Guinea, a country that suffers a child mortality of 733 out of 100,000 births, and which, paradoxically, is also an authentic garden of Eden, with fabulous landscapes and mineral wealth, mountains of gold in a sea of oil. The country, how -ever, labours under the constraints of its history and the tyranny of distance, made up as it is by some 600 islands and as many tribes, speaking a total of 800 languages. Its European partners have taken up the chal -lenge of accompanying it in its development. Our special feature on a European region focuses this time on Greece, and especially on Athens and Rhodes. Rhodes is simply beautiful, and Athens too has become a very well turned out and appealing city. Just as Greeces progress in a variety of fields, such as the raising of living standards almost to the level of the rich countries of the EU and advances in scientific research, were being reported, the fates came down on the country like a ton of bricks, and it became the object of attention of the financial rat -ings agencies. This required and continues to require massive intervention on the part of Europe and Bretton Woods institutions, which had to come to the rescue of the Greek economy. These events placed the spotlight on the need to strengthen regional and worldwide political governance to coun -terbalance the dominance of high finance in a globalized world. Hegel Goutier Editor in chief The dawn of world political governance?

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Mercedes Bresso, President of the Committee of the Regions 'An EU institution that derives its power from its citizens' Hegel GoutierSince the beginning of 2010, Mercedes Bresso has been the President of the Committee of the Regions (COR), a European Institution established only 15 years ago. It has slightly increased its scope relative to the past, but it remains essen tially a consultative forum. Its roots in each local community in Europe however, confer a certain power to the COR. Ms Bresso, an elected representa tive from Piedmont, former Professor of Environmental Economics at the University of Turin, is an engaging inter viewee, who shares her impas sioned conviction for the need for decentralisation, and wish es that the COR would play a role commensurate with its large democratic legitimacy. We will no longer be happy to request that local assem blies or regional authorities be taken into account. We will no longer be yes-men. Interview with The Courier MB Our advantage is that to be President of the COR we have to be elected to local office. I attended the COR as President of the province of Turin1 (Italy) and subsequently for the region of Piedmont (Italy) but most importantly, as a locally elected representative. The COR must be consulted on a number of issues. But with the Treaty of Lisbon, we began to acquire more real power, with the right to issue a warning and especially the right to go to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) if we find a violation of the subsidiarity2 principle in legislation or in European policy. Local powers use 70 per cent of EU legislation, either by directly applying it through transposition at State level, or transforming it into local laws when they legislate. It is thanks to the COR that there is a step by step process of decentralisation in Europe. HG Is this decentralisa tion limited in some States because of an historically strong tradition of central ised government? MB No, the move towards decentralisation is everywhere. Situations do vary across the EU. In Italy, the state implements the EU directives and regions apply it in practice. In Spain the regions have gained real power. There has been a complete restructuring in Greece and it now has regions of sufficient size with real power. Denmark has made great reforms. Belgium has long since implemented reforms, and its regions possess legislative power in matters within their jurisdiction. Germany has always been decentralised. Overcentralisation exists in France, which has an overabundance of local authorities with some 36,000 communes, which necessitates annoying and superfluous structures for basic coordination. However, Holland has different procedures. The Queen nominally appoints Mayors although in reality it is the governmental majority which selects the employees who are appointed. This has been highlighted by the Council of Europe, with the Charter of Local Authorities, and it has always been considered a borderline case. HG Can there be true democracy without large scale regionalisation? I always insist, and this is true of African countries or those of Eastern Europe, that you can check up on the real state of health of a democracy based on the existence, or lack thereof, of a strong system of local democracy. If it does not exist, for example if the mayor is appointed, there is no authority for the citizen to control and punish those who mismanage.1 City and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River surrounded by the Alpine arch2 Subsidiarity is an organising principle that matters ought to be handled by the smallest, lowest or least centralised competent authority 4Profile Pedro Celso Pacific Tuna Industry Association Mercedes Bresso Hegel Goutier

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A pioneer in Tuna Country Pedro Celso, Vice Chairman of the Pacifics Tuna Industry Association Debra PercivalBuses bound for Pedro Celsos RD tuna canning factory in Madang are marked, Tuna Country. Its a sign of the importance of the industry in the north coast of the Pacific island of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The Filipino-born Managing Director of RD Canneries set up his business from scratch in 1995. It now employs a staff of 3,500, mainly women. He is also Chairman of the PNGs Tuna Industry Association, Vice Chair of the Pacifics Tuna Industry Association and is a member of the PNG/European Union negotiating panel on the new Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Country-wide, the canning industry employs around 10,000 people, with other factories located at Lae and Wewak and theres potential to expand under the interim EPA, a free trade agreement with the EU. PNG is only one of two countries to date to have signed an interim EPA with the EU, the other being Fiji. PNG exports mainly to the United Kingdom, Germany and Holland. If it werent for the EU, I dont think the industry would survive, says Pedro Celso. The new EPA trade rules permit PNG to export its canned tuna to the EU duty-free, despite having middle income country status. He points out that a change in the rules of origin system under the EPA potentially allows tuna caught by boats from Taiwan, Korea, Japanese, China, the United States, or any other boat landing their catch in PNG to be processed in PNG canneries and still exported duty-free to the EU market. This, at least in theory, will stimulate further investment in PNGs processing and canning industry. But according to PNG-based diplomats, after more than two years of operation of the new rules, the PNG share of EU imports of canned tuna is still marginal at around 14,000 tonnes out of an import total of 400,000 tonnes. And although the European Parliament ratified PNGs EPA there are still periodic vocal protests from a limited number of MEPs about PNGs access to the EU market, notably from Spain which also has a canning industry. According to Martin Dihm, the EUs Ambassador in PNG: We are conducting a comprehensive study to identify the impact of the provision and it is hoped that this will create full transparency and also contribute to convincing doubting MEPs and help us talk to governments about any foreseeable problems. What we are trying to do is to process loins and then send them for canning in the EU Spain and Italy for canning. It will be a win/ win situation, says Pedro Celso of the PNGs industrys future plans. But he doesnt predict a huge expansion of the local industry: The way I look at it is that it will take ten years to establish the industry in PNG at the moment. We are struggling to expand. He largely puts this down to high production costs within PNG including electricity charges. The Chairman adds that hes worried about EU extending duty-free trade provisions to other countries with tuna processing industries in future World Trade Organisation (WTO) talks. N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 5If it werent for the EU, I dont think the industry would survivePedro Celso Pacific Tuna Industry Association

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6C urierThe To the point Debra PercivalThe Courier How do you perceive the current role of the Joint Parliamentary Assembly? David Matongo Its my hope that with the entry into force of the Treaty on European Union and EU enlargement, the JPA will utilise its now more promi -nent role. The Lisbon Treaty has accorded the European Parliament significant codecision powers. The EP will henceforth play a more significant role in trade, com -mercial and agricultural policies. It will have increased powers with regard to the final text of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). EU negotiators will have to report to the Parliaments International Trade Committee on a regular basis. The parlia -ment could be a potential ally in safeguard -ing ACP concerns. Reinforcing ACP-EU partnership in the face of new vulnerabilities Interview with David Matongo Co-chair of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary AssemblyAfter 24 years as chairman, or managing director, David Matongo continued to work in business whilst launching a political career in his native Zambia. Matongo is currently Chairman and Director of David and Dash Holdings Limited and is director or member of the boards of many local and international bodies. He holds degrees in business management from universities in Zambia, India, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. In a speech delivered on 16th May at the JPA meeting in Budapest Hungary, his straight talking put across the current contentions between ACP and EU partners.

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7 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 TC Did the ACP and EU parliamentarians have to deal with contentious issues at the last meeting of the JPA? DM The main contentious issue is the need for the Doha Development Round (World Trade Organisation) to buttress the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the ACP and EU coun tries. The EPAs are basically unacceptable for one reason. There is no development assis -tance to back them up. For instance, when poor countries join the WTO or organi sations such as the Common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), we lose incomes from custom duties as we open borders unless we find support to improve the quality of our products in order to compete with EU, Western countries or India and China. The US and the West give US$400M annually in subsidies to their farmers. When we provide subsidies so that our farmers can export to the US or to Europe, the WTO says no to subsidies. We need funding until our fragile manufacturing and production processes upgrade. So an EPA without the Doha development agenda is like a house without a foundation. And our partners have to understand that. TC In your view, what are the main developmental challenges facing ACP countries? DM The EPAs. EPAs are to foster the smooth and gradual integration of ACP countries into the world economy. For the ACP, however, integration into the world economy is not an end in itself but being seen only as a means of promoting larger objectives. EPAs are primarily supposed to be instru -ments of development, aimed at con -tributing to poverty eradication in ACP countries. Up to now, little attention has been paid to the exact role future EU-ACP trade arrangements, such as EPAs, can play in supporting the structural transfor -mation of ACP economies. Equally, the relationship between the EUs approach to regional and bilateral trade with ACP countries and its approach to multilateral negotiations need to be clarified. In a development round, it is legitimate that the developed countries make more compromises to enable the weaker and more vulnerable partners to have access to their markets. But access without the capacity to produce would remain meaningless. It is vital, therefore, that the European Union agrees on a package that would help to build supply capacity in the developing countries, in particular the weakest and most vulnerable among them. TC What is the value of the ACP Group of States as an entity given the diversity of development issues across regions?DM I strongly believe that as ACP States, united we stand and divided we fall. The ACP Group of States is extremely valu -able within the South-South cooperation framework. South-South development cooperation represents a paradigm shift from traditional North-South coopera -tion. New donors from emerging econo -mies share the knowledge gained through their own development experience with other developing countries. And then, fundamentally different to traditional cooperation, they also listen to and learn from developing country partners. They listen to learn what their specific develop -ment needs are and they consider what they learn from their partners of great importance to their own development as well. The result is not only an effective solution to real developmental problems but a strong impulse to build lasting South-South relationships as well. The ACP Group Secretariat, representing 79 developing countries, could be well placed to play the role of knowledge hub for ongoing South-South cooperation ini -tiatives and facilitate further cooperation and coalition building to expand the scope of South-South cooperation. The ACPs long and unique cooperation experience with the EU could also provide a platform for learning and exchange to expand the scope and leverage of triangular, SouthSouth-EU development cooperation. TC The ACP Group is looking at its future after the year 2013. In Brussels, theres a feeling that the ACP groups importance has declined. Whats the future of the Group? At its 92nd session, held from 8 to 10 December 2010, the ACP Council of Ministers took a decision approving the creation of an Ambassadorial Working Group to examine the prospects for the future of the ACP Group. The joint his -tory between Europe and the countries of the ACP goes back to the period of the Empires. After the Cotonou Agreement (2000-2020) has disappeared, we need to find a new kind of relationship between us. The Lisbon Treaty should find a way of keeping this relationship. That is of major importance for both the ACP and EU with the emergence of the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China). We are facing new unprecedented challenges: a world in which global economic imbalances linked to poverty, deepening inequalities and worsening climate conditions are creat -ing a fearful vortex of chaos and mutual vulnerabilities for rich and poor alike. So an EPA without the Doha development agenda is like a house without a foundation. And our partners have to understand that Market in Zambia. Aid for trade is essential ReportersDavid Matongo EP

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8C urierThe Round up Hegel GoutierThe Assises on Decentralized Cooperation organized by the Committee of the Regions (COR) and hosted in Brussels on the 29th and 30th of March 2011 by the COR and the European Commission led to some practical conclusions likely to influence EU development policy, which is now being reworked with a view to decentralizing the way it is run. There was also a variety of parallel events, in particular a debate under the aegis of PLATFORMA, an association of local and regional development authorities, which posed questions on the European Commissions decentralized cooperation, a policy that led to lively debate. Two other seminars took place outside the Assises, one on the theme of "EU Africa Strategy and Partnership on climate change: the local dimension of a global challenge", and the other organized by the TER-RES project, Responsible Key players for development: from North and South At the Assises on Decentralized CooperationAfrican Delegates at Assises Committee of Regions-COR

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9 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Territories "The Territory: Sharing meaning and redesigning the policies, scales and dynamics of development". The Director General in charge of development, Fokion Fotiadis, and the General Secretary of the COR, Gerhard Stahl, presided over the opening session of the Assises on 29 March 2011. Mr. Fotiadis expressed satisfaction that the Assises were taking place at the same time as the long-term financial frame work and restructuring of EU develop -ment policy, while Mr. Stahl highlighted the opportunity for the local and regional authorities (LRA) to pass on a clear message to the Commission and other European institutions. At the plenary session on 30 March, the President of the COR, Mercedes Bresso, asked the Commission for a "reinforce -ment of the integration of the LRA in development policy" and launched a call to all those involved in development to "stop working in a solitary or bilateral way, and to join multi-sector and multi-level networks within the framework of an integrated territorial approach". The Vice-President of the European Parliament, Isabelle Durant, made the point that her institution provides financial support to the cities and regions involved in decen tralized cooperation, thus increasing the ability of the LRA to act as "an essential part in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals". There was particular anticipation regard -ing the appearance of the European Commissioner for Development, Andris Pielbags, as the Commission was to report to the various sessions of the Assises on the state of progress of the "Structured Dialogue" launched in March 2010, and particularly on the mechanisms that it is setting up to enable European LRAs and their partners to play a greater role in development policy. He coined the phrase "think global, act local in order to summarise his approach to decentralized cooperation, and reaf -firmed the Commissions desire to attain and even surpass the MDGs. He added that when investments are made at a local and regional level, progress towards the MDGs is faster and more lasting; LRAs can support the productive activi -ties that favour job creation, encourage innovation, and enhance development and infrastructure." He stressed too that efforts were still required to build up the LRAs capabilities, and that solu -tions must be found as regards various statutory and financial questions. Among the regulatory and financial issues mentioned by the EU Commissioner was that of project appeals, which had also been the subject of debate at the PLATFORMA seminar. He stated that the LRAs could not be treated as NGOs, and that this model was not appropriate for their financing. At the Assises workshop entitled "The Planning and Implementation of Aid: Structured Dialogue, Present and Future", examined the different pos -sible models and their advantages and disadvantages, focusing the debate and opening the way to consensus regard -ing a solution. From the Development Directorate General's Directorate of Thematic Operations, Aristotelis Bouratsis and Georgios Pantoulis rep resented the Commission. The four other workshops at the Assises focused on the topics of "The Territorial Approach to Development and Multi-Level Governance", "Regional and Local Authorities and Sustainable Development", "The Challenge of the LRAs: Inclusive Growth" and "The Contribution of Regional and Local Authorities to Food Security". The PLATFORMA associa -tion (www.platforma-dev.eu), which aims to become the voice for development of the local and regional authorities (LRAs) of the EU, already has an influence well beyond the borders of the Union, having established links with all the economically poor regions of the world so that the LRAs of donor nations and the beneficiaries of state aid can take part in designing and setting up the mechanisms and then have a say in run -ning them. In the EU, the association is consul -ted more and more often by decision-making bodies, and it sets the terms for discussion within them. For example, it has supported an actor-based approach and a division of labour in EU deve -lopment policy, as was laid out in the Commissions Green Paper, inspi -red by the Lisbon Treaty, and this approach has since been consolidated. Another example of this is the report of Pierre Schapira, at the time Deputy Mayor of Paris **, which argued for an active role for LRAs in European development policy, a model that was then adopted in its exact form by the European Parliament. Among other campaigns, Platforma is at the moment pressing for a maximum-impact development policy, the guiding principles of which are to be the need for good governance on an international scale and coordination between local government and budgetary support and state aid in general. According to PLATFORMA, this policy should also integrate farming and food security, while remaining at the service of sus tainable development and growth. H.G. GREEN PAPER EU development policy in support of inclusive growth and sustainable development. Increasing the impact of EU development policy** Deputy Mayor of Paris, responsible for International Relations, European Affairs and the French-speaking worldPLATFORMAWorking for development: a voice from the heart of EuropePierre Shapira Reporters

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10C urierThe Anna PattonPrivate foundations are emerging as powerful players in interna -tional development: this year for the first time, the OECDs Development Assistance Committee (DAC) includes funds from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in its global aid data. In 2009, donations from the Gates Foundation the worlds largest private foundation to global health were topped only by those of the US government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a public-private partnership.Gates, the worlds second richest man, told MEPs that private contributions would not replace government aid, but could be further maximised. This would be particularly welcome at a time when many national governments are cutting aid spending the Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Italy and Ireland have all announced cutbacks recently. Private donors often do more than give hand-outs, however. Participants at a Development Policy Forum debate in Brussels last year on the role of founda -tions agreed that they can bring fresh ideas and a more flexible approach than governmental structures. Aid effectiveness and coordination of projects are also crucial to the European Commission. This, said President Barroso, is why we are working more closely with the private sector and big, important foundations like the Gates Foundation. The Strasbourg meeting resulted in agreements to work together on agriculture and food security (including developing agricultural cor -Bill Gates promotes living proof1 that aid works ridors for more efficient supply chains), and in public health, including medical research for vaccines. In both sectors, said a Commission spokesperson, the thematic focus, private sector exper -tise and results-driven focus of the Foundation are considered particu -larly useful.MEPs questioned investment in geneti -cally modified organisms, which he defended, saying we invest in any technology that avoids starvation. The Gates Foundation has also previously been accused of a lack of transpar -ency and of diverting resources from other important healthcare services. 1 Living Proof is a showcase of the incred ible progress being made in development and a celebration of the remarkable people achieving it, organised by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and ONE. Visiting the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France, in early April, Microsoft chairman and philanthropist Bill Gates called for increased development aid and for more recognition of its impact. Gates also met with European Commission President Jos Manuel Barroso to discuss closer cooperation between the European Commission and the Gates Foundation.The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Since its creation in 1994, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has awarded grants totalling over $24 billion. Pay -ments in 2010 alone amounted to $2.6 billion. Active in over 100 countries, the majority of funds go to global health, in particular vaccines and child health. The other main programme areas are global development (including financial services, agriculture, and water and sanitation) and education within the United States. The Foundation carries out advocacy and awareness-raising activities within each programme area. www.gatesfoundation.org http://www.one.org/livingproof/en/ Bill Gates REPORTERS/ Jacques Brinon Alassane Ouattara REPORTERS/Rebecca Blackwell

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11 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 At his inauguration as president of Ivory Coast on Saturday 21st May in Yamassoukro, the political capital of the country, Alassane Ouattara placed emphasis on Ivorians gathering together, while awaiting reconciliation between political enemies. The official proclamation of the results took place on 5th May, six months after the elections. The intervening period was marked by oppression from both the army and the supporters of the former president Laurent Gbagbo, with the country nearing a state of civil war. The Yamassoukro-based Flix Houphout-Boigny Foundation for Peace The new Haitian president, Michel Martelly, elected on 20 March, was sworn into office on Saturday 14 May. The very courteous handover of power between the former president, Ren Prval, and the new one was seen as quite a positive sign, as was the presence of a large contingent of members of the National Assembly, in which new President Martelly can only rely on the support of three representatives and with which he will have to negotiate. The first plans and measures announced, such as the designation of a businessman and not a politician, Daniel-Grard Rouzier, as prime minister which is still to be endorsed by Parliament at the time of going to press seem to have been quite well received, above all by the countrys backers. Despite the scars of the earthquake of January 2010 that still disfigure Port-au-Prince, efforts had been made to smarten up the city to receive the distinguished guests, among whom there were some ten heads of state who had come to attend was the symbolic spot for the swearing in ceremony. It is the stronghold of Henri Konan Bdi who, after his elimination in the first round of the elections, advised his supporters to vote for Ouattara, which they did. A delegation of followers of Gbagbo also took part in the ceremony. The inauguration also gathered a score of heads of state, notably from West Africa. They included supporters of Ouattara, including Burkina Fasos Blaise Compraor and President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, as well as some supporters on Gbagbos side, such as Ghanas Head of State, John Atta-Mills. H.G. the inauguration of a head of state elected by an overwhelming majority (67.57%), whose legitimacy is only weakened a little by the low turnout for the elec -tions (25%). Martellys inauguration speech placed a great deal of emphasis on voluntary endea -vour and on the pride of his compatriots, proclaiming that Haiti had suffered enough humiliation, and that now it was time for work and security for the whole population, and justice for those whose aim is to cause chaos: the President declared war on the armed gangs responsible for kidnappings for ransom. A large number of people had got together in a kind of improvised carni -val to follow the inauguration ceremony on big screens, though the screens themselves failed to work due to a generalized power cut which could only remind the new pre -sident of the weight of the responsibility on his shoulders. Only six days after the inauguration, Martelly announced the launch on 15 June of the implementation phase of one of his promises, an 'Education Fund' the aim of which is to provide schooling for 500,000 children, and which is financed by a surcharge of five cents on every overseas telephone call made in Haiti. H.G. The new president of Ivory Coast, Alassane Ouattara President Michel Martelly of HaitiGetting together, awaiting reconciliation A skilful start Alassane Ouattara REPORTERS/Rebecca Blackwell Haiti's new President Michel Martelly stands with his wife Sophia and their children as the Haitian national anthem is played in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Saturday May 14, 2011. Associated Press / Reporters/ Brennan Linsley

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12C urierThe Under this title, an important forum on small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) gath -ered in Lisbon, Portugal on 6-7 June 2011. The conference was organized by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the Brussels based NGO, EMRC1, involved in promoting public and private partnership with Africa private sector. The Lisbon forum wanted to highlight the specific difficulties encountered by African SMEs which are permanently faced with a lack of investment, whose finances require between US$40,000 and US$1M. These SMEs do not receive any support in terms of microfinance or corporate finance. Fortunately, a new trend for financial institutions has been observed, one which seeks to develop partnerships with African SMEs, through inno -vative credit methods. This trend is supported by the AfDB, co-organiser of the Lisbon forum. AfDB and the Spanish and Danish governments have recently put in place a guaranteed fund for Africa in view of risk sharing with the banks willing to collaborate with African SMEs. The forum was designed to provide think tank opportunities for economic actors (bankers, investors, CEOs, experts, politicians) from Africa and from various regions in the world, involved in the SME market and to highlight African best practice finance models and non-financial support mechanisms. The Lisbon forum took place at a good time for Africa whose economy has remained relatively vibrant and attractive for investors in spite of the world financial crisis. H.G. 1 Established in 1992 in Brussels, EMRC is a non-profit International Association com -posed of a network of entrepreneurs, financi -ers, consultants and officials based throughout the world. EMRC's mission is to lead the pri vate sector in Africa to sustainable economic development and to drive regional change via partnerships.Lisbon 6-7 June 2011AfDB-EMRC SME Forum: Bridging the missing middle gap in AfricaThe South Pacific island nation of Samoa is to jump forward in time by one day in order to boost its economy by bring -ing it closer in line with Australia and New Zealand. Currently, the island is 21 hours behind Sydney. From 29 December it will be three hours ahead. This is not the first time that the island has changed time zone almost 120 years ago it swopped to facilitate trade with Europe and the United States. But since then, Australia and New Zealand have increasingly become Samoa's big gest trading partners. Samoan Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi commented: "In doing busi -ness with New Zealand and Australia, we're losing out on two working days a week."Samoa is located approximately half -way between New Zealand and Hawaii and has a population of 180,000 people. M.M.B. Samoa swops side of International Date Line Gregorie Desmons

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13 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 There are currently 48 countries 33 in Africa, 14 in Asia, plus Haiti that meet the conditions to be considered members of the group of least developed countries: an annual per capita income of less than 745 dollars; extreme economic vulnerability; and a marked lagging behind in human development (health, nutrition, schoo -ling). Among other things, this status qualifies them for access to the preferen -tial treatment introduced by the European Union in 2011 and known as Everything But Arms. This provides free access to the European market for LDC products with the exception of arms and munitions. Paradoxically, while a majority of the 9,000 conference parti cipants presented a damning verdict on the little action taken since the last conference on LDCs, held in Brussels in 2001, Cheick Sidi Diarra, UN High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing Countries, announced that three Pacific islands were soon to leave the LDC group.Human capital Samoa, Tuvalu and Vanuatu should meet the conditions to leave the group within the next three to five years, the High Representative declared in Istanbul. Three other countries Equatorial Guinea, Angola and East Timor are set to follow. These countries are still weak in terms of human capital development although their annual income exceeds the limit set by the United Nations for inclu -sion within the LDC group, declared Cheick Sidi Diarra. However, he added that these countries should be in a position to exceed the human development index by 2020 if the action plan adopted in Istanbul is genuinely implemen -ted. Two other coun -tries, Bangladesh and Nepal, should also be ready to leave the group within the next decade. Cheick Sidi Diarra sought to particularly welcome the presence, in the Programme of Action, of a number of new elements that the Brussels Programme of Action did not mention. He cited in particular the consensus reached on the need to set up a technological bank and innovation mechanisms to enable the LDCs to seize the development opportunities that stem from access to the new technologies. Mr Cheick Sidi Diarra also welcomed the decision to support the creation of com -panies active in the field of innovation and to replenish the Climate Change Fund for the Least Developed Countries In terms of official development aid just 0.1% of the gross domestic product of the donors at the present point in time the aim is to reach between 0.15 and 0.20 % by 2020. If this plan is put into action, it will change the lives of populations in the least developed countries, remarked Jarmo Viinanen, Finnish ambassador to the United Nations and president of the conference preparatory committee. M.M.B. Poor countries make slender progressThe Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) ended on 13 May in Istanbul with a new 10-year Programme of Action that sets the goal of halving the number of LDCs by 2020. If this plan is put into action, it will change the lives of populations in the least developed countriesU.N. LDC-IV Secretary General Cheick Sidi Diarra during the conference in Istanbul, May 9, 2011. Diarra AP/Reporters/Burhan Ozbilici

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14C urierThe Marie-Martine BuckensIn the prevailing climate, in which governments and extension agents do not have adequate resources to respond to the diverse needs of farm -ers, innovations are necessary to provide responses to the complex challenges. Revitalizing exten -sion and advisory services and strengthening their linkage with other actors are fun damental to the future of food and rural livelihoods, accord -ing to the CTA, the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation is an ACP-EU institution working in the field of information for development. How best can the changes be realized to rebuild trust and facilitate learning in a cost effec -tive manner? The explosion in the growth of mobile phones offers exciting ways for sharing knowledge states Ibrahim Tiemongo, CTAs expert. In 2004, the Cameroon NGO Services dAppui aux Initiatives Locales de Dveloppement (Support services for local development initiatives) (SAILD) developed the service Allo Ingnieur Hello engi -neer whereby farmers call a telephone number and agricultural experts provide technical advice. Other initiatives in different ACP countries include Jamaica where the national Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) estab -lished a One-Stop-Shop to provide business counselling, technical and marketing information and to facilitate investment. The Agricultural Business Information System (ABIS) provides information on production, markets and stakeholders. Frontline extension agents use Blackberries to communicate with farmers and provide timely advice. Some extension agents also use global posi -tioning systems (GPS) for collecting and recording data from farmers. In Kano State, Nigeria, continues Ibrahim Tiemgogo, extension radio programmes have empowered farmers socially, culturally and economically. Women, youths and farmers groups are first trained or sensitized by the Women Farmers Advancement Network (WOFAN) on various topics e.g. fisheries based on the communitys specific needs. When important concerns are raised, WOFAN contacts resource persons from the Agriculture and Mass Communication faculties of Bayero University and the agricultural extension agencies to provide technical support and facilitate question and answer sessions to enrich the content of the programmes. On a weekly basis, WOFAN and community representatives record the radio programmes on cassettes which are then sent to Radio Kano for final editing. Listener groups sit around their radios when the programmes are aired to listen, comment and exchange views on the programmes. These are a few examples for improving the effectiveness and outreach of exten -sion and advisory services says CTAs key expert, Judith Francis. Now that the tide has changed and governments and the international community are mobilized and committed to provid ing an enabling environment for agri cultural and rural development, CTA and its national, regional and interna -tional partners are organizing an inter -national Conference on Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services: Linking Knowledge to Policy and Action for Food and Livelihoods in Nairobi, Kenya from November 15-18, 2011 to take full advantage of this policy space. For more information, please see www.cta.int Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services: Meeting the Needs of FarmersSmall-holder farmers, especially the resource poor in remote rural communities in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific are not receiving adequate extension application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices and advisory services. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can support the realignment of these services. Loc Gaume

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15 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Thirteen additional European fishing vessels will have access to Comoran waters in return for EU financial aid for the devel -opment of port infrastructures. That is the essence of the new Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) protocol signed by the EU and Comoros and adopted by the European Parliament on 6 April. Its not only about the exchange of fish for money for us. We are setting out prin -ciples for sustainable and responsible fish -ing, declared Rapporteur Luis Manuel Capoulas Santos (Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, Portugal). Concluded in 2006, this agreement, which runs until the end of 2013, authorizes 45 tuna sein ers1 and 25 surface longlines in other words 70 vessels compared to the previous 57 to fish for albacore tuna and skipjack tuna in Comoran waters. Most of the vessels come from France and Spain, as well as some from Portugal and Italy. Combating piracy In exchange, the EU plans to grant an extra 300,000 euros a year to help build infrastructure in the Comoros. Infrastructure that will also serve the interests of European vessels that, lack -ing suitable ports, are today compelled to unload their catches in the Seychelles, thereby exposing themselves to the risk of piracy in the Indian Ocean. The MEPS also complained during the debates of not being kept properly informed during the negotiation of part -nership agreements. Franois Alfonsi (Greens/European Free Alliance France), on behalf of the Budget Committee, addressed Fisheries Commissioner, Maria Damanaki, thus: The European Parliament vote loses its meaning if it comes after the signing of the agreement. The MEPs should in future give their opinion beforehand. M.M.B. 1 A seine is a large fishing net that hangs in the water due to weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. Boats equipped for seine fishing are called seiners.Less than a week after the European Parliament gave the green light on April 6 for the new fishing agreement between the EU and the Comoros, a delegation of fishermen from West Africa, brought to Europe by the NGO Greenpeace, told MEPs and EU fisheries commissioner Maria Damanaki, on 14 April in Brussels, of the threat posed by the mass influx of European vessels into their waters. The spectre of European overfishing in African watersOverfishing or How Africa feeds EuropeEuropean fleets are pillaging the waters of West Africa, is the charge made by Greenpeace, who, on 14 April, presen ted MEPs with the results of three mis sions by its boat 'Arctic Sunrise' along the coasts of Senegal and Mauritania. They identified 126 large fishing ves -sels, 61 from the EU, including 12 over 100 metres long. Three fishermen, from Mauritania, Senegal and Cape Verde, accompanied the delegation and ex -plained that they were being forced to risk their lives by fishing further out into the ocean to obtain a sufficient catch.The largest and most harmful European vessels fish in the waters of the worlds poorest countries, who in turn receive very little compensation. Small-scale African fishermen, who are seeing their catches and food security diminish, do not benefit at all from the money paid by Europe to the African authorities, declared Jonas Hulsens, responsible for Fisheries with Greenpeace Belgium. At a time when the EU is reviewing its Common Fisheries Policy, Greenpeace is calling for a drastic reduction in the fleet and more sustainable fishing methods, both within and beyond European waters. Greenpeace campaign against pirate fishing near west African coasts REPORTERS

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16C urierThe Dossier Marie-Martine BuckensFaced with the increased incidence of wars in certain ACP Group regions, often reducing their development efforts to zero, conflict prevention was recognized as a priority in the cooperation agreements signed in Cotonou in 2000 between the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries and their principal partner, the European Union. These provisions assumed particu -lar importance with the entry into force of the European External Action Service on 1 December 2010. The increased strength of the strategic partnership between the EU and the African Union (AU) was also a major factor in the latters decision to set up a Peace and Security Architecture, the major operational consequence of which is the creation of an African Standby Force (ASF) within the next three years. Other major players participate in these peace missions. First and foremost the United Nations (UN), whose missions in Africa are by far the most numerous compared with the rest of the world. The United States also cooperates with cer tain EU Member States supported by the European Development Fund, especially in the Caribbean, to combat drug traffickers. As a general rule, the preference today is for multilateral actions, such as those to rehabilitate underpaid or unpaid Armed Forces, as has happened following the Armed Forces mutiny in Burkina Faso at the end of March, or to try and pacify regions, as in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In the EU, the Europeanisation of secu-rity and defence interventions in the ACP countries, especially in Africa, through its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), is not without some gnashing of teeth in the European capitals. But today they, and especially the former colonial powers, seem more or less ready to unite under the EU flag. From economic cooperation to conflict prevention Gregorie Desmons

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17 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Africa represents the ideal field for testing the procedures of the European Security and Defence Policy. That is the view of Niagal Bagayoko-Penone, an expert on Security and Development at Sussex Universitys Institute for Development Studies (IDS) in the United Kingdom. It all began with Operation Artemis, the first EU intervention outside its immediate neighbourhood. It was con -ducted from 12 June to 1 September 2003 in Bunia, in the Ituri region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, close to the Ugandan border, and the scene of violent clashes. Seventeen European countries participated in the opera -tion assisted by Brazil, Canada and South Africa in which 2,000 men were deployed. It was then relieved by MONUC, the United Nations Mission in the DRC. Niagal Bagayoko-Penone sees this operation as validation of the procedures and means of a European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) that proved it could be implemented autonomously without recourse to NATO capabilities. Another point to stress is that Artemis was initially a largely French operation that was subsequently Europeanised with France playing the role of frame -work nation, a concept subsequently adopted in other ESDP projects and programmes. After having long acted alone in operations often judged to be of neo-colonial inspiration, in seeking UN legitimacy France agreed to move towards a more multilateral frame work, explains the IDS researcher. Subsequently, it was Darfur, in Sudan, that became the major field of interven -tion for the ESDP, where the EU sup -ported the African Union peacekeeping operation. These military missions are also backed up by many civilian programmes which unite support for national authorities with reform of their security sectors including the police and its interaction with the judicial authorities as is the case of the EUPOL mission in the DR Congo, or assistance with defence sector reform, such as the EUSEC mission, also in the DRC.All these missions are based on a multi -tude of European legal instruments and action plans. These include the Cotonou The African testSupporting peace in AfricaIn 2004, the EU and AU launched the African Peace Facility (APF). In marked contrast to the Western interventionism that has been the rule since the end of the colonial era, the Facility is based on the principle of African appropriation. It supports peacekeeping operations con -ducted by African countries in Africa as well as a strengthening of the capacity of the AUs nascent security structure. These operations are launched and im plemented by AU organisations and/or sub-regional organisations. The EU has allocated 740 million euros since the Facility was set up, with most of the funds 600 million euros going to peacekeeping activities. In 2007 its field of activity was widened to include crisis prevention and post-conflict stabilisa -tion as well as speeding up coordination and decision-making processes. The AU mission in Darfur/Sudan (AMIS) was the first to receive financing, followed by the mission to support security for the elections in the Comoros (AMISEC). In addition to these two completed mis -sions, two others are still in progress: the AU mission in Somalia (AMISOM) (see separate article) and the peace consolidation mission in the Central African Republic (MICOPAX). Since July 2008 this latter mission has been conducted under the responsibility of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). It is the successor to the FOMUC operation launched in October 2002 following a decision of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC). UN helicopter in Juba, South Sudan, March 2011 Marie-Martine Buckens

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18C urierThe Partnership Agreement between the EU and ACP countries. Signed in 2000 for 20 years, Article 11 of this agreement states that the EU will make the means available to its partners to prevent, man -age and resolve armed conflicts and their consequences. In regard to Africa, and by virtue of the EU-Africa Strategy signed in 2007, in addition to preventa -tive diplomacy the EU can help Africa organise the military management of its conflicts and their peaceful resolu -tion, including by offering institutional support to regional organisations. The Economic Community of West African States, ECOWAS, benefits, for example, from funding under the 9th European Development Fund to help finance its mechanism for crisis prevention and resolution. M.M.B. African armies for AfricansInterventionism is in the past. Today the emphasis is on logistics support which does not rule out multilateral interven -tion, very often under the aegis of the UN. Troop training in security, mine clea -rance and peacekeeping are the issues on todays agenda. The flagship project RECAMP, Reinforcement of African Pea -cekeeping Capacities, a French initiative launched in 1998 to boost the effecti veness of troops in the field, was sub -sequently incorporated in a European framework to become EURORECAMP. Today this includes around 40 African, European and non-European partners. The ASF is kept waitingAnother initiative is the AMANI Africa ('Peace in Africa' in Swahili) training cycle that also provides a performance assessment of African officials, both military and civilian. Launched in 2008, the programme organises joint military and civilian activities with the aim of teaching African officials to plan crisis management. AMANI Africa is seeking to help the African Union to set up the African Standby Force (ASF) through training and assessment of African decision-makers. In 2005, the AUs Peace and Security Council implemented the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). This includes a symbolic component, the African Standby Force (ASF), whose role is to deploy rapidly in the event of a major crisis on the African continent. It is the mission of AMANI Africa to pro -vide the AFS with the capacities to act. Following numerous delays, the AFS, originally due to be operational in 2010, will not now be ready before 2015. At the time of going to press, at the end of May 2011, a new roadmap was about to be approved by the defence ministers. Green Helmets and Blue Helmets Almost two-thirds of the 110,000 Uni -ted Nations Blue Helmets are deployed on the African continent, of which al -most a third are African. That does not of course include the African troops participating in regional or continental organisations. It is in this capacity that we find AU Green Helmets serving in the Darfur region of Sudan UNAMID or with AMISON in Somalia (see box). Gregorie Desmons

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19 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Georges-Henri Bricet des Vallons, researcher at Frances Institut Choiseul1 and author of Irak, terre mercenaire (Iraq : land of mercenaries) stresses the need to first of all distinguish between private companies that provide security for expatriates, and those to which a government decides to contract out a part of its military activi -ties, usually those carried out abroad. You can count the number of these genuine PMCs (private military companies) on the fingers of one hand, believes this French expert: Very few of them are able to act across the full operational spectrum in the same way as the top 3 Anglo-Saxon com -panies, namely Blackwater/Xe, Dyncorp and Aegis. These, with others, were the ones that replaced the US Armed Forces in terms of numbers and most of their duties at the time of the Iraq war, an unprecedented transformation in the conduct of war, adds the French expert. The same trend can also be detected in Europe, although to a lesser degree. While France remains reluctant to externalise its military operations, Spain, which by no means has the status of a European military power, has very pragmatically decided to turn to the private sector to combat the piracy threat, explains Georges-Henri Bricet des Vallons. Furthermore: Germany is also at pre -sent discreetly employing the services of Assgaard Security to train the backbone of a future Somali Army on behalf of the transitional government Should we be concerned at the emergence of this new kind of mercenary? Mr Bricet des Vallons stresses that today no private company admits to the role of combatant, even if some of them at times cross the red line, insofar as the crude reality of war often explodes the dividing line between the defensive and the offensive. UN concernsCurrent events in Libya or Ivory Coast have placed the mercenary issue very much on the agenda. Meeting in Geneva on 8 April, the UN Working Group on the use of mercenaries said it was particularly concerned at the latest security develop -ments, especially in Ivory Coast. Working Group President Jos Luis Gomez del Prado affirmed that the issue of merce -naries remains. They are used as a means of preventing people from exercising their rights to self-determination. He called on the Member States to ratify the 1989 Convention against the recruitment, use, financing and training of mercenaries. The Working Group also discussed the plan for an international convention on private security compa -nies. A further meeting took place in Geneva at the end of May in an attempt to create a regulatory framework on this issue. For their part, about 60 security companies signed a code of conduct in Geneva on 9 November 2010. M.M.B. 1 The Institut Choiseul for International Politics and Geoeconomics is a research centre spe cializing in the analysis of international affairs No private company admits to the role of combatant, even if some of them at times cross the red lineThe new mercenariesThe use of the private sector to provide security is spreading like an oil slick across the world. Especially in the socalled risk countries that are relatively numerous in Africa and the Caribbean, but which are also present in the Pacific, such as Papua New Guinea. What is more, in certain cases the dividing line between their defensive and offensive role is becoming increasingly blurred. An international convention to regulate the sector is currently being prepared. A private security company's armored vehicle AP Photo/Khalid Mohammed

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20C urierThe Nicolas Gros-Verheyde*This represents a first for the EU: the direct training of elements of an African army. Never before has it committed itself to such a degree in military cooperation. It is not, as in the Congo or Guinea Bissau, a question of assisting a government to plan and implement security services reform (SSR) or helping to disarm militias. The EUTM1 Somalia mission has the aim of training about 2,000 men ready to fight to ensure Somalias stability. The goal is almost achieved. A first battalion of about 800 men and several dozen junior officers was constituted and returned to the field at the end of last year. The second is com pleting its training this summer. The two battalions will provide AMISOM the African Union peacekeeping force deplo -yed in Somalia and made up principally of Ugandans and Burundians with a signi -ficant strengthening of capacity in the field. Several countries involved Another unique feature of this mission is that it is being implemented in close cooperation with the Americans, the African Union and Uganda. The soldiers are selected in Somalia by the forces of the transitional government and of AMISOM, assisted by the Americans, and then trans -ported to Uganda where they are taken by the Ugandans to the Bihanga camp in the west of the country. The training is then given by the Ugandans and Europeans over a period of five to six months. On their return to Somalia the new recruits will rejoin the army and have their per -formance monitored by the AMISOM forces. They will serve the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, which with this help hopes to extend its authority, at present limited to the capital, Europeans and Africans train a new Somali Army: a first for the EUDeployed in Uganda for the past year, the Europeans are now discreetly completing the training of almost 2,000 Somali soldiers. This represents a new kind of mission for a European Union that is better known for its involvement in economic or social development projects. An example for the future? Training of Somali soldiers EU Council/EUTM Training of Somali soldiers EU Council/EUTM

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21 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 A year of reflection before the green light at an international con -ference in Brussels, the Europeans and the international community pledged to help Somalia: 213 million dollars, half of which from the EU and its Member States. France, which had just completed its training of Somali soldiers in Djibouti, presented the pilot initiative in Brussels. the United Nations Se -curity Council adopted Resolution 1872 calling on states to provide technical assistance to train and equip Somali security forces. EU foreign ministers approved the principle of EU action to contribute to the efforts of the internatio -nal community, especially in the field of security. The mission planning began. the EU approved the setting up of a military mission to con tribute to the training of Somali security forces in Uganda. The first preparatory teams for the mission arrived in Uganda. the EU gave the green light for the mission to begin on 5 May. An example for the rest of Africa Arnaud Danjean, accompanied by a small team of fellow MEPs, visited the mission in the field in early May. As chairman of the European Parliament Sub-Committee on Defence, he agreed to sum up his initial conclusions on the EUTMs results for The Courrier. I had some questions before leaving. And what I have seen in the field has removed these doubts. We have a mission here that offers good value for money. It is light in terms of men, equi -pment and finances. And its impact goes far beyond the training of soldiers. We are involved in the whole security chain. Nevertheless, it will no doubt be neces -sary to extend the mission and, more widely, take more account of security concerns when considering development issues. The European diplomatic service (EEAS) must reflect on this. The EUTM is an example without necessarily having the weight of a CSDP mission of what we can do, for the Sahel, the Cte dIvoire or, in future, in Libya. Mogadishu. To ensure that the soldiers do not desert, a payment chain has been set up so that all the soldiers receive their wages. Ten or so European countries are directly participating in the training. Spaniards (the mission chief, Colonel Ellu, is Spanish), French, Greeks, Portuguese, Belgians, Luxembourgers, Germans, Swedes, Finns, Hungarians and Maltese can all be seen in Bihanga. Tailor-made trainingThe training programme was carefully developed by the Africans and Europeans, as one senior European officer confirms: We specialise in the training of young offi -cers and non-commissioned officers as well as specialised soldiers (medical evacuation, IEDs or roadside bombs, combat in urban zones, communications, etc.). At the same time, the Ugandans give young recruits basic training. And as the six months training progresses we mix our efforts so as to be able to constitute complete units when the course comes to an end. General Edward Katumba Wamala, com -mander of the Ugandan Land Forces, sees this mixed training as a really good idea. In the field in Mogadishu, we were able to see where the Somali Army suffered serious shortcomings: in medical services, communications and combating IEDs for example. The European team brings us all this expertise. We are therefore going to be able to train a complete unit. But he adds this mission has a wider and more politi -cal significance. The message is clear: the Somali problem is one that concerns us all and that must be resolved by us all. It is not just for Uganda or Burundi (which provide most of the AMISOM forces) to resolve the problem, or for the African Union alone. It is a wider problem. Everybody can and must contribute to Somalias stability. 1 EUTM / European Union Training Mission Journalist, expert on European defence policy, Editor of Bruxelles2 http://www.bruxelles2.euTraining of Somali soldiers EU Council/EUTM

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22C urierThe The fight against drug traffick -ing in the Caribbean scored a success with the arrest, a year ago, of the alleged Jamaican drugs baron, Christopher Dudus Coke. Regarded as something of a Robin Hood figure by the poorest but as a dealer in violent death by the United States, he was extradited to New York where the US authorities accuse him of plotting to traffic in marijuana, cocaine and illegal arms. While the United States has long been very active in fighting drug traffick ing, over the last decade the EU has also targeted policy at this area. In 1996 the European Commission, fol -lowed by several Member States, was the principal contributor to the five-year regional action plan for drug control, known as the Barbados Plan of Action. Drug trafficking, and the associated crime and armed violence, are issues that must be taken into account as they represent a threat to the political and social life of Caribbean society and prevent the creation of an appropriate environment for investing in sustainable growth, says the European Commission in its Communication on the new EU-Caribbean partnership initiated in 2006 (http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/commu -nication_86_2006_en.pdf).It goes on to say that: The Caribbean is not, for the moment, a drug producing region, but is regarded as a major place of transit for drugs bound for Europe, as Central America is for the United States. Four years later, in April 2010, the European Union and Latin American and Caribbean countries adopted the Madrid Declaration, which lays down 34 actions and programmes to be implemented, rang -ing from the fight against laundering of drug money to social reintegration for people who have stopped taking drugs. Copolad Programme In particular, the Madrid Declaration welcomes the programme approved by the European Commission at the end of 2009 to combat drugs in the region: Copolad, or Cooperation Programme between Latin America and the European Union on Anti-Drugs Policies. Allocated 6 million euros over four years, it aims to consolidate the political dialogue between the EU and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of drugs, to strengthen national drug observatories and to provide them with the necessary capacity aimed at reducing supply and demand. M.M.B. The fight against drug trafficking, a priority for the EU-Caribbean partnershipThe Caribbean islands constitute one of the principal hubs for drugs produced in Latin America and destined principally for Europe. This is a cause of tension for both European Union countries and a number of Caribbean countries where drug traffickers rule in certain urban neighbourhoods. The Caribbean is also a platform for money laundering. The Caribbean is not, for the moment, a drug producing region, but is regarded as a major place of transit for drugs bound for Europe 2250kgs of cocaine seized in Puerto Caucedo, Dominican Republic, in 2006. AP/Reporters

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23 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 In April, the EU Council decided for the fourth time to extend the restric -tive measures introduced in 2007 under the terms of the Cotonou Agreement following the military coup detat of December 2006. This extension applies for a further period of six months, and in September 2011 the EU Member States will have to decide whether or not to grant the Fijian sugar industry subsidies and financing once more under the current 10th European Development Fund. Placing current developments in context, some observers stress the particular situ -ation of the Fiji islands, such as French researcher Hlne Goiran, an expert on military history. She stresses the pro -foundly military culture of Fijian society, how the country was able to adapt skil -fully to the reality of colonialism, to subse -quently prepare for independence and put a strong army into place. Recognised for their brilliant contribution to multinational peacekeeping missions, in which about 3,500 Fijians participate, Fijian soldiers have also surprised the international com -munity by carrying out putsches in their own country. She explains how we tend to forget the long-standing political role of the military in Fiji and how military commit ment is an instrument of political power, both for individuals who pursue a military career and for the government that deploys thousands of troops in missions overseas. MonopolyThe army, continues the researcher, was almost entirely Melanesian (indig -enous Fijians) in the 1990s, as were the majority of the police. Many tribal leaders had received military training. While among the Indo-Fijian population descendants of the Indians imported to work on the farms by the British between 1879 and 1916 this was rare. Hlne Goiran stresses that the Melanesians thus held the monopoly of legal force. It was these same military forces who staged a coup in 1987. Despite the international pressure they remained in power for 19 years. In 1999, the Labour Party won the elections and its leader, an Indo-Fijian, headed a multiracial coalition government. But it proved short-lived as a year later, in 2000, the military attempted another coup dtat led by George Speight. One that was countered by one of their own number, Commodore Bainamarama. At the time, in 2000, the Commodore was seen as a defender of democracy and Fijis institutions in the face of Melanesian nationalist actions and he installed a civilian government headed by Laisenia Qarase. After Qarase failed to keep his promises of liberalisa -tion, the Commodore decided to launch what was the fourth coup detat. His aim was to ensure that all Fijians would have the same rights and obligations irrespective of their origins. Today, despite starting on real reform, the Commodore is struggling to create genuinely democratic structures. M.M.B. Fiji, the Pacific exceptionExcept for the Solomon Islands, where a coup dtat lasted only a few weeks, Fiji is the only Pacific island state to have experienced military coup detat and, despite unanimous condemnation by the international community, the head of the army, Commodore Frank Bainimarama, has ruled the country since December 2006. Paradoxically, while postponing elections until 2014 he is nevertheless the first leader to have genuinely sought to ensure the equality of all Fijian citizens. The culture of Fijian society is profoundly militarySoldiers from Fiji's army stand on parade during a speech from Captain Esala Teleni in a week long military exercise in Suva, Fiji, 2006. AP/Reporters

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24C urierThe TradeOpposition from the Government and foreign mining companies on the one hand and the opposi -tion and general public on the other concerning the deletion of windfall tax1 started way back in 2008; this was when several opposition parties, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and other interested parties accused the country's leadership of wanting to appease foreign mining investors at the expense of national development. They charged that the country was not benefiting from copper revenue, more especially at a time when the commodity had hit high prices on the international market. But then Government was unmoved on the issue contending that taxation based Taxing the mining industry: the case of ZambiaThe hot issue of the windfall tax Alfred Sayila In the wake of the ACP Ministerial on Natural Resources and the recent communication from the European Commission on establishing a strategy in this field, our report from Zambia and South Africa looks at the tricky task of taxing mining. Alfred Sayila* reports.on the market price of copper and other minerals was not the best method of taxa -tion and would not guarantee benefits to the country in the long term. It feared such a move would discourage foreign mining companies and scare away future investment in the mining sector.Only recently Minister of Finance, Mr Situmbeko Musokotwane, described the windfall tax which many people were call -ing for as an illusion that would not work Smelting plant, Nkana, the second largest copper smelter in Zambia, Zambia REPORTERS

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25 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 anywhere in the world. He said it was only in Zambia where a debate on the matter was still being sustained. ''There are many mining companies in the world, but none of them use the windfall tax,'' he stated. According to the Zambian Minister of the Treasury the introduction of the wind -fall tax on the mining industry was an error which has since been corrected and his Government will not go back to it. He also claimed that he had consulted widely over the matter including with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) and all of them have seen no economic and mon -etary sense in this kind of tax regime. Fair share Musokotwane told The Courier in a short interview that those calling for the re-introduction of the windfall tax did not seem to be totally aware of changed world trends in the mining sector. ''We cannot be the exception to the way other countries tax the mining industry,'' he stated. The minister who prior to his appointment in 2008 was Treasury Secretary insisted that his Government had put in place measures for the country to get a fair share from the country's mineral resources. According to Treasury Secretary Mr Likolo Ndalamei, mineral royalties taxed at three percent are meant to have 20% of the money thus collected used directly for community development and 20 % for local councils, with 60 % going to central government. So far only one mine, Kansashi Copper Mines in the rural North-Western Province has paid its arrears worth US$80 million while the rest of the foreign mining companies have promised to pay in the middle of this year. An outspoken Member of Parliament from the opposition, Mr. Chishimba Kambwili, whose party has vigorously campaigned for the re-introduction of the windfall tax asked the Government to reconsider its stand. ''Call it by any name, windfall tax is the only way the country can ben -efit from its mineral resources,'' he said. Kambwili, a former Copperbelt miner, rebuked the Government for failing to apply the country's tax laws to some for eign mining companies who have delib erately evaded tax or have shown serious prosecutable tax contributions discrepan -cies. He singled out Mopani Copper Mines (MCM) as one of the glaring examples of tax evasion. But the Parliamentarian is only one of many voices in the Central/ Southern African country unhappy with the way Government handles the mining taxes issue. Most of these critics claim that the for -eign mining companies externalise all their profits, leaving paltry funds for pay -ment of workers and suppliers. They also say most of the suppliers belong to foreign companies who transfer their incomes to their external accounts. The issue has divided foreign mining companies, some of whom have seen the need to plough back into the country the hefty profits made from the sale of minerals and who have, in the past, expressed willingness to comply with any type of tax regime which government can put in place. But then others have threatened to close their operations entirely contending that they contributed a lot to the country in terms of employment, social programmes and infrastructure development in mining areas. The South African caseThere is little that can pacify the major ity of Zambians incensed with the recent high prices of copper on the international Call it by any name, windfall tax is the only way the country can benefit from its mineral resourcesmarket at almost US$10,000 per metric tonne. Zambia is not alone in wanting to gain from its mineral resources as South Africa is now working to overhaul its mineral royalties so as to cash in on high commodity prices on the international metals market.South Africa wants to use Australia's con -troversial high resources tax as an exam ple to control its mining resources. This comes from sentiments expressed from the ranks of the ruling African National Congress (ANC) that the country was getting a raw deal from the mining com -panies. Last year South Africa pushed for a 40% minerals tax on the massive profits mining companies were making. This was later reduced to 30% after a corporate backlash. The ANC is still going ahead with its desire to revise mineral tax upwards despite heavy lobbying from min -ing giants Billiton and Rio Tinto against high taxation. The two mining compa -nies have openly lobbied for support from leading politicians for modifications to the tax system before hammering out an acceptable levy. Legal analysts in South Africa think the proposed modification will have to pass through a parliamentary process before having any chance of being introduced before 2012. South Africans want to share in the wealth of their country which some people see as an indirect way of calling for the blanket nationalisation of the mining industry. Both Zambia and South Africa could be posturing with their demand for higher taxes on foreign mining companies when in fact they potentially want to emulate neighbouring Zimbabwe which completely controls its mining industry, although at a cost to its tottering economy. Mining investment in that country has been quite low since 2002 because of its political policies. Whether windfall tax will be reintroduced in Zambia is hard to say and only time will tell. 1 A tax levied by governments against certain industries when economic conditions allow those industries to experience above-average profits Zambian freelance journalistSmelting plant, Nkana, the second largest copper smelter in Zambia, Zambia REPORTERS

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26C urierThe The fight to halt the climate change trend has been given a financial boost thanks to the European Commissions assessment that the 2020 target of $100 billion a year for climate actions in devel -oping countries is an achievable target. Challenging but feasible was the con -clusion of the European Commissions working document "Scaling up interna tional climate finance after 2012", which assumes that the Commission will be responsible for providing about one third of the total amount.At the United Nations climate change talks in Cancun last December, devel -oped countries committed to a goal of jointly raising $100 billion a year in order to assist developing countries mitigate the effects of climate change in a trans parent way. The Commission document builds on the UN Secretary Generals report High-Level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing from an EU policy perspective and expands on the framework for good governance required to make climate funding effective. International coordinationIt seeks to strike a financial balance between a combination of funding sources. These include public funding, The European Commission has reaf-firmed its commitment to contributing to the $100 billion a year needed to combat climate change in developing countries. But is it enough?Sylvia Arthur Our PlanetThe fight to halt climate changeDrought in Sudan Laif/reporters

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27 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 are committed to using at least half of this to tackle climate change. Theres also revenue from carbon taxes to take into account, which a number of Member States have already introduced.However, global agreement is needed to leverage other, substantial sources of finance from international maritime and aviation transport and a tax on financial transactions. This is yet to be achieved.Damian Ryan is a Senior Policy Manager at The Climate Group, an NGO that works with government and business to advance smart policies and technologies to cut global emissions and accelerate a clean industrial revolution. He says the EU is moving in the right direc tion when it comes to putting its money where its mouth is. If any developed country, or group of developed countries, is going to be serious about delivering on this its going to be the EU, Ryan says. Though the EUs commitment to helping developing countries deal with climate change is not in doubt, the realities of the current economic climate are a cause for concern. While several of the public sources of funding related to carbon pric -ing are already in place, competition for fiscal resources, which are already under intense pressure as Member States tighten their belts, is fierce. With the help of the private sectorOlli Rehn, Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs, emphasised the importance of multiple funding streams from multiple sources saying that "many advanced economies will face serious fiscal constraints in the years to come. Therefore this cannot be paid by public money alone. We need to rely also on inno -vative sources of financing, in particular, in the private sector and carbon markets. We should make good use of innovative financing mechanisms in close coopera tion with development banks."Its fairly clear that the private sector will need to play a very important role, agrees Damian Ryan. But the really key thing is making sure that government sector funding leverages a significant amount of private sector funding. If you get your policy environment right, and you remove the risks that are stopping private sector funding going into developing countries then suddenly, for every public dollar that you spend, you start getting a lot more back in return. But is it enough? You only have to look at what the International Energy Agency has said about the kind of funding thats needed annually between now and 2035 around $700 billion1 invested into clean energy and theyre only looking at the energy side, says Damian Ryan. Thats an extra $46 trillion total funding needed to develop technologies that can cut global CO2 emissions in half by 20502. This would require ramping up global investment in clean energy to a trillion dollars a year through to 2050. So that $100 billion figure suddenly looks pretty small in comparison. But its a start. 1 http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sgsm13352.doc.htm 2 http://www.iea.org/techno/etp/etp10/English.pdf funding raised from international carbon markets, as well as private funds, partly leveraged by development banks. The document also stresses the need for a good governance framework to implement the funding. It highlights the importance of climate funding going hand-in-hand with development aid, steered by strong inter -national coordination, to ensure efficient spending and maximise the impact of future climate actions. Among the most innovative financing sources available to the EU is the auction revenues from carbon markets under the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which has the poten -tial to deliver revenues of more than EUR 20 billion a year by 2020. Member States The EU is moving in the right direction when it comes to putting its money where its mouth isThe EU and Pacific Island countries join forcesAs reported in the January edition of The Courier the EU and Pacific Island countries have launched a joint initiative to mobilise donors to help the region deal with the effects of climate change. Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs attended the High Level Conference on Climate Change in the Pacific in Vanuatu in March to agree on a strategy and Plan for Action. Some of the key priorities for implemen ting the joint initiative were:Building stronger political dialogue on climate changeMaking cooperation on climate change more effective: The Conference agreed to work towards merging the two relevant regional frameworks for action, namely the Pacific Islands Framework for Action in Climate Change and the Pacific Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management Framework for Action. Mobilising international efforts on cli -mate change around the Pacific: Swift supply of fast start financial assistance to developing countries is essential to addressing the urgent need in recipient countries capacity development to ad -dress climate change. In this context, the Commission is engaging with EU Member States to identify suitable options for them to contribute to the Joint Initiative. Follow up and monitoring: The Plan for Action will be reviewed substantively in 2014 to integrate the EU financial pers -pectives 2014-2020 and the programming cycle for the cooperation between the EU and Pacific Countries and Territories starting that year. Coral reefs of Fiji remain threatened by overfishing and climate changes AP/Reporters

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28C urierThe Ancient history, the charms of the islands, and so much more to discoverD iscovering EuropeHegel Goutier The worlds attention has recently been drawn to Greece, as a victim of the international financial crisis and, it is true, of a notable lack of transparency and eco -nomic mismanagement. No mention has been made of the prosperity that the country has enjoyed since joining the European Union, and neither has its dynamism in certain scientific fields or in the arts, above all theatre, been recognized. And then, of course, there is the countrys modern history, at the point of friction between the Christian and Muslim worlds, which lends it a special geopolitical importance. Also comparatively misunderstood are peoples lives in the Greece of today, beyond the sphere of tourism. The role played by religion, for example, or the societys view of the outside world, with the xenoi as the foreigner, and above all the guest. When a Greek approaches a foreigner, it is generally to get to know them, if not to invite them for a drink, and without any ulterior motives. The key to the present: three centuries under Ottoman occupation In the wake of the first great civilization of Greece, that of the Minoans, centred on Crete and reaching its peak around 1500 BC, the Mycenaean civilization was born. Mycenae controlled terri -tory as far as Troy in Asia Minor (now Turkey), and its king, Agamemnon, embarked on what would be a long war to return with the Trojan princess Cassandra, a story told by Homer in the Iliad. This was to be the start of the friction that still burns today. In 146 BC, the annexation by Rome of a number of city states weakened by a series of internal wars put an end to the Hellenic period. Greek culture, though, retained its autonomy through compromises with the occupiers, and Athens even rediscovered its former splendour under cultured emperors like Hadrian. The subdivision of the Roman empire into the western empire, centred on Rome and the eastern one, on the formerly Greek city of Byzantium, now named Constantinople (today's Istanbul), did however lead to a decline

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29 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011for Athens, and the symbols of Greek beliefs came under attack from cultural revisionism. The western Roman empire collapsed under the attack of the Goths in 476. Constantinople, on the other hand, sur -vived until its conquest by the Crusaders in 1204, and its final loss to the Turks in 1453, though Byzantium remains alive today in the heart of the Greeks. Three years later, Athens was annexed by the Turks, and a mosque was erected in the heart of the Parthenon, some -thing taken advantage of by the British acquiring the Parthenons friezes. Turkish culture spread, particularly in the regions bordering Turkey, like Thrace, but also as far as Ioannina in Epirus and Thessaloniki. Very little of Greece escaped the occupation, which was to go on for three centuries, and the symbols of this endless occupation can still be seen in the countless mosques of the old city of Rhodes. A long war of independence, supported by Europe The beginning of the end of the colonial period began in 1770 with a strike by the Russian Orthodox Church in support of the Greek one, and this was followed by aid from revolutionary France, but with -out success. The death, from illness, of a Hellenist intellectual who had come to battle alongside the freedom fighters, Lord Byron, led to the mobilization of England, France and Russia, and Egypt in turn came to the aid of the Turks. The war finally came to an end in practice on 20 October 1827 with the crushing of the Turkish and Egyptian fleets and officially in 1830, after a declaration of war by the Russian empire had forced Turkey to sign the Treaty of London. Greece, however, had still not recov -ered all of its territory, in particular part of Macedonia, and this led to the Balkan Wars of 1912 -1913, with Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia also lay -ing claim to the region. At the end of the war the Turks agreed to the return to Greece of part of Macedonia and Crete. At the end of the First World War, Greece managed to recover Thrace from Bulgaria and Turkey, and the islands of the Aegean Sea from the latter. However, Mustapha Kemal Atatrk, the Turkish leader, demanded an exchange of their respective emigrant populations, and the return of these emigrants to Greece led to a population increase of 25%, which in turn caused significant social problems. The Greek monarchy was abolished, as the royal family had, in contrast to the government, collabo -rated with Germany. During the Second World War, the country was occupied by the forces of Mussolini, though the National Liberation Front (EAM) fought courageously against them. After the war, the monarchy was restored. Demands for independence on the part of Cyprus, which the Greeks consider to be part of Greece, led to a further wors -ening of Greco-Turkish relations. In 1967 a military coup brought "the colo -nels" to power, and they established one of the most brutal regimes of the era. Following a provocation of the neigh -bouring state by the military regime, Turkey occupied the north of Cyprus, which led a mutiny on the part of the army and the return of democracy. After this, the monarchy was abolished in a referendum, and on 1 January 1981, the treaty in which Greece joined the European Community came into force. The same year saw the left-wing party PASOK come to power, with symbolic figures included in government such as Melina Mercouri, an activist actress during the dictatorship, who became minister of culture. A number of social reforms were undertaken. The current prime minister is George A. Papandreou of PASOK, which won the last general election on 4 October 2010. An economy recently thought to be booming At the end of the year 20091, Greece registered the largest budget deficit in the whole of the EU. Financial ratings agencies began to downgrade the rating of the countrys sovereign debt, obliging the EU and IMF to support the govern -ments plan to get public finances back on an even keel, to the tune of 80 billion and 30 billion euros respectively. And now it seems to be time for a second salvage operation. At the end of 20091, per capita income was 97.9% that of France2, a figure that had been rising continually since 1938, when it was 62%. This is a higher figure than South Korea or Israel. From the start of the 1990s up to 2008, GDP growth was higher than the European average, largely powered by services, followed by the industrial sector and, far behind, farming. Greece was classified in 22nd place in the UNDPs 2010 Human Development Index, and in a similar position in the 2005 quality of life index published by The Economist magazine. 1 Data published at the end of 2010 Eurostat 2 Eurostat Rhodes, a medieval town. Suleyman mosque Hegel GoutierAthens, down the Acropolis hill Hegel Goutier Evzones in front of the Vouli (parliament). Celebration of the end of the Ottoman occupation Hegel Goutier

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30C urierThe Development policyFrom now on, a greater focus on the ACPDevelopment policy in Greece is in the hands of a true connoisseur. Athanassios Theodorakis, former Director-General for Development at the European Commission, is the head of the Directorate General for International Development, Cooperation Hellenic Aid. He is undertaking major reforms with the aim of focusing development aid on the ACP countries, instead of concen -trating principally on either the Balkans or the Caucasus Georgia, Armenia Azerbaijan, Moldova Ukraine or Montenegro or in the Middle East Egypt or the Palestinian territories. Another aim of the reform, according to Athanassios Theodorakis, is to tie in bet -ter with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and aims to increase the effectiveness and political coherence of the aid programme. The proportion of GDP allocated by Greece to develop -ment aid is about 0.17%, and given the financial crisis there are no plans to increase this. "There will be fewer pro -jects and fewer beneficiary countries, but there will be a greater impact for the people, which means a new legal frame -work and new instruments. The priority sectors for Greek aid are health, educa -tion and the prevention of and adapta -tion to climate change, as well as support for democracy and for certain sectors of the population, including women." The strength of compassionDevelopment policy in Greece is cur -rently the object of periodic peer review carried out by the OECD. The gov -ernment is taking advantage of this to highlight the main strands of its reform and its new focus on the ACP nations. Special attention will be paid to the LDCs, in whose interest the govern -ment is working on a strategic plan that should be completed by the end of the year and implemented by 2015, a key date for the MDGs. In terms of devel -opment aid, Greece has already been active in countries like Ethiopia, the Congo (DRC) and Ivory Coast, and its humanitarian arm has also intervened in ACP countries such as Haiti after the earthquake at the start of the year 2010; more recently aid has focused on the crisis in the Mediterranean, using its military and even commercial vessels to help to evacuate foreigners, including Sub-Saharan Africans, from Libya. One of the slogans of Hellenic Aid is "the strength of compassion." Transferring its own experience to the ACPOne of the countrys trump cards is that, since joining the European Union, it has benefitted from EU development funds, thereby obtaining valuable know-how. The country now looks forward to passing this on to the ACP countries. "For example, we have tried-and-tested skills in combining the needs of the tourist industry and the development of local agriculture and infrastructure, among other sectors. We also have expertise in forging links between tourism and culture. Rhodes and on a larger scale the whole region of the Dodecanese and Crete, provide good examples of how the multi-sector tourism and development dynamic has enabled us to create study centres of a high standard. This expertise would surely be very useful to the islands of the Caribbean or the Indian Ocean. To sum up, then, our experience of local development can now be placed at the service of the ACP countries." H.G. Athanassios Theodorakis Hegel Goutier Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, one of the worlds more touristic cities Hegel Goutier K. Papadimitrio D Percival

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31 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Sorry, no good news todayKonstantina Papadimitriou is the head of Policy and Campaigns at ActionAid Hellas (www.actionaid.gr) which is notably active in lobbying the European Parliament. A number of the groups suggestions have been supported by Greek members of the Parliament, and the group is responsible for finalizing news relating to Greece in reference doc -uments* for CONCORD, the European NGO confederation for development. ActionAid Hellas is tireless in pleading for a stronger Greek commitment to less developed countries, and for greater transparency in the countrys develop ment policy. ActionAid is a mass organization closely modelled on Amnesty International (AI). Its Greek branch enjoys the support of 44,000 donors and boasts a significant number of activists, a large proportion of whom are young, between 18 and 30. It works in close collaboration with the other sections of the organization, in particular those based in Africa, within the Bama community in Kenya, for example. Prominent among ActionAid Hellas recent large-scale activities has been the campaign HungerFREE, and it conducted the worldwide initiative devised by NGOs and football fed -erations, 1GOAL Education For All (http://www.join1goal.org/) collecting 88,000 signatures in Greece, including those of 22,000 students. Konstantina Papadimitriou begins by expressing her regret about the low per -centage of Greek GNI, 0.17% (2009 figure), devoted to development aid, a decreasing proportion compared to the 0.19% of the previous year and very far from the 0.7% to which the European Union has committed itself. Besides, she adds that "even then the funds were essentially intended for our neighbours, including Albania, Moldova and Serbia. A change has been announced in terms of these priorities, but nothing has so far materialized. There is not a single LDC among the top ten recipients of our development aid. The funds ear -marked for Africa have fallen, and the announcement of a strategy to favour other ACP regions, like the Caribbean or the Indian Ocean, is only a vague one. No real figures have been presented or verified." As regards transparency, "the public procedures calling for proposals have been vague. The sums allocated have not been published, and neither have the names of the candidates or the win -ners, who have been chosen without any criteria for selection being known. For this financial year, no one knows how much has been set aside for develop -ment aid, and so in this time of finan cial crisis people do not know what has been done with their money. Sorry, no good news".The one positive note struck by the ActionAid representative is that the cur -rent team at HellenicAid consults better than before with NGOs, and seems more concerned about the bodys effectiveness. Its good intentions are, however, not backed up by specific commitments. H.G. Penalty against Poverty http://www.concor deurope.org/NGO ActionAid Hellas on development policy in GreecePromoting dialogue between parliament and citizens in AfricaAfrica4All, a project run by the inter -national Athens-based NGO Gov4U, aims to build links between citizens and members of parliament, explains its executive director, Vasilis Koulo -lias. The initiative involves a platform for communication set up in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Lesotho and Namibia, which links citizens in each of these countries to two members of parliament, allowing them, for example, to discuss gover -nment legislation with them. K. Papadimitrio D Percival V. Koulolias Hegel Goutier

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32C urierThe President of WIN Hellas (Women in Need Hellas) www.winhellas.gr, all organisations for which she has lobbied European institutions. InterviewHG: What is your story with Greece?YJ: My story with Greece goes back to the 1980s. I played with a Greek colleges basketball team in Boston, Massachusetts. I married a Greek bas -ketball player, and we came to live here. I first played professional basketball while gradually getting involved in other activities. In the early 90s, the situation of immi grants began to change, with the emer -gence of vocal racism against Albanians and Africans. Up to that point I lived in another world, one of fashion and glamour. As an American, I was not considered to be an immigrant. I was the most well-known Black personality in the country. I started to participate in chat shows on racism and met Africans and discovered the challenges they were facing. I was expecting a child and did not want it to have to deal with the same issues that Blacks in the United States face. HG: How did you come tu run for election? YJ: Touched by these first signs of seg regation, I started lobbying Parliament and Ministers about the situation of immigrants. Following this, I decided to run on the PASOK ticket, becoming the first Black woman to do so. I am the first Black person to have been elected to any form of office in this country. HG: Does this reflect an openness of spirit on behalf of the Greek politi cal classes? One might think so but, in reality, its not entirely the case. I was able to put the question of immigration at the forefront of peoples minds. After the end of my mandate in 2006, I became a counsellor in the field of immigration at the behest of the new Mayor, Mikitas Kaklamanis. I helped him to put diverse programmes in place for immigrants, in terms of access to education and to administrative jobs. But the Papandreou government that pledged to bring about progress in terms of automatic access to Greek national ity for children of immigrants, stalled in the face of difficulty. The problem with politicians here is their ability to procrastinate. They only deal with issues when their backs are against the wall. Progress has been made, of course, but much still needs to be done. H.G. Yvette Jarvis: Voice of ImmigrantsYvette Jarvis is a talented Athens-based artist and poli -tician, who is one of a kind. Since she arrived in Greece from the United States in the 1980s, she has quickly become the voice of immi -grants, particularly those of African origin. A sports champion, model, singer, TV presenter, and feminist activist, Jarvis left the limelight behind to become a municipal councillor for the city council. Originally from Brooklyn, she graduated magna cum laude from Boston University and is without doubt the most well-known Black personality in Athens, if not in the entire country. In the 2002 local elections, Yvette Jarvis ran for political office and was comfort -ably elected as a municipal councillor to the Athens city council while her party, PASOK (Greek Pan-Hellenic Socialist Party) lost. When this mandate ended, she became the new mayors advisor in the field of new immigration even though not of the same political sympa -thy as the mayor. Alongside her active cultural, political and sports lives, she is Vice-President of the interim coun cil of FARE (Football Against Racism in Europe) www.farenet.org, President of BEWE (Black European Womens Council) www.bewnet.eu and Vice-Glamour and a gifted activism for the cause of migrants Yvette Jarvis ran for political office and was comfortably elected as a municipal councillor to the Athens city council Courtesy of Yvette Jarvis Costas Varotsos The Runner/ Athens, Vassilissis Sofias Avenue Hegel Goutier

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33 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Greece is not well known for its research into renewable energy, but it is a promising and growing field, and develo -ping countries are set to potentially benefit from it. The CRES (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources), which operates as a natio -nal coordinator in this area, conducts groundbreaking research for Greece as well as the European Commission and third party countries. The EC project PEPESEC (Partnership Energy Planning for European Sustainable Energy Communities) which involved 11 countries, was developed by CRES bet -ween 2008 and 2010 in the Maroussi (Amaroussion) suburb, north of Athens. Intelligent systems for planning and mana -ging sustainable energy in the community were developed in conjunction with the City of Manchester in the UK. Maroussi is a national example for its dynamism in the search for durable energy solutions.For over ten years successive Greek gover -nments have taken measures to promote the use of renewable energy. Many legal provisions have been adopted to subsidise and encourage investment in this sector. Greece could boast of a success story before these incentives however, thanks to the dynamism of private enterprises pioneering the use of solar energy for providing hot water. Almost all dwellings in the country have these systems, placing Greece second in the EU after Cyprus, obtaining 15 per cent of its energy in 2010 from sustainable sources, with an EU recommended level of 10 per cent. CRES plays a leading role in developing other uses of renewable energy. Among its major projects is the creation of a sustai -nable development technology centre in Alexandria, funded by Greek development cooperation, which aims to promote new materials and technologies in Egypt and the Middle East with the involvement of local businesses. Similar initiatives have been adopted in Armenia and Lebanon. In Serbia, Greek know-how is providing a central source of hot water from solar energy for the entire municipality of Cacak. On behalf of the European Union, CRES was also responsible for supporting a research institution in Jordan, specialising in wind energy and photovoltaic systems.Another area in which the Greek centre conducts studies in collaboration with the University of Athens and other European research institutions is the exploitation of wave energy. The research into the use of geothermal heat pumps for heating or cooling, conducted with the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) is very promising. Other uses of geothermal water developed by CRES include pro -jects on the desalination of sea water. The island of Rhodes, which has a great need for water, especially with increasing tourist demand, would be a direct beneficiary of this research. Developing countries could benefit from this research too. H.G. Renewables. A boon for developing countriesHarbour of Piraeus Hegel Goutier The Greek Centre for Renewable Energy Sources conducts high level studies in the exploitation of wave energy. City Hall of Maroussi Hegel Goutier Maroussi is a national example for its dynamism in the search for durable energy solutions

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34C urierThe Byzantine art is at the heart of the Greek world and of its religion, and religion is at the heart of Greek soci -ety, claims Anastasia Lazaridou, Vice-Director of the Byzantine and Christian Museum, based in the magnificent Tuscan Renaissance villa of Illissia in Athens. The Museum is one of the most beautiful and most visited in the city, a key centre of Byzantine art and ideas. According to her, it is impossible to grasp todays Greece without understanding its links with the Byzantine world. Ms Lazaridou takes pride in the unique character of the Byzantine and Christian Museum of Athens, not only for the rich -ness of its collections but also because of its approach. "It offers us the chance to follow the evolution of the Christian era up to our own time, through col -lections presented using sophisticated, state-of-the-art technology to make them as accessible as possible to a wide public, and an historical approach which allows us to comprehend a complex period which is little known and has been mis -interpreted." The so-called Byzantine era covers a period from the 3rd to the 15th century. Byzantium is no less than the Middle Ages of the East. The basis of the Museums collections, however, focuses on the Christian world, from its first infancy through the Byzantine and post-Byzantine period, right up to the 20th century. This story is presented through a permanent exhibition and tem -porary exhibitions on particular themes. Instead of highlighting the great value and incomparable beauty of the pieces in the Museums different collections, Anastasia Lazaridou prefers to under -line their significance for our under -standing of history. This is true of the role played in the evolution of ideas by the "incunables" rare printed manu -scripts which show the importance of those 16th-century publishing houses in Italy, where many Byzantines had settled, publishing for the diaspora of a Greece then under Ottoman occupation, or in France, where they brought with them an important cultural contribution, as is shown in the Estienne printing works. "The impact of Byzantine culture was widespread in the Balkans, and in fara -way lands too, where it encouraged links between the peoples of Europe. It was its humanism that enabled the birth of the Renaissance." "Byzantine culture represents an essen -tial tool for understanding the Greece of today", she continues. "One example of this is the importance of this Easter week (Editor: the time of The Courier s visit). This is the time when families here are immersed in spirituality, com munion and ecstasy. Easter is the most important festival in the Greek Orthodox religion but the other religious celebra -tions also are celebrated with fervour, like Christmas, or the festivals of St. George or St. Demetrios. Yes, there is a lot of religious feeling. For example, they tried to place civil marriage on the same foot -ing as a religious one, but it was a failure. No one wants a civil marriage. Atheism is practically non-existent in Greece. But this religious feeling has nothing to do with fanaticism. It is internal in nature, intimate, deep. This has to do with the ancient identification of the Byzantine emperor with Christ. Civic and religious sovereignty are closely related." H.G. The Greek spirit: Byzantium as a reference point Garden of the Byzantine and Christian Museum, Athens Hegel Goutier It was the humanism of Byzantine culture that enabled the birth of the Renaissance Anastasia Lazaridou Hegel Goutier

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35 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011Athens really has become a very beautiful city since its facelift in the run-up to the Olympic Games of 2004. Among its aesthetic pleasures are the boulevard Vasilissis Sofias, with the beautiful houses of the well off and its modern buildings, theatres and museums, including the Byzantine and Christian Museum, with its glorious courtyard. And Syntagma Square, overlooked by the extraordinary Vouli (parliament), in front of which the Evzones guards parade in their richly-brocaded costumes in a kind of ballet where they play the role of dragonflies. Plaka is another beautiful spot. It is a delight to wander around, above all in Anafiotika, a sort of small village at the heart of the area. From there, and espe -cially at sunset, you can climb up the Acropolis hill along winding lanes or on a wide pedestrian street, which at the time of the Courier s visit had just witnessed the opening of the new Acropolis Museum, the pet project of the late Melina Mercouri, artist and fighter against the regime of the colonels, and later Minister of Culture. And on the Acropolis itself, the restored theatre, the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, is breathtaking!And yet there is so much more. There are the National Gardens, with the Temple of Zeus and Hadrians column, and the countless museums. And around them there are the lanes and alleyways per -fumed with the scent of flowers and man -darin blossom, and then, further afield, surrounding towns like Maroussi, with its vast Olympic stadium, its village charm and its delicate and varied traditional pastries. The island of your dreams, a mere step away Going from Athens to the nearby islands, there is no alternative but to pass through the beautiful harbour of Piraeus. The closest of the countrys two thousand islands are the Saronic Islands. Three of these are the most popular, and a day is enough to visit them. First is the furthest, Hydra, about ninety minutes away from Piraeus, an island without motor vehi -cles where the only traffic is the donkeys, and where the jet set took up residence in the sixties, led by Leonard Cohen. Then there is Aegina, with its superb temple of Athena Aphaa, its pediment sculptures long housed in Munich, and finally Poros, dazzling with its cascade of beautiful white houses brightened up with pastel shades, on a hill plummeting down to the sea. Rhodes, the island and the townAlso in the Aegean Sea is the archipel -ago of the Dodecanese, surrounding the island of Rhodes. The town of Rhodes is magnificent, but the island also takes pride in other jewels, among which is the wonderful Lindos. The town of Rhodes, founded in 408 BC, is a marriage of the modern a sea front with capes and coves tastefully landscaped for anchoring yachts and the medieval "Old Town", a World Heritage Site since 1988. The Old Town is encircled by a triple wall, built by the Knights of the Order of St John from 1306 onwards. Every square inch of the old town is spell -binding, but among all its wonders do not miss the Ibrahim Pasha and Suleiman mosques, the very small 13th-century Byzantine church of St Phanourios, not mentioned in most of the guidebooks, the hammam baths and the synagogue. To the south-east of Rhodes, Lindos is delightful, with its acropolis perched high above, topped by the temple of Athena Linda, and its interlocking lanes and stair -ways snaking around its houses like a film set on the hill. Far down below, there are the tempting beaches of crystalline, gold-tinged waters. It was on one of these beaches, taken over today by nudists, that the apostle St Paul began his evangeliza tion in the year 43 AD. H.G. So much beauty Lindos Hegel Goutier Delightful Lindos, with its acropolis, and far down the tempting beaches

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36C urierThe ZoomStories matter: a glimpse into the world of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie The storytellerstory. Endowed with the gifts of ancient storytellers is how Nigerian literary giant Chinua Achebe describes her he happens to be Adichies hero.Empowering and humanizing qualities propel the complex characters, events and situations brought to life in Adichies books; qualities that resonate so well with readers from all walks of life. From Purple Hibiscus (2003) and Half of a Yellow Sun (2006) to her collection of short stories entitled The Thing Around Your Neck (2009), some are introduced to new cul -tural perspectives and experiences, while Okechukwu UmeloStories matter stories have been used to dispossess and to malign, but stories can also be used to empower and to humanize. (Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie) Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, acclai -med Nigerian novelist, the young, gifted storyteller wowing readers worldwide, knows all too well about the power of the

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37 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 others like myself use her books to reinforce and navigate such perspectives and experiences.Adichies stories mostly revolve around Igbo-Nigerian characters, made all the more vivid through their occasional use of Igbo phrases which are sometimes una -pologetically untranslated. But she does not merely tell Nigerian stories she tells human ones.The breakthrough Adichie grew up in a university campus in Nsukka, Nigeria where her father was a professor and her mother an administra -tor. This, in addition to her middle-class upbringing meant that she was always surrounded by books but most of these books had very little to do with her own reality. What I read were British and American childrens books, she said when delive ring her now famous 2009 talk on The danger of the single story. When I began to write, I wrote exactly the kinds of sto -ries I was reading about things with which I could not per -sonally identify.Things changed when Adichie disco -vered African books. Because of writers like Achebe and Guinean poet Camara Laye, her perception of lite rature changed, and she started to write about things she recognized she realized that people like her could exist in litera -ture: [The discovery of African writers] saved me from having a single story of what books are.Indeed, Adichies books tell multiple, multilayered stories and have garnered her numerous awards and accolades, including the coveted Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction in 2007 for Half of a Yellow Sun Whats more, her short stories have been published in celebrated literary journals and her novels have been integra -ted into school curriculums worldwide. The story Adichies stories provide in-depth and multi-faceted explorations of individual characters, many times set within larger social or political contexts in post-colonial Nigeria. Take Half of a Yellow Sun for example, the book arguably closest to Adichies heart. The story revolves around the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970), fought between the Nigerian government and the Republic of Biafra, the secessionist Southeastern region of Nigeria mainly inhabited by the Igbo people. The 33-year-old Adichie, herself Igbo, was born in the shadow of Biafra seven years after the end of the war, a horrific chap -ter in Nigerias his -tory. To this day, the war is a topic that is extremely difficult to discuss in Nigeria, but Adichie unflin -chingly gives a human face to the devas -tating events, while poignantly depicting the horrors of war. The ease with which Adichie shifts perspectives, narratives and periods in time makes this story all the more immersive.The story centres on Olanna and Kainene, twin sisters from a privileged Igbo family who contrast in personality, physical appearance and their choice of lovers. Olanna falls in love with Odenigbo, a fiery and revolutionary academic, while Kainene falls for Richard, a shy, awkward and well-meaning Englishman with a passion for Igbo-Ukwu art and a devo -tion to the Biafran cause. Then theres Odenigbos houseboy Ugwu easily one of the most memorable characters in the book who comes of age as the story progresses. Events leading up to and during the war test the characters and their relationships, forcing them to make heartwrenching choices. The story is as much an exploration of love, social classes, community, traditional versus modern ways of life and individuals as it is of events and issues related to the war.It also produces gems of historical and social commentary, such as this phrase from Odenigbo: The real tragedy of our postcolonial world is not that the majority of people had no say in whether or not they wanted this new world; rather, it is that the majority have not been given the tools to negotiate this new world.Inspired by real life individuals, the novel pays homage to the millions who lost their lives during the war, including Adichies grandfathers. She has noted that the book is a tribute to them, as well as a means of engaging with her history and starting a conversation about the war. Despite the extensive bibliography at the end of the book, her greatest source was her father, who during the war lost everything he and his wife owned. The inspirationAdichie is an inspiration not only to the Nigerians who stop her on the street to passionately discuss her plots or express their gratitude for her work; not only to the female political figures she supports or the budding female writers she coaches in her workshops; not only to the univer sity student looking for a publisher, well aware of Adichies decision to give up studying medicine in Nigeria and pursue her writing dreams and academics in the US; no, not only to them, but also to me. Being Igbo, Nigerian, and one of her devoted fans, she is helping me navigate my culture and history in new ways. Her books increasingly take me on different journeys through which I engage with the multiple stories of my country and culture. I cant wait for the next journey. Being Igbo, Nigerian, and one of her devoted fans, she is helping me navigate my culture and history in new ways March 24, 2011:smoke rises from an illegal oil refinery in Ogoniland, outside Port Harcourt, in Nigeria's Delta region AP/ReportersChimamanda Ngozi Adichie @ Chimamada Ngozi Adichie website

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38C urierThe InteractionsBenin, Bhutan and Costa Rica cooperating across continents The potential for South-South coopera -tion took centre stage on 31 May 2011 at a public meeting held at the European Parliament on the theme Organising Inclusive Ownership The EU's Structured Dialogue to strengthen cooperation with Non State Actors in the South. Debra PercivalCooperation between Benin, Bhutan and Costa Rica was first put in motion by the Dutch gov -ernment in 2006 and supported by Cordaid, a major Dutch development organisation. This now independently run venture was highlighted as a solid example of South-South cooperation to be rep -licated elsewhere. Meeting participants included Costa Ricas Foreign Minister, Ren Castro-Salazar, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) and repre -sentatives from the European Commission and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). By working closely together we are able to tap into the diverse knowledge of each partner. We taught Costa Ricans the value of edible insects for fodder, while Costa Ricans helped us to introduce organic pineapple farming, which opened up new export markets for our small-scale farmers and generated much needed additional income, said Mathias K. Pofagi, Director of Partners in Benin.Structured dialogue with civil society fosters South-South cooperation

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39 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 The cooperation is based around four intertwined sustainable development pil lars: economic development, social devel -opment, environmental protection and gender equity. For example, Bhutanese experts have also shared their knowledge on the cultivation of high value shiitake mushrooms with farmers in Costa Rica and Benin. The success formula of Partners was independence from donors, emphasis on real reciprocity and equality between members and the participation not only of governments but also businesses and civil society, indigenous people, women, farmers and universities, said Marianella Feoli, of the Partners Secretariat and General Manager of the Costa Rican NGO, Fundecooperacion for Sustainable Development. The 36 projects under the Partners programme have become selfsustaining after just three years. It has enabled small-scale farmers and micro-entrepreneurs to share their expe -riences and expertise across continents and has created new services and jobs which in turn have generated additional income for poor peo -ple in the three par ticipating countries. Self-sustainingThis has all been done without changing the legal framework. This sort of experience should not be wasted at the EU level, Rene Castro-Salazar told meeting participants. The potential for South-South coopera -tion in a myriad of areas from culture to climate change was emphasised by par -ticipants, including Dutch MEP, Thijs Berman. Participants also stressed that such cooperation increases cost effective -ness, promotes the transfer of appropriate technologies and ensures local ownership, leadership and capacity building. Given the global character of todays challenges it is time that the EU, as a leader in promoting aid effectiveness, supports South-South cooperation instead of just focusing on bilateral aid. South-South cooperation ensures that developing countries are equal partners in their own development and creates joint global responsibility for global prob lems, said Mirjam van Reisen, Professor of International Social Responsibility at Tilburg University (NL) and Director of Europe External Policy Advisors (EEPA).Dr Obadiah Mailafia, Chief of Staff at the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group, echoed these views Javier Campo has caught on camera both differences and similarities bet ween Benin, Bhutan and Costa Rica in a recent photo exhibition in The Ha -gue, the Netherlands, to draw atten -tion to the Benin-Bhutan-Costa Rican Partners in South-South cooperation programme. Although each country has its own religious beliefs, rhythms, language history and traditions, they share challenges. The exhibition of 60 photographs puts over the divers landscapes and warmth of the people in all three countries. South-South cooperation through a lensand drew attention to the recent high-level cooperation dialogue with Brazil, India and China initiated by the ACP Group. Participants welcomed the newly cre -ated EU Structured Dialogue with civil society, which aims at defining specific roles for all devel opment actors and aligning strategies and programmes. Through this pro cess the European Commission hopes to strengthen its part -nership with civil soci -ety organisations and local authorities worldwide. South-South cooperation is meaningful and effective in terms of regional inte -gration and unity in global negotiations. In relation to civil societies, the conven tional North-South split is fast becoming meaningless after the Arab Spring, said Mirjam van Riessen. The EU should use the Structured Dialogue and its focus on ownership to implement policies that include all stake holders in the identification of the most-promising development strategies, said Ren Grotenhuis, Director of Cordaid. He added: Countries like the Netherlands, which have supported new approaches such as South-South cooperation early on, can have a leading role in this drive towards a more promising future of development cooperation.EU Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs, is expected to launch a European Communication on the role of civil society in development in 2012. Find out more: www.southsouthcooperation.netEU Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs, is expected to launch a European Communication on the role of civil society in development in 2012Bhutan. Photos taken from the exhibition Three Continents, three Countries One Vision featuring the work of Javier Del Campo Beninese woman Javier Del Campo Bhutan woman Javier Del Campo

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40C urierThe The EU remains the worlds principal donor but .. Anne-Marie MouradianThe EU remains incon testably the worlds leading donor, declared Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs, while admitting that it has failed to honour its pledge to jointly allocate 0.56% of its gross domestic product to ODA in 2010, rising to 0.7% in 2015. In abso -lute terms, the sums allocated were 14.5 billion less than promised1. Luxembourg beats all records Overall, only nine Member States met the interim goals set for 2010: Belgium, Finland, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Cyprus in addition to Sweden, Denmark, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, each of whom have already exceeded the 0.7% mark. In 2010, Luxembourg reached 1.09% of its GDP with 301M in devel -opment aid. On the other hand, countries such as Italy (0.15%), Austria (0.32%) or Germany (0.38%) are still a long way from fulfilling their promises. With 10 billion euros allocated to ODA, France is close to its target. The European Commission is therefore continuing to call on Member States to meet their commitments, after last year declaring that the economic crisis should not be used as an excuse by governments for failing to do so. The budgets allocated to ODA must increase if we are to achieve our ambitious goals for 2015 and remain credible. That requires a collective effort and all the players must contribute their fair share, stressed Andris Piebalgs. He also pointed out the need to maximise the impact of existing funds by improving the quality and flow of aid. In the course of this year, the Commissioner will be presenting his proposals for improved targeting of development policy, ensuring better cooperation and greater impact in the field. One key concern will be to improve the efficiency of direct budgetary support to developing countries, the amount of which will increase from 25% of the amounts programmed under the 9th EDF to almost 50% under the 10th EDF. Strengthening the checksWhile recognising the efforts made by the Commission to implement and improve its approach to direct budgetary support, the latest special report by the European Court of Auditors (11/2010) noted insufficiencies in the methodol -ogy, programme management and evalu -ation, and risks. The Commission has pledged to resolve these problems. The European Parliament is also monitoring developments closely. The report entitled Budgetary support as a means of dis -tributing official development aid in the ACP countries, presented to the May ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly in Budapest by Enrique Guerrero Salom and Mohamed Abdallahi Ould Guelaye, stresses, among other things, the need to strengthen both the Commissions checking mechanisms and parliamen -tary checks in the developing countries. 1 OECD & EU figures April 2011One key concern will be to improve the efficiency of direct budgetary support to developing countries, the amount of which will increase from 25% of the amounts programmed under the 9th EDF to almost 50% under the 10th EDFWith .8 billion (0.43% of its GDP), the European Unions official development aid (ODA) reached a record level in 2010, up by .5 billion on 2009. Commissioner Piebalgs blog Piebalgs

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41 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 But, adds Chris Coxon from ActionAid, this self-interested approach is being rep -licated at all stages of the aid process, including the way in which EU mem -ber states judge the extent to which it is effective.In 2010 alone, EU member states inflated their official aid spending by more than 5 billion, equivalent to almost 10% of the total aid provided by the EU to partner countries in that same year. Of this, 2.5 billion was debt cancellation, roughly 1.6 billion student costs and 1.1 billion was spent on refugees in donor countries. The 1,600 organisations represented by CONCORD are calling on EU govern -ments to end the misuse of aid for national security, migration and commercial inter -ests, and the inflation of their aid budgets, ahead of the high level meeting on aid effectiveness in Busan, South Korea, this November. M .M.B. Challenging self-interestDespite being the worlds big -gest aid donor, only nine coun -tries met their EU aid targets in 2010, with the bloc as a whole falling short by a whopping 14.5 billion. Italy alone accounted for over 50% of the EU's aid shortfall, closely followed by Germany on 35%, with many countries making cuts in their aid budgets that were disproportion -ate to other areas of spending.In addition to weakening their ambitions on aid levels, aid effectiveness and budget support, the member states are linking their aid more closely to EU security, migration and commercial interests; this is a major cause for concern as it reduces the money that is actually available for fight -ing global poverty, underlines the report.Despite the OECD categorising no fewer than 48 countries as fragile, more than 30% of all global development aid chan -nelled to fragile states since 2002 has gone to just three countries: Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghanistan is a priority country for 11 EU countries, including Finland, Germany, Italy, Poland and the UK. Yet high levels of poverty and significant development challenges in Afghanistan cannot fully explain the EUs interest in engaging in the country. As the report shows, allocations to Afghanistan have been justified domestically mostly on grounds of security and migration con cerns. Aid is under assault and EU self-interest seems to be driving it says Jean Kamau from ActionAid Kenya. Its bad enough that the majority of member states are cutting aid but using it to mask domestic or foreign policy priorities is totally unacceptable.Member States are linking their aid more closely to EU security, migration and commercial interestsEU member states are becoming increasingly inward-looking and eager to promote aid policies which prioritise foreign or domestic policy objectives. These are the main conclusions of the annual AidWatch report by CONCORD, released on May 19th in Brussels. ActionAid Kenya Country Director, Jean Kamau Des Willie/ActionAid Unloading food aid from ActionAid Kenya arriving at Tangulbei, Rift Valley, Kenya Des Willie/ActionAid

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42C urierThe rating of 90 MFIs, and provide legal and regulatory advice to 11 African countries and central banks in West and Central Africa. There were some failures too. We learned a great deal from the first programme, explains Stefania Zaninello, head of programme management, Economy and Trade/Operations for the ACP at EuropeAid. Some IMFs did not know how to offer the most suitable service to their poorest cli -ents. Clients who do not always properly understand their own needs. They ask for a loan, for example, because they have a field that is in danger of flood ing when what they need is insurance Launch of Second EU/ACP Microfinance Framework Programme Anne-Marie MouradianWe believe that micro -finance as a support tool for generating revenue for infor mal micro-companies or marginalised peasant farmers for example can con -tribute to development and help reduce poverty, explains Alessandra Lustrati, Microfinance Point Focal at EuropeAid. Microfinance can be useful for poor households that do not have access to banks and other financial services if it helps develop their economic activities. It can pose a problem when used solely for consumer purposes without improv -ing incomes, the borrower then finding him/herself unable to repay the loan. The European Commission is currently cofinancing around 200 microfinance projects for a total amount of almost 200M in more than 80 ACP, Asian, Latin American and Southern and Eastern Neighbourhood countries1. Our main aim is not to supply the MFIs with liquidities but to strengthen their capacities by offering them technical assistance, training and advice, stresses Alessandra Lustrati. By using various indicators the EC wants to ensure that the partner institutions are efficient at two levels, financial and social. To achieve results in terms of reducing pov -erty, the MFIs must pursue develop -ment aims as well as being economically viable. We are trying to work with those that meet these two criteria, Alessandra Lustrati points out. There is a long history of EC support for microfinance in the ACP countries. The EU/ACP Framework Programme is the largest and most complex of the pro -grammes currently implemented at vari -ous sites within the ACP region. Among other things, the first Framework Programme (2005-2010) increased the number of beneficiaries to over 775,000 clients on low incomes in the ACP zone. It also helped strengthen the capaci -ties of 50 MFIs, create two new ones, train over 500 people, grant aid to the The new support programme for microfinance institutions (MFIs) has just been launched. The main aim is to strengthen the capacities of more than 100 MFIs in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. The MFIs must understand the need to listen to their clients and not always just grant them loans but rather help them arrive at the best solutionAfrican market Reporters

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43 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011Conference at the beginning of 2012 to develop a joint cooperation strategy. The European Commissioner and UNIDO head agreed that "new wealth" from natural resources, such as oil, must be intelligently used to promote a sustainable industrial development in Africa and on the need for diver -sification of the economic sector including traditional activities such as agro-business to increase trade in ACP value-added goods. They also flagged increased EU and Africa cooperation in education and skills development and transfers of industrial know-how. D .P. ACP forges ties with UNIDOcover to protect themselves against the risk. The MFIs must understand the need to listen to their clients and not always just grant them loans but rather help them arrive at the best solution. Responsible financeWith a budget of 15M under the 10th EDF, the second EU/ACP Framework Programme (2010-2014) seeks to strengthen the capacities of MFIs at all levels: needs analysis and under -standing, exchange and implementa -tion of good practices, strengthening and diversification of products and financial services available, and the development of information networks to improve transparency. It is a question of promoting responsible finance with a pronounced emphasis on social perfor mance. Fifteen managers from central or regional banks, finance ministries or microfinance supervisory bodies in the ACP countries will also receive grants to attend the Boulder Microfinance Training programme in Turin (Italy) from 18 July to 5 August 2011. The second EU/ACP Framework Programme is currently issuing a call for proposals. Managed from Brussels with the assistance of EU delegations in the ACP countries, it is financed by the EC, while the ACP secretariat is the final beneficiary and supervisor. We are also working with other donors the World Bank, International Labour Organisation, the United Nations, the Inter-American Development Bank, the German agency KfW to avoid dupli cation and to secure maximum benefit from the added value of each donor in this sector, explains Stefania Zaninello. 1 Source: CGAP Funder Survey 2010The ACP group and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) signed a Memorandum of Understanding in Brussels on 24 March. It signals an ACP drive to forge new links with organisations other than the European Union (EU). Secretary General of the ACP group, Dr. Mohamed Ibn Chambas and Dr. Kandeh Yumkella, Director General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) said that future cooperation between the two bodies would accelerate sustainable industrial development of ACP countries and regions. Our respective institutions will build on each others comparative advantage in order to make specific contributions to this sustainable industrial develop ment, building on ACP countries and regions national and regional develop -ment strategies, said Dr.Chambas in a statement. Under the agreement, the organisations will jointly look at how to strengthen agro-industries and other competitive enterprises in ACP States as well as environmentally friendly industries. Dr. Yumkella also met in Brussels with Vice President of the European Commission, Antonio Tajani, who is European Commissioner for Industry and Enterprise. Commissioner Tajani mooted the idea of holding an AU-EU-UNIDO trilateral High Level African market Reporters

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44C urierThe Debra PercivalIf a King Tide occurs people will be swept off the other side, says Aloysius Laukai, the NGOs Chairman who runs the New Dawn radio station on Buka Island, north Bougainville, 86 kilometres away [ Ed : see separate article in the Country Report on PNG]. Its not easy to find pre cise scientific data about the sea level rise in the remote Carterets just 1.5 metres above sea level at their highest point but some scientists suggest they may already be totally submerged by 2015.The six islands, of which the largest is Han, are spread over an area 30 kilometres north to south and have a total land surface area of just 0.6 square kilometres. They were first discovered by British navigator, Philip Carteret in 1767. The islanders customs are thought to be similar to those of the population of Bukas Hanhan Bay. The policy is to resettle them but they do not want to leave, says Aloysius Laukai. Papua New Guineans have strong attach -ments to clan and family relationships and customary land is sacred [ Ed : see country report on PNG in this issue]. The PNG government and donor agencies have in the past given funds to build sea defences but the sea continues to encroach on the land, destroying food gardens, even the roots of coconut trees, originally a very important part of the diet. Although the population still cultivates swamp taro, rice supplies are occasionally sent from Bougainville but a change in diet from coconut to rice has caused minor health problems, in particular diarrhoea. Sea water has also polluted drinking water supplies. Climate refugeesFive families have already been settled in Bougainville and now that the autonomous region is a more peaceful place, Tulele Peisa hopes more people of the Carterets will follow. The felled timber lying at the rear of the premises of New Dawn radio in Buka will be used to build houses for these climate refugees at the Tiuputz planta -tion on the main island of Bougainville, made available by the Catholic Church. The idea is to resettle them slowly, says Aloysius Laukai. He adds: Giving assis tance for training and helping them adapt and making them part of the community is everything, even encouraging marriages with people from Bougainville. The plan -tation on Bougainville has land to cultivate coconut and other crops. Civil SocietyResettling the Carteret islanders, victims of climate change The Non-Governmental Organisation, Tulele Peisa, is trying to resettle the esti-mated 1,000 strong population of the Carteret islands, a horseshoe-shaped cluster of islands to the north-east of Papua New Guineas Autonomous Region of Bougainville. Climate-change induced sea level rises could completely submerge their landmass by 2015. Saved on film Under its small bi-lateral funding programme for the Pacific 2009-2010, the British government enabled Australias University of New England to document the cul -tural traditions of the people of the Carterets including songs and dan -ces, traditions, myths and legends, in collaboration with Tulele Peisa and the Carteret Island Council of Chiefs. The videos will not only be made available to future genera -tions but findings will also enable the international community to be better prepared for dealing with similar situations in many low-lying areas around the world affected by climate change induced sea level rises. Aloysius Laukai, Managing Editor, radio New Dawn D Percival

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45 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011Its report, Fuelling Evictions: Community Cost of EU Biofuels, documents how 20,000 people in Kenyas Dakatcha woodland are facing eviction from land where an EU company plans to grow jatropha to manufacture biofuels. Fifty kilometres from the town of Malindi, the woodland has been held in trust by Malindi County Council on behalf of the communities living on the land. In 2008, Kenyas Company Jatropha Energy Ltd (KJE), a subsidiary of the Italian Company, Nuove Inziative Industriali, applied to the Malindi County Council to lease 50,000 hec -tares of land for 33 years, according to ActionAids Kenyan representative, David Barisa, who was in Brussels at the beginning of May to lobby EU institu tions. He says that KJEs promises of infra -structure, schools, hospitals and work for Dakatchas inhabitants remain just promises. The rush by EU companies and others to find land on which to grow biofuels has been driven in part by the EUs Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of 2009 which states that 20 per cent of the EUs energy consumption must come from renewable energy sources by 2020 and that 10 per cent of transport fuel must come from renewable sources by the same date1. Another issue which allows such biofuels projects to go ahead without full consideration of the social consequences is the lack of security of land tenure in some developing nations. About 75 per cent of the land on Kenyas coastal area is owned by local councils and can be leased, although a new law promulgated by Kenyas Parliament in August 2010 established a Land Tenure Board which stipulates that the com -munities on council lands must also be shareholders in economic ventures. Civil society protests It remains to be seen whether this new legislation will be applied to Dakatcha. Following civil society protests in July 2010, Kenyas National Environmental Management Authority asked KJE to undertake a pilot project to prove the environmental sustainability of jatropha development in the woodland. The com -pany has since re-submitted plans to start a pilot project using 10,000 hec tares of land. If the plantation goes ahead, the community will effectively be evicted from the land where they have lived for generations in small villages or clusters of huts. They grow food crops such as cassava maize and pineapples on small fields outside the woodland area to feed their families and sell at the local market, reads ActionAids report. Dakatchas communities also depend on the woodland for beekeeping and herbal medicine. It is also a source of drinking water, poles for construction and firewood and provides revenue from eco-tourism. ActionAids Chris Coxon draws atten -tion to what he sees as a lack of coherence between the EUs renewable energy pol -icy and the development target of pov erty alleviation. The ActionAid report statesWe call on the European Union to respect its legal obligations to ensure policy coherence for development under the Lisbon Treaty and scrap current [renewables] policies, including targets and financial incentives, which promote unsustainable biofuels at the expense of land and food rights in communities such as the Dakatcha Woodlands. D.P. 1 Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 23rd April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. www.actionaid.org.ukIf the plantation goes ahead, the community will effectively be evicted from the land where they have lived for generationsThe NGO ActionAid has brought to light the potential negative effects on developing nations of the EUs renewable energy policy. The social cost of the EUs renewable energy policy Workers in a field of Jatropha curcus plants, a source of bio-dieselREPORTERS /Mahesh Kumar A

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46C urierThe Debra PercivalPapua New Guinea (PNG) could be described as a mini continent. It is a country of extraordinary diversity both on land and sea from its fauna to its economic potential: oil, gas, minerals, forests and fish. Lying just south of the equator, 160km north of Australia, the country is part of a huge arc of mountains stretching from Asia, through Indonesia and into the South Pacific. It 5.9 million popula tion is mostly Melanesian. This fascinat ing country has more than 600 offshore islands, over 600 tribes and more than 800 indigenous languages ( tok ples ). Although PNG recorded nine per cent growth of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) last year with its initial exports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) just two or three years away, it is struggling to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).At 733 deaths per 100,000 live births, the figures for maternal mortality con -trast with just 34 cases per 100,000 in Fiji and eight in industrialised coun -tries, according to PNGs own National Health Plan 2011-2020. Literacy rates stand at just 56.2 per cent at 10 years of age, according to the same document. At the end of 2009, 34,100 cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) were recorded according to figures from PNGs National Aids Council, most of which are in the Highlands and Southern regions but with increasing numbers in coastal areas, the New Guinea Islands and Momase. The EUs 10th European Development Fund (EDF) 116.3M (2008-2013) tar -gets poverty alleviation through assis -tance to rural development including climate change related projects as well as education and strengthening weak administrative capacity. It is also giving a boost to trade and investment under its Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) a free trade agreement signed between PNG and the EU. ReportPapua New Guinea: An island continentExciting prospects but MDGs trail

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47 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 New Guinea was one of the first land masses to be populated by modern humans who are thought to have arrived from Southeast Asia 50,000-70,000 years ago, via the Indonesian archipelago. Archaeological evidence suggests coastal settlements in Morobe 30,000 years ago and in the PNG Highlands, 20,000 years ago. The countrys present dual name is a result of its complex administrative history pre-independence. Papua is derived from pepuah, a Malay word meaning frizzy hair, and New Guinea ( Nueva Guinea ) is found in the writings of Spanish explorer, Yigo Ortiz de Retez, who in 1545 noted the people resembled those he saw along the coast of Guinea in West Africa.Although the Portuguese sighted the territory in 1512, the Dutch East Indies Company first claimed sovereignty over Western New Guinea in 1793 and made a tentative claim on the island. The captains of British ships hoisted several flags but accepted the Netherlands claim on the western part of New Guinea. In 1884, the Germans laid claim to the northern part of New Guinea known as German New Guinea. In the Highlands, an arbi -trary East/West line was subsequently drawn between German and British New Guinea. This meant the division of New Guinea into three parts: a Dutch section protecting the eastern edge of the Dutch East Indies, a British quar -ter where the interest was in keeping the Germans away from Australia and a German section attracted by poten -tial economic gains to be made in the territory. In 1906, British New Guinea became the Territory of Papua adminis tered by a newly-independent Australia. First contactThe British asked the Australians to occupy German New Guinea when World War I (1914-1918) broke out. At the 1920 League of Nations conference which carved up colonial territories among the victors of the war, Australia was given a mandate to occupy the former German New Guinea. In the 1930s, white men first made contact with people in the interior in their search for riches such as gold. One of the fiercest campaigns of World War II (1939-45) occurred in New Guinea where 200,000 Japanese, Australian and American soldiers died. War relics are still littered throughout the country, especially in PNGs outer islands: from Japanese barge tunnels in Rabaul1, East New Britain, to the shell of a Japanese plane perched on a cliff top in Bougainville. After World War II, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea combined. The battle of the major powers in terra incognita Papua New Guineas early settlers still live remote lives in the Highlands, yet the country was centre stage during one of the fiercest campaigns of World War II. The countrys past and present are full of paradoxes. Highlands are full of deep ravines D Percival PNGs population is largely rural Reporters.be

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48C urierThe PNG became an independent nation on 16th September 1975 with Michael Somare as the nations first Prime Minister. He was re-elected as PM in 2002 and 2007 for the National Alliance Party. The Parliament has 109 Members. The country is divided into 19 provinces, including the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, formed in 2001, and the National Capital District (Port Moresby). Each province is given grants by the National Government for undertakings such as infrastructure and its mainte -nance, health, education, agriculture, town planning, forestry and business development. PNG remains part of the British Commonwealth represented by a Governor General, currently Michael Ogio.Provincial and clan identities are both strong (the country has over 800 lan -guages although pidgin is widely under stood) and in the past the difficulties of governing a country with such a diverse population was reflected in the frequent votes of no confidence in governments elected using a first-past-the-post voting system. Electoral reforms brought in a Limited Preferential Vote system (LPV), which was first used in the 2007 parlia -mentary elections, offering more propor -tional representation and an improved degree of political stability.Parliamentary elections are slated to take place in June 2012 and the new govern ment will be faced with the big challenge of managing the revenue from companies the world over, who are vying for the coun -trys minerals and other huge resources in the best interests of Papua New Guineans. Malum Nalu & D.P. 1 The Japanese constructed over 500 kilome -tres of tunnels in the hills around Rabaul which protected their submarines from the bombardments of US, Australian and New Zealand air forces. The tunnels even housed hospitals.A land of many faces Vast tracts of the country are wild and undeveloped. The Owen Stanley Range, a massive central spine in mainland PNG, has peaks towering over 4,000 metres. Rivers begin their journey to the sea from these moun -tains, among them the mighty Sepik River and Fly River waterways. On the mainland, there are also fertile coastal plains, flooded delta regions and mangrove swamps, sandy bea -ches, colourful sheltered bays and dense rainforest. The countrys pristine rainforests are home to some 700 species of birds, including parrots, pigeons, hornbills ( kokomos ) and cassowaries (Papua New Guineas largest bird), but best known is the brilliantly coloured bird of paradise. Thirty-eight of the 43 known bird of paradise species can be found in PNG, including the rare Blue and the Raggiana varieties. The worlds largest butterfly the Queen Alexandra Birdwing is also native to Oro Province, with a wingspan that reaches up to 30 centimetres. Native mammals include bats and marsupials such as tree kangaroos, forest wallabies, Cuscus and echid -nas (spiny anteaters). Papua New Guinea is also especially famous for its stunning orchids. Over two-thirds of the worlds known species are found here, and new varieties are still being discovered.The Bismark Sea of the outer island provinces of West New Britain and East New Britain has some of the best diving in the world, says owner of a diving business, Alan Raabe, with previously undiscovered marine life forms continually being found on the reefs, and some of the worlds rarest shells.Rabauls Tuvurvur volcano soars from the sea on East New Britain. It last erupted in 1994 covering the buildings in thick black ash and tur ning it into a ghost town. Kokopo is now the provinces new capital. With its swaying coconut trees and white sand atolls, the Autonomous Provin -ce of Bougainville has a sleepy feel. Both land and seascapes of PNG are as diverse as its people. Business district of capital of PNG, Port Moresby D Percival Tuvurvur volcano, Rabaul D Percival

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49 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Malum Nalu* The US$15bn (Kina 42bn) PNG LNG project got the okay from project developers Esso Highlands Ltd, a subsidi -ary of ExxonMobil Corp and partners Oil Search Ltd, Santos Ltd, Nippon Oil, Mineral Resources Development Company (MRDC), and Eda Oil, in December 2009. Esso Highlands has a 33.2 per cent stake, Oil Search 29 per cent, PNG govern -ments National Petroleum Company 16.6 per cent, Santos 13.5 per cent, Nippon Oil 4.7 per cent, MRDC 2.8 per cent and Eda Oil 0.2 per cent. The LNG will be conveyed through a 450-mile pipeline to liquefaction and storage facilities located 20 kilometres north west of Port Moresby on the Gulf of Papua. According to experts, the pro ject will start shipping supplies of LNG in 2014 to four major customers in Asia: Chinese Petroleum Corporation Taiwan; Osaka Gas Company Ltd; The Tokyo Electric Company Inc. and Unipec Asia Company Ltd a subsidiary of the China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec). Over the life of the project, it is estimated that over nine trillion cubic feet of gas will be produced and sold, bringing in PNG Kina $30bn over 30 years and doubling the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of PNG. A myth fulfilled In this country of legends some of the Southern Highlanders say that the LNG The race for PNGs gas Mountain of gold in a sea of oilOil production and minerals, lar -gely from two aging mines, the Ok Tedi copper and Porgera gold mine, and the more recently opened Li -hir gold mine, are the backbone of PNGs economy. PNG is ranked the 11th largest gold producer and the 13th biggest copper producer in the world. Paul Barker, Director of PNGs Institute for National Affairs says, however, these are relatively enclave activities in terms of provi -ding limited employment. Due to close in 2013, the Ok Tedi copper mine in Western province earned 4.741bn kina (1.39bn), or 18 per cent, of the countrys GDP in 2010, although the environmental and so -cial cost of mining activities in PNG, notably the pollution of the Fly River system downstream of the Ok Tedi mine have drawn wide media atten -tion. The re-opening of the Panguna copper mine in Bougainville, closed in 1989 in the wake of the civil war triggered by friction over the local populations lack of benefits from the mining activities, is under discussion [Ed: see article on Bougainville in this report]. Three new gold pro -jects and the first ever nickel project are underway in the Ramu valley, Madang province. The country also exports silver. Oil was first pumped from Kutubu in 1992 with other fields opened at Agogo, Gobe and Mo -ran in the Southern Highlands from where Liquefield Natural Gas is to be piped for sale to Asia. Two massive Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) projects to commercialise the gas resources of PNGs Southern Highlands and Western provinces have opened the floodgates for an unprecedented eco -nomic boom seen in the rash of new hotels, supermarkets and entertainment centres in the capital, Port Moresby. Interoil Antelope 2 fare, Gulf Province Interoil

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50C urierThe Garden of EdenSubsistence agriculture currently supports around 85 per cent of the population although the coun -try exports coffee produced in the Highlands, cocoa, coconut and palm oil as well as vanilla, cardamom, chi -llies, fruit and vegetables. According to Michael Segal, Information Officer at the London-based International Cocoa Organisation, PNG cocoa has a very aromatic strong, slightly bitter and slightly sour flavour and is used to make fine chocolates in Europe. Many of those met during our report highlighted the countrys agricultural potential, including rice-growing in the Sepik region. The country currently imports rice and flour. Fish processing in Lae and Madang, boosted by the Economic Partnership Agreement signed (EPA) with the EU, is a growing industry and theres a lot more potential to export forestry products although the illegal logging operations are of particular concern to the EU which is seeking to encourage exports of wood and wood products solely from sustainably managed forests [ Ed : see interview with EU Ambassador Martin Dihm in this report]. development project fulfils the myth of Gigira Laitebo in which an underground fire is kept alive by inhabitants poking sticks into the earth, their actions eventu -ally lighting up the world.At the end of 2009, a deal was clinched on another major LNG project. The USS6bn (K17bn) Elk/Antelope LNG project was signed between the Government and developer, South Pacific InterOil Ltd (SPI 208) which will also provide the Asian market with clean energy. The first gas shipment from this project is tentatively set for the end of 2013, a year ahead of the ExxonMobil -led PNG LNG scheme, said Henry Aldorf, Chief Executive Officer of its partner Liquid Niugini Gas Ltd (LNGL) at the recent signing of the projects shareholders agreement between LNGL, South Pacific InterOil (SPI 208), Energy World Corporation (EWC) and Gulf Governor, Havila Kavo. A US$4bn land-based LNG plant will be constructed in the Gulf in two phases. Under the partnership, SPI 208 will develop the Elk Antelope fields whereas LNGL will construct the pipelines and work with EWC on the construction of the LNG plant off the coast of the Gulf. The plant is forecast to process an estimated 2.25 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas over 15 years. A third massive LNG project is expected to be developed in Western province by Canadas Talisman Energy .It remains to be seen, however, the extent to which the LNG projects will benefit the majority of the PNGs essentially rural population and attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). At this stage, PNG is still a relatively poor, largely agricultural and rural-based society with a per capita GDP around Kina 3,500 or US$1,300 per head lower middle-income but increasingly skewed wealth distribution, says Paul Barker, Director of PNGs Institute of National Affairs. He adds: It has the lowest level of achievement of MDG levels in the Pacific region and is unlikely to achieve any target by 2015. The contribution of the agricul -tural sector to GDP is still substantial at 30-40 per cent and plays an essential role in providing broad-based income and livelihoods to the majority of the popula tion, directly and indirectly, with many involved with transport and processing. However, recent macro-economic indica -tors are positive. International currency reserves are at near record levels. The deficit has fallen and last year govern -ment officials say that PNGs GDP rose between 9-10 per cent enabling some of its debt to be repaid and the promise of increased foreign investment and jobs. *Papua New Guinea-based journalistPapua New Guinea Konmai woman and child Reporters / wildlife pictures Dame Carol Kidu D Percival

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51 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011Formerly a teacher, Australianborn Dame Carol Kidu is PNGs Minister for Community Affairs and sole female Member of Parliament. She became a naturalised PNG citizen by her marriage to a Papua New Guinean, the late Sir Buri Kidu. She has been revered both at home and internationally for her work with the marginalised in PNG and her contri -bution to poverty alleviation. In 2005, she was made a Dame of the British Empire and in 2009 became a Knight of Frances Lgion dhonneur. A Member of Parliament since 1997 and holding her Ministerial post since 2002, she has announced that she will step down in the 2012 elections. Why is community development so important in PNG?Having married into PNG society and lived in a village type of environment for 40 years, I know that strengthening the community is the basis of the future of PNG. Turning the whole social develop -ment approach around from a welfare mentality [ Ed : PNG has no social security system] into a development model based on community empowerment is a long, slow process. Were starting to imple -ment a completely new policy framework, initiated in 2002, of an integrated com munity development policy. Because of our extreme diversity, we cannot have a one size-fits-all policy from the top when it comes to ground level policy develop -ment, so the policy is quite a flexible one that can be adapted to the differences in culture throughout the nation. The policy very strongly acknowledges that family and community are the basis of PNG society and will remain so for a long time. If we dont strengthen the inherent resilience of our people, social breakdown will rapidly increase in urban areas. Over the past ten years, some areas of the country have remained as they Dame Carol Kidu, standing up for the marginalised ... and womens empowerment When I first came to parliament in 1997, there were two women and from 2002 to 2007, just myselfDame Carol Kidu D Percival PNGs Parliament constructed on a Sepik design, the province of current PM, Michael Somare. It currently has only one female MP D Percival

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52C urierThe am angered when I see the acquisition of land by those who are able and those who argue that its the order of things that those who are aggressive prosper. Is land also being sold off to non-PNG nationals?Officially, customary land cannot be sold to a foreigner without the clans agree ment thats the official law but it is happening. People who call themselves principal land owners sell off without clan permission. There are a lot of such things happening that are difficult for a bureaucracy to manage. In your opinion, could aid agencies improve their approach to commu nity development in PNG?For development agencies, getting involved in community development often means not working in parallel with government. Although govern -ment systems may be weak, I think the development partners job is to help strengthen government systems and always remember that things that grow organically from the ground, in terms of responses to social situations, will always be more sustainable than an imported model from another country. Too often, people come along with imported models that worked well elsewhere, but do not address what has been happening organi -cally from the ground here. This may be okay if its a question of building a road or water system, but when it comes to community development, we have to break the tendency to have lots of nice have always been, whereas others have been impacted by undetakings such as the PNG Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project (see separate article in this report on PNGs rich mineral resources). What is the nature of the social stresses?Theres a complex mix. There are all those that have lived throught the change from a subsistence to a cash economy. In urban communities, the mix of alcohol and marijuana causes social breakdown. Theres also an increase in gender-based violence. Some people think that this is something from the past. Its not cul -tural but symptomatic of the stresses in society and changes in male/female relationships. Adjustments that have taken place over thousands of years in some societies are happening for many people in PNG in just one lifetime. But when you consider what our society is going through and all the layers of value and belief systems, weve done quite well so far to adapt. Many people all over PNG want to be involved in developing its potential The country has tremendous poten -tial. People have the resources but were never given the knowledge or skills to utilise them in new ways that fit into the global society. In my own community which is an urban indigenous community (Moresby South) poor people tend to sell their resources land for example to the wealthy Highlanders who have royalties from the sale of oil. We need to be hon est in PNG all of us and that includes my colleagues. Traditionally, land wasnt owned but was in the custodianship of the clan and women had rights. In the 1960s, when I went out with the elders in the gardens, when we were still gardening and doing the traditional things, the clan chief used to say, this is so and sos mothers place naming the women not the men. In doing so, they clearly recognised that women were the users of the land. Men are conveniently ignoring these subtle -ties now. Traditionally, no woman would ever have been alienated by being in a position of having no land. I am worried about such feminisation of poverty and warm, fuzzy projects and really make sure that sustainability and ownership are taken on board. Have you made changes in your own ministrys policies? If you decentralise a function without a budget to go with it, there will be prob -lems. Disability, women, children and youth are all in my portfolio and under a 1995 law became decentralised functions of government but there has not been any transfer of funds for this policy from the budget. This is an area Ive been trying to work on before I finish my term in parliament. I want to tie down in law that the national government will put x much in to support policies from my department. Do you hope to see more female members of parliament following the next election?We are hoping to take a vote next week [last week of May 2011] in parliament on the Equality of Participation Bill which is push -ing for 22 seats to be reserved for women in parliament. Its a very unpopular bill. I dont know if well get the numbers on the floor. Its been a long, long hard struggle. We obviously need more women members. I represent 0.9 per cent of the parliament and Im a naturalised citizen. Im not the only female Member of Parliament ever. Postindependence, there were four and one minister. This was followed by a period of ten years with no women representatives. When I first came to parliament in 1997, there were two women and from 2002 to 2007, just myself. D.P. Traditionally, no woman would ever have been alienated by being in a position of having no land Rural scene Reporters

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53 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 In what respects have the pri ority areas for EU cooperation with PNG evolved from the respective 9th to 10th EDFs?Under both the 9th and 10th EDFs, the main themes have been education and rural development although some changes in the specific orientation have occurred. Under the 10th EDF, support for the education sector is evolving towards a sector-wide approach and for rural areas the emphasis has changed from water sup -ply and sanitation to income-generating opportunities. There was also a focus on support for capacity building under the 9th EDF which has laid the foundations for more effective implementation of 10th EDF interventions.Two further important changes were introduced following the Mid-Term Review of the 10th EDF. They concern climate change, identified as a key chal -lenge to be addressed under the rural economic development programme and "good governance" to support account ability and transparency. How is the EPA benefitting Papua New Guineas people? So far, the main benefit generally high lighted derives from a special provision in the agreement on the rules of origin which allows for increasing exports of processed tuna to the EU. Several thou -sand jobs, in particular for women, have been secured or created and significant further investments with many more jobs have been announced. This is a most interesting case of trade being utilised for development and a study will soon be conducted to analyse it in more detail. But the EPA arrangement provides ben -efits beyond just the export of tuna. It opens the whole EU market, one of the largest in the world, to all exports from PNG including for example, exports of palm oil and other agricultural produce benefitting people in the rural areas where most of PNG's population live. The agreement opens a window for PNG to diversify its exports and could help trigger investment in new products and processing. The EU has allocated aid under the 9th and 10th EDFs to assist with capacity building and infrastructure development so that the opportunities offered by the new trade agreement can be fully exploited. Are there any plans to expand the scope of the EPA?Yes. EU Commissioner for Trade, Mr Karel De Gucht, raised the matter The EPA opens a window for PNG to diversify its exports and could help trigger investment in new products and processingPromoting trade for developmentInterview with Martin Dihm, EU Ambassador to the European Union in Papua New Guinea Newly-appointed Ambassador of the EU in PNG, German national, Martin Dihm, has previously held senior posts in the EUs delegations in Barbados and Abuja, Nigeria. From 2001, he was on the trade desk and EPA negotiator for the Pacific and from 2005, Deputy Head of Unit in the EUs Directorate for Trade dealing with relations and EPA negotiations with Eastern and Southern Africa and the Pacific. EU ambassador Martin Dihm (left) flanked by Alain Waquet, Ambassador of France(right) D.Percival

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54C urierThe with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Immigration and Trade, Don Poyle, when he visited PNG in March 2011. In particular, the twin issues of investment and services were discussed. Both are of crucial importance for development. There is also interest to include other issues such as fisheries, or development cooperation. Obviously by deepening the agreement through the inclusion of further important issues, its potential to help the country's development could be further enhanced. A trade-related assis -tance programme under the 10th EDF is currently being designed and will explore how to tackle these subjects and provide capacity building where this is required. Are there any EU initiatives in view to prevent illegal logging in the country?The issue of sustaining forestry resources for future generations has a significant importance in PNG. After all, PNG is the country with the worldwide highest percentage of population living on rain forest-based subsistence. De-forestation has hence not only serious implications for climate change and biodiversity but there are also direct linkages to social issues and food security. The EU stands ready to support PNG in its efforts to sustain its vast rain for est resources. We have offered PNG the possibility to enter into negotiations on a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the Forest, Law Enforcement, and Governance and Trade (FLEGT) mech -anism. It would help to put in place a comprehensive timber legality assurance system based on a broad consensus of all stakeholders in PNG. This would also keep EU markets open for PNG timber products which, following the adoption of the new EU timber regulation, will have to be accompanied as of March 2013 by a proof that they come from legally-harvested timber. The EU has also supported a range of relevant activities such as support for the nation-wide satellite-based moni -toring of the state of PNGs forests and the dialogue between stakeholders. A further project will help to measure the amount of carbon stored in PNGs forests to understand PNGs greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by current lev -els of logging. It will be central to discus -sions on reducing PNGs forest-related carbon emissions in more concrete terms.The country has considerable min eral wealth and Australias aid is significantly higher than that of the EU. Why is it important that the EU remains an assistance partner?It is true that there have been significant revenues from the exploitation of min eral and other natural resources as well as sizable inflows of aid over the years. Nevertheless, development results and broadly-based wealth creation have not been up to expectations. Growth has to a large degree been limited to urban areas and a limited number of sectors in the economy. Although there have been some improvements in key social indicators, PNG is ranked 137 out of 169 countries in the United Nations 2010 Human Development Index. The situation requires our continued engagement and the EU has been a faithful development partner under the Cotonou Agreement. We are particularly committed to supporting the govern -ments efforts to achieve the MDGs. Other donors indeed devote by far larger amounts of aid to the country, but there are a number of important areas where there is little or no support or where the EU has special experience and can play a useful role. This includes, for example, water supply and sanitation, trade, capac -ity building of state and non-state actors. At the gathering organised by the delegation for Europe Day on May 9th you addressed concerns about the role of women in PNG society. How is the EU helping to promote womens position in society?As numerous studies have shown, women have a crucial role to play in the devel opment process. The EU therefore con -siders gender systematically as a key cross-cutting issue in the design of any development project. The EU Gender Action Plan 2010-2015 is our basis for this and has specific benchmarks and reporting requirements. Within PNG we target gender primarily within the Non-State Actors programme, where funding is provided to support non-state actors that empower women and address gender-related issues. The topic is also addressed through spe -cifically targeted components in larger programmes such as the Mining Sector Support Programme. In the Education programme, 50 per cent of the primary teacher training scholarships were awarded to women and school dormi -tories were built for girls. And we sup port and promote the drafting of gender policies within the key departments that implement EU-funded projects and ini tiatives. We grasp every opportunity to draw attention to the issue, such as during our Europe Day event where we initiated an exhibition of contemporary painters on rethinking the role of women in PNG. [ Ed : see article in this issue on contem porary artist, Jeffry Feeger]. D.P. We have offered PNG the possibility to enter into negotiations on a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the Forest, Law Enforcement, and Governance and Trade (FLEGT) mechanismth EDF National Indicative Programme 41.5M Rural economic development (inclusive econo mic growth in rural areas and climate-change related activities) 39M Human resources deve lopment 17.5M Good governance 6M Trade 12.3M B envelope

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55 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Donors collaborate in PNGThe EU closely cooperates with France and the United Kingdom, the only two EU countries with separate aid pro -grammes in PNG; with Australia the biggest donor to PNG, New Zealand and with multi-lateral agencies. The remo -teness of communities, big population growth and a lack of local administrative capacity are all challenges in delivering aid in the country. Frances Ambassador to Papua New Guinea (PNG), Alain Waquet, explains that the bulk of French assistance is given through the European Development Fund and international agencies. Frances small bi-lateral assistance mainly funds the projects of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) under a Fonds Pacifique (Pacific Funds). It also includes a French Fund for Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation in the Pacific targeted at integration of Frances "collectivities" (French administrative divisions) New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Fortuna with the wider Pacific. This includes funding for the recent construction of the Iundi airstrip and its buildings in PNGs eastern highlands. Frances total bi-lateral funding to PNG last year amounted to 171,000. The United Kingdom also gives funding to PNG through the EDF and other multila -teral agencies and for small projects from its 460,342 Pacific Bilateral Fund falling under the themes of climate change, governance, security, human rights and networking. Just a hop, skip and a jump from PNG, Australia is the single largest donor to PNG which is the biggest global recipient of Australian aid, along with Indonesia. Australia increased its overall overseas aid budget by half a billion dollars for the period 2010-2011 to 4.8bn Australian dollars (3.59bn) with an increase for PNG alone from 457M (341) to 482M (60) Australian dollars. In PNG there is extreme hard -ship. Over one million Papua New Guineans live in extremely remote areas where the income is very low, the social indicators are very poor and across the board PNG is not on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), explains Stephanie Copus-Campbell, Head of the Australian Aid programme in PNG. ChallengesAid delivery to the country faces par -ticularly difficult challenges including the remoteness of communities, with no roads in many areas, and high popula -tion growth currently standing at 2.7 per cent. We have recently undergone a major review of our aid programme in PNG and are narrowing our focus to rea -lly achieve results in four areas; health including HIV, education a flagship sector and we will also continue our support in transport infrastructure as well as selectively engaging in law and justice sectors which are both very important for service delivery, says the Ausaid Head. Meetings with donors the EU and others take place at least on a monthly basis. We talk about issues such as the distri -bution of text books e.g. who is publishing which text books to make sure that there is no crossover. And I am really pleased that the EU has been doing water supply. Its a huge need here, says Stephanie Copus-Campbell1. D.P. 1 To read the full interview with Stephanie Copus Campbell see: www.acp-eucourier.info I am really pleased that the EU has been doing water supply. Its a huge need here. Many challenges faced in delivering aid Distribution of EU-funded school textbooks. Donors are cooperating to avoid duplication in the sector Josselin Amalfi

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56C urierThe Building governance in Bougainville, post-conflict Weve got to make sure that were free to move around Aloysius LaukaiIt is difficult to imagine that 20,000 people were killed during the con -flict in this laid back province of 220,000 people just north of the Solomon Islands. Pre-secessionist move -ments already surfaced in Bougainville or, North Solomons province as it was known, in the 1960s and 1970s. When its people faced losing land rights over the planned exploitation of the Panguna copper mine, it sought to break away from Australia's colonial control of PNG at that time. In the 1970s and 1980s, taxes and dividends from Bougainville Copper Ltd ., a subsidiary of Rio Tinto, the mining company exploiting Panguna then the biggest open-cast copper mine in the world made up in excess of 20 per cent of PNGs national budget. In 1987, Francis Ona and Pepetua Sereo formed the Panguna Landowners Association to demand payments and compensation from the mining company. This lost cause led to the establishment in 1988 of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA). The Sandline AffairFacing increasing attacks from the BRA, the Panguna mine was forced to close in 1989 and a state of emergency was declared on Bougainville. The PNG army was sent to the province and con -flict spread island-wide. In 1990, PNGs government withdrew its army but put a blockade in place against Bougainville which caused hardship and led to mounting calls within the province for independence. The BRA was believed to bring its supplies via the Solomon Islands. The PNG army raided alle -ged BRA bases in the Solomons side of the border resulting in bloodshed and international outcry. In 1997, the reve lation that then Prime Minister Julius Chan had hired a company of mercenary soldiers, Sandline, to put down distur -bances in Bougainville forced him to stand down. The Sandline affair did, however, prompt peace talks brokered by New Zealand and eventual autonomy for the province in 2002 apart from areas such as foreign affairs, immigration and defence. The peace deal includes a refe -rendum on Bougainvilles independence to take place between 2015-2020. John Momis is current President of the Autonomous Region (or of the transi -tional government, according to some) comprising 40 members of parliament (including three seats held for women) and 14 ministerial positions. Its head quarters are still in Buka Island, sepa rated by a 300-metre sea passage from Bougainville although there are plans to relocate to Arawa, the provinces capital pre-conflict. Disarmament still an issueAloysius Laukai manages Buka-based New Dawn, a private radio station which broadcasts 18 hours a day, seven days a week. He stressed the need for full disarmament and a land policy. There are still localised skirmishes in the south. Disarmament, formerly in the hands of the United Nations is now the Autonomous Governments responsibi -lity. Weve got to make sure that were free to move around, he says, adding, everyone wants independence.Other Bougainvilleans warn that the province should not rush into indepen dence. We must first make autonomy work, says Dr. Joel Banun, a former member of the Council of Elders of Bougainville who was involved in the peace talks. This involves building the administrative capacity and economy of Bougainville which is largely a leaders -hip issue, he says. Trying to attract out -side investment, John Momis recently went to China and organised a visit by the Australian Business Council to the region. Private individuals are also moving ahead with their business plans from distribution of produce (there are complaints that the province runs out of beer all too often!) to more air con nections. D.P. Bougainville was granted autonomy following a bitter civil war in the 1990s. It is now readying for a referendum on independence.Sea walls are no match for King Tides Aloysius Laukai

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57 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011Jeffry Feegers art takes the pulse of PNG of his own eye). Orchids, he says, could be seen as the symbol of the beautifica -tion or current modernisation of Port Moresby. But red paint is trailed over the painting, a feature of many of his pieces. Foreigners often see this as blood or a reminder of crime and suffering in PNG, he says. The artists suggest it could also symbolise the red colour of betel (Buai), the mild narcotic plant regularly chewed socially (with mustard root and lime powder) by many Papua New Guineans which stains both teeth and lips red.Selling mainly through galleries in Australia and New Zealand, and a newly-opened one in Port Moresby, his work now fetches thousands of euros. He regrets, however, there is currently no national gallery in Port Moresby where its artists can display their work although individuals, such as French-born Nicolas Garnier, are passionate about promoting the countrys pool of talent. Garnier has launched a course in visual anthropology at the University of Papua New Guinea. Jeffry Feeger says he would like to expand his creative talents into film which would allow him to develop the stories behind the faces he paints. An exhibition orga -nised by the EUs Delegation in PNG for Europe Day on 9 May, under the theme of seeing women differently featured a Jeffry Feeger painting of two fema -les (Feegers nieces). The picture has a 3D photographic quality, capturing the luminous glow of Melanesian skin. It conveys pure contentment. This is the future, we need to give love and respect to our children and support and educate them, says Jeffry Feeger, invi -ting us to look beyond the image. D.P. 1 Highlanders dressed in a variety of traditio nal tribal costumes and face paints perform songs and dance in formation.Jeffry Feegers paintings are far from the traditional images of Papua New Guinea of the Asaro mud men and the colourful sing songs of the Highlands. He says he is tackling the issues of a society in transition. Just 27 years old, this half German and half Papua New Guinean, whose mother is from PNGs Gulf region, paints with a passion with both hands and brushes. He put Papua New Guinea on the artistic map at the Shanghai World exhibition of 2010 by winning the battle of the artists; in which painters from all continents crea -ted live paintings for exhibition-goers.His work is not only beautifully crafted and visually striking but also holds up a mirror to Papua New Guinean society. Issues he is concerned about include the marginalisation of rural people in the countrys fast growing economic development. Now one of Papua New Guineas best-known artists, he gave up his academic studies at the National Art School, part of the University of Papua New Guinea, to focus on painting and now also teaches art to schoolchildren.Hibiscus Flower addresses the high rate of child mortality in Papua New Guinea. A little girl innocently peers from behind a hibiscus flower which half covers her face like a mask. Recently sold, he donated half its earnings to sus -mamas, a PNG NGO whose focus is to reduce the countrys high rate of infant mortality, an issue close to his heart, having lost an infant son of his own. Mona LisaJeffry Feeger s own Papua New Guinean Mona Lisa depicts a woman looking straight ahead against the backdrop of PNGs Kokoda track, an arduous trekking trail which starts near Port Moresby. A red scarf crosses her neck the symbol of HIV awareness. Secret garden is of beautifully repro duced pastel-coloured orchids .Theres an eye in one corner of the painting (re-created from a photo his son took Visual artist, Jeffry Feeger in front of one of his paintings of a Sepik craftswomen J Feeger

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58C urierThe CreativityA marvellous chaos Hegel GoutierThe major exhibition of modern Haitian visual arts which took place at the Agns B Gallery in Paris from 8 April to 22 May 2011 took its name from a novel by Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier. There were works by eighteen1 painters, sculptors, installation artists and video makers, including key figures like the now deceased Jean-Michel Basquiat, Mario Benjamin, a familiar figure at art meccas such as the Venice Biennial, and Edouard Duval-Carri. The exhibition was staged with the sup -port of the Muse des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the French Institute and funds allocated by the Agns B Gallery. It is to be shown for three years in different countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas, and from June to August 2011 it will be at the Venice Biennial, in the Haitian pavi lion. The Courier spoke to the curator of the exhibition and a number of the artists. Words from a marvellous chaosGiscard Bouchotte, filmmaker and curator of the exhibition.2"My idea was to show present-day Haitian creative art, and the concept that most interested me was that of marvellous chaos. My starting point was the marvellous rea -lism described by Haitian writers such as Jacques Stephen Alexis and Ren Depestre. The magic side of myths, which, instead of destabilizing society, give it structure. These myths are carried along by Haitian society: people live within them. It is no coincidence that Frank Etienne plays a key role in the exhibition. For 40 years, he has been exploring the theme of the aesthetics of chaos, and he is at the same time a major writer and a top visual artist."Pascale Monnin, visual artist and gallery owner and creator of the insta llation 'The angel sacrificed"2"In 'The Kingdom of this world' there is Nol, the slave who rises up against the colonists and who ends up as the slave of Christophe, the king of northern Haiti from 1808 to 1820. This is the explana tion for this angel sacrificed in front of a backdrop of posters of politicians. Though this country always finds the strength to get up again and to revolt, it always ends up falling down again, and even lower. I remember the hope in 2004 after the return of Aristide. But unfortunately those who take power, so far at least, have not managed to carry with them the dream that has carried them to power." Sbastien Jean, painter and sculptor whose canvas "Ignorance and torment" displays a vague Munch-like character"Haiti, Kingdom of this World" Exhibition, Paris

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59 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011A trance fell over all of those present at the New Morning in Paris on 6 April to hear Arat Kilo playing on the occasion of the release of their album. Onto a foundation of Ethiopian music, with its rich harmonies, plaintive nostalgia, exoticism and sensuality, the group adds a touch of vibrant swing and hints of free jazz, rock, dub and reggae, as group member Michal Havard (saxophone, flute and percussion) explains with infec tious enthusiasm. Even for habitus of Ethiopian music, there is nothing ersatz about "A night in Abyssinia". From the very start of the concert, with the piece entitled "Temeles", the thrills of Abyssinia are everywhere, as a lover of Ethiopian music who had come out of pure curiosity told The Courier The five mem bers of the group won him over along with the rest of the audience, taking them on a nerve-tingling tour of the Addis Abeba night, with the crazily yapping dogs of a piece like "Lelit" and the ethereal roman ticism of "Barbue". It all started with five mates who met up at the Musiques et Races festival in the foothills of the Alps, according to Fabien Girard (electric guitar, balafon1 and per -cussion). All of them were keen followers of foreign music and shared the intuition that music inspired by Ethiopia, to which they all happened to be drawn, would be the reggae of the future. A few trusted guests were then added to the mix, like the extraor -dinary Malian singer, Rokia Tror (on the song "Get a Chewe") or the talented rapper Socalled (on "Aykdashem leb"). And so the magic began... H.G.Arat Kilo "A night in Abyssinia" (Only Music / Milan Music / Universal Music, France) See interview with Fabien Girard and Michal Havard on our website www.acp-eucourier.info 1 The balafon is a resonated frame, wooden keyed percussion idiophone native of West Africa"Life is always turbulent in Haiti. And then there is another storm too, in my spirit. There are some very ignorant people who dont understand what we are doing, and this is why I cross boundaries in my work. There are also artists who do more classic things but we chose to explore. It is a new Haiti. People are afraid of my pictures: they find too much of the devil in them."Michelange Quay is a video artist and film director. His films are inspired by movies and by the graphic arts, and his short film 'The Gospel of the Creole Pig' was part of the official competition at Cannes in 2004, and won the prize for best short film at the festivals of Locarno, Turin, Stockholm, Tokyo Con Can, Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo. He is showing extracts from "Eat, this is my body".2"A central theme for me is identity and non-identity, one part a fiction in which we immerse ourselves, and the other a sort of arbitrary entity that emerges, bouncing back to us the question of who I am in rela -tion to the face which I see in the mirror. 'Eat, this is my body' is also of course a meditation on the body of the country of Haiti, the physical, physiological body. Looking at questions like the insularity or inexorable nature of a certain Haitian identity or destiny which come up again and again every election day, the crossroads of a destiny where everything is still to be reinvented." Sergine Andr (Djinn), painter and installation artist"My installation is about the gds the spirit of death. It is a spirit of death, but with a festive, joyful side and a bawdy charm. There is always a kind of continuity bet -ween death and life. Any believer who prepares a dead body in Haiti is involved in a conversation with death, and death takes on the appearance of a chain of life. When I came to portray that I wanted it to be beautiful, poetic, with the components needed to characterize the gds renow -ned for their good taste with dark purple velvet for colour and touch; gold, black light for depth, music and balance. And the poetry of the ritual of the gds ." Frantz Jacques (Guyodo), sculptor"The sculpture that you have seen is homage to the handicapped in the after -math of the earthquake. When they see my work, visitors from abroad often ask me if it is voodoo. No, my work is about politics, world poverty. I am a Grande Rue artist. (Editor's note: this is a school of politically engaged and self-taught artists from the Bas de la ville, a poor neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince.)" 1 The artists not named in this article are: Elodie Barthlmy, Jean-Hrard Celeur, Maksaens Denis, Andr Eugne, Killy, Tessa Mars, Pasko, Barbara Przeau, Roberto Stephenson and Herv Tlmaque.2 See interview on the Courier website www.acp-eucourier.info The sweet essence of Ethiopian jazz, distilled in FranceArat Kilo: A night in AbyssiniaPascale Monnin LAnge sacrifi, 2011 Mixed technics Hegel GoutierSergine Andr in front of her installation (details) Gede Gataway no 3 2011Hegel Goutier Arat Kilo at New Morning, Paris Fabien Girard (3rd from left), Michal Havard (5th from left) Hegel Goutier

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60C urierThe From slums to the stage: How creativity can make the difference Eugenio OrsiBerthold Brecht, one the most influential playwrights and theatre directors of the last century, firmly believed that theatre was meant to change the world. He was faithful to an ideal of social theatre throughout his work creat -ing a legacy that crosses continents, as is the case of the Dagoretti slums of Nairobi, Kenya, where a group of youngsters is now performing his play, The Caucasian Chalk Circle1(Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis). Dagoretti is a place of unhappy records: a slum of 40km2, one the biggest in Africa, where some 240,000 people live in extreme poverty. 130,000 of them are street kids, often orphaned or abandoned and facing a destiny of hunger, violence, drugs and prostitu -tion, exposed to HIV/AIDS and other diseases. They are known as chokora a Swahili word which means those who survive on garbage.Against this backdrop, a group of twenty girls between 14 and 20 years old, who previously lived on the streets, have been working for five years on an adaptation of Brechts The Caucasian Chalk Circle called Malkia2. Malkia is a remarkable example of the power of education and effective international cooperation. The project is carried out by mixing psycho-social methodologies with competencies of a team of profes sional theatre artists. At the centre of the project there is the theatre which is a tremendous tool that can give voice to the voiceless, create self-awareness and bolster self-esteem. It can be used as a therapeutic instru -ment which can facilitate the process of rehabilitation and reintegration of children back into society. The story of Malkia is focused on one of the main themes of Brecht, namely, the possibility of acting in a moral way in a context of injustice and inequality. It also depicts motherhood as a behavioural value and not as a mere biological fact. The crea -tive process is intended to mix the tragic contents of their life experience with the depth of their symbolic imagination in a collective product. The choice of the play was motivated by the womens desire to make both themselves and their own community fully aware of the possibility of being good even in a context marked by profound injustice, explains Letizia Quintavalla, the director of the play. It is possible to be loving mothers, devot -ing care and attention to the small -est and most helpless creatures, while being in a condition of acute moral and material discomfort. Malkia is a part of the "Dagoretti Children in Need programme launched by the African NGO AMREF3 in 1999. After the first successful thea -tre workshops, the project formally became a street art academy which has since produced plays, documentaries and art projects. The play debuted in Nairobi and is now touring abroad. More information on Dagoretti Children in Need can be found here: http://www.amref. org/what-we-do/dagoretti-child-in-needproject/?keywords=dagoretti1 The play is a parable about a peasant girl who steals a baby but becomes a better mother than its natural parents2 Malika means Queens in Swahili 3 AMREF Is the African Medical and Research Foundation, founded in 1957 as an internatio nal African health development organisation by three reconstructive surgeons working in Kenya who were concerned that rural Africans were failing to access the surgical care they needed. The surgeons concluded that if the patients could not get to them, then they would go to the patients and so the Flying Doctors were born. Continuing that tradition of innovative solutions, AMREF today carries out pioneering interventions that provoke health care improvements of significant impor tance, in Kenya and beyond. GLASSES BY Cyrus KabiruImageSylvia Photos & ShiramWangi Photos

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61 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Uganda Museum under Threat Sandra FedericiCulture and heritage dont have big success among the politi -cians, and those passionate about culture often have to be attentive and act as watchmen. So, the publication by the Ugandan government of a request for expression of interest for the construction of an ultra mod ern building on its land, in February, aroused controversy and protests.The East African Legislative Assembly, alongside organisations such as Bayimba Cultural Foundation, Historic Resources Conservation Initiatives (HRCI) and Arterial Network, are strongly against this project, the brain -child of the Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry. If Uganda loses the Museum building, it will have lost its past, says Ellady Muyambi, HRCI Executive Director. In a document he explains that this demolition contravenes Ugandas Historical Monuments Act of 1967, Ugandas Cultural Policy of 2006, the UNESCO Convention of 1972 as well as the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda of 1995. Moreover, an envi -ronmental impact assessment has not been done, nor has any heritage impact assessment.The building was designed by Ernst May, a German architect and planner of some repute, after having created a plan for Kampala in 1947. The Museum opened in 1908 in another building, cre -ated principally to house ethnographic material collected during colonialism, namely religious objects abandoned by Ugandans after embracing Christianity. Then the museum started gathering material in the archaeological field. A famous masterpiece is the Luzira Head, a terracotta pottery figure found during the works for the construction of the Luzira prison.According to the Commissioner for Museums and Antiquities, Rose Nkaale, only 1/8 of the total artefacts collected for the museum are exhibited and displayed. So, there are thousands of objects that have been lying under -ground and their storage during the construction of the new building and the move will put them in danger.Compared to the 2003 Dakar Declaration of the ACP Ministers of Culture, and the ever increasing level of attention to culture as a determin -ing factor in development paid by the EU-ACP partnership it seems strange that a country would want to lose such a source of identity, pride, tourist attrac tion and, indeed, development.As reported by Ellady Muyambi the court case hearing is actually under way: On April 21, the two sides framed the issues. The government lawyer main -tained that the government intends to construct a 60 storey building on the museum land without demolishing the current museum building while our lawyer insisted that this is practically impossible. () The judge has started hearings from the key witnesses. The case continuesThe Uganda National Museum is one of the most important heritage sites in Eastern Africa, but if all goes as the Ugandan government plans, it could be destroyed. In fact, the government has planned to construct a 60-storey ultra modern building in Kampala, at plot 5 Kiira Road, the exact location where the Museum building currently stands. Museum UgandaLai Momo

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62C urierThe The digital revolution has caught up fast in the world of African creativity! Over the last ten years, the increase in African Internet users has been 16 times greater than that of North American users. Alongside this, a growing number of African organisations and cultural operators are creating and participating in websites and social networks, offering an ever-increasing range of resources to allow people to keep up-to-date with African creativity, enjoy African art and contact African creators. Examples of this can be seen in various fields, but the philosophy is always the same: that of sharing content, involving users and facilitating participation and access.An example in the field of music is www.africanhiphop.com, a website set up by the African Hip Hop Foundation, a non-profit organization registered in Holland whose board of directors are African hip hop pioneers from South Africa, Uganda and Holland. They have been collecting information on hip hop in Africa since the early 1990s and, through the work of volunteers, have been sharing news, songs and video clips, as well as in-depth analyses of various national music scenes. On this site it is also possible to participate in forums on African music in English, French and Kiswahili.Maker Faire Africa is a fair of technical prototypes and design products which has been taking place in Nairobi since 2009 and which features an online cata -logue of participants. In a very acces -sible way, through http://matchamaker.info, users can learn about the artists participating in the fair, watch videos on their products, and read about their next steps what they need to do to develop their ideas. Cyrus Kabiru from Nairobi, for example, creates glasses out of recycled objects, which are displayed online. As his next step he is look -ing for a mentor or coach to develop a business plan.Badilisha Poetry X-Change is an online platform showcasing poetry from Africa and the Diaspora. The project was launched in 2009 by the Cape Town-based non-profit Africa Centre, and calls on Pan-African poets to partic -ipate in the creation of a comprehensive and internationally accessible poetry archive. The project takes its name from the kiSwahili expression Badilisha, meaning to change, exchange or trans -form. On this platform, users can read short profiles on poets ranging from internationally renowned names such as Antjie Krog from South Africa to newly emerging poets such as Muhammad Muwakil from Trinidad and Tobago, as well as reading their poems and listening to podcasts of their recital.But although African cultural presence on the web is increasing, it is still under-represented. It is this fact that led to the establishment of the WikiAfrica pro -ject, which aims for the Africanisation of Wikipedia, the most important online source of freely accessible information. The project was set up by the Lettera 27 Foundation and aims to expand the amount of information on Africa avail -able on Wikipedia, particularly relating to biographies, literature, art, magazines and African migration routes. In collab -oration with various archives, magazines and cultural institutions, WikiAfrica aims to produce 30,000 Wikipedia arti -cles over the next two years, and calls on users to edit and translate existing articles as well as creating new African articles. S.F. Badilisha: Changing, Exchanging and Transforming African Creativity on the Web A/TEDGlobal Internet Room. Erik (HASH) Hersman

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63 N. 23 N.E. MAY JU NE 2011 Jason KibiswaHey guys You should join us one day. It will do you good. Sport is health It's worth a try!Oh! Look at him run. Its very suspicious! He must be a thiefAaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah! Ive out run him! I've a few words to say to whoever says that sport is healthy! Exactly!Sport is health

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64C urierThe Agenda Word from our ReadersADDRESS: THE COURIER 45, RUE DE TRVES 1040 BRUSSELS (BELGIUM) EMAIL: INFO@ACP-EUCOURIER.INFO WEBSITE: WWW.ACP-EUCOURIER.INFO Lisbon 6-7/06: SMEs Forum Bridging the missing middle gap in Africa Together with the African Development Bank, having its annual meeting in Lisbon, this forum will bring together lead ing figures and stakeholders to discuss a common vision and establish tangible policies to ensure financing for this par ticular sector. The event fosters growth and aims at increas ing the flow of financial and non-financial support of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). The forum will focus on bridging the Missing Middle Gap in Africa http://www.emrc.be/en/events/ afdb-emrc-forum.aspx12-13/07 African Education Summit, Rabat (Morocco) Organized by African brains under the patronage of the Moroccan Ministry for Education this is a 2 day event aiming at directly improving the quality of education with a particular focus on increas ing investment and access to technology. Ministerial ses sions will include presentation summaries of national commit ments to education in par ticular investment into ICT and infrastructure. Ministers will be encouraged to speak of those areas where there is a shortfall in funding and hence the opportu nity for multilateral and private financing through partnerships with their governments. www.africanbrains.net 17-18/09 Africa Web Summit, Brazzaville (Congo) A pan-African conference on web technologies www.africawebsummit.com21-22/09 Intermodal Africa, Casablanca (Morocco) The biggest annual container ports and terminal operations Conference and exhibition on the African continent www.transportevents.com19-20/10 Aidex, Brussels (Belgium) AidEx will provide NGOs and suppliers with a platform to facilitate this collaborative process between local, national and international partners and ensure that delivery of human itarian aid becomes more effi cient and more effective. www.aid-expo.co.uk8-10/11 Forum Eurafric Water and Energy in Africa, Lyon (France) Event and exhibition aiming at improving the supply of renew able energies in Africa, which is organized by the Agency for the Development of Businesses in Africa with the support of the European Commission, the Rhne-Alpes Region (the primary region for energy pro duction in France and Europe) and Grand Lyon ( www.grand lyon.com ). This 10th edition will bring together in the city of Lyon experts and representatives from international funding bodies, political and economic decision makers, and business es, around the issues of Water and Energy two sectors consid ered to be priorities in Africa and for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDG). www.eurafric.org Comments on Model on a mission article written by Sylvia Arthur ( The Courier 22)The magazine has always been a good source of information about SouthSouth and North-South relations. I have also noticed that the last edition had several articles on gender issues. Coming from Katanga, I wasnt aware that we have a top model who created her own foundation (Ed: The Georges Malaika Foundation) to help educate young girls. I really enjoyed the article. Prody Mwemena Mumba, Brussels Media and Communication officer EMRC (EMRC is an international nonprofit organization whose mission is to promote sustainable economic development in Africa www.emrc. be and is co-organising an event in Lisbon in June see Agenda below plus separate article.) Last edition of The Courier is due in October 2011 As planned, The Courier magazine project is coming to an end. It has run for 5 years, building on the rich experience going back to the 1970s. The last edition of July/ August magazine will reach you this autumn. In response to the fundamental shift in the nature and the means of communication the European Commission is revising its communication and outreach strategy which will give life to new projects and to a fresh approach in the near future. The European Commission and Secretariat of the ACP Group will keep the public informed about the new communication initiatives.End of The Courier project

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EUROPEAN UNION Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom PACIFIC Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Niue Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu CARIBBEAN Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago AFRICA Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo (Rep. of) Cte dIvoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia ZimbabweAfrica Caribbean Pacific and European Union countriesThe lists of countries published by The Courier do not prejudice the status of these countries and territories now or in the future. The Courier uses maps from a variety of sources. Their use does not imply recognition of any particular boundaries nor prejudice the status of any state or territory. Table of Contents

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Not for sale ISSN 1784-682X Aegina. Greece. Temple of Athena Aphaa Hegel Goutier