Courier (English)
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Publisher: Hegel Goutier
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Publication Date: 11-2010
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The magazine ol Alrica - Caribbean - Pacilic
& European Union cooperation and relations

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Valuing Otherness

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Fresh Trade Talks

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Table of Contents


Editorial Board
Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Fokion Fotiadis, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Core staff
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Editorial and Production Assistant
Anna Bates


Production Assistant
Telm Borras

Contributed to this issue
Anne Marie Mouridian, Francis Kokutse, Sonja van Renssen, Julianne Breitenfeld, Sandra
Federici, Olivia Rutazibwa, Anna Patton.

Project Manager
Gerda Van Biervliet

Artistic Coordination
Gregorie Desmons

Graphic Conception
Ldic Gaume

Public Relations
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

Viva Xpress Logistics - ww.vxlnet.be

Photo Agency
Reporters - ww.reporters.be

A Nampula. �Hegel Goutier

The Courier
45, Rue de Treves
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Belgium (EU)
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Tel: +32 2 2345061
Fax: +32 2 280 1912

Published every two months in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese

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Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourier.info

Publisher responsible
Hegel Goutier

Gopa-Cartermill -Grand Angle - Laimomo

The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the
EC nor of the ACP countries.

The consortium and the editorial staff decline all responsibility for the articles written by
external contributors.

Charles Michel, President of the European Council
for Development 4
Jean Ping, Chairperson of the African Union Commission:
A shining example of democracy 5

Richard Zink, EU ambassador in the DRC: 'The
absolute priority for 2011 is to support the elections' 6

European Development Days, Brussels 2010 8
Libya hosts the third Africa-EU summit 10
Rising voices of the young 12
Mental Health: a development aid Cinderella 13
ACP Observatory on Migration starts work 13
The call of Zimbabwean women 14
Transatlantic Development Dialogue 15

Economic Partnership Agreements
EPAs: New Year to bring fresh trade talks 16
West Africa: an end to the standstill? 18
Business relationships to enable ACP development 19
Interview with Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht:
Keeping the momentum 20
All eyes on the CARIFORUM- EPA 22

Hungary, the test of otherness 24
Forgetting Trianon 25
Priority for development education 26
A bridge between Africa and Hungary 27

i !

Ii .. I




Red Sludge: "Europe must learn from mining disaster"
A European policy for the Roma
The father of the "new look"

African livestock maintains its foothold on the international

David Adjaye: One of the great international and
Ghanaian architects

Cancun - Poor nations take fresh hope

Security: the key word of the ACP-EU Assembly
The EU supports the democratic process in the DR Congo
Land Reform, the Namibian Success
Adapting the EU-Africa partnership
Seychelles: a South-South hub
An EU vision for the Pacific

Mozambique: a time of renaissance
Interview with Armando E. Guebuza, President of
A tense relationship between majority and opposition
The British High Commissioner praises stability and peace
Glauco Calzuola, Head of the EU Delegation
EU Aid to Mozambique at a glance
EU projects -wide ranging cooperation
Beira, Africa's future gateway to the world
The Island of Mozambique

Sudan: on the brink of making history

30 Haiti -Rodney Saint-Eloi, writer
31 The ACP secretariat: a showcase for creativity
Photo competition results

32 Cartoon -EU-Africa Summit


cultural centre promoting artists from countries in Euro-
pe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific and cultural
exchanges between communities through performance
arts, music, cinema, to the holding of conferences. It is a
meeting place for Belgians, immigrants of diverse origins
and European officials.

Espace Senghor
Centre cultural d'Etterbeek
Brussels, Belgium






"Oressed Up". First place in The CoLier Photo competition. ' :aciIhLian lr

2 Cu ri er

The Wisdom of Dreaming Big

three regions of Africa, the
Caribbean and the Pacific,
who had been engaged in
unilateral ground work negotiations with
the European Union for their future coop-
eration decided to form a united group
at Georgetown in 1975 - rather than pro-
ceeding with their own separate agendas
- they were proved to be blessed with
great foresight.

There has been turmoil and uncertainty
in the ensuing cooperation between the
two blocs but it has always stayed the
course against, at times, considerable
odds. And the ACP, despite all differ-
ences, has remained united for over three
decades through the developments of the
Cold War to the present day, one that is
more transparent in terms of governance,
perhaps, but which has many other uncer-
tainties. In choosing to form a united
group of states they were wise in the sense
that Oscar Wilde would have considered,
wisdom is to have dreams so big as not to
lose sight of them while pursuing them.

Lately, many close observers point to
the evolution of ACP-EU cooperation
and admit to their concerns about its
future. Even if both sides are aware that
the development of poor countries will
only come about through increased trade,
some persistent misunderstandings about
EPAs remain to be addressed. These are
the subject of a Dossier in this edition
of The Courier. It was a much debated
topic at the recent African Union and
European Union summit. What must
be restored in these negotiations are the
conditions for mutual trust and dialogue,
as the Chairman of the Development
Council of the EU -Charles Michel -
told The Courier. The need for flexibility
in EPAs was also emphasised at the recent
ACP-EU Parliamentary Assembly in the
DRC Congo as reported in this issue.

Relations between the two blocs have
already adopted a different form with
EPAs. Moreover, the emphasis will now be
more focused, as underlined by both the
European Development Commissioner,
Andris Piebalgs at the European
Development Days (EDD) 2010 in
Brussels and the High Representative of
the European External Action Service
(EEAS), Catherine Ashton, towards pri-

orities such as renewable energy, agricul-
ture and food security.

Meanwhile, other actors, primarily China,
have made considerable inroads - particu-
larly in Africa, which has altered the situa-
tion. Although a recent survey shows that
EU citizens are largely supportive of the
continuation of development assistance,
they are more demanding in terms of
considering its effectiveness, especially
as the economic, financial and monetary
crises strongly impact upon the larger
economies and their standard of living.

A milestone in the consolidation of the
EU has been passed with the establish-
ment of the European External Action
Service, the EEAS, which now shares
the responsibility of managing relations
with the ACP Group with the Directorate
General for Development (which will be
known as DEVCO following its merger
with the Commission's EuropeAid direc-
torate general - from 1 January 2011). This
represents a vertical movement in terms of
the EU's development sector as a priority,
a sideways shift for EPAs and a diagonal
movement between traditional develop-
ment partners and emerging economies.
Following this internal and external rea-
lignment, one of the predictions made by
observers is the eventual disappearance of
the ACP Group as such, at least in terms
of cooperation with the EU; but this of
course is still a prediction.

Bearing this in mind, the type of influ-
ence that the Non-Aligned Movement
enjoyed at the time of the Cold War, or
that which the ACP has in their relations
with the EU or the WTO is becoming
more and more essential in order to face
today's various uncertainties, be they of
global governance, finance, or climate.
The question among observers is whether
the changes in relations between Europe
and the regions and countries of the ACP
Group will eventually render it obsolete.
Everything depends upon the spirit, the
very one with which the ACP was created
over 35 years ago with the Georgetown
Agreement. It was a very big dream then.
Which they probably do not lose sight
of now.

Hegel Goutier
Editor in chief


Charles Michel, President of the

European Council for Development

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the virtues of a
social liberalism like
the one which was
at the root of the advances
in human and social rights
in Europe at the end of the
nineteenth century "in order
that man should be truly free
and equal". He points out,
however, that "we must take
into consideration the freedom
of human beings, as their
happiness must be chosen,
and not forced upon them".

As his country's Minister for
Development, he picks his
political fights with the passion
of an artist. From his youth, he
threw himself wholeheartedly
into what he calls the fight
of ideas, breaking numerous
records. When he took his
oath, he was the youngest
lawyer called to the bar in
Brussels and, at 24 years old,
the youngest ever minister in
the history of Belgium. Even
before the end of his studies,
he was elected to the provincial
council of Brabant, at just 19
years of age, and he will be no
more than 35 years old when
this issue of the Courier goes to

Interview with the Courier

CM I am happy that my
country, Belgium, honoured
its commitments by allocating

0.7 per cent of its GNI to
development aid. Since
I have been in this post
(Editor: from 21 December
2007), the proportion of the
national budget devoted to
development has increased by
75 per cent. But in my view,
quality and efficiency are as
important as the resources
themselves. With this in
mind, we have, for example,
signed an agreement with
Belgian NGOs so that their
interventions in this field are
in line with the priorities of
the partner countries for this
sector. As a whole, Belgium's
development actions have
been lauded by the OECD
and by the General Secretary
of the UN, Ban Ki-Moon.

HG- But Belgian
NGOs have queried the
attainment of the 0.7per
cent level, saying that it
includes scholarships and
debt relief?

CM - We apply OCED
criteria which permit the
inclusion of these scholarships.
But the NGOs are justified in
raising this question. I would
like to point out, however,
that Belgium has agreed
to additional spending not
being included in the 0.7 per
cent. As far as international
measures are concerned,
for example, Belgium is
constructing buildings
for soldiers' families, for
example in RDC for obvious
humanitarian reasons.

HG- What are the
greatest successes of
Belgian cooperation for

CM - First of all, in the
agricultural sector which
plays a vital role in the fight
against severe poverty and
hunger, Belgium, like all
European countries, had been
reducing its agricultural aid
to developing countries over
time. On average European
countries reduced funding
to the sector from an average
of 16 per cent of their total
development aid in the 1980s
to 6 per cent today. On the eve
of the FAO summit in Rome
in December 2009, Belgium
did everything it could to
raise the EU's consciousness
about this, and by working
together, other development
partners were persuaded of its
importance. A second field is
health, in which Belgium has
special expertise, notably in
the Democratic Republic of
Congo (DRC) and Rwanda.
This latter country has
seen spectacular progress
in terms of a decrease in
child mortality, among other
improvements. Finally, I
would just like to mention
our desire for cooperation
of a long-term nature which
explains the importance
we give to scholarships, for

(See also in Round-up: AU-EU

Jean Ping, Chairperson of

the African Union Commission

A shining example of diplomacy

Jean Ping EC

By Hegel Goutier and Debra Percival

Over a period of
twenty years,
Jean Ping held
various ministerial
posts in his own country,
Gabon, before being elected
Chairperson of the AU
Commission in 1980. He was
latterly Minister for Foreign
Affairs, Cooperation and
French-speaking countries.
Widely revered for his
outstanding diplomacy,
Ping strengthened the
image of both Gabon and
of its President, Omar
Bongo. Acting as Bongo's
confidante, he did much to
bolster his prestige.

He is passionate
about the African

Ping's father was a
Chinese trader and his
mother was Gabonese. He
gained a doctorate from
the University of Paris
(Pantheon-Sorbonne) and in
1972, began working at the
United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural
Organisation (UNESCO).
He was appointed Director
of the Cabinet of President
Omar Bongo from 1984 until

He developed a reputation
for throwing heart and

soul into assignments. As
President of the United
Nations General Assembly
from 2004 to 2005, his
virtues as a perspicacious,
determined and intelligent
diplomat became clear to all.
Above all, he was President
Bongo's guide during the
many mediation missions the
latter undertook in Africa.

He is passionate about the
African continent to which
he has devoted his two
books, 'Mondialisation, paix,
democratic et developpement
en Afrique: l'experience
gabonaise ['Globalisation,
peace, democracy and
development in Africa: the
Gabonese experience']'
prefaced by Hubert Vedrine
who was France's Foreign
Minister under President
Frangois Mitterrand and 'Et
l'Afrique brillera de mille
feux' ('Africa will shine a
thousand lights').2

Investment and trade

Now steering the AU, at the
recent AU-EU Summit in
Libya, he clearly voiced that
the continent is seeking more
direct foreign investment
and trade in its developing
partnership with the EU. "I
agree that aid is an important
source for us but aid alone
will never get us out of the
difficulties we're facing,"
Ping told a press conference.

Always extremely courteous,
at the same time the AU

Chairperson doesn't mince
his words. At the AU-EU
Summit, during which he
shared a podium at the press
conference with Jose Manuel
Barroso, President of the
European Commission, he
responded to journalists'
questions about Sudan's
'empty chair' at the Summit
and the impunity of the
country's President Omar-
al-Bashir. The International
Criminal Court (ICC) has
issued a warrant for the
arrest of al-Bashir for alleged
war crimes in Darfur. "The
fight against impunity is a
fundamental objective of
the AU. If you look at the
ICC, 30 of its members
are Africans. We are not
against the ICC; we are
against injustice in the sense
that people attack Africans
as though others do not
exist. There is a problem
in Gaza. Europeans adopt
laws to protect those who are
guilty in Gaza. Has nothing
happened in Georgia, Sri
Lanka and Ireland?" asked

He continued: "We do not
want double standards in the
justice system: we, the small
ones who steal the chickens,
are accused and those
who are the big thieves are

Ed 1'Harmattan, 2002
Ed 1'Harmattan


"The absolute priority for 2011

is to support the elections."

Interview with Richard Zink, EU Ambassador in the Democratic Republic of Congo

It was on the 15th floor of the Commercial Bank of Congo (BCDC), which dominates the Gombe district, home to Kinshasa's
embassies, ministries and media, that Richard Zink welcomed us. His office overlooks the Congo River. On the opposite
bank stands the Nabemba Tower that houses the offices of the Elf-Congo oil company, at the heart of Brazzaville, the "other"
Congo. Just four kilometres of water separate the two capitals. Just a few boats glide across the flat surface of the river.

Marie-Martine Buckens

t is a situation that never ceases to
intrigue the head of the EU del-
egation to Kinshasa. Is it his vast
experience of Africa -as well as
of Haiti and the Balkans -that causes
this German, an agro-economist by
training, to first seek to situate the

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
before speaking of the EU's action in
the country?
"Before making any judgment about this
country, you have to position it. And
what is the first thing you see? This
is the only country in Africa with nine
neighbours! A record that it shares, at
global level, with just two other countries:
Germany and today's Russia." Richard


o e pi

Zink continues: "And if you make a tour
of these nine neighbours what do you see?
You have countries just as big with high
populations but also smaller countries
that are much less populated. Countries
rich in resources (especially oil) but oth-
ers that are less well endowed. Countries
with strong democratic tendencies and
those with lesser ones. Countries with
relatively good scores, on various indica-
tors, but also those that score badly on
some points, such as press freedom. That
should provide a sense of perspective
when forming an opinion on the DRC,"
he concludes.

It is against this background that Richard
Zink presents the EU's action in the DR
Congo. "Our actions are multiple. In
addition to the presence of the European
Commission, 11 Member States are pre-
sent in the DRC, including five who have
military attaches. You should remember
that it is the only country, with Bosnia,
where we have two EU security mis-
sions (in the framework of the Common
Foreign and Security Policy, CFSP :
Editor). Also, we have a special repre-
sentative for the Great Lakes region.
Finally, as in many other countries, the
EU is the biggest donor. The European
Commission alone spent more than
�200M here in 2009."

The DRC, 'trigger' of Africa. Painting by C. Nda-du in the offices of the newspaper 'Le Potentiel' in Kinshasa.
� Marie-Martine Buckens

sion of the DCR in the vast programme
for the sustainable management of the
central African forests, ECOFAC, which
now covers seven countries.

These actions should be viewed within
a particular context. "It is now eight

In a country where insecurity reigns, years since the Sun City agreements (in
EU aid is focusing on key sectors, such South Africa : Editor), which marked the
as the army, justice, governance, but end of the second war in the DRC, and
also humanitarian assistance (about less than a year until the 2011 general
�50M is allocated elections," contin-
annually by the "Problems remain in enforcing ues Richard Zink.
ECHO programme). laws, but the country, which was "Years of conflict
Another sector where on its kn s six or seven years that some referred
European aid is impor- to as Africa's first
tant is infrastructure, ago, has quietly picked itself up" continental war, the
especially in the prov- intensity and bru-
inces, the hinterland, where the roads tality of which is attested to in the UN
that remain after years of conflict are mapping report. Conflict that placed
for the most part in a very poor state of a country with major economic poten-
repair. But there are not only the roads. A tial close to the bottom of the "Doing
large section ofthe population and much Business" ranking. The per capital
of the merchandise travel by river. "We GDP was US$380 in 1960 compared
are in the process of setting up a major with US$155 today. In 2000, the state
project for the Congo River," stresses budget was US$300M; four years ago,
Richard Flink. "This includes marking it was US$1.7 billion and in 2011 it is
out all the navigable sections." The EU expected to be US$6.7 billion. By way
is also allocating major budgets to health of comparison, the budget of Congo-
and environmental protection, espe- Brazzaville is US$10 billion and that of
cially protection of the major national Angola US$40 billion."

parks such as the Virunga (East) and
the Salonga (West and Equator) or the
Garamba (near Sudan), plus the inclu-

The EU Ambassador nevertheless seeks
to be optimistic: "Problems remain in

enforcing laws, but the country, which
was on its knees six or seven years ago,
has quietly picked itself up." Yet there
is no denying the "enormous" problems
that remain in terms of economic and
political governance, as witnessed by
the assassination of the human rights
campaigner Floribert Chebeya, or "the
plague of sexual violence that armed
groups use as a weapon of war."

But, stresses Richard Zink, "the abso-
lute priority for 2011 is to support the
elections. The legitimacy of a govern-
ment that respects the Constitution must
be preserved at all costs. Whatever the
possible imperfections regarding the
unfolding of the electoral cycle, we must
ensure that the elections are held." Hence
the need for financial support for these
elections, but also in the longer term,
in particular by way of support to the
Congolese Parliaments (see article in the
Interactions section).

Before we part, Richard Zink casts a
final look out on the Congo River, empty
of boats: "Curious that there is so little
traffic between the world's two closest
capitals, when between Goma (in eastern
DRC : Editor) and Gisenyi (Rwanda),
more than 25,000 people travel daily in
both directions."


European Development

Days, Brussels 2010

Ringing in the new

Debra Percival

maximum impact were on
everyone's lips at European
Development Days (EDD)
held in Brussels, 6-7 December, in the
'Square', the new conference venue in
Belgium's capital.
The annual gathering is a unique mix
of stakeholders from both developed
and developing countries with NGOs,

international agencies, and foundations,
the media, research centres and think-
tanks. European Commission President,
Jose Manuel Barroso, said that the event
should be the EU's "gold standard in
getting development agencies to work
It is the fifth EDD traditionally hosted by
the European Commission and incum-
bent EU presidency, currently Belgium.
Topical debate on development issues
mixed with the showcasing of some of
the culture of developing nations from
photography to fashion. Invited dignitar-
ies included Thomas Boni Yayi, President

of Benin, Mo Ibrahim, Chairman of the
Mo Ibrahim Foundation and Blaise
Compaore, President of Burkina Faso.
Also present was Dominque Strauss-
Kahn managing director of the IMF. In
addition a development village assem-
bling the stands of a range of development
actors provided plenty of opportunity for
Fresh development thinking
Panellists pondered new and better
development policies to meet the 2015
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Food for thought on the future of the EU's


development strategies was provided by Attention was also drawn in one debate to
the November 'Green Paper' drafted by new development financing instruments,
EU Development Commissioner, Andris including the possible levying of a tax
Piebalgs on, 'EU devel- on financial transac-

opment policy in sup-
port of inclusive growth
and sustainable devel-
opment and increasing
the impact ofEU devel-
opment policy'.

The role development
policy will play in the
EU's new External

"The real challenge is how
Europe uses the 0.7 per cent
of Gross National Income (GNI)
for Overseas Development
Assistance (ODA) so that it
makes the maximum impact"
Andris Piebalgs

Action Service (EEAS) from 1 January
2011 was the focus of another panel
debate. Some participants questioned
whether development issues might fade
into the background of the new EEAS.
For Louis Michel, Co-Chair of the
Joint African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP)-EU Parliamentary Assembly, the
future direction of development policy
will, "depend on the political choices
and strategy" of Baroness Ashton,
the EU's new High Representative for
Foreign Affairs. Sweden's Minister for
International Development Cooperation,
Gunilla Carlsson, said that the EEAS
was an opportunity to "figure out where
the EU has added value [in development
policy] and enable better coordination
with Member States".

Rather than its future internal architec-
ture, "the real challenge is how Europe
uses the 0.7 per cent of Gross National
Income (GNI) for Overseas Development
Assistance (ODA) so that it makes the
maximum impact", said Andris Piebalgs,
citing his priorities as sustainable renewa-
ble energy and agriculture. For Philomena
Johnson, Director of the NGO, Caritas,
in Ghana, the EU's "long processes and
procedures" for aid disbursement must
be changed.

tions - and clamp-
ing down on tax
havens where many
European multina-
tionals have subsidi-
aries to avoid paying
taxation. France's
former President,
Jacques Chirac, who
runs a humanitarian

foundation, called for a clamp down on
the sale of fake medicines to developing

The 2011 EDD -the sixth -is expected
to take place in Poland during the second
half of the year.

The Natali prize

The 2010 winners of the EU's annual
Natali journalism prize in memory of the
former EU Development Commissioner
who championed freedom of expression,
democracy, human rights and develop-
ment were named at the EDD. The overall
winnerwasYader Luna from Nicaragua for
'Palabra de Mujer' ('Woman's Word') about
the everyday lives of a group of women in
the community of Bocana de Paiwas, Cen-
tral Nicaragua. Amongst the otherwinning
articles from journalists representing five
continents were stories about the cocoa
market scandal in C6te d'lvoire, and a
blood-bath at a football stadium in Ghana.
See: www.nataliprize2010.eu

ad (
,,a L

'Social protection for inclusive

The 2010/2011 European Report on De-
velopment (ERD), an annual publication
of the European Commission this year
highlighted 'Social Security for Inclusive
Development'. The steering committee of
the ERD is the European Commission,
the University Institute, Florence, Italy
and seven EU member states.
"Social protection is one of the key ele-
ments that can foster resilience" said
Frangoise Moreau, Acting Director for
EU development policy at the European
Commission's Directorate General for
Development. "Social protection can
and should be a distinctive feature of the
EU development agenda", said Georgia
Giovannetti, the ERD's lead author, from
the University Institute adding, "time is
ripe to support social security systems;
higher commitment to governance and
high growth in Sub-Saharan Africa".
"Social protection can mitigate risks,
reduce poverty and inequality and ac-
celerate progressto the Millennium De-
velopment Goals (MDGs)," she said.
Lesotho, Ghana, Mauritius, Rwanda,
South Africa, Kenya and Ethiopia had
all introduced diverse successful social
protection schemes.
The report contains a set of recommen-
dations including"enhanced social pro-
tection in Africa-EU dialogue" and an
EU "comprehensive policy framework
for social protection tied to time bound
commitments and dedicated resources".
It also recommends that the EU pro-
mote the 'African Union social policy
framework.' The report encourages EU
donors to support research into the im-
pacts and benefits in developing nations
of social protection schemes including
the setting up of "a network of EU ex-
perts to map EU support to social protec-
tion". Frangois Bourguignon of the Paris
School of Economics warned, however,
against social protection becoming the
latest 'in thing'. After China became acti-
ve in infrastructure development in Afri-
ca, Europe also rushed headlong back
into the sector, he said. Social protection
should be part of the overall development
package, he explained.


Round up

Ron up

Libya hosts the third

Africa-EU Summit

Libyan leader, Muammar Gadaffi, welcomed the heads of state and government of
80 European Union and African countries in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, for the third
Africa-EU Summit, 29-30 November. Somalia and Sudan were notable absentees.

Olivia Rutazibwa'

event aims to stimulate
high level dialogue between
European and African lea-
ders on matters of common interest in
a spirit of equality and partnership.
'Job creation work, investment and
economic growth' were the themes of
the Tripoli Summit. On the agenda
too were peace and stability, migration
and climate change. There was also
an agreement on an 'Action Plan' to
implement the Africa-EU Partnership
for the coming three years (2011-2013).

The EU had hoped to sign a joint decla-
ration on climate change with their
African partners, but they declined. "It
would have been ill-advised to sign this
joint declaration ahead of the Climate
Summit in Cancun; not that we don't
agree with its content, because overall
we do, rather because it has not passed
the proper negotiation process. Such a
joint statement would, moreover, give
the EU too much leverage", said one
African diplomat in Tripoli.

The Economic Partnership Agreements
(EPAs) also caused tension. The Tripoli
declaration agreed by leaders of both
continents, referred to a "commitment
to conclude EPAs that support socio-
economic development, regional inte-
gration and the integration of Africa
into the global economy", which did
not reflect underlying disagreements on
the EPAs between Europe and Africa.
African regions want to reach some
development benchmarks and a cer-
tain level of achievement of the MDGs

Tripoli, Libya at night � Reporters be/Photononstop Chrstophe Lehenaff


Round up

Family photo of AU-EU Head of State liviau Rutazibwa

before opening their markets, whereas
European partners believe that these
will in fact be reached through the free
trade agreements themselves (see dos-
sier on EPAs in this issue).

Clean energy revolution

The Tripoli Declaration reiterated the
EU's commitment to reach the collec-
tive target of 0.7 per cent of Gross
National Income (GNI) on Overseas
Development Assistance by 2015,

with a pledge of 50bn for the overall
objectives of the partnership over the
next three years. At a press conference,
President of the European Commission,
Jose Manuel Barroso, spoke about the
need for coordinated infrastructure
development on the continent and a
boost to agricultural security and the
need for a "clean energy revolution
for Africa. AU Chairman, Jean Ping,
signalled the need for foreign direct
investment and improved trade flows
to boost growth and create jobs.

The next Summit will be held in
Brussels in 2013.

Olivia Rutazibwa is a journalist for 'Mo' maga-
zine, Belgium: www.MO.be


c ~--�;-�

Ron up

Rising voices

of the young

Cooperation between young Africans and Europeans, kick-started in 2007, is
gathering pace. Youth organizations from both continents met in Tripoli, Libya,
ahead of the 3rd Africa-EU Summit, to thrash out a joint declaration on priorities
and to work on ideas for the future.

Anna Patton

T here's no one as vulne-
rable as an illegal immi-
grant", argues Antonia,
" T from Finland. "It's in
their treatment our human rights stan-
dards are revealed." Discussions at the
2nd Africa-Europe Youth Summit, gathe-
ring some 100 delegates from over 40
countries, touched on diverse experiences
of migration and mobility. Alhassane from
Niger is angered by the fate of those who
attempt in vain to cross the deserts in his
country: "I know how my African brothers
suffer!" Evy, who works for the gras-
sroots association FIMCAP in Belgium,
is frustrated by the near-impossibility
for African partners to obtain visas: "It's
just not an exchange if they can't come
here", she says.

Migration is one of seven areas where
young people from across the two conti-
nents now work together, a result of the
first Youth Summit three years ago. In
most areas, cooperation is still at the level
of ideas; others are already underway.
Ludgero, a Cape Verdean living in
Portugal, is a founder of the African
Diaspora Youth Network in Europe. It
hopes, he says, "to solve some problems
that we Africans face in Europe: exclu-
sion, unemployment, discrimination. At
the same time, we want to contribute to
the development of our native continent."

The role of youth in Africa-Europe
cooperation is explicit in the Tripoli
Declaration. The document "not only
demands things from our governments
which civil society is normally very

good at", says Christoffer Gronstad of
the European Youth Forum, "but also
explains how we, as youth organizations,
can contribute". Among the ideas put
forward to European and African leaders
are a fair trade micro-credit programme,
youth participation in election observa-
tion, and joint awareness-raising against
the arms trade.

But agreement is not always automatic.
Voices rose and passions flared when
the colonial past threatened to block the
debate. "There's so much positive energy
here -why are we still talking about the
past?" wondered Simona from Slovenia.
Cultural differences were also evident.
While Europe sent slightly more women
than men, among the Africans were just

a handful of female delegates. "African
women are shy. They don't want to get
involved", shrugs Augustus, from Liberia.
Saba from Eritrea believes her peers lack
confidence, but also blames men: "They
don't want women to be making the
decisions!" The event's organizers ack-
nowledge there is room for improvement

While Europe leads on gender equality,
Africa is moving ahead with its Youth
Charter. Though yet to be ratified by
many African states, this legally binding
document recognizes the particular needs,
rights and responsibilities of 15-35 year-
olds. European youth organizations hope
to learn from the African experience in
lobbying their own governments.

At this early stage, youth organizations are
counting on continued support -inclu-
ding funding -from governments and
institutions. The Tripoli Summit is just
one step in a long process of learning on
the job -and figuring out how best to
work together, a challenge in itself. For
now, animated discussions continue. And
perhaps, as Mannubia from Libya says:
"Ifyou have this dialogue, everything else
comes easily".

Demands/proposals submitted to European and African
leaders include:

- Support youth exchange projects for - Impose quotas on multinationals in
100,000 Africans and 100,000 Euro- employing and training local youth;
peans, as a contribution to MDG 8; - Introduce temporary employment schemes
- Set up an Africa Europe Youth Trust for newly arrived immigrants / asylum-
Fund for seed-funding for pilot projects; seekers;

- Support a youth-led Africa-Europe fair - Include youth delegates in national de-
trade microcredit programme; legations to all international meetings.

The event took place on 25-28 November and was the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe.
organised by the European Youth Forum, the Pan-

African Youth Union, international youth organisa-
tions and the National Organisation of Libyan Youth,
with the support of the European Commission and

Tripoli Declaration: http://www.youthforum.org/
images/stories/Documents/Declarations/TRI PO-


Round u

Mental health: a development aid Cinderella

integral part of European deve-
lopment assistance was flagged
at an international conference of
the Netherlands-based Global Initiative on
Psychiatry (GIP), held in the European
Parliament on 14 October.

It was part of an awareness raising project
funded by the European Union on the
issue targeting the EU's newest member
states; Lithuania, Romania and Bulgaria as
well as the Netherlands. "The aim is to give
mental health the attention it deserves",
said Robert van Voren, Chief Executive
of GIP.

Juan Garay, European Commission official
in charge of health in the EU's Directorate
General for Development pointed to a
current imbalance of donor pledges for
health with a rash of funding over the past
few years to support actions against AIDs
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
where the immediate impacts of develop-
ment assistance in terms of lives saved are
easily quantifiable. Benedetto Saraceno,
Chairman of GIP, agreed that the results
of development assistance for mental health
are more difficult to show.

chairman ot Ulh, Ur. benedetto baraceno, (second trom right) addresses the tL Uonterence CiscaGoedhart

Melvyn Freeman from South Africa's The project has set up a website: www.
Ministry of Health said: "My gaze has mhcommunity.net. The GIP also has plans
changed from seeing mental health as a to publish a paper pinpointing areas which
consequence of social determinants to can be focused upon in development assis-
seeing social determinants are responsible tance programmes which should highlight
for mental health problems". mental health (2011-2015). D.P.

ACP Observatory on Migration starts work

Pacific (ACP) Observatory
on Migration was officially
launched on 25 October in
Brussels. It will collate data and research
on South-South migration across ACP
states. Burundian musician, Khadja
Nin, is its Ambassador.

Facts, figures and research on migra-
tory flows will enable policy makers,
civil society and the public at large to
have a better understanding of migratory
movements. A dedicated website will
post all data and findings and start-up
a public dialogue.

ACP Secretary General, Mohamed Ibn
Chambas, told journalists at the launch
that the data would "contribute to limi-
ting the negative impact of South-South
migration flows and foster their positive
contribution to the development of our

The Observatory has 15 partners in
ACP and EU research bodies led by the
International Organisation on Migration
(IOM). The lion's share of its total bud-
get of some �9.4M comes from the 9th
European Development Fund (EDF) for
ACP states. The Swiss government has


also contributed financially to setting it

Currently based in Brussels, the
Observatory will eventually move to one
of the ACP member states. Its kick-off
research will focus on 12 states across
the ACP regions: Angola, Cameroon,
Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti,
Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia Papua New

Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, Timor-Leste
and Trinidad & Tobago.

South-South remittances, migration and
climate change, labour migration, forced
migration and migration and health are
some of its posted initial studythemes. D.P.

Find out more: http://www.acpmigration-obs.org/

Khadja Nin, Goodwill Ambassador of the ACP Observatory on Migration at the launch � Olivier Rocher

The call of

Zimbabwean women

The participation of women in Zimbabwe's process of democratic transition was
at the centre of the public hearing at the European Parliament in Brussels on 6
October 2010, hosted by Judith Sargentini, member of the Greens Group, and
organised by the EEPA ('Europe External Policy Advisors'), a group of consultants
specialised in EU development policy.

Democracy can only come
to Zimbabwe if women
are actively involved
"in the current transi-
tion process and if they are guaranteed
a partnership as equals with men." In
addressing the European Parliament,
this is how the Zimbabwean journalist
Grace Kwinjeh summed up the position
of the other Zimbabwean figures present
at this hearing: SekaiJolland, minister for
integration and reconciliation, and Betty
Makoni, founder and director of the Girl
Child Network (GCN) of Zimbabwe.

All of them women who, like many others
in Zimbabwe, have paid a high price while
winning respect for their fellow women
and having their voices heard in a country
they describe as characterized by a deeply
patriarchal and chauvinist regime. Rape
and torture have been and still are the
fate of many Zimbabwean women. "Since
1983 (three years after the country's inde-
pendence, editor), rape has been used
as a weapon of war," explained Betty
Makoni. "It was the case in 2000, when
the farms were invaded, and in 2002, at
the time of the elections. In May 2008,
the Zimbabwean authorities installed a
climate of terror, aimed in particular at
presumed opposition supporters. Women
have been victims of sexual violence, rape
and torture. In addition to the traumas
and the humiliation, this violence also
spread the Aids virus. For many girls it is a
grotesque tragedy: rape, Aids, pregnancy
and the termination of schooling."

Public consultations

During the hearing, Belgian Senator
Sabine de Bethune stated that the invol-
vement of women in maintaining and
promoting peace and security -as stipu-
lated by UN Security Council Resolution
1325 -was one of Belgium's priorities

as holder of the EU presidency until the
end of December 2010. She explained
that, before the end of the year, the EU
would be presenting indicators to permit
a better evaluation and follow-up of the
mechanisms put into place in Zimbabwe.

The hearing was held shortly before the
first public consultations in Zimbabwe
on the new text of the Constitution ahead
of elections. The latter are scheduled for
mid-2011, as agreed by the two principal
protagonists ofthe "government ofnatio-
nal union" formed in February 2009,
namely President Robert Mugabe and his
rival Morgan Tsvangari, promoted to the
post of prime minister. M.M.B.

Noster Dzomba performs a play on infant mortality in Harare, Dec. 1, 2010. According to an Amnesty International report released
the same day, The Zimbabwean government must urgently address the threats to the health and lives of newborn babies by
immediately putting in place all necessary measures to ensure pregnant women and girls at Hopley settlement, and other Operation
Garikai settlements, have access to maternal and newborn care. (�AP Photo/Tsvangirayi Mukwazhi)

Ru up#

Easing of European sanctions

Political dialogue with Zimbabwe was re-
launched on 18 June 2009, four months
after the formation of a government of
national union. In recognition of this, the
restrictive measures in place were eased
in February 2010 at the time of their an-
nual review. This was the first time they
had been eased since their introduction
in February 2002. European sanctions
consist of an embargo on weapons and
equipment that could be used for internal
repression. They also include a ban on
travel in the EU for more than 100 people
with links to the regime and the freezing
of their assets.
The increased European aid to Zimba-
bwe, from E82 million in 2008 to E110
million in 2009, is designed to support
the action of the government of national
union in social sectors, and in the fields
of food security, health and education
in particular.
On 2 July 2010, EU High Representative
Catherine Ashton welcomed a ministerial
delegation from Zimbabwe in the fra-
mework of political dialogue, on which
occasion she stressed that the European
Union was ready to respond positively
to any progress in implementing the
Global Political Agreement (GPA) of 15
September 2008.


Round u


Development Dialogue

The United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are stepping up dialogue
and coordination on food security strategies in developing nations, including some
African nations.

provide eighty per cent of
global overseas development
assistance. Closer cooperation
is vital to promote "long-term sustai-
nable development," said an official at
the Brussels US mission to the EU. In
2009, the EU gave $US70bn (�54bn)
in overseas assistance and the United
States, $US30bn (�23bn), according
to US statistics.

Officials from both sides of the Atlantic
are jointly drawing up a list of seve-
ral countries, to pilot coordination on
"country-owned, multi-donor develo-
pment of comprehensive food security
policies, strategies and investment plans,
including access to food, nutrition and

other issues", say US Mission officials.
They add that such activities will be
coordinated with the CAADP process,
the Comprehensive African Agricultural
Development Programme (CAADP)
drawn up by the New Partnership for
Africa's Development (NEPAD).

On 22 September 2010, US President
Barack Obama signed a new Policy on
Global Development, the first of its kind
by a U.S Administration. D.P.

A Voluntary Humanitarian
Aid Corps for Europe
The European Commission has propo-
sed the setting up of a European Volun-
tary Humanitarian Aid Corps. The plan is
to strengthen already established EU-wi-
de voluntary schemes. A public consul-
tation on the initiative is expected to be
launched by the end of the yearwith pilot
projects expected to be up and running in
the course of 2011 which is the European
Year of Volunteering. A legislative pro-
posal on the final structure of the corps
is expected to be tabled during 2012.

See: ec.europa.eu/echo


.m. .. . . . .= . . . ...
r:m r
- sr -. " _ .. -. ; - .. .,., - 5,L.,'.=...' -' -^.:"

EPAs: New Year to bring

fresh trade talks

The EU will meet African and Pacific partners under the EU's Hungarian Presidency in the first six months of 2011 to inject
new vigour into talks on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). Eight years after the free trade talks started with seven
African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) regional groupings, what are the chances of success?

Debra Percival

Union-European Union Summit
in Libya, both EU President
Jose Manuel Barroso and AU
Chairperson, Jean Ping, called for flex-
ibility in trade negotiations. The Forum
of Caribbean States (CARIFORUM) has
already signed a full EPA with the EU (see
interview in the following pages) covering
trade in goods, services and investment

and the members of the Pacific Islands Economic Community of West African
Forum, with the largest economies, Papua states and Mauritania), Central Africa
New Guinea and (all six members
Fiji, are already ben- We have committed ourselves of the Economic
fitting from a 'goods to do everything possible to seek Community of
only' or 'interim' EPA appropriate solutions as quickly Central African States
with ongoing talks on (CEMAC) plus the
a regional EPA. Talks as possible to resolve this matter Democratic Republic
in African countries of Congo and Sgo
have been the most difficult to date. Tome and Principe), and the Southern
African Development Community
The five regional African groupings (SADC).
include; Eastern and Southern Africa
(ESA), the East African commu- African nations, in particular, fear that
nity (EAC), West Africa (members of an eventual opening of their domestic


E onocsw. Pate i wAroe Imiet Do ier

markets to EU imports will lead to cheap
goods threatening the development of
local production and lost tax receipts.
SADC also says that an EPA could injure
the regional integration underway in the
South African Customs Union (SACU).
"This is because if one country agreed to
liberalise substantially all imports from
the EU and its neighbour has not, its
neighbour is always going to be worried
about removing tariffs on its imports from
its neighbour in case some of those goods
are EU goods which are simply going
round the back door", explains Chris
Stevens, a senior researcher with the
Overseas Development Institute (ODI),
a British development think tank.

Just 36 out of the 77 ACP countries have
so far signed either a 'full' agreement or
a 'goods only' EPA. The rush of signa-
tures at the end of 2007 was at the time
prompted by the phasing out of trade pref-
erences -as required under WTO rules
- under the ACP-EU Cotonou Agreement
(2000-2020). For the Least Development
Countries (LDCs) of the ACP group,
there has been less incentive to sign given
that all LDCs were offered 'Everything
But Arms' duty-free, quota-free access in
2001 involving no reciprocation of trade
preferences -a more attractive option
than the phased opening up to EU goods
offered under an EPA.

Incentive lacking

Chris Stevens offers his own explanation
of why the talks have lagged since: "What
you have to bear in mind is that like every-
where else, some countries are in favour of
a liberal trade regime and some are more
sceptical. The EU had very little to offer
in return, precisely because the Cotonou
trade regime was so favourable on the
goods side". He said that negotiations-
wise the EU "shot itself in the foot" by
offering EBA to all developing nations.

He also gives an explanation of why most
African nations are yet to be won over
by the additional EPA opportunities on
services, investment and government pro-
curement: "Quite a lot of the criticism
made by the EU's Directorate General for
Trade about the ACP are correct; about
inefficient government procurement so
that taxpayers pay much more than they
need to and bad investment regulations
which keep the level of investments down,

* The development dimension of agree-
ments was stressed with the EU need to
provide sufficient resources on to enable
EPA implementation.

* The EU's request that African nations
should liberalise by 80 per cent over
15 years with only 20 per cent of goods
classed as 'sensitive' products is too

*The Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clau-
se should be excluded from EPA since it
contravenes GATT/WTO rules for South-
South cooperation.

* 'Policy space' is called for to allow taxes
to be levied or amended or quantitative
restrictions to be placed on goods from
the EU to allow nascent industries to

but the counter arguments are, as with
goods, if the government need s to change
its policy, it doesn't need the EU to do it".

The talk of greater flexibility augurs well.
At the recent AU-EU Summit in Libya
AU Chairman, Jean Ping said: "We are
moving in the right direction with more
flexibility on both sides. We have commit-
ted ourselves to do everything possible to
seek appropriate solutions as quickly as
possible to resolve this matter". AU min-

* The non-inclusion of a standstill clause
which disallows future tariff modifications.
The need may arise to harmonise tariffs in
line with evolution of regional integration

* The triggering of safeguards in the event of
a serious injury to African markets caused
by EU products.

* A re-negotiation of the rules of origin al-
ready agreed in the 'interim' goods agree-

* African countries are seeking unconditio-
nal cumulation with all ACPs, the EU's
Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs)
and neighboring countries Morocco, Tu-
nisia and Egypt with the list of excluded
products from South Africa to be reduced.

SBased on the AU's Kigali declaration

sisters placed its negotiating cards on the
table in a declaration drawn up in Kigali
at the beginning of November (see box).
The ACP Council of Ministers echoed
the AU's position in its own subsequent
six-page resolution. The Kigali declara-
tion also referred to alternatives to EPAs
being pondered by African nations such
as an improved Generalised System of
Preferences (GSP), or extending the EBA
preferences to the whole of sub-Saharan

State of play of EPA signature in Sub-Saharan Africa

West Africa Cote d'Ivoire signed interim EPA, Nov
08 (Ghana pending). Negotiations
continue on a regional EPA

Central Africa Cameroon signed interim EPA, Jan 09
Negotiations continue on a regional EPA

Eastern and Southern Africa Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and
Madagascar; Zambia and Comoros
(pending) signed an interim EPA,
August 2009. Negotiations continue
on a regional EPA

East African Community Interim EPA with EAC (Kenya,
Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi)
initialled in November 2007; signature
ongoing.Negotiations continue on a
regional EPA

Southern Africa Interim EPA with Botswana, Lesotho.
Negotiations continue on a regional EPA

Source: DG Trade, European Commission


African EPA concerns1

IDO n . . -oi PrnshpAeoemen

West Africa:

an end to the standstill?

Misinformation has been one of the
main stumbling blocks to the con-
clusion of an Economic Partnership
Agreement (EPA) with West Africa.

Francis Kokutse'

potentially be the largest by
trade volume since the region
currently accounts for 40 per
cent of all ACP-EU trade.

"Failure in the past to interact with
constituents has given room for mis-
information, misrepresentation and
misreporting on the useful and vital
service that we are performing on behalf
of the sub-region", said Victor Gbeho,
President of the Economic Community
of West African States (ECOWAS) at a
recent meeting in Accra, Ghana on the
trade talks with the EU. Whilst Ghana
and Cote d'Ivoire have agreed 'goods
only' interim agreements, the region's
economic power house, Nigeria, has so
far declined to sign an EPA.

In May 2010, EU Development
Ministers committed to 'PAPED'
an EPA-related 'aid for trade'
package for the region

According to the fourth edition of the
report of the Economic Commission
of Africa (ECA), 'Assessing Regional
Integration in Africa (ARIA)', "EPA
principles work against the current con-
figuration of the eight AU-recognised
Regional Economic Communities
(RECs)". But there is hope across the
region that the EPA may be signed:
ECOWAS is working towards a common
tariff by the end of the year. ECOWAS
Commissioner for Trade, Customs,
Industry and Mines, Alhaji Mohammed
Daramy has said that the common tariff
will assist in the development of an EPA
market access offer for EU products by
the region.

link: http://www.ecdpm.org/

SFrancis Kokutse is a Ghana-based journalist

Market, Bamako, Mali. West Atrican producers are worried about the ettects ot LU imports on their livelihood
�B Foubert, Photononstop/Reporters be

Where negotiations stand

EPA talks with West Africa involve all
ECOWAS members; Benin, Burkina Faso,
Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
Guinea Bissau, C6te d'lvoire, Liberia,
Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,
Sierra Leone and Togo and Mauritania.

C6te d'lvoire and Ghana drew up 'goods
only' agreements out of fear of losing
agricultural preferences accorded by the
Cotonou Agreement which were phased
out in 2007 says a newly-published re-
port of the European Centre for Deve-
lopment Policy Management (ECPDM),
the Maastricht-based think-tank for ACP
issues entitled 'Which way forward in EPA
negotiations'. Although C6te d'lvoire sig-
ned its EPA on November 2008, Ghana
is yet to sign. Region-wide negotiations
continue with other ECOWAS states on

reaching a comprehensive EPA. In their
latest offer of goods tabled in March,
West African states agreed to open 70
per cent of their markets to EU goods
over 25 years after a five year 'preparatory
period'. Other issues such as the inclu-
sion of a Most Favoured Nation (MFN)
clause, services and improved rules of
origin are also in negotiation. In May 2010,
EU Development Ministers committed to
'PAPED', an EPA-related 'aid for trade'
package for the region. "Funds available
for PAPED-related activities from all of
its financing instruments over the next
five years amount to at least E6.5bn and
the total aid for trade from all donors is
projected to exceed $US12bn (E9.2bn)
over the same period", read a statement
from Ministers. The region is seeking a
larger sum to meet EPA goals.

link: http://www.ecdpm.org/


�o Par.tnersispAwgr e Iiment Dsier

Business relationships

to enable ACP development

"The Economic Partnership Agreements
(EPAs) negotiated by the African-
Caribbean-Pacific countries with the
European Union are crucial. Provided
they focus on development," stressed
Dr. Chambas, Secretary General of the
ACP group on 10 October.

M ohamed Ibn Chambas
expressed his point of view
at the press conference
that closed the open house
day hosted by the Sustainable Economic
Development and Trade Department of
the Secretariat, "an initiative launched
to promote the work of the ACP with
key partners," explained the Secretary-
General, adding that: "The current level
of poverty in ACP countries is unaccep-
table. In order to combat this we must
provide support for social and economic
activities." Mohamed Ibn Chambas, ACP Secretary general, speaking atthe EDD 2010 CEU

While recognizing the "crucial" nature
of the EPAs within this framework, Dr.
Chambas stressed that the agreements
should not be limited solely to economic
affairs but that it should also be ensured
they contribute to national development.


He acknowledged the current uneasy
scepticism on the merits of these agree-
ments. "There is a mental block which
must be removed," he said, adding that
it was Europe's responsibility to reassure
African countries that these agreements
are not disproportionately beneficial to
EU countries. "The EU should instead
aim to foster an environment conducive
to enabling ACP products to expand into
the European market." "This will require
the EU to show flexibility, particularly on
sensitive issues relating to rules of origin
and the Most Favoured Nation Clause

With regards to the Pacific region, the
Secretary-General said that few countries
were able to make offers regarding market
access, and called for support for technical
capacity. The Caribbean nations are the
first and only countries to have signed
an EPA with the EU, however Chambas
added that "The implementation of this
agreement is not occurring as smoothly

as we would have liked. If this challenge
could be overcome, it would encourage
other regions of the ACP to sign an EPA."

Finally, the Secretary-General emphasi-
sed the importance of individual regions
in these negotiations, particularly Africa.

EPA catch for Pacific

Papua New Guinea and Fiji, the largest
economies in the Pacific Island Forum are
benefiting from a landmark'interim' EPA
signed in November 2007 which brought
in a new preferential rule of origin for the
export of processed fish and marine pro-
ducts exported to the European market.
'Which way forward in EPA negotiations,''
a publication of the Maastricht-based think
tank, the European Centre for Policy Stu-
dies (ECPDM), says that fish are deemed
to originate from Pacific ACP countries as
long as they are transformed from being
fresh or frozen into a pre-cooked, pac-
kaged or canned product in Fiji or Papua
New Guinea.

"Regional integration is vitally important
in reducing poverty by creating infrastruc-
ture and cross border trade flows." He
also added that, "West African regional
trade amounts to 15% compared to 70%
in Europe and 60% in Asia." M.M.B.

Given the EU's low level of trade with
the far-flung Pacific, there has been little
haste in concluding agreements with other
Pacific nations although talks are on going
with Niue, Samoa, the Cook Islands, Mi-
cronesia and Tonga. The Pacific has been
reluctant to negotiate the liberalisation of
services with the EU at a regional level
ahead of concluding on going negotia-
tions with Australia and New Zealand,
since it might be compelled to reciprocate
anything it offers to Australia and New
Zealand to all third countries under a Most
Favoured Nation Clause (MFN).

'Which way forward in EPA negotiations?
Sanoussi Bilal and Isabelle Ramdoo, ECPDM,
November 2010


ID . Ecnoi. Parnerhi -re

Keeping the momentum

"We are presently engaged with those EPA partners still committed to the process
in order to keep the negotiations on track and to deliver successful outcomes in the
not so distant future", says EU trade Commissioner, Karel De Gucht, in an interview
with The Courier

Only one 'full' EPA with
CARICOM has been signed
to date. How can EPA talks
be given new impetus?

KDG: Seven years after their launch EPA
negotiations, particularly in Africa, are
not progressing as we would like. As with
any negotiation, you can only go as far
as both parties wish. Through EPAs, we
would like the opening up of ACP markets
to move in tandem with the opening up
of international trade -and not just in
goods, but also services whose contri-
bution to economic growth across the
world is not always sufficiently exploited.
This is because history has shown us that
no country achieves long-term growth
without removing barriers to trade. We
are presently engaged with those EPA
partners still committed to the process
in order to keep the negotiations on track
and to deliver successful outcomes in the
not so distant future.

How do EPAs lead to regional inte-

KDG: Most ACP economies and markets
are small, scattered and fragmented pre-
venting them from achieving economies
of scale and synergies at regional level.
Regional integration, where feasible, can
help build regional markets and attract
foreign investment. The ambition to
conclude an EPA is entirely with each
ACP region. Some have indicated their
willingness to conclude regional EPAs
by the end of 2010. This is not carved
in stone, but it is important we keep our
focus and momentum. Other regions are
not displaying the same readiness to make
progress. We respect, however, that we

will not be able to prolong the prevailing
uncertainty indefinitely.

Have ACP states who have already
signed an EPA been able to up their
sales to the EU market?

KDG: As for examples of the positive
short-term effects of the EPAs, the inte-
rim EPA has avoided any disruption of
the trade in bananas and cocoa of Cote
d'Ivoire and Ghana. The interim EPAs
have opened the door to exports of bana-
nas (benefiting countries such as Burundi
and Cameroon) and sugar (SADC and
COMESA are big exporting regions, and
some countries such as Kenya, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Swaziland and Tanzania
have been gaining significant market sha-
res over the last few years).

The EU-CARIFORUM EPA also sets
up a framework which boosts co-ope-
ration within the region, in particular
between the Dominican Republic and
CARICOM countries including Haiti.
And the Caribbean's farmers will not see
duty-free competition from EU imports
for another 10-25 years. Fresh cut flowers
from Kenya are another success story. One
of Papua New Guinea's exports to the
EU, canned tuna, can continue to enter
the EU duty and quota-free, with better
and simplified Rules of Origin to facilitate
sourcing the raw tuna for processing. And
we are in the process of making rules of
origin even more development-friendly.

What is the nature of projects being
funded in ACP countries under the
EU's 'Aid for Trade' budget?

KDG Aid for Trade for the ACP has
increased steadily: from �2.2bn in 2007

ru iraae commissioner rarel ue uucniwlin
Botswana's Minister for Trade, Dorcas Makgato-
Malesu CEC

to �3bn in 2008 an increase of 36 per
cent. The EU is funding projects that
tackle high transport costs and border
delays. For instance, the Trade Investment
Facility in Lesotho (an 'Aid for Trade'
project) now processes applications in
15 minutes rather than seven days, and
exporters fill in two pages of forms instead
of 23. Best practices, with one-stop border
posts, are also on display in Zambia and
Zimbabwe at the Chirundu border, or at
the South Africa-Mozambique border.

Are you planning any new trade ini-
tiative for ACP states in the wake of
adoption of the 'Europe 2020' strategy
by the EU?

KDG In early November, the European
Commission adopted a Communication
on the future of EU Trade Policy. This
outlines our priorities in the trade area:


E onocsw. Partnswhp Agr e n IDoier

completing a series of ambitious trade
agreements, both at the multilateral level
through the WTO and bilaterally with
a number of key trading partners; dee-
pening our trade and investment links
with our major trading partners the US,
China, Japan and Russia; ensuring bet-
ter access to energy and raw materials
from industrialized and emerging eco-
nomies but we do not have "offensive"
trade interests in this
or any other field in The ambition
ACP countries; and an EPA is
reviewing the EU
Generalised System each AC
of Preferences for
developing countries. Next year, we
shall also publish a broader policy paper
on our Trade & Development agenda to
outline ways in which we can use trade

instruments to sustain long-term econo-
mic growth and replicate the successes
of countries that have climbed up several
rungs of the poverty ladder.

How important is it to re-launch World
Trade Organisation (WTO) talks?

KDG Despite the slow progress, com-
pleting the Doha Development Round
(also known as DDA:
Sto conclude Doha Development
entirely with Agenda) remains
our top priority.
P region Concluding the DDA
would represent an
increase in world trade by over e300bn a
year and in world income by more than
�135bn. "Development" in the Doha pac-
kage is to be found across all negotiating

chapters. Under the DDA, developing
countries benefit from significant spe-
cial and differential treatment across the
board. Least-Developed Countries are
not required to take any commitments
and will gain significant duty and quota-
free access. The EU considers that all
parties must be guided by realism and be
prepared to work very hard in the months
ahead in order to identify the compromi-
ses necessary for concluding the nego-
tiations in 2011. The recent recognition
of this target by the Seoul G20 Summit
provides impetus we can and shall build
upon. D.P.

L i - J
_4.& T711

RL '2 N



DS'i Ecoinomi PateI[sipwSAgrremnt

All eyes on


The Economic Partnership Agreement
(EPA) with the 15 member states of the
Caribbean Forum for African, Caribbean
and Pacific states (CARIFORUM) is to
date the only 'full' EPA signed with the
European Union (EU). This is the reason
why other ACP regions are examining its
bottlenecks and benefits two years after
coming on stream.

Guyana-based Implementation
Unit ofthe Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) Secretariat and
Trade in Goods Specialist and collea-
gue, Allyson Francis, the Unit's Trade in
Services and Investment Specialist, spoke
with us about progress so far. The Unit was
set up in February 2009 on a decision of
Head of State of CARICOM (Caribbean
Community) to provide support for imple-

Who is in responsible for imple-

BI: The institutions of CARICOM and
CARIFORUM have responsibility for
implementation. The unit assists the
states and reports to these institutions.
Ministers are well aware of what is hap-
pening on the ground, including in
their own states so that they know of
the problems with regard to numbers
and competencies to tackle matters.

Is there any single bottleneck?

BI: In the smaller administrations,
manpower in terms of numbers but
also the appreciation of the technical
issues involved. We had to lift the level
of awareness in CARIFORUM of the
issues both with regard to the unique-
ness that is EPA and appreciation of
its disciplines.

And the benefits?

BI: Regarding goods, one of the
immediate benefits is the relaxation
of the rules of origin. The Dominican

Madrid Summit, May 2010 �ChenHaltong UPP/Reporters

Republic is happy to find it can now sell
its garments to the EU since the rules
allow you to use third country fabric
in garment production without losing
trade preferences in the EU market.

ping to address
lligence and the

What about th

AF: Trinidad &

AF: As far as services go, we cannot say culture in the
there have been great successes in terms more advanced
of easier access to the EU as yet, but in place. Its cull
the EPA does give
greater certainty. In CARIFORUM, we are at an
When you deal with embryonic stage in terms of
services, you are dea- services regulation
ling with a highly
regulated market. In CARIFORUM, tion Treaty witt
we are at an embryonic stage in terms
of services regulation. We are moving The opportuni
forward with development of our regu- What's stopping
latory framework to better access the
European market. Some of the larger AF: Market in
member states such as Barbados and awareness. We h
Trinidad and Tobago are in a position ces overseas. Th
to benefit a little more since they are groundbreaking
more advanced in terms of their regu- like to see how v
latory frameworks and have respective sector within tt
Coalitions of Services Industries hel- working toward

issues of market inte-
market information.

e cultural protocol?

Tobago is the hub of
Caribbean and much
in putting mechanisms
tural practitioners can
meet classifica-
tion and registra-
tion requirements.
Jamaica has already
done a co-produc-
h the UK.

ties seem to be there.
g contracts coming in?

telligence and better
ave to market our servi-
e cultural protocol was
for us and we would
ye can best develop the
ie region. We are also
Is the development of


��. Enmic P i p a gaRemt D r

a mutual recognition of the qualifica-
tions and certification of architects and
engineers to enable them to practise
in Europe. The EPA gave us a level of
certainty or clarity so now we know
what it is that we need to do to be able
to access the European market.

Do you intend to evoke the five-year
review clause?

BI: There is a joint declaration allowing
for a review after 5 years. We are kee-
ping tabs on where states are with
regard to operating the agreement and
intend to use the sessions of the institu-
tions established under the EPA. The
Joint CARIFORUM-EPA Council met
for the first time on 17 May 2010 and
we are working towards convening the
second level institution, the Joint Trade
and Development Committee which
deals with the nitty-gritty of implemen-
tation. We intend those institutions to
address any difficulties we have as we
go along and use the five-year review
process to concretise the necessary

Is the EPA helping to propel regional
integration in the Caribbean inclu-
ding the Overseas Countries and
Territories (OCTs)?

BI: If you look at the agreement dea-
ling with trade in goods, the provisions
allow CARIFORUM countries to use
a number of OCT raw materials and
intermediate goods in production of
their own goods for export to the EU.
It is up to the private sectors both in
CARIFORUM and the OCTs to now
look at the opportunities available to
make use of the openings.

Can EPA bring about greater social
and economic development in the

AF: In the long-term, the EPA can
assist CARIFORUM member states
to be in a better position to realise the
objectives of eradication of poverty
and integration of the region into the
global economy. As far as services go,
as well as regulatory issues, we have
concerns about technology transfer and
knowledge to develop new products. D.P.

Carnival, Trinidad & Tobago - The Caribbean has a wealth of cultural services H Gyssels

a nutshell

The EU-CARIFORUM EPAwassigned by
the bulk of CARIFORUM states; Antigua
and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grena-
da, Jamaica, Saint Christopher and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grena-
dines, Surinam and Trinidad and Tobago
on 15 October 2008 after over four years
of negotiation. Guyana signed on October
20 2008 after agreement was reached to
include a revision clause, whereas Haiti's
reservations about EPA's benefits meant it
only signed on 11 December 2009.

The EPA was applied from 29 Decem-
ber 2008. It gives immediate Duty-Free-
Quota-Free (DFQF) access to the EU for
all CARIFORUM products and phased
liberalisation for the EU exports to CARl-
FORUM. Eighty-two per cent of EU goods
will enter CARICOM (DFQF) within 15
years, with exclusions and long phase-
in periods (up to 25 years) for sensitive
products. As well as improvements in
rules of origin, market openings beyond
World Trade Organisation (WTO) com-
mitments apply to CARI FORUM's creative
and entertainment industries enshrined
in a groundbreaking 'cultural protocol'.



the test of otherness

Marie-Martine Buckens

European Union, Hungary is
preparing to take over the presi-
dency. Beginning on 1 January
2010 for six months, it will be a busy
presidency as it tackles three issues iden-
tified by Budapest as priorities: energy
security, EU enlargement to include
Croatia, and integration of the Roma.
On the latter question, the Hungarian
presidency will have the delicate task of
seeking to provide a response to recent
rejections of Roma people, both out-

side and inside the EU, and in France
in particular. This is very much a test
for Europe as a whole, both Western
and Eastern. It raises issues of "other-
ness", whether the "other" be a Rom,
an African or whoever, and the place
Europe is ready to allocate them.

Another issue that certainly awaits
Hungary when it assumes the EU presi-
dency is that of revising European legis-
lation governing the activities of major
mining companies. In January 2011, it
will be three months since part of the
reservoir wall collapsed at the Ajka baux-
ite and aluminium plant, 160 km west
of Budapest, releasing some 700,000

cubic metres of toxic red sludge that
flooded surrounding villages, causing an
ecological disaster, a dozen deaths, and
hundreds of injured and homeless. The
result of an accident or failure to respect
European standards? The inquiry must
show whether the European directive on
mining industries is sufficiently explicit
to prevent such accidents. Bauxite - a
mineral much coveted for the production
of aluminium that is essential to many
consumer products -is processed at
several locations in the world. Guinea,
in Africa, has major reserves and its
aluminium extraction regularly results
in the release of red sludge. .. To total


Forgetting Trianon

Seven Magyar tribes from the Urals and the Volga decided to settle in the
Danube Basin. The year was 900. One hundred years later, the Kingdom
of Hungary was born. Istvan, a convert to Catholicism, was crowned king
under the name of Saint Etienne.

No sooner born, the Kingdom
of Hungary had to face inva-
sion by the Tartars. Ever
since then, the history of
Hungary has been marked by a series of
invasions and foreign occupations: the
Mongols in the 13th century, the Turks
from the 16th to the 17th centuries,
the Austrians until 1918 and finally the
Soviets from 1945 to 1990.

These constant intrusions explain a
certain nationalist pride. A pride exac-
erbated by the infamous Treaty of
Trianon, imposed on the Hungarians
in 1920 following
the First World War, V r
that reduced the ViktorOrb
size of the country increase Eurof
by a third, ejecting among the
more than 3 million
Magyars into neigh-
bouring lands. "The nationalist element
remained in the Hungarian subcon-
scious", declared the Hungarian his-
torian Peter Kende last year, and the
Treaty of Trianon remains a trauma that
has yet to be exorcised.

EU membership

A trauma, however, that should never-
theless fade following Hungary's entry
into the European Union in 2004,
where it joined with two (Slovenia and
Slovakia) of its seven neighbors, nine
years after Austria and three years
before the Romanians.

The borders between these countries
have opened up, visas have been abol-
ished and bilingualism is established
in towns where Hungarians form the
majority, while in Romanian districts
with a large Magyar
Majority, as well
n must also as in the Danube
as in the Danube
ean awareness Plain in Slovakia,
Hungarians it is essential to
speak Hungarian,
including for the
Romanians or Slovaks.

It is not therefore surprising that the
major issue Hungary plans to promote
during its EU presidency is that of
EU enlargement to include the Balkan

countries. Hungary has no doubt not
forgotten the time when, before the
Trianon diktatt', it still enjoyed access
to the sea via Croatia. The first half
of 2011 will therefore be the occa-
sion for Prime Minister Viktor Orban
to improve his 'rebel' image abroad.
Described as the 'conservative right',
the Fidesz party governs as the virtual
master in Budapest following its clear
election victory in April 2010, beating
the socialists of the MSPZ. Two other
parties also won seats in the Hungarian
Parliament: the far right Jobbik and
also, for the first time, a small centre
left ecology party, Lehet Mis a Politika
(LMP). Orban will also have the task of
making Hungarians more aware of the
European question that one Hungarian
journalist sees as being of secondary
importance in a country undermined by
crisis and corruption.

It also, believes this same journalist,
means forgetting the deep attachment
to their country felt by almost 10 million
Hungarians. A country that includes
many men of letters, scientists (Hungary
has eight Nobel Prize winners), human-
ists such as Elie Wiesel, musicians such
as Bela Bartok and Franz Liszt, world
famous photographers (see article) and
a new generation of novelists, of which
Laszlo Krasznahorkai is a shining
example. M.M.B.

King Saint Steven, Budapest. Detail a MarieMartne Buckens



Priority for

development education

Development education and awareness remain the two major priorities of the some 20 non-governmental organi-
sations concerned with development cooperation in Hungary.

Less than a decade ago, you could
count the number of development
NGOs on two hands. In 2003,
they decided to come together
within the HAND platform, the Hungarian
Association ofNGOs for Development and
Humanitarian Aid. Today HAND has 26

This relative increase in the strength of
development NGOs in a country that until
recently was itself a recipient of European
aid should be viewed against the background
of the Hungarian Government's coopera-
tion budget.

Decreasing aid

In 2001, public development aid stood at
around 14 million euros, or 0.027 per cent
of Hungary's GDP. That same year, the
government first adopted an overall strategy
for its development cooperation activities. In
November 2002, a new directorate for inter-
national cooperation was set up within the
Hungarian Foreign Ministry. A year later
this directorate drew up a list of four privile-
ged partner countries: Serbia/Montenegro,
Bosnia Herzegovina, Vietnam and the zones
administered by the Palestinian Authorities.

Debt relief granted to
Tanzania and Yemen
represented 50 per cent
of Hungary's bilateral aid
in 2005

Today, countries such as Iraq, a number
of Central Asian countries and, among
the least developed countries (LDC),
Cambodia, Laos, Yemen and Ethiopia
have been added to the list. The budget
allocated to public development aid (PDA)
also increased to 0.16 per cent of GDP in
2006, a more than satisfactory result, as for
Hungary and the other Eastern European
EU Member States the horizon 2010 goal
was 0.17 per cent of GDP.

It is a goal that Hungary will probably not
achieve, as in 2008 its PDA, at �72M, was
just 0.08 per cent of its GDP, one of the
lowest within the EU 27. According to
CONCORD, the platform of European

development NGOs, this situation results
from a cancelling of the debts of developing
countries, the sums in question systemati-
cally swelling the PDA budget until 2007.
Debt relief granted to Tanzania and Yemen
thus represented 50 per cent of Hungary's
bilateral aid in 2005. "This pump has
now dried up", notes CONCORD in its
report on developments in the PDA of EU
Member States.

Increased transparency

By placing the emphasis on awareness and
education, the NGOs within the HAND


platform hope to increase support for
their activities and to be more effective
in influencing Hungarian Government
decisions. In the meantime, two years
ago the NGOs appealed to the govern-
ment to increase its bilateral aid and to
introduce a system to collect data on aid
flows, coupled with awareness campaigns
- both within the government and among
the general public - on the importance of
transparency regarding the nature of the
aid allocated. M.M.B.

LxnlIDInlOn n me 'alr rraae rrinra uare, buaapesr Marie MartineBuckens

'Fair trade'coffee at Printa Cafe, Budapest Marie-MartineBuckens


A bridge between Africa

and Hungary

First arriving in Budapest to study theology in 1997, France Mutombo
returned two years later to Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of
Congo (DRC). It was seeing the poverty in certain areas of the city that led
him to embark on humanitarian work. He nevertheless remained in close
contact with Hungary, with the aim of increasing awareness among its
young people. The Foundation for Africa was founded in 2002.

the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary but set them at an affordable level so
Assembly (see article) -which as to retain the social nature of the
he would be attending -that project. We also offered reduced fees
we met France Mutombo and his for particularly vulnerable families."
Hungarian wife who has worked This decision to introduce fees ini-
alongside him over tially caused many
the past six years. pupils to leave.
France Mutombo Courses were introduced to "But numbers have
is a Protestant pas- the curriculum on ethics, been rising again
tor. "It was in 2002, essentialin this dayand age, since 2009, slowly
after returning to but surely. We have
Hungary from my and on Aids awareness also become stricter
trip to the DRC, in our choice of tea-
that I decided to set up an exploratory chers and are now one of the leading
mission with two Hungarian collea- schools."
gues who supported my project with
their own funds. They were 'ambas- The Foundation also decided to intro-
sadors' for Hungary", he explained. duce a course on ethics - "essential in
"We found a school which was small this day and age when young people are
and in a bad state of repair, in a poor so lacking in guidance"- as well as clas-
area of the Congolese capital." ses to increase Aids awareness. These

France Mutombo and his wite in tront ot the school in Kinshasa
� MarineMarbne Buckens

Now all that remained was to finance
it. Education is the poor relation in
the DRC government. State schools
are insufficient in number and the
teachers, who are poorly paid at best,
are constantly turning to parents for
help. The growing number of private
schools, including in poor neighbou-
rhoods, are trying to make up for this
deficiency. The Foundation for Africa
raised much of its financing from its
Hungarian donors. In 2005 it pur-
chased a plot of land and built a new
school. In 2008 the two schools had
a total intake of over 1,800 pupils, at
primary (mornings) and secondary
(afternoon) level, which is the general
practice in Kinshasa.


"As we are a foundation, we are consi-
dered to be a private school, although
at first the school was free", explained
France Mutombo. "Despite this, the
parents did not contribute and the
school was not operating properly. So

are held on Saturdays and taught by

Financing remains a crucial issue
and the Foundation is increasing its
network of contacts in an attempt to
find new donors. American as well as
Congolese organizations have respon-
ded to date, enabling the construction
of modern toilets and a septic tank
providing facilities for over 1,800 peo-
ple. A Hungarian company, Korax, has
also installed photovoltaic solar panels
and a wind turbine to provide power
for the future computing class. "In
return, we provide them with contacts
in the DRC."

The Foundation also relies on spon-
sorship, essentially provided by the
Hungarian population, to finance
the orphanage located next to the
school that has provided a home
for about a dozen children. M.M.B.

Info: www.afrikaert.hu


"Europe must learn the lessons from

the latest mining disaster"

Three months after the tide of
red sludge surged from a waste
reservoir at the MAL bauxite-
aluminium plant in Ajka, 160 km
west of Budapest and 80 km from
Lake Balaton, the Green Group in
the European Parliament is calling
for a task force to be set up to draw
the pertinent conclusions from the

A t noon on 4 October the dam . ....
wall of one of the largest sludge .. ........ .
reservoirs at the MAL factory
gave way, releasing 700,000 m3
of red sludge that devastated Kolontar, the
nearest village, flooded a dozen hectares
and also destroyed homes in two neigh-
bouring villages. This toxic and corrosive
sludge left a heavy toll: nine dead, more
than 130 injured and over 1,000 hectares
of agricultural land polluted, including
four sites that are part of the EU's Natura
2000 network of nature protection areas. The broken wall of the red sludge reservoir Marie Martne Buckens


Three weeks after the disaster, many
questions remain unanswered, declared
BenedekJavor, chairman of the Hungarian
Parliament's Sustainable Development
Committee, speaking from Kolontar,
where he was accompanied by MEPs Satu
Hassi and Ulrike Lunacek of the Green
Group. First and foremost among them
is the lack of controls and the apparent
absence of proper emergency plans, this
adding to the fact that the reservoir was
filled beyond capacity.

Facts that recall the disaster at the Baia
Mare gold mine in Romania in 2000 that
resulted in thousands of tons of cyanide
being released into the Tisza, Hungary's
biggest tributary of the Danube. A disaster
that caused the EU to adopt directives on
the management of waste from extractive

Undue haste

The Hungarian NGO platform Levelog (or
Clean Air Action Group - CAAG), which
for many years has condemned the lack
of precautions taken by MAL and other
companies in Hungary, is critical of the
haste with which the Hungarian autho-
rities are acting. "It is much too soon to
send people back to their villages," Ger-
gely Simon, the CAAG's environmental
chemist, told us at the end of October.

"People were sent back to their villages
when the cleaning up operations were
far from finished. They are at real risk of
inhaling toxic metals and caustic dust.

The sludge is also still present in the
fields around the villages." Gergely Si-
mon also condemns the absence of any
evaluation - or at least one the public
knows about - of the arsenic content of
the dust, despite this being a highly toxic
and carcinogenic metal. Many ques-
tions remain unanswered, continues the
chemist: "Has the pH (used to measure
the causticity and/or acidity, editor) of
the sludge and dust fallen? What is the
concentration of metals in the dust, gi-
ven that the latter can travel a distance
of over 30 km? What is the state of the
rivers?" Gergely Simon believes the Hun-
garian authorities should have applied
the principle of precaution.


industries and on environmental liability.
On the basis of information obtained on
the spot from Hungarian Environment
Minister Zoltan Illes, the two MEPs
believe that "the implementation of this
European legislation was clearly deficient
in Hungary." In an open letter sent on
29 October to European Environment
Commissioner Janez Poto nik, the Green
Group in the European Parliament
expresses the view that this situation "is
not isolated and that similar problems
probably exist in other countries."


The Greens are calling on the European
Commission to send a task force, as it did
following the Baia Mare disaster. The
parliamentary group is also surprised that
no legal basis has yet been approved to
appoint a body of European environment
inspectors. It is therefore requesting that
the Commissioner present a proposal for
a directive that would enable the EU to
carry out inspections in Member States
at sites whose activities could have cross-
border effects.

The implementation
of European legislation
has been clearly deficient
in Hungary

Driven from their homes by the tide of
red sludge, half of the inhabitants of
Kolontar and the two neighboring vil-
lages are waiting to be rehoused by the
Hungarian Government. But who will
meet the final costs of this damage, as
well as of the pollution of farmland? An
expert from the Hungarian Academy of
Science has concluded that the polluted
soil is now unfit for growing food crops,
the alternative being to grow industrial
crops for energy production. While the
government has assessed the cost of the
damage at �29M, the mining company
has said it is ready to pay compensation of
�5.5M to the stricken populations, spread
over five years.

In Devecser � Marie-Martine Buckens

The 'polluter pays' principle

During the plenary session debate at the
European Parliament two weeks after
the Ajka disaster, Kristalina Georgieva,
European Commissioner for International
Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and
Crisis Response, questioned the effec-
tive scope of the environmental liability

The forgotten red sludge
of Guinea

As the world's leading bauxite producer,
Guinea is believed to hold one third of
the world's reserves. Its deposits are
particularly rich in alumina, from which
aluminium is produced. This natural re-
source is its principal source of revenue
and in 2006 the mining sector earned
it $123M, almost as much as the deve-
lopment aid budget granted by the EU.
In Fria, two hours' drive from the capital

directive, insofar as it does not impose
any financial guarantee on companies.
The Greens believe it is high time the
Commission strengthened the directive.
Finally, the Green MEPs are also calling
for the list classifying waste to be revised
as it fails to take proper account of the
high alkaline content of red sludge. M.M.B.

Conakry, the Rusal-Friguia factory - set
up by the Frenchman Pechiney in 1957
and currently in the hands of the Russian
group, Ruski Alumni, controlled by the
billionaire Oleg Deripaska - is one of the
country's three major aluminium plants.
The past three years have seen a series
of accidents. Less than a year ago, and
despite work undertaken to strengthen
it, the major dam wall holding the red
sludge at Dote burst again, causing an
unprecedented ecological disaster. It
was met with total indifference.


A European policy

for the Roma

During its European presidency,
Hungary plans to focus on the inte-
gration of some 10 million European
Roma who are too often victims of
discrimination, starting in Hungary

150 billion (0.54 billion euros) over the
past two decades, but with mixed results,
according to a study published by the
Court of Auditors in 2008. It attributes
the ineffectiveness of the measures taken
to the failure of all governments since the
1990s to recognize the true complexity of
the Roma issue. Also, much of the money
made available went not just to the Roma
but also to other social groups in difficulty.

Some 40 per cent of Roma children living
in Hungary today fail to complete primary
T here are between 400,000 education and many find themselves in
and 600,000 Roma living in special classes for children with learning
Hungary today. That is the and behavioral difficulties. This situation
fourth largest Roma popula- was condemned in October 2010 by experts
tion in Europe, after Romania, Bulgaria from the UN Human Rights Committee
and Spain. After settling in India at the who believe that Roma in Hungary are
time of the wave of generally victims of
migration that began Te R a i s n discrimination' and
in the second millen- poor treatment'.
nium BC, the Roma be used for political ends
tribes left this region Their report came at
following Muslim attacks on their sett- the same time as the European Parliament's
elements. It was at this time that the term opposition to French President Sarkozy's
'tzigane' first appeared, derived from policy of forced repatriation of Roma of
the Greek-Byzantine word 'atsinkanos' Romanian origin. A word of warning was
meaning 'pariah' or 'heretic'. sounded, however, by the only MEP of

Already laden with meaning, the word
has assumed a negative connotation in
many Central European countries over
the years. Today, the community prefers
the term 'Roma' which means 'men' in
Romany and meets their need for recog-
nition. Are they rejected because they are
Europe's last nomads? Perhaps - although
since the communist era most Roma have
been obliged to develop roots, often under
appalling conditions.

Complex issue

The Hungarian government has spent
large sums of money -more than HUF

Roma origin, the Hungarian Livia Jiroka
of the conservative Fidesz party. "The
Roma issue must not be used for political
ends", she declared in an implicit criticism
of left, liberal and green MEPs who con-
demned French policy. She believes that
the scandal does not so much lie in the
repatriation of the Roma to their country
of origin as in the fact that 'nothing has
been done for them during recent deca-
des to reduce the extreme poverty' of this
community. Fidesz MEPs - together with
other conservatives - stressed the need
for a European policy on the Roma, an
issue that the Hungarian government has
placed top of the list of priorities for its EU
presidency. M.M.B.

Marie Martine Buckens


The father

of the

"new look"

Martin Munkacsi, regarded as one
of the pioneers of photojournalism
and much acclaimed during his
lifetime, died forgotten and poverty-
stricken in New York in 1963 of
a heart attack while watching a
football match. Now, between
October 2010 and September
2011, Hungary is paying homage
to one of its countrymen with an
exhibition at the Ludwig Museum,
Budapest's Modern Art Museum.

Munkicsi is the man who
took photography out of
the studios and brought it
very much to life. It is not
by chance that his career began with shots
of a fatal brawl. His photos helped clear
the accused when the case came to trial.
His career first took him to Berlin, where
the press market was fast expanding.
The journalists there had close contacts
with Hungary and two other prominent
Hungarian photographers also made the
city their home: Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and
Ernd Friedmann, alias Robert Capa. The
dark and handsome Capa, who in the 1940s
became the most famous of all war photo-
graphers, was one of the founders of the
first independent cooperative for photo-
journalists, the famous Magnum Agency.
"Think while you shoot!"

In Berlin, Munkicsi worked above all for
the innovative BerlinerIllustrirte Zeitung, or
BIZ, with a circulation of over a million. He
travelled widely and, in 1930, he brought
back from Africa a photo that caused a
sensation: "Three black boys running into the
surf". A photo that left an indelible impres-
sion on the great French photographer
Henri Cartier-Bresson. "It was this photo

Martin Munkacsi: Boys running into the surf, Liberia around 1930. courtesy ullstemn bid

that was for me the spark that set off the
fireworks [...].I suddenly understood that
photography could reach eternity through
the moment. It is the only photograph to
have influenced me. In this image there
is such intensity, such a joie de vivre, such
a miracle, that it continues to fascinate
me to this day," wrote the French master
of the snapshot to Munkicsi's daughter
Joan in 1977.

I suddenly understood that
photography could reach
eternity through the moment

On 21 March 1933 he photographed
the "Day of Potsdam", when the elderly
German President Paul von Hindenburg
ceded power to Adolf Hitler. The BIZ
fell under the control of the Nazis and its
Jewish editor opted for exile in the United
States, as did Munkicsi and many others
who worked on the paper. For Munkicsi
this was the beginning of his wealth and
glory. The famous Harper's Bazaar and
then Life fought over him. He revolutio-
nised fashion photography by taking it out
of the studios and into the street and he
impressed with his remarkable portraits

of Hollywood stars and a series on the
everyday lives of Americans. M.M.B.


The Hungarian enigma

Many historians have tried, unsuc-
cessfully, to understand why Eastern
Europe, and Hungary in particular, has
generated so many talented photogra-
phers. There are those, like Munkacsi,
and also Andre Kertesz, Robert Capa
and Laszl6 Moholy-Nagy, who emi-
grated between the wars to find their
fame. But there were also those who
remained in Hungary where, despite
their isolation, they imposed a style
recognized by foreign critics as dis-
tinctively Hungarian. A style inspired
by pictorialism and realized by, among
others, Rudolf Balogh and Ern6 Vadas.

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African livestock

maintains its foothold on

the international market

The cattle trade is growing in Africa. A powerful factor in regional integration, it also has to comply with the health
standards imposed by importing countries, in particular the Gulf states. On this new market, there is one key
player: the African Union's Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR), which helps African countries
protect their interests.

Marie-Martine Buckens

ing all the time in urban areas.
Africa is no exception to the
rule. As a result, in addition
to the traditional North-South circuits
between the southern pastoral areas and

the more densely populated coastal areas,
we are now seeing new horizontal circuits
generated by the strong Nigerian demand
or the growing urbanisation of coastal
areas. These circuits are facilitated by
the creation of free trade zones within
regional entities such as the WAEMU
in West Africa, the CAEMU in Central
Africa, the SADC in Southern Africa and
the COMESA in East Africa.

This demand is still largely met by
African herds but also, and increasingly
so, by meat imports from Europe, the
United States and Latin America. Milk
imports are following the same trend.
Following the Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs) signed between the
European Union and the ACP countries
this opening up of markets is likely to
accelerate. Also, seizing the opportunity



of this growing marketinternationalisa- Participating in drawing up
tion, some African countries are man- standards
aging to export. This is especially true
of the Horn of Africa countries, which In addition to its tasks of providing
provide a major share of the Gulf states' information and increasing awareness,
animal imports. In 2006, for example, the Bureau plays a key role in inter-
they represented a third of the Arabian national negotiations between trad-
Peninsula's sheep ing partners. "We
imports, a market help African Union
totalling over 7 mil- Animal health is recognized countries to actively
lion animals. as a global public asset participate in draw-
as a goal pu c ing up standards. To

Added value

In this developing market, health stand-
ards, as well as ad-hoc information, play
a fundamental role in preventing the
marginalising of certain livestock farm-
ers. It is here that the AU-IBAR has an
important influence. "Our role is to
provide technical support to African
Union member countries, either directly
or, and this is increasingly the case,
through the regional economic commu-
nities," says Alban Bellinguez, technical
advisor with the Interafrican Bureau
for Animal Resources. "We work on
the principle of'subsidiarity'. Under no
circumstances do we act in the place of
the states. We provide an added value
by working on harmonising national and
regional policies, essentially to facilitate
trade," he explains.

"Furthermore," adds Simplice Nouala,
manager of the Animal Production unit
at the AU-IBAR, "we increase awareness
on the part of the players, in particu-
lar through connections with the FAO
and OIE, the World Organisation for
Animal Health, which draws up stand-
ards recognized by the World Trade
Organisation. We collect and distrib-
ute information." "The sector suffers
from under-investment in relation to
the GDP of these countries," stresses
Alban Bellinguez, "and the private/
public contribution is disproportion-
ate to what it offers the populations."
In some conflict-prone regions of Africa
the Bureau even provides support for
restoring public services. "In some
cases, as in Somalia, we even make up
for the absence of government," says
Alban Bellinguez, who adds: "Do not
forget that animal health is recognized
as a global public asset."

date they were prin-
cipally drawn up in the North and then
imposed on them," Alban Bellinguez
points out. "We meet regularly, some-
times even with European experts,
thus enabling the two parties to better
understand one another's respective
interests and problems. We prepare the
AU countries to speak with a single voice
within the international bodies, espe-
cially within the OIE."

This is a policy that enables African
countries to finally take ownership of
the process and insist on their preroga-
tives. "Speaking with a single voice has
considerable weight, as within the OIE
the rule is one country one vote. Africa
has 52 countries within an organisa-
tion of 153 members," continues the
AU-IBAR technical advisor. "In some
cases we joined forces with the EU, which
allowed us to carry a motion." Alban
Bellinguez looks further ahead: "Our
policy could serve as a pilot approach
for other negotiations, in particular
those concerning the carbon market."

The AU-IBAR is a regional technical office of the
African Union. Its headquarters is inNairobi and
it participates in three Regional Animal Health
Centres, in Gabaronne, Bamako and Nairobi,
set up in cooperation with the FAO and the OIE.



- -
S. I . ..
Cattle i . . -

Cattle in N iger Marie Martineuckens
........ . . .. ' - - " .. . . .; ,


David Adjaye

One of the great international and Ghanaian architects

Hegel Goutier

some of his most prestigious
as well as most creative and
innovative of projects: the
vast restructuring of Doha city centre
in Qatar, and the new Smithsonian
National Museum of African American
History and Culture in Washington. This
is after completing the Moscow School of
Management/Skolkovo in line with the
competition requirement "to promote an
innovative practice-based approach to
management which will address emerg-
ing conditions in Russia and elsewhere
in the world".

The Adjaye Associates architectural
practice has offices in London, New
York and Berlin. In 2000, his name
became familiar to the wider public
when his practice featured in the refer-
ence book on 40 great British archi-
tects, published by Taschen. Among
the experts, this precocious talent was
already known. In 1993, at the age of
26, he was the winner of the prestigious
'First prize bronze medal' awarded by
the RIBA (Royal Institute of British
Architecture). Three years later, he was
nominated for the Stirling Prize. The
British daily newspaper, The Guardian,
wrote that he was creating major works
at an age when most great architects are
just beginning.

Adjaye is also an artist. His architec-
tural projects are exhibited in prestig-
ious museums. He also goes beyond the
confines of architecture in presenting
his vision of entire territories through
his photography, most notably in 2010,
in 'Geo-graphics', the central exhibi-
tion at the 'Visionary Africa' festival
at the BOZAR, the hub of Brussels'
cultural life, and in 'Urban Africa' at
the Design Museum in London. He also
presents exhibitions in association with
famous artists, such as the light instal-
lation 'Your black horizon' with Olafur
Eliasson and 'The Upper Room' instal-
lation with the paintings of Chris Ofili
at Tate Britain.


Interview with The Courier in the United Kingdom, the Nobel
Prize Centre in Oslo, Norway, and
HG - Your career has recently taken the Montauk House in London (UK).
off in a different direction. You were
known as one of the most famous Yes, you're right. If you are really obser-
architects in the world and now you're vant you can see the systems that I deploy
also seen as an artist and art exhibi- are to do with different contexts. There
tion curator. You were lauded as an is a kind of archetypal language but it
eminent architect after only a short is always deforming to context, always
time in practice. Do you see archi- distorting to different kinds of scenarios.
tecture as a language, art form or
something else? Are you inspired by Africa? Some say
your architecture is multicultural.
DA - Architecture is a concept. It is a
language, a way of developing structures My work is completely inspired by the
that say something continent. I use the
about the society in "Doha is on a different scale, techniques that are
which we live. I have dealing with the notion of the most appropriate, so
chosen to use archi- I look at culture and
tecture to talk about city not as a project but also evolutions, wherever
ideas, about society as a phenomenon" they are develop-

and to build society.
For me, architecture is a cultural vehicle.

You have worked for both individu-
als and municipalities. With whom
did you dialogue when you designed
the Stephen Lawrence Centre, for

All my clients, both big and small,
have been interested in developing new
forms within societies; the Stephen
Lawrence building' is one and the Bernie
Grant Centre2, another and even the
Smithsonian in Washington. I am very
stimulated by the emergence of new ideas
within societies. For me, architecture is
a way of making differences concrete.

Did the Stephen Lawrence Centre and
the Bernie Grant Art Centre come
about as a result of your political

Yes, in the sense that I'm interested in
a socio-political agenda, because I see
architecture as a service. I see myself
as - if a political definition is needed - a
kind of social empowering mechanism.

Your buildings do not resemble each
other. What's the Adjaye touch?

You're right. I have the kind of power
that an artist has to offer up any work
he wants and so has the right to have
ideas behind the work. The works have
to respond to ideas and to context. I want
architecture to operate this way. I have
my own architectural practice, 'David
Adjaye Associates', but its works ema-
nate from my responses, from my points
of view and intellectual inquiries and
debates and dialogues of that moment.

There's a link between three of your
buildings; the Bernie Grant Art Centre

ing, because ideas
that emanate in Africa might end up
in Alaska. My root source is always the
African continent. I always go back to the
continent because has such rich potential.

As an occasional art curator, do you
take the same approach towards
arranging a room for an exhibition as
you would to conceiving a building?

Yes. All the projects that I work on com-
pletely trust the idea of urbanity, and
the idea of collective urbanity. Even the
exhibition, 'Geo-graphics', is set up as

a scenography of different urban condi-
tions, the geography of the continent as
urban scenarios.

Wouldyou like to say anything about
your latest projects: Moscow's School
of Management, Elmina College in
Ghana, and the extension of the Heart
of Doha?

All these projects represent the transition
of my architecture company from under-
taking small scale projects to large urban
structures. Moscow is really the first to
be opened. Elmina School, an important
education centre, is probably going to
be the second. It is very important for
me because it is my introduction to the
continent and sees the application of a lot
of my knowledge. Doha is on a different
scale, dealing with the notion of the city
not as a project but also as a phenomenon.

1 Opened in February 2008 in Deptford, south-
east London, the Centre is named after a black
teenager stabbed to death in London in 1993
in a racially motivated murder. It supports the
development of young people from disadvan-
taged communities.
2 The Centre, opened in Tottenham, London,
2007, is named after the now deceased black
Guyana-born British Labour MP who advanced
the opportunities of Britain's ethnic minorities.

The planned National Museum of African American History and Culture submitted by Freelon Adjaye Bond/
SmithGroup (APPhoto/Jacquelyn Martin, File)


I Zoo

Poor nations take fresh

hope from Cancun

Semi victory at the United Nations
Conference on Climate Change in Cancun
(Mexico) in December for developing

Sonja van Renssen

Climate change is much more than
a theoretical discussion over
emission reduction targets for
2020 and beyond to developing
countries. It is a devastating change in their
environment they are already feeling today.
Even a 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise
-and all the signs say we are heading for
something more like double that -could
reduce crop yields in Africa by a third, chief
negotiator for the Africa Group in the UN
climate talks, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu from the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC),
told a workshop in Brussels in October.
Africa is set to suffer most from a problem
it did least to cause. Adapting to climate
change is its first priority. What it needs

above all is financial assistance, as well as
technical help and support for capacity-
building. At the Copenhagen Climate
Summit in December 2009, rich nations
promised to provide US$30bn from 2010-
12 and US$100bn per year from 2020 to
help poor nations adapt to climate change
and set them on a path to low-carbon devel-
opment. The latest UN climate confer-
ence in Cancun, Mexico, in December
was supposed to give substance to these
"Cancun Adaptation
This it did, in a fashion. Governments
presented the first so-called fast-start funds
and promised greater transparency over
these in future. They also agreed to create a
UN-administered "Green Climate Fund"
through which much of future climate


finance will flow. It will be governed by a
board of 24 members, with an equal num-
ber coming from developed and developing

A "Cancun Adaptation Framework" will
allow better planning and implementation
of adaptation projects in developing coun-
tries, for example by creating a process to
help Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
formulate and execute national adaptation
plans. Progress on adaptation is timely
since an adaptation fund set up under the
Kyoto protocol is finally fully operational:
its board gave funding approval for two
first projects, in Senegal and Honduras, to
the tune of US$14m in September.

Cancun also delivered on deforestation,
technology transfer, and capacity-building

Deforestation is responsible for around a
fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions and
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
and Forest Degradation (REDD) excites
developed countries because it could offer
them an opportunity to offset more expen-
sive emission reductions at home. REDD
is a concept introduced into international
climate negotiations.
It allows for countries "P
that decide to keep "Perhaps
their forests intact - achieved abo
instead of cutting them was a new b
or degrading them - to as the forum t
"win" carbon credits,
recognizing that these ch
forests do capture C02
from the atmosphere, and allows the coun-
tries to negotiate with these credits on the
international carbon exchange.

The Cancun talks did not settle the debate
over including forestry in carbon markets
but did flesh out the principles for emission
reduction actions in the forest sector. They
agreed for example that these should be
monitored at national, not sub-national,
level. Again, progress is timely because
funds have started to flow: the Paris-Oslo
initiative set up last spring, which includes
the US, Norway, UK, France, Australia
and Japan, has put up US$4bn for REDD
so far, drawn from fast-start climate funds.

Perhaps what Cancun achieved above all
however, was a new belief in the UN as the
forum to tackle climate change. Prior to the
meeting, it seemed bilateral partnerships
like the one announced by the UK and
India in November might replace - not help
- the world move towards a global climate
deal. "[Without the UN] countries like
mine will be set on the side of the road,"
Mr Mpanu-Mpanu warned in Brussels.

For all its encouraging results however,
Cancun also left many questions unan-


swered. This includes how much of the
fast-start funds really are "new and addi-
tional" to existing aid commitments. It
also remains unclear exactly where the
US$100bn is going to come from, in par-
ticular how much of it will come from
public versus private sources.

Another problem is that most of the
money on the table so far is for emission
reduction projects, not adaptation. The
International Institute for Environment
and Development calculates that less
than a fifth of fast-
at Cancun start funding pledges
are for adaptation,
'e all however, although the main
liefin the UN negotiating text
tackle climate agreed in Cancun
calls for the two to be
nge" addressed with equal
priority. And then
there is the issue of how to judge which
developing countries are "particularly vul-
nerable" and should therefore be entitled
to the greatest support.

New global climate treaty

These are questions that will have to be
answered in the run-up to the next big
UN climate conference, scheduled for
December 2011 in South Africa. It is there
that the world now hopes to complete what
Copenhagen originally set out to do: a
new global climate treaty. A second com-
mitment period under the Kyoto protocol
remains an open possibility.

It is not just the economic climate or a
stagnant US that has held up further agree-
ment so far -as the EU has emphasised,
it wants to see a "balanced" deal. It said
this in the run-up to Cancun and it will
say it in the run-up to South Africa. This
means progress in all areas. European
pledges of climate finance and technology
to the developing world must be matched
by commitments from large emitters
such as China and India. Again, there
was progress on this in Cancun, with all
big emitters' pledges and recognition of

the two degrees target "anchored" for the
first time in an official UN document.
Emerging economies also opened the door
to monitoring, reporting and verification
(MRV) requirements.

The tide is shifting. More progress on indi-
vidual issues was possible in Cancun as
negotiators went in without the Holy Grail
of a global deal. A little was agreed, if not
all. Ultimately the infamous "Nothing is
agreed until everything is agreed" man-
tra still holds true. As developing nations
draw fresh hope from Cancun, all eyes are
turning to South Africa for the ultimate
prize. Meanwhile, the climate continues
to change.

bonnie neaaegara, ruropean commissioners for illmate ,cilon,
speaking at a pre-Cancun press conference �AP/Reporters


I Our Pl^ ant

New biodiversity funds the Global Environment Facility (which
supports environment projects in develo-
Biodiversity loss is gaining increasing ping countries), the World Bank and the
recognition as a fundamental threat to International Union for the Conservation
our way of life and its preservation is of Nature (IUCN) created a new Save Our
touted as a means of coping with cli- Species (SOS) fund with over US$10m
mate change: healthy ecosystems are already committed. They call on busi-
resilient ecosystems. It is therefore sig- nesses to help build the biggest global
nificant that during the UN Convention species conservation fund by 2015. It
on Biological Diversity (CBD) talks in will provide grants for on-the-ground
Nagoya, Japan, at the end of October, conservation action.

"Security": the key word

at the ACP-EU Assembly

Food security, insecurity in the Sahel1 and
climate insecurity, were at the centre of
discussions at the 20th plenary session of
the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly
held between 2 and 4 December in
Kinshasa (DR Congo), attended by more
than 450 members of parliament from
110 countries.

Marie-Martine Buckens

O other topical issues such as press
freedom, minerals, the sources
of conflict in the DRC, infant
mortality and elections in Cote
d'Ivoire -were also discussed by the 78
MEPs and 78 MPs from the African,
Caribbean and Pacific countries, mem-
bers of this Assembly charged with ensu-
ring parliamentary overview of European
development policy.

The choice of the Democratic Republic
of Congo's capital to host this session was
welcomed by the Belgian Development
Minister Louis Michel, JPA co-chair

alongside the Zambian David Matongo:
"I believe that the DRC has gained much
from this session, in credibility and in
image. The European and African mem-
bers of parliament sensed that something
has happened in this country, at the eco-
nomic, social, political and democratic

Climate "The fight
warming req
For his part, DRC and respon
President Joseph Kabila, and res
on opening the session,
stressed that most ACP states are among
those that contribute least to greenhouse
gas emissions, adding: "the asymmetrical
nature of the situation in terms of respon-
sibility for global warming and exposure
to the consequences is morally, politically
and economically unacceptable. It requires
courageous and responsible decisions." A
report adopted in Kinshasa by the JPA
members of parliament considers that the
transfer of low carbon emission technolo-
gies to the most vulnerable countries, and
to the ACP countries in particular, is "a
key element of any international response"
in combating climate change. The report
notes that just 0.2% of present European
aid is allocated to investments in renewable


energy. Yet Africa has vast potential and
just 7% of its hydro-electric and 1% of its
geothermal potential are at present har-


The ACP-EU members of parliament also
"launched an appeal to the EU and the
international community to mobilise to
combat the growing insecurity in the Sahel
following the resurgence of activities by
the Maghreb branch of Al-Qaida in this
sparsely populated area that lends itself
to trafficking (drugs, weapons, human

On the subject of food security, the
Assembly drew attention to "the unalie-
nable and universal nature of the right
to food, jeopardi-
sed by speculation
against global on cereal crops
fires courageous and other foods-
,ibie decisions" tuffs" and asked
the Commission,
European Member
States and the ACP countries to cooperate
"closely" and to take "concrete measures".

Finally, on the subject of on-going nego-
tiations on the Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs), the European Trade
Commissioner, Belgian Karel De Gucht,
called for a "solid and mature" partnership
between the EU and the ACP. "Partnership
also means that the EU will assist the ACP
partners in strengthening their institutional
and productive capacities", he added (see
also the interview with the Commissioner
in the Dossier on the EPAs).

The Sahel is the geographical zone of Africa
between the Sahara and the Sudanian savannas


Inerc io

The EU supports

the democratic process

in the DR Congo

With less than a year before elections in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo
(DRC), the European Union has decided
to implement a parliamentary programme.
The priority will be to train elected repre-
sentatives and the administration, as well
to renovate the often dilapidated govern-
ment buildings.

Z he programme should
be launched in the first
half of 2011", explains
"Lena Veierskov, res-
ponsible for the EU delegation to
Kinshasa for programmes to support
decentralisation and elections. It is
a pilot programme that will concen-
trate on just two of the country's 11
provinces: North Kivu and Kinshasa
Province (the smallest but the most
densely populated, home to 10% of
the estimated Congolese population
of more than 60 million).


The programme has been allocated
five million euros. Some aspects will
be managed by the decentralisation
support programme, launched at the
same time and with a budget of 15
million euros. "We are setting aside
significant amounts to restore infras-

Kinshasa, in front of the 'Palais du Peuple' (Parliament) OMarie-Martne Buckens

structures, including buildings linked to
the provincial Assemblies." The origins
of the latter lie in agreements signed in
Sun City (South Africa) to end the war
and which gave rise to the new 2006
Congolese Constitution that foresees
increased decentralisation.

Although there is a need for 'tangible'
action -such as an Internet cafe for
the Senate - training elected represen-
tatives remains at the heart of the pro-
gramme. The actual and future elected
representatives, as the presidential and
legislative elections are planned for
November 2011, to be followed by pro-
vincial and local elections. "We will

adapt the training programme accor-
ding to the precise election dates",
explains Lena Veierskov. "Many new
MPs will probably not have previous
experience, so we will provide training
to explain their role and responsibilities
to voters and will also organise semi-
nars and meetings with MPs from other
countries." The programme is aimed
at MPs (of which there are currently
500, including 42 women) and senators
(108, including five women).

"We are also planning training for
administrative staff which is impor-
tant as it makes it possible to create an
institutional memory." M.M.B.

Necessary support

"The programme put into place by the
EU is necessary", Jean-Lucien Bussa
Tongba, Member of the National Assem-
bly for the opposition MLC party states
"We need to be able to work in suitable
conditions, with the appropriate rooms
and logistics. Not to mention the Provincial
Assemblies, which often don't even have

is training. We are not all at the same
level. The programme must enable us
to share our experiences with others so
that the standard of elected representa-
tives can be raised." He again identifies
the provincial level of government as the
most glaringly needy: "Very often they are
not even aware that they are mandated

Jean-Lucien Bussa, 48, plans to stand as
a candidate in the upcoming elections. He
is currently vice-president of the Parlia-
mentary Economy-Finances Committee,
which is being supported by the EU in 2011
through a series of training programmes
aimed at strengthening the macroeco-
nomic knowledge and ability to manage

by the people and are not there to simply public finances of committee members

enough chairs. But what is more important serve as a party mouthpiece."

and their assistants.



Land Reform, the Namibian


In Namibia, the complex process of land reform is greatly speeded up by the use
of appropriate technology. The latest information and communication solutions
combined with innovative land registration systems have led to impressive results
- largely to the benefit of communal farmers who now have secure plots to live
on and to farm.

Julianne Breitenfeld *

tant for the survival of peo-
ple in the developing world.
In order to protect the land
rights of rural people into the future, a
reform of the process of land tenure is

often required. This reform may call for
improvements in the customary structures
of land tenure in areas of land under com-
munal management, and the redistribu-
tion of land from one group to another
in other areas.

The protection of communal land rights
is enhanced by the making and keeping
of accurate records about every parcel of

A historic day: the first certificates are handed out to smallholder farmers by Alpheus Naruseb, the Namibian Minister
of Lands and Resettlement on 30 June 2008. Left: Under Secretary of the Ministry Hannu Shipena, 3rd from left: Dr.
Elisabeth Pape, Head of the EU Delegation to Namibia EC

land, the people who use them, and the
details of those rights. This is known as
land registration. This results in a land
register, which contains maps and written
records about the land that are securely
stored and respected as legal documents.

Reversing inequalities

In Namibia, whilst 52 percent of all
agricultural land is surveyed and
fenced for freehold commercial use,
the remaining 48 percent is under com-
munal management and is shared by
individuals with only elementary land
rights. More than half of Namibia's
2 million people live by subsistence
farming with insecure tenure in these
communal areas. Such inequalities and
skewed distribution patterns of land
rights have necessitated a state-directed
land reform programme.

In line with its policy of pro-poor eco-
nomic growth, the EU allocated �3.5
million of its �53 million Rural Poverty
Reduction Programme (RPRP) to assist
the Namibian Government in its land
reform efforts. Dr. Elisabeth Pape, Head
of the Delegation of the European Union
in Windhoek, cites two important fac-
tors that affected the EU's decision.
First is the willingness of the Namibian
Government to follow a structured and
well-ordered process of land reform, and
secondly the fact that representatives of
the commercial farming community fully
concurred with the need for land reform
measures for the freehold areas that are

Striving for security

More particularly, insecure land tenure
in the communal areas had led to uncer-
tainty about legitimate access and rights
to land. This created situations where
widows and orphans were deprived of
their rights to inherit land left by their



deceased husbands or parents. The
Communal Land Reform Act of 2002
put a stop to such insecurity, by codify-
ing equal rights of access and security of
land tenure in the communal areas. It
formed the legal basis for the technical
process of land registration that the RPRP
pioneered from its outset in 2005. This
was in close coordination and cooperation
with the German bilateral assistance to
the Ministry of Lands and Resettlement.
The use of solutions involving information
and communication technology greatly
hastened the process.

Dr. Elisabeth Pape singles out the intro-
duction and implementation of the new
land registration system in the communal
areas as one of the significant successes
of the RPRP. Hannu Shipena, Under
Secretary of the Ministry of Lands and
Resettlement, shares this view: "The flag-
ship of the EU's RPRP is land registration.
Under this programme we have recorded
the highest number of registrations."

A view from the top

Land Reform Adviser of the RPRP in
the Ministry of Lands and Resettlement.
Mr Shipena plans to reach the target of
issuing 240,000 land rights certificates to
all the people who are eligible to receive

One coherent system

The RPRP has also worked to improve the
The process developed by the RPRP for Deeds Registry in the Ministry. Upwards
mass registration of ofhalfa million paper
land parcels makes records of deeds
use of digital aerial "Land reform does not transactions are
photography. The EU come cheaply and it does not stored in poor qual-
supplied about �2 mil- produce quick returns ity conditions. The
lion for the acquisition to investment" information in some
and processing of over of them dates back at
30,000 high resolution least 100 years and
aerial photographs, which covered the has legal importance. The RPRP has
north of Namibia over an area larger than provided technical assistance to capture
the U.K. this information on computers. Eventually

Printed copies of the aerial photos are
taken into the fields and used with vil-
lagers to draw lines around the bounda-
ries of their plots of land. "With this
appropriate technology two field teams
have been able to survey 20,000 par-
cels and issue registration certificates in
2008-09" says Dr. Robert Ridgway, the

the land registration certificates from the
communal areas will be incorporated in
the Deeds Registry, to form the basis of
one coherent land information system cov-
ering the country.The RPRP concludes
its activities in 2010. Hannu Shipena is
satisfied: "We have met the main targets
which we have set with the Ministry in
early 2006".

A seamless continuation

"Land reform does not come cheaply and
it does not produce quick returns to invest-
ment", warns Ridgway. Technical support
and foreign money will continue to be
needed. Further help is under way: the
Millennium Challenge Account-Namibia,
a US Government-funded programme,
has in 2010 commenced a US$ 9 million
Communal Land Support Activity in the
Ministry, and the development agencies
GTZ, KfW and the Spanish Cooperation
have expressed their intention to continue
supporting land reform.

"We have helped to lay the foundation
for future land reform programmes in
Namibia" says Elisabeth Pape, pleased
with the results of the RPRP. Hannu
Shipena is certain that "new donors
like the Millennium Challenge Account
will follow seamlessly in the steps of the

* Julianne Breitenfeld combines 11 years of profes-
sional journalism in Germany with 11 years of
experience in international development. She
currently runs her own consulting business in
Windhoek, Namibia.



. t~wt,' '1 ,


Adapting the EU-Africa


Anne-Marie Mouradian

nership between the European
Union and Africa be con-
solidated? The European
Commission aims to answer this ques-
tion in its report of 10 November on
'Consolidation of EU-Africa relations
-1.5 billion people, 80 countries, two
continents, one future'. Three years after
the launch of this unique partnership,
relations between the two continents are
described in this document as having
moved from a simple donor-beneficiary
approach to cooperation between equals
in which, taking into account the inter-
ests of both parties, problems are faced
together. However, new global challenges,
such as the economic crisis, delays in
achieving the Millennium Development
Goals, the food crisis, climate change, the
emergence of new donors, and also the
EU's new institutional framework, mean
that these relations must be adapted. The
European Commission has also launched
a Green Paper to open up consultations
on the future of Europe's development

Development Commissioner Andris
Piebalgs, responsible for these two pol-
icy areas, stressed the need to refocus
efforts. Economic growth, job creation
and investment, peace and security, food
security and energy will be greater priori-
ties than ever.

"We must ensure that progress made
in Africa affects a wider section of the

population", stresses Andris Piebalgs.
"Every African family should have
access to electricity within the next 20

Aid that focuses on economic

During the next decade, the underly-
ing goal of development aid will be to
act as a motor for growth the impact
of which is more significant in terms of

reducing poverty than PDA. In other
words, although financial flows remain
vital, Africa does not so much require
'conventional' aid - which alone will
never be enough to rescue millions of
people from poverty -than targeted aid
designed to strengthen its capacity to
generate growth, believes the European
Commission. This analysis is based
on two conditions: that this growth is
balanced and socially fair, leading to a
reduction in inequality and an improve-



KASTOR dance-theatre by Raymond Clarisse - courtesy Raymond Clarisse
Legende : Another priority is the partnership for peace and security

Armando Uuebuza bridge : a new bridge over the Zambezi Hiver
in Mozambique built with support from EU - courtesy of Mozambique
government - Growth is balanced and socially fair, leading to
a reduction in inequality and an improvement in basic services

ment in basic services; and that it is sus-
tainable, in other words, that it develops
competitive, environmentally responsible

Some observers see an apparent con-
tradiction between Europe's desire to
strengthen economic cooperation with
Africa, also when faced with the grow-
ing presence of emerging countries such
as China, and the present deadlock in
negotiations for the EU-ACP economic

partnership agreements. The issue of
these EPAs, about which many African
countries continue to have serious reser-
vations, dominated the last ACP Council
of Ministers.

To ensure their economic develop-
ment, African countries need stability,
healthy public administration services
and responsible governments that are
accountable for their actions. Hence
the importance of issues relating to gov-
ernance (internal and international),
stresses the European Commission.
Helping to improve the efficiency of
a country's Health Ministry can, for
example, prove more beneficial at the
global level than financing the building
of a hospital that brings more imme-
diately tangible results in the eyes of
the public.

Another priority issue is the partner-
ship for peace and security. Europeans
and Africans must strengthen their
combined efforts in the face of new
threats such as terrorism, piracy and
various forms of trafficking, notes the

These concerns are shared by the High
Representative for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy who, in early November,
assured the European Parliament's
Development Committee that "the
strengthening and deepening ofrelations
between the EU and Africa are key priori-
ties of my mandate. Africa is not only a
beneficiary of European aid but an impor-
tant partner on many major international
and regional issues of common interest,
such as regional security".


_� _ I

Development cooperation and
external policy

Catherine Ashton sees the Horn of
Africa as "the most dangerous region in
the continent" and one that needs par-
ticular attention. In addition to its naval
operations with NATO, which are effec-
tive but insufficient to put an end to the
piracy that threatens maritime traffic on
the Suez Canal, since April 2010 the EU
has been engaged in a mission to train
the transitional Somali Government's
security forces in Uganda. The EU-Africa
strategy links development cooperation to
the external policy priority goals, and with
one recurring issue: How should tasks and
responsibilities be divided between the
Development Commissioner and the High
Representative? The European External
Action Service (EEAS) was not yet opera-

tional when the 10 November report was
presented. In response to questions from
MEPs, Catherine Ashton emphasised that
"there will be no conflict between us", and
that Andris Piebalgs and herself would
cooperate on setting the strategic goals
and the best way of using their resources.

Following his consultation on the future
of development, Mr Piebalgs intends, for
his part, to present in 2011 the main points
of a "modernised European development
policy". The Green Paper focused on the
debate surrounding the four main ques-
tions and objectives: How to ensure the
implementation of a high impact develop-
, . 1 i ,-.. . . I. .) that every euro spent provides
the best added value and value for money.
How to facilitate more significant and inclu-
sive growth in developing countries. How to
promote sustainable development and how

to achieve long-term results in the area of
agriculture and food security.'

The consultation, between 15
November and 17 January 2011, is
open to all interested parties: individu-
als, organizations, EU countries and
development partners. The extent to
which civil society in the two continents
participates will be an important test
in this respect.

'The Green Paper entitled'EU development pol-
icy in support of inclusive growth and sustainable
development Increasing the impact of EU devel-
opment policy' is available on the Commission
website (http://ec.europa.eu/yourvoice/).


A South-South hub

S eychelles offers investors oppor-
tunities in its traditional sectors
fisheries, tourism and offshore
services as well as new ones such
as waste management
and recycling, high-
tech agriculture, "Air Seych
specialised medical
services and invest- example of
ment facilitation, said potential
Sherin Renaud, Chief South-South
Executive Officer
of the Seychelles
Investment Bureau. She was speaking
at the country's first Investment Forum
held in Brussels, 20-22 October. By 2017,
the Indian Ocean country comprising
115 islands hopes to more than double
its current number of tourism arrivals to
360,000 visitors annually each spending
on average $US250 a day.

Middle of everywhere

"In the middle of everywhere", the coun-
try is well-positioned to develop partner-


ships, notably in the tourism industry with
its Indian Ocean neighbours Madagascar,
Mauritius and Reunion, as well as offering
investors a base to carry out business with
Asian countries, said
Seychelles' Minister
elles is one for Investment,
Industries and
he country's Natural Resources,
to propel Peter Sinon. Air
cooperation" Seychelles is one
example of the coun-
try's potential to
propel South-South cooperation, said
David Savy, Executive Chairman of Air
Seychelles. Air Seychelles is one of only
five sub-Saharan air carriers operating
long haul routes including Paris, London,
Rome, Milan, Singapore and Chennai.
In a business partnership with Air
Mozambique (LAM), it operates its own
planes and crews on a Maputo to Lisbon
route for LAM. "There are great oppor-
tunities for Air S. . ... to fly to other
African countries", said David Savy. D.P.

Plenty of opportunities still for tourism investment
in the Seychelles CH Gouber




An EU Pacific network

for a new vision

A gathering of European academics in
Brussels on 22 November is the first step
towards creating an EU research network
for the Pacific to bring fresh thinking to
policy-making on such issues as social
and gender issues, climate change and
security and stability.

Z_ he Pacific is important for
us: it is important from
the future-of-the-planet
"perspective first of all,
notably for its biodiversity; it has fewer
than 10 million inhabitants but 13 votes
in the United Nations which, added to
the EU's 27, is a good bloc for a com-
mon agenda," said Ranieri Sabatucci,
Head of the Pacific Unit in the European
Commission's Directorate General for
Development (DG Dev). The region also
has a wealth of biodiversity, fish and min-

The 'European Research and External
Action: Together in the Pacific,' event
revealed some of the ongoing research
within academic institutions in the EU
and the wider European Free Trade
Association (EFTA), including Norway,
whose University of Bergen is one of the
leading Pacific research bodies in Europe.

"We are enthusiastic about more vis-
ibility for our work. A lot of what we
have researched has been without a
political agenda," said Sue Farran of
the University of Dundee, Scotland.
Fellow academics agreed that European
researchers are freer to explore ideas
than their counterparts in Australia and
New Zealand whose respective foreign
policies dominate in the region. Some 17
EU academic institutions are currently
doing work on the Pacific.

Some Pacific islands are members of
the ACP-EU Cotonou Partnership
Agreement') whereas others fall under
the EU's co-operation agreement with
its Overseas Countries and Territories
(OCTs)2. The EU is represented across
the region by 100 staff in five delegations.

"The Pacific Way"

"We want to create a realistic vision
together," Thierry Catteau, a member of
the DG Dev's Pacific Unit told the assem-
bled academics. He explained that the EU
wants to craft policies which understands
and fully respects the unique "Pacific way"
of decision-making including customary
traditions. "The Pacific has one of the
world's strongest subsistence economies.
The resources are owned by local people,"
noted Edvard Hviding of the University
of Bergen.

Lalela, t imor cHGoutier

Fresh input already came at the confer-
ence, notably a different approach to
gender violence. According to an EU dis-
cussion paper prepared for the Brussels
event, all Pacific nations apart from Tonga
are members of the international conven-
tion on the Elimination of All Forms of
Violence Against Women (CEDAW), but
high rates of domestic violence across the
region persist. Drawing on his own work
on gender diversity in urban settlements in
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, Tony
Crook of the University of St.Andrews,
Scotland, suggested that the high levels
of gender violence there may be related
disputes between kin rather than those
between men and women.

Funding may become available under the
EU's Research Framework Programme 7
(FP7: 2007-2013) and subsequent FP8 to
fund academic research on the Pacific.
Information about this is expected to be
available on a dedicated Pacific website
which will also post Europe-wide research
papers on regional issues.

See: http://ec.europa.eu/development/services/

Pacific States who are members of the Cotonou
Agreement; Cook Islands, East Timor, Fiji,
Kiribati, Marshall Islands, The Federated States
of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New
Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands. Tonga, Tuvalu,

2Pacific OCTs: New Caledonia, French Polynesia,
Wallis and Fortuna and Pitcairn

Young female, Manono Island, Samoa � DPercival


Discovery and History


a time of renaissance

Report by Hegel Goutier

two successive and seemingly
never-ending conflicts, includ-
ing a civil war that ended a
mere eighteen years ago, Mozambique
is a miracle. The country is enjoying
a surprising renaissance and is an
attractive prospect in many senses. It
is tipped to be a small African economic
dragon in the future, blessed with a
political system deemed acceptable and
economic management which is consid-

ered by both rich countries and inter-
national institutions to be improving.
Firstly, peace in Mozambique now
seems to be a given, and the unity and
uniqueness of the country and of its
people are constantly proclaimed. It is
as if the fratricidal war that ripped the
country apart has been forgotten, or
that people are either unaware of it or
in denial, according to Mozambique's
most famous novelist, Mia Couto.
In spite of the continued existence
of severe poverty, especially in rural
areas, the country is experiencing an
impressive level of economic growth,

averaging eight per cent over several
years, and it is enjoying a period of
prosperity as large companies set up
there and infrastructure is modernised.
There is even a certain showy opulence
in signs of wealth, especially in the big
cities, as well as an exciting cultural
renaissance, with a group of artists of
high standing in a number of fields.
Maputo, the beautiful: a symbol
of renewal

The capital, Maputo, is a symbol of the
regeneration, cleaner and more confi-
dent of its charms, with tempting shop


Moza biqe- Repor

window displays, vibrant cultural cen-
tres, and welcoming, original and taste-
ful places of entertainment. Visitors
can gaze in wonder at majestic mosaic
murals, or enjoy refreshing walks its
quiet and verdant parks. Visitors today
admire Maputo, seeing it as among the
most beautiful and the most pleasant of
sub-Saharan cities.

History of a country: after the miracle cure

The first known inhabitants of
Mozambique were the Hottentots and
the Bochimans, who were pushed back
by successive migrations Bantu speak-
ing peoples by the end of the third

The eleventh century saw the emer-
gence of the Shona Empire known as
Great Zimbabwe, which was relatively
sophisticated in its development, even
using sewage systems. The second
Shona Empire of the Karangas, based
in Mozambique,
took over during the
fourteenth century. "Visitors to
It was headed by Maputo, seeing
NeMbire, who was the most b
called Monomotapa te
(master of the king- the most p
dom). This empire sub-Saha
remained powerful
until the seventeenth century and would
disappear only in 1902, with the death
of the 52nd Monomotapa.

A Portuguese governor: "the
king's first wife"

As early as the end of the first mil-
lennium, Arab merchants began to
arrive on the coast of Mozambique,
and when Vasco da Gama arrived in
1498, an important part of what is now
Mozambique was Muslim territory.
Vasco da Gama fled from the Ilha de
Mogambique, in the north, under heavy
cannon fire. The Portuguese were only
able to settle in the seventeenth century
by taking advantage of the instability of
the Monomotapa system, whose power
been diminished by successive treaties.
At this time, a Portuguese governor
was even granted the title of "king's
first wife", not very flattering for the
ego, perhaps, but which guaranteed cer-
tain privileges. Intermarriage between
Portuguese settlers and African women
then began to be a common phenom-
enon, as it was during the whole of the
colonial period.

This was also the era of slavery, which
finally disappeared in 1878. Almost

half of the total area of the colony was
granted in concession to private firms
as "Majestatic" companies, and the col-
onies experienced significant economic
development under the Salazarist
regime that came to power in Portugal
in 1928. The war of independence broke
out in 1964, and the Mozambique
Liberation Front
(FRELIMO) was "Intermarria
established. After
Salazar's death Portuguese
in 1968, his suc- African women
cessor, Marcello to be a common
Caetano, waged a as it was during
brutal colonial war.
This lasted until the the coloni
"Revolution of the
Carnations" in 1974, which brought
democracy to Portugal and sounded
the death knell for the colonial period.

The victory of a people over war
and division

On the 7 September 1974, Portugal
ceded power to FRELIMO. The
new regime, with
its leader Samora
day admire Machel, professed
g it as among allegiance to the
dutiful and Soviet Union, and
pleasant of many members
of the opposition,
ran cities" notably from the
white community,
left the country en masse. Immediately,
RENAMO, (the Mozambican National
Resistance) was set up, under the
leadership of Afonso Ddlakama, who
is leader of the opposition today. In
1980, they established themselves in



apartheid-era South Africa with whose
support, RENAMO launched offensives
against the new Mozambican army. All
possible excesses of civil war occurred.
At the same time, however, Mozambique
began to distance itself from commu-
nism. In 1986, the president, Samora
Machel, was killed when the plane in
which he was travel-
le between ling crashed, its radar
jumbled by the South
ettlers and African army.
n then began
phenomenon, In 1990, the coun-
Sthe whole of try adopted a new
constitution, and
I period" a peace agreement
was signed in 1992.
The first multi-party elections were
organised in 1994 under UN obser-
vation. FRELIMO have won all four
presidential elections since, two by
Joaquim Chissano, and the other two
by the current president, Armando
Guebuza. Despite the accusations of
fraud made by the perpetual challenger,
Alfonso Ddhlakama, both international
observers and the Supreme Court of
Mozambique have declared that the
elections were both democratic and fair.

The country today is experiencing a
period of strong economic growth, and
its successes in the fields of education
and of health are well known. Political
and economic governance have also
improved a great deal, but there can be
little doubt that Mozambique's greatest
success is the implanting of peace in the
minds of its citizens. The real winner
of the civil war has been the country's
people, and that is truly a miracle.

'I", J.,i
a 1 &
*~~ rintpa

Maputo murals Hegel Goutler




.eDD . -zbq -

Interview with President

of Mozambique, Armando


Although Mozambique is poor, its resources go to the people

The President preferred the term of lion instead of dragon when The Courierasked
whether his country had the potential to become a new small economic dragon.
Reflecting his personality, the President spoke in a direct but relaxed manner. Our
first question was whether the current optimism prevailing in the country comes
from the double figure projections of economic growth?

A EG - During the civil war, over now go to school.
4.5 million citizens were not clinics and mate
living in their area of origin, increased access
among them more than a mil- telecommunicat:
lion in the neighboring countries. Post-
war, they returned home. A period of a HG - The o\
rebuilding of infrastructures to provide FRELIMO's don
schools, clinics and clean water followed. the economy a
Because we went from
a war situation, we "t i,
had an image prob- At independence, there
lem. Nonetheless, we were no more than 20
were able to bring in secondary schools and just
two big enterprises; one university"
- MOZAL and
SASOL. The world
got the message and investors started to parliament com
come in. We made efforts to simplify the opposing side, c
processes of licensing, to create a good shouldn't confus
business environment and peace. We that of following.
encouraged civil society to contribute tion as well as ci
and to influence the process. decisions.

HG - Some statistics point to a con- When the riots tc
tinued high level of poverty. Can you addressed the pul
bridge the gap between growth and erty being a serioi
the standard of living of the poorest? because the resoi
live on are less th
AEG - The gap will always be there. criticised the use
Nevertheless, it is being bridged. For infrastructures.
example, a District Development Fund was a need to p
is creating growth in rural areas. people and restore
Although Mozambique is poor, through people died, wl
social and other initiatives it's helping to regret, and mad
return resources to the population. At view public. Pec
independence, the country did not have demonstrations,
more than 20 secondary schools and just but in a peaceful
one university. Today, there are over one
hundred secondary schools and 38 uni- HG - How is t
versity institutions. Millions of children Southern Afric

We have built hospitals,
rnity units. People have
to water, electricity, and

position criticises
nination ofpolitics and
nd of having incited
police violence, for
example during the
September demon-

AEG - It goes without
saying that if a party
has 190 members in
[pared to sixty On the
ne will dominate. We
e the act of listening with
We listen to the opposi-
vil society and we make

rresient or viozamioque, Armanao uueouza Hegel Goutler

as far as trade and international coop-
eration are concerned? What about the
Economic Partnership Agreement,
new partners, and the future of the

)ok place in September, I ACP group?
blic and spoke about pov-
is problem in the country AEG - Our relations with our region,
irces that people have to the Southern African Development
an the cost of living. We Community (SADC) are fundamental. We
of force and burning of are continuing to strengthen our political
There situation as a united
protect "EPA, DOHA - the ACP mst sub-region although
Order. m we have problems for
some look for a way of adapting to example, the situation
which I the new challenges" of Madagascar, but
e this we are facing prob-
ple can stage strikes or lems together. We now apply the principle of
voice their points of view free trade area between our countries. That
manner. is not going as well as we expected but this
is not surprising. We have not changed our
he integration of the objectives but we are changing the timing.
an region progressing For example, we expected to have a single


A I It
. :.! ..


IMozambique- Report

Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo Hegel Goutler
At independence, there no more than 20 secondary
schools and just one university

currency by 2018, but we now know it is not
possible but we will still continue to strive
to have it nonetheless.

As for Mozambique's diverse economic
relations, wherever they come from,
more investments can contribute to
finding a quicker solution out of poverty.

Vice Ministre Henrique Banze Hegel Goutler

Maputo Municipal market cHegelGoutler

We have a special relationship with the
EU because it has supported us all along
with infrastructures and by other means
such as the trade facility for sugar. The
EU is a very close development partner.
But we have problems in the area of
trade with the EPA and DOHA talks.
Due to the new realities, the ACP must

The fight against poverty : less
success in the cities

Interview with the Deputy
Minister of Foreign Affairs
and Cooperation, Henrique Banze

From the interview that Henrique Banze
gave to the Courier, one of the salient
points that emerged was the key role
played by Mozambique in regional devel-
opment. In Banze's opinion, the strong
growth of his country in recent years can
be put down in particular to the important
potential of its water resources, developed
through large investments in industrial
infrastructure and in road, rail, river and
sea transport. This has allowed the country
to become self-sufficient in energy and
to supply neighboring countries, thus
strengthening regional trade. Mozambique
has therefore become a regional centre

look for a way to adapt to these new
challenges, that's why we have to see
how we can negotiate. Unfortunately,
the EU is of the opinion that the ACP
believes that SADC is divided, or at the
least not unified in its positions. SADC
is united. H.G.

for integration into the global market.
In its fight against poverty, one of the coun-
try's priorities, along with education and
health, is rural development. To achieve
this aim, appropriate support is being pro-
vided to small and medium-sized rural
businesses or associations, and the gov-
ernment is currently negotiating with the
banks to facilitate the provision of loans
to these groups.

This is linked to a comment by the Deputy
Minister for Foreign Affairs on the recent
demonstrations against price rises, which
takes the form ofa mea culpa. "We have
been fighting against poverty in rural ar-
eas, and yet we did not do this in the right
way in the cities to which the new arriv-
als have flocked. One could say that the
phenomenon of urban poverty has taken
us by surprise."


A tense relationship between

the majority and the opposition

The heritage of history

ity party and the opposi-
tion are particularly tense in
iozambique. In a meeting
with the Courier, the leader of the oppo-
sition, Afonso Ddlakama of RENAMO,
stated, for example, that he contests the
results of the four
presidential elections "On one s
that have taken place FRELIMO, a
since 1994, in con-
trast to the conclu- of the country
sions of international indepe
observers and the
Mozambican justice system. RENAMO
also criticizes the government for insuf-
ficient liberalization of the economy, and
for administrative policies that favour its
own supporters. Meanwhile, FRELIMO,
the majority party, is on its guard too.

This political tension is easily explained
by history. On one side, there is
FRELIMO, which was at the forefront
of the country's struggle for independ-
ence and which considers itself to have
made enormous sacrifices in the war, and
on the other, RENAMO, born out of an
armed movement which, backed at the
time by South Africa, waged war against
the army of the new State, the ideology
of which it was opposed to.



Movement) which split from RENAMO
in 2009, formulates his criticisms in a
more measured tone, and concentrates
on more specific points, such as the loss
of control on the part of the police at
the demonstrations against price rises,
which led to the death of a number of
demonstrators, and
de, there is which the govern-
the forefront ment later recog-
nized and regretted.
"'s struggle for
7dence" As regards the
economic choices,
Simango accuses the government of
not providing enough help for small and
medium-size businesses. "It devotes
its resources to big gas, electricity or
wood companies, which do not pro-
vide jobs and which essentially export
raw materials that the country is then
obliged to reimport as finished goods,
at a prohibitive cost."

A critical and yet cooperative

The Electoral Observatory, a
Mozambican watchdog monitoring
the elections, delivered the verdict
that during the recent elections there
were indeed certain irregularities in

Afonso Dhlakama (RENAMO)

Amice Mabote. I he pasionaria �Hegel Gouter

administrative districts controlled by
The "Pasionaria" the majority party, but also in some
which favoured the opposition. These
The strident and militant president of the issues were drawn to the attention of
Human Rights League, Alice Mabote, Parliament and the country's judicial
a true Mozambican institutions, though
"Pasionaria", une- "On the other RENAMO, born it was pointed out
quivocally condemns of an armed movement" that they were not
the organization of likely to affect the

the elections, rejecting with a sweep of
her hand the assessment of the interna-
tional observers. She appeals, too, for
perspective as far as the history of the
civil war started by RENAMO is con-
cerned. "Not all the crimes were com-
mitted by only one side... FRELIMO
cannot absolve itself of all blame."

A more measured approach

Davis Simango, mayor of Beira and leader
of the MDM (National Democratic

overall results from the ballot boxes.

The Observatory also lent its support
to the electoral process by identifying
eight figures from civic society des-
tined to sit on the National Electoral
Commission, after due approval by the
parliamentary members of this organ-
ization. Three out of the eight were
accepted by the MPs. H.G.

brazao Mazula, Electoral Ubservatory �HegelGoutler


Re'por 7 oambique-

The British High

Commissioner praises

stability and peace

financial backers working with
Mozambique, the British High
Commissioner in Maputo, Shaun
Cleary, praises the country's high growth
rate, its stability and peace, and the devel-
opment of large export businesses.

Because these businesses use little man-
power, however, poverty remains an issue,
and social inequality seems to be increas-
ing, which has led to problems for the
government, which has to do something
about it, but the question is how. This
is not an easy decision, according to the
diplomat, and it is made all the more dif-
ficult by the depreciation of the metical,

especially in relation to the rand, the cur-
rency in which a large proportion of the
country's transactions are made.

The government is conscious that it has
to devise an overall plan with a long-term
global vision for Mozambique, but it is not
known what this vision might be. "I do
not know what the government is aiming
to use as a model, whether it is Botswana
or whether it is Angola, for example",
says Mr Cleary. As regards the wishes
of the country's backers, his response is
simple: "A reduction in poverty without
any growth in useless bureaucracy. And,
though it goes without saying, transpar-
ency and predictability". H.G.

�Hegel Goutler

)Hegel Goutler


�Mozambi R eport'#

Glauco Calzuola, Head of the EU Delegation in Mozambique

We trust in this country's will to take its

destiny into its own hands

Cooperation with the European Union is
a well-known concept in Mozambique,
as much in political circles as in busi-
ness, civil society, or the academic and
creative sectors. The cooperation enjoys
a special visibility. Glauco Calzuola, the
EU's Ambassador to Mozambique is bet-
ting on the success of the country which
has, in his opinion, found a solution in
a very short time to many of the politi-
cal problems of a nation where a highly
traumatic post-independence civil war
only finished in 1992.

Interview by Hegel Goutier

peace agreements of October
1992, we mainly intervened
in the areas controlled by the
government and assisted displaced per-
sons and refugees. After the war, the
country set itself the task of restoring its
infrastructure, and the European Union
worked alongside it, as we did in the estab-
lishment of democracy. In 1994, the first
multi-party elections took place. One of
the priorities of European cooperation
now is the consolidation of the legally-
constituted state.

The bulk of our assistance is granted in the
form of general budget support (around
50 per cent) with some 30 per cent going
to specific-sector projects (in the fields of
infrastructure, health, and farming and
rural development). The remainder is
allotted to small infrastructure projects,
governance and technical assistance or
support for the non-state sector.

HG - What does the consolidation of
the legally-constituted state imply?

GC - In this area, we
are working together
with other backers "The manage
in the group known finances is no
here as the G19. It but more trat
focuses on all aspects
of governance: assis- be required
tance with the man- invest
agement of public
finances, support to State institutions
civil society and the private sector and
support to the Ministry of the Interior,
in particular through cooperation with
Portugal, and aid for civil society and for
the private sector.

For a number of years now Mozambique
has experienced exceptional economic


LU AmDassaaor, uiiauco baizuoia HegelGouber

growth. Post-war, the fiscal measures
adopted encouraged the entry of foreign
capital and significant investments for
industry, energy and agriculture. There
has been a lot of progress and the man-
agement of public finances has much
improved, but legislation and transpar-
ency with regard to investments must
continue to be improved. The press flags
up corruption, but it
should be pointed out
ient of public that it does this freely.
V transparent, For the moment, the
sparency will business environ-
ment still has to be
'ith regard to strengthened with the
7ents" establishment of clear
rules. The big corpo-
rations have the means to negotiate, but
small and medium-size businesses need
more transparency.

The government is well-organised and has
the ability to set up structured develop-
ment projects. For the last ten years, the
country has been involved in an absolute
poverty reduction strategy programme



Mozabique - Rep

(PARPA), which is now in its second phase process of dialogue we are involved in is
and which has enjoyed some success, with a long-term one.
50 per cent of the population now affected
by severe poverty instead of 70 per cent HG- What are Mozambique's greatest
previously. A recent evaluation of PARPA assets for taking its destiny into its
2, however, has shown that, despite sub- own hands ?
stantial improvements as regards access
to safedrinkingwater, health and educa- GC - Mozambique has vast natu-
tion, poverty is not declining any more. ral resources: gas, coal, other mining
Which strategy needs to be implemented resources, maybe oil. Beneficial fiscal
in order to abolish the measures post-inde-
dichotomy between pendence allowed
growth and the posi- We are supporting the the development
tion of the very poor? country's long-term of major industries
That is the question. development strateav" such as MOZAL

HG - 50 per cent of
the state budget comes from foreign
aid. Is this sustainable ?

GC - The development of the private
sector and the expansion of the tax base
could reduce this dependence, and we
are working with other backers to achieve
this. Why do we need to contribute to the
budget to this degree? From the European
Commission's viewpoint, we believe in
this country's capacity for autonomous
development and we trust in its will to
take its destiny into its own hands. The

Aluminium) and gas
(SASOL). As well as Cahora Bassa, on
the river Zambezi, it may be possible to
construct other dams. The country there-
fore has major potential, and possesses
significant infrastructure. The fact that so
many big corporations have set up there,
indicates that there is stability too. Like
everywhere, the management of natural
resources remains a difficult issue.

From the point of view of human
resources, the country has some excel-
lent professionals, but not in sufficient

numbers, and intermediate-level staff
and policy implementers are particularly

HG - In your opinion, what are the
jewels in lte crown UofEU-Mozambique

In the infrastructure sector, I'd like to
mention a project like the bridge over the
Zambezi, co-financed by the EU, Italy
and Sweden. This project is only one part
of a large-scale infrastructure plan cover-
ing road, rail and sea transport. In the
sectoral budget aid field, our support to
the respective Ministries of Agriculture,
Health and Road Infrastructures is also
proving itself to be most productive. Then,
of course, there's our general budget sup-
port. In this area, along with other donors
in accordance with the Paris Declaration,
we are aligning our support with the coun-
try's long-term development strategy, It
is not a question of a revolution, and it is
in fact a long time since the Commission
realized that this is the best method of
cooperation. This is the main job we are
doing here.

Nampula telecommunications centre eHegel Goutler
Over the past few years, Mozambique has seen outstanding
economic growth


IViaputos viluseum or Natural History eHegel Gouber
The bulk of our assistance is granted in the fields of infrastructure, health,
farming and rural development

.iDDim . M i -

EU aid to Mozambique

at a glance

F or the period 2008 -2013 - 10th
European Development Fund
(EDF) :

- �622 million reserved for the
indicative programme for Mozambique

- �12.1 million for unforeseen events

These allocations may be revised by the
EU according to certain criteria, at the
time of mid-term evaluation and at the
end of the period.

Out of the �622 million :

- 3% (C19 million) : participation of
Mozambique in joint projects of the six
Portuguese-speaking countries of the
ACP Group

- 46% to 50% : general budgetary assis- - Mozambique also benefits from EDF
tance financing for the indicative programme.

-About 21% : sector-based budgetary
aid for the 1st Key Sector: transport
infrastructure and regional economical

- From 12% to 15% : sector-based bud-
getary aid for the 2nd Key Sector: agri-
culture and rural development

- The remainder : non-key sectors
including health, political governance
projects not included in the general bud-
getary aid, such as human rights, justice
and the fight against corruption, parlia-
ment and civil society. Also support for
commerce and for economic partnership
agreements (PTA).

Other financing in the 10th EDF to
which Mozambique is entitled :

- Regional indicative programme of the

- Investment Facility, an instrument
managed by the European Investment
Bank (EIB)

- Support of the CDE (Centre for the
Development of Enterprise) and the
CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural
and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU). H.G.

EU Projects:

wide ranging co-operation

From dredging to ploughing

the-clock to remove sand depo-
sits from a 30km area of the
mouth of the river near Beira is
both impressive and sophisticated. Every
three hours, this machine loads up with
3,300 cubic metres of sand, which it pro-
cesses and then ejects again into an area
nearby, where it is spread out and dried to
provide a base for a future coal-exporting
terminal. Peter Vroege, the chief adminis-
trator of this project which is being carried
out by a Dutch company, explains that its
total cost is around �40M (�10M of which
has been donated by the government of
the Netherlands, another 10M by the
CFM*, and the final �20M in the form of
a loan from the EIB**). On the project's
completion in July 2011, high tonnage
ships will have easy access to the harbour.
It is part of a major initiative to develop
transport infrastructure in the country,
which has benefited from EU financing.


* � .*

On a very different scale, a good example
of a small project financed by the Food
Facility of the European Commission and
run under the auspices of an Italian NGO,
CESVI (Cooperation and Development)
has been underway since 2007 in the
Matutuine area, not far from Maputo.
This initiative has led to far-reaching
changes in the life of the community,
thanks to agricultural equipment placed
at the disposal of a local self-help orga-
nisation called Machubo. "This has only
been possible," explains the President of
the association, Silvestre Petrosse Nhaca,
"because our village has a long tradition
of solidarity. The assistance provided has
allowed us to better organise ourselves and
the community's livelihood is improving
from one day to the next." H.G.

* Mozambique Ports and Railways Company
** European Investment Bank

Port of Beira. Dredger �Hegel Goutler


One of the bridges over Zambezi River - courtesyCFM

An endless procession of trucks from the port of Beira throughout
the Southern African region @Hegel Goutler

Beira, the second city of Mozambique,
at the mouth of the river PoOngoe and
near to the mouth of the Zambezi, has
everything it needs to surpass the ports
of South Africa and to become Africa's
greatest gateway facing Asia and the
rest of the world. In an interview with
The Courier, CAndido G. Jone, Executive
Director of Mozambique Ports and
Railways (CFM) provides a summary:
"From Beira you can see India and
China". The city is already a guarantee
for the development of the interior and
the opening-up of neighboring coun-
tries, especially Malawi. It is the hub of a
functioning network of road, rail and port
axes and pipelines, an essential part of
the economic growth of the last decade
which is the source of so much pride in

Renaissance after the chaos

This network starting from Beira dates back
to the colonial period, but the neglect of
the Portuguese empire in terminal decline
and the horrors of the war of independence
and civil war set it back a great deal. Its
rehabilitation and modernization are now
progressing fast thanks to the country's
determination and the important support
of its backers, in par-

Malawi, Zambia and South Africa, also
form part of this corridor.

Mozambique decides: "Let's get
to work!"

A body designed to work towards the deve-
lopment of the Beira Corridor was set up
straight after the independence of the
country in 1975, and construction of the
oil terminal began in

ticular the European The ort and the railway were 1990. It was, however,
Union. At the centre he port and the railway were cessary to wait for
of this system is the completely destroyed during the end of the civil war
CFM (Mozambique 18 years of bloodshed" in 1992 for the work
Railways), the scope to start up in earnest.
of which extends "At the start, there was
beyond its name, as it is also in charge little significant aid from abroad, and for
of the country's ports and works in coor- a long time talks with international insti-
dination with the ANE (National Roads tutions did not produce any real results,
Administration). and so in 2002 Mozambique decided to
set to work in any case with the available
The port of Beira is the starting point for resources, even mobilizing the students
two railways, the 'Beira corridor' towards from the country's engineering schools.
Zimbabwe, South Africa and Botswana, And then it was they who approached us,
and the 'SENA Line', at present under the IMF and other institutions", reports
reconstruction, which follows the valley Jone with satisfaction.
of the Zambezi almost all the whole way
from the north of the country to the south 2003 saw the signing of an agreement with
before heading towards Malawi. "The backers, and the work beganin 2004,invol-
port and the railway were completely ving among other projects the construction
destroyed during 18 years of bloodshed, of 670 km of road including large bridges,
but straight after we set to work on their the 'SENA' railway line, and the dredging
reconstruction", says CandidoJone, sad of the entrance to the harbour at Beira.
and proud at the same time. The pipeline The work schedule has suffered almost
linking Beira to Zimbabwe and the roads no delays, and a large part of the network
towards the borders of the five neighbou- is already operational today. H.G.
ring countries, Tanzania, Zimbabwe,


Beira, Africa's future

gateway to the world

Mozambique Repo rt-


the Mozambican

A glimpse into the beating heart of Mozambique

part of the African conti-
nent, and at the same time
it is a special place, a kind
of island oscillating between the desire
to escape its physical location and the
compulsion to return there as soon as it
has moved away. The galaxy of artists
and creators who are native to this land
describe this uniqueness, notably...

Joao Borges Coelho, professor of history
at the university, a specialist in modern-
day wars and a talented novelist, makes
the transition from history to fiction. He
depicts Mozambique in a style that recalls
Umberto Eco.

The selective memory

"History and the novel are very different,
and yet I cannot separate the two. My
own life is my point of departure. War is
the defining feature of the whole set. It is
important to see how politics makes war
and how war, in turn, poisons politics. It
was war that allowed the country to gain
its freedom, and that is how it has conso-
lidated its power. We had two wars, one
for independence and then the civil war.
What is strange is that in the spirit of the
people, the first of these resounds, while
the other remains silent, despite affecting
more people. The fact is that the war of
independence is a symbol of justice, and it
created the nation as it is today. The civil
war was more complex. It is as if, in the
memory of Mozambicans, it would have
been better if it had never come to pass
and so it ceases to exist."

Mia Couto is a prolific novelist who has
been awarded several literary prizes. He
has been adapted by a number of film
directors and other artists and is a figu-
rehead in his own country. It is he who
is recommended to foreign visitors as

vialangarana s SIUGIO. LeT, nls painting. nignt, a piece from nls collection � Hegel Goutler

the passport par excellence to the soul of
Mozambique. "My father is a poet, and I
grew up in that world. Poetry is a way of
being, a way of looking at the world, of
seeing things." Writing was not a vocation
or a trade for him. Indeed, he had chosen
another career, that of medicine, which he
studied for three years before giving it up
"to infiltrate the press" which was then in
the hands of the Portuguese, on the orders
ofFRELIMO, of which he was a member
during the war of independence. He then
resumed his biology studies which he still
pursues today.

Mozambican identity, a mirage
of a phantom question

The first of Mia Couto's novels, 'Terra
Sonambula', dates back to 1992, and the

Mia Counto, novelistcHegel Gouber
He is par execellence the passport to the soul of Mozambique


Report Mozambique

Mozabique - Rep

f -,.

SL w
t *

Ilha de Magambique. Cinema Hegel Goutler
The uniqueness of Mozambique, described by its galaxy of artists

last, 'O olho de Hertzog', was published
only this year. Altogether he has written
27 works - poetry, novels, essays - and
has been translated into numerous lan-
guages. Abroad, he is unquestionably the
best-known Mozambican writer. One of
his essays is about the

Malangatana CHegelGoutler

issue of culture, poli-
tics and identity.

"Identity is a mirage
of a phantom ques-
tion. It is plural,
dynamic. We must
accept ourselves not
as just one person but a
A Mozambican. There
anywhere else. No on
man or woman. Hum
within; I am a woman
character of a woman.
it suffering, but also h
was an underground F
what I had trouble with
sang the praises of suffi
suffered, the more on
But I myself never suff
racial discrimination ag
loving parents, I was n
a happy guy who suffe
thing, the suffering of

Identity demands a kil
Africans often think of

suffered, as victims. But how many of us
were actually involved in the slave trade?
We are constantly in the process of put-
ting together the unity of the nation of
Mozambique, a nation born of different
nations, cultures, religions, and langua-
ges. People have adopted a European lan-
guage, sometimes used alongside local
regional languages. But when they address
their gods or when they speak of their
deepest being, they use more intimate
languages. What is more, the idea of one
global God here is absent. People worship
the god of their family, or of the land in
which they live, their hossi. All along the
coast of Mozambique, a big part of the
population is of mixed race, with Arab
origins, and yet no one talks about cultural
mixing. Everyone is looking for purity, a
Mozambican purity."

The film director Joao Ribeiro is another
window on Mozambique and its post-war
suffering and beliefs. He has adapted two
of Mia Couto's novels, 'A Fogueira', from
which he derived 'Fogata', and 'O ultimo
voo do flamingo'.

Malangatana, a landmark figure

Mozambique's cultural ambassador
par excellence is probably the painter,
Malangatana. He is consulted, called
upon and invited

"We Africans often think of more often than any
artist or sage, and not
ourselves as having suffered, only in his own coun-
as victims. But how many of us try, but also abroad,
were actually involved in the like a landmark who
slae t ? leads the way to his
la trade?country's soul. He is
often described as the
s a world of people. "sacred monster". He is loved all the more
is nothing similar because the roots of his inspiration and
e is black or white, his craftsmanship are to be found deep in
anity comes from popular art to which he always returns to
when I conceive the renew himself, even when creating abs-
That brings with tract works. People adore his passion for
happiness. When I life: he is a true Pantagruel', of art, of good
'RELIMO fighter, cheer, and of the company of others, in
Swas that the party the image of his compatriots. With age,
:ring: the more one he seems to have shrunk a little, but as
e was appreciated. soon as he speaks, his charm rings loud,
ered; there was no in his words, but also in their intonation,
against me and Ihad a mix of the voices of Louis Armstrong
ever in need. I was and of Martin Luther King. H.G.

red only from one

nd of creation. We
ourselves as having

Pantagruel is a character of Francois Rabelais
1494-1553, who became a symbol for a passion
for knowledge and enjoyment of life.


The Island of Mozambique

and other enchantments

The Ilha de Mocambique, or Island of
Mozambique, is a small island that has
seduced Arab sultans, Indian traders
and Portuguese conquistadors since
the tenth century and has given its
name to the country we know today. It
remains enchanting, so much so that
you wonder if this unreal place sus-
pended in time does actually exist. The
island was granted protection by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) as
a World Heritage site in 1991.

Where dreams ofthe Orient took

'Ilha', as Mozambicans fondly call it, is a
3000 km plane journey from Maputo fol-
lowed by a three hour drive before a final
crossing of a 3 km bridge which links it
to the mainland. It is

The north of the island is home to the
'Cidade de piedra e cal', or city of stone
and lime, composed of stately homes that
remain impressive though they are marked
by the irrepressible passage of time. Even
'Makuti city' in the South - extremely
poor, built of thatch and recovered wood
from houses that were deserted as the
island gradually lost its majesty, losing the
nation's capital in 1898 and the province's
in 1935 - has to this day a magic that can
be felt nowhere else.

Where the Indians mixed more
than anywhere else

A small island, inhabited by sixteen thou-
sand people, the population has inherited
the habit of discussing amongst them-
selves. This trait comes especially to the
fore during its annual Art and Cultural
festival in October. The regional capital,
Nampula, is part of the metissage (mix-
ing) between Black, White, Indian and
Arabic peoples. It is perhaps the place were
Indians mixed most with others.

Remaining in the quaint atmosphere of
times gone by, there is also Inhambane,
a Portuguese colonial city par excellence
where every building seems to be built
with reference to the past.. Beautiful, yet
quietly restrained, this city comes to life at
night, its youth crowding into the streets.
Not far from the centre are the beautiful
beaches of Bara and Tofo, and a little
further, the Bazaruto

Ilha de Mogambique MHegelGouber
'Muciro' forms a delicate pattern on the face

three miles long and "Where the Indians mixed archipelago where
barely a half a mile more than anywhere else" islands bathe in a pas-
wide, full of strange- tel of emerald green,
ness, charm and nos- blues and fuchsias as if
talgia. On the streets of'Ilha' the elegance they were scraped onto a canvas of white
of local girls - and boys - is on display, and beige sands.
their faces adorned with a white ointment,
painted in intricate patterns, which serves Then of course there's Maputo, formerly
both as a skincare product and make up Lourengo Marques, which manages to be
and which also allows individual artistic beautiful and trendy at the same time. It
expression. The Portuguese projected is dynamic without being overbearing,
their links with India on the island, and remaining both modern and embrac-
before them, from the 10th century, the ing. Pemba, decorates the coast of the
Arabs brought their gold trade to the East, Quirimbas islands, the most beautiful in
stopping here, and bringing other luxury the world. And then there's Beira, Xai
products with them; perfume, silk, and Xai and after. .. the scenery, the national
gems. parks, Gorongosa Niassa. And .... H.G.


Repor Mozabiqe-

Sudan: on the brink

of making history

If all goes according to plan on 9 January 2011, Sudan will hold two referenda that
will shape the future of Africa. In the event of the country's separation, it will be the
first time that an African border has been changed by the ballot box.

Olivia Rutazibwa'

n line with the 2005 Comprehensive
Peace Agreement (CPA), the refer-
endum in South Sudan will decide
whether Africa's largest country will
stay united, or not. The second referen-
dum will be held in the oil-rich Abyei bor-
der region where people have to decide
whether, in the event of separation, they
will be part of North or South Sudan.

On a recent visit to Brussels, Nairobi-
based Olivia Kallis of Oxfam International
underlined that the international commu-
nity should meet the development chal-
lenges of the whole of the country. Whereas
these are huge in South Sudan with very
little infrastructure development outside
Juba, in North Sudan, the Darfur crisis is
still not resolved.

Although EU humanitarian aid has flowed
to Sudan, longer-term development assis-
tance is somewhat constrained by the fact
that Sudan has not ratified the revised

Cotonou Agreement between African,
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries
and the EU. EU officials cannot be seen
to engage with Sudanese president Omar
al-Bashir since a warrant for his arrest
issued by the International Criminal Court
for alleged involvement in war crimes and
crimes against humanity in Darfur. It
means that, to date, the EU has not been
able to allocate the �300M earmarked
for Sudan under the 10th European
Development Fund (2008-2013).

�150M EU pledge

Dr. Francis Nazario, Head of Mission
of the Representation of South Sudan in
Brussels, says that the situation has meant
assistance which was supposed to be given
to the people of South Sudan has been
delayed for areas such as funds for security
sector reform. "There are still some funds
from the 9th EDF, but by the end of next
year they will be finished", said an EU
official. The EU and its member states
have pooled f150M for the whole of Sudan
with specific focus on the war-affected
populations of the South, Darfur and the

East. Following a mission in October 2010
to Khartoum and Juba, an EU program-
ming document has been drafted with
suggestions on how the funds should be
disbursed, identifying three priority areas:
agricultural development (including food
security), basic services like education,
health and sanitation and democratic gov-
ernance. None of these funds will be chan-
nelled through the Sudanese government
but rather through NGOs or international

Most observers predict that the South
Sudanese will vote for an independent
state, an outcome that is not desired by
the North. Mada Elfatih, spokesperson of
the Sudanese embassy in Brussels said: "An
independent South Sudan will only benefit
a specific segment of the South Sudanese.
The majority does not want a divided
country. But we will accept any outcome
of the referendum, provided that it will
be conducted in a free and fair manner".

SThe author writes for 'Mo' magazine, Belgium


- * 1

Rodney Saint-Eloi, writer and editor

"Haiti, kenbe la!

35 seconds and my entire

country to rebuild"*

another book by a Haitian
writer to tell the story of the
goudou-goudou, a Creole ono-
matopoeic term for the earthquake. But
this is a different, original book, like all
of those published by the writers of the
Caribbean island in the attempt to take a
firm hold, right from the hours following
the earthquake, on this episode that was
to become a colossal part of the history
of their country. An episode which, they
all decided was one that they had to tell
themselves rather than leave it to others
to speak in their place.

The two maxims which open the work
speak volumes on the intentions of
Rodney Saint-Eloi and by proxy on
those of his numerous compatriots who
have also written about the cataclysm

or have used it as a setting for their fic-
tion. The first of these was penned by
the famous Haitian writer in English,
Edwidge Danticat, "We are not in the
habit of letting our sorrows reduce us to
silence", and the second is taken from an
old African aphorism "For as long as the
lion does not have a historian, the hunting
stories will always glorify the hunter".

"Haiti, Kenbe la..." tells the story of the
earthquake of the 12th of January 2010
and examines it, or at least its conse-
quences, in parallel with the structu-
ral problems of Haiti, what the author
calls the more global earthquake that
is shaking Haitian society, recalling the
premonitory wisdom of his old grand-
mother. "The history of the country is a
succession of earthquakes. Natural ear-
thquakes. Human earthquakes".

The earthquake of the 12th of January
took a lot of Haitian artists, writers, and
creators by surprise, but also affected
foreigners who had come to get ready
for a series of cultural events and cele-
brate the international literary prizes
won by the country's novelists during
the year 2009. Saint-Eloi had just arrived
in Port-au-Prince that very day, and the
earthquake struck just as he had taken
his room key in the one of the big hotels
near the capital, a hotel that was to be
completely destroyed.

"Haiti, Kenbe la..." is the story of a series
of meetings amid the pain of the people
of Haiti as they each played their part
in what the author calls a "sort of crea-
tive madness", and a song of praise to
this people, endowed with a very special
self-styled resilience. It is at the same
time an analysis of the way the country
has drifted, and a hymn to its hours of
glory. Above all, it is a beautiful book
which, although it is also a report and an
essay, has all the stylistic rhythm of the
great novelist that is Rodney Saint-Eloi,
with a particular music, ellipses, scene
setting and the atmosphere of a dream,
like when the author happens to doze off
in the courtyard of the ruined hotel next
to dozens of other disaster victims, with
all the social classes mixed up, masters
and servants together, spread out on the
ground on the night of the forty-six after-
shocks of the earthquake.

"It was as if they had stretched out to join
the body of this city of Port-au-Prince,
where the need to live together only rarely
shows itself. They and their domestic
staff were united under the coat of arms
of the Republic in their respect for the
vows of liberty, equality, and fraternity,
the motto of the nation... ". H.G.

* Preface by Yasmina Khadre, Ed. Michel Lafon,
France www.michel-lafon.com


Fashion, Music

The ACP Secretariat,

a showcase for creativity

An impressive cultural event closed
the meeting of the ACP Migration
Observatory, on 26 October, under the
presidency of its goodwill ambassador,
Burundian singing star Khadja Nin, and
Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary
General of the ACP Group. The rather
austere hall of the institution's Brussels
headquarters was transformed for the
occasion. It began with a fashion show
that impressed with its modernity, imagi-
nation, creativity and vigour. All of this
was the work of students and beginners,
all of them young African professionals
living in Belgium, both talented and brim-
ming with ideas.

Elves and birds of paradise

First on was Naomie Hamka, from
Cameroon, who provided the packed
hall with a feast for the eyes. Her costu-
mes were sublime, a poetry of lace and
white veils worn by her elf-like models.
She displayed a mastery of fabrics, enri-
ched with both European and African
touches yet at the same time unique in
giving life to original creations. Modern
but with more than a hint of nostalgia.

Faklani Reda is inspired by the magni-
ficence of birds of paradise. He projects
hot colours onto silky black or dark blue
fabrics that evoke the magic of twilight
while conferring an air of mystery. He
creates the impression, as Reda puts it,
of "cold beauty that mystifies the woman
in a dreamlike apparel."

Carnival of inspirations

ueslgn:. iaom lie nai Ka ( Hegel Gouber

Marie-Frangoise Komnek, from
Cameroon, presented a sort of carnival
of inspiration, fabrics and accessories. A
hymn to a mixing of tastes and colours,
moving from sporty creations to the
refined but easy to wear, and set to a
background of rap. It was fashion for
the young.

The duo Pauline Bourguignon and
Cheika-Sigl, wound up the fashion show
with a sophisticated symphony of black
and masks. The beauty of a Venetian
carnival with colours seeking refuge
behind dark silk and faces glimpsed

behind masks -concealment that is so

The delighted public, enraptured by
the beauty of the fashion show, was
entranced by the music of such talen-
ted artists as the two leaders of the jazz
band Taam'la, Madeena and Desire
from the Cote d'Ivoire. Next on was the
Burkinabe Mbaterna Desire Some and
then the traditional and therefore effer-

vescent music of the maestro Adalberto
'El Bamba' Martinez and his Cuban
group CubaSoy, who handed over the
stage to Bao Sissoko from Senegal. It
was left to the group Kel Assouf, led
by the talented duo ofTouaregs, Anana
Harouna and Omar Mokhtar, to round
off the evening. A showcase for the cul-
ture of ACP member countries of which
its Secretariat can be proud. Let's hope
for a repeat! H.G.



The Couriers Young ACP Photographers'

Competition 2010

Sandra Federici

Johannesburg; a young boy
fishing in rural Mozambique;
the architectural ruins of a
demolished building in Mali: one only
needs to glance at the three winning
photos of "the Courier's Young ACP
Photographers' Competition 2010" to
get a sense of the broad points of view,
depths of analysis and social realities
in the ACP World through the winning

The competition was organised by the
Courier to highlight the work of young
ACP photographers under 30 years of
age. Participants were requested to sub-
mit pictures falling under the themes of
trade, culture, tradition, climate change
and science and technology related to
ACP development. A total of 91 photo-
graphs, taken by some 30 photographers,
met the eligibility criteria.

South African Chris Saunders won first
prize with "Dressed up", which was
part of full reportage by the photogra-
pher on a crew of Tsotsi-style Panstula
dancers from Orange Farm Township
in Johannesburg. The whole series of
photos tells an interesting and positive
story and can be viewed alongside the
work of the other eligible photographers
on the Courier's website: http://www.acp-
eucourier.info/. All photos are accompa-
nied by individual captions written by
the photographers themselves.

"The Little Fisherman" by Mario
Macilau (Mozambique) was awarded
second place, and "La Demolition" (The
Demolition) by Aboubacar Traore (Mali)
came third.

Currently, Saunders, is completing a
one-year residency at Fabrica, a pres-
tigious independent creative research
facility in Treviso, Italy. Macilau was
trained by Mozambican photographer
Ricardo Rangel, and Traore took part in
the Pan African exhibition at the Bamako
Biennial 2009.

"The Little Fisherman" 2nd prize in the Courier's photo competition a MarnoMacilau

Irony ity, photo-journalism skills, originality
and artistic merit
Many of the photographs had more
than a hint of irony, such as "American The winner was awarded the �1,000
Dreams", by Senegalese photographer prize offered by competition sponsors,
Boubacar D. Coly; the South African Africa e Mediterraneo (Bologna: www.
Max Edkins's photo, "Airplanes Produce africaemediterraneo.it) and Grand Angle
Carbon Dioxide", which shows the pol- press & production (Brussels: www.gran-
lution produced by aeroplanes in the dangle.info). COLEACP, an ACP-EU
form of a cloud of network, has com-
talc trailing behind mitted to sponsoring
a model aeroplane; "Many of the photographs had a photo assignment in
"Utuko Import" more than a hint of irony" an ACP country for
by Georges Senga, the winner.
from the Democratic
Republic of Congo, which shows a bar The photo competition was promoted
code of the traditional alcohol 'Lutuku' through media partners includingJeune
painted onto a house. Afrique, Africultures, Afri Photo, African

The international jury was made up of
experts in the field of photography such
as Christine Eyene, Giovanni Melillo
Kostner and members of the Courier's
Editorial Board and Editorial Team. The
jury evaluated the photos on the basis of
their technical quality, storytelling abil-

Colours and Arterial Network.

A selection of 20 photos was exhibited at
DevDays, which took place in Brussels
from 6 to 7 December 2010. (See sepa-
rate article covering the event in our
Round Up section)



For young readers


sBwRM awE


Word from our readers

Report on Trinidad and Tobago (Courier

I would hope that African thinkers
and decision makers can consider and
learn from the situation in Trinidad and
Tobago ... For me, Trinidad and Tobago
is an example to be followed by all ACP
countries because neither its statehood
nor frequent colonization have hampered
its continued development.

About your supplement on the MDGs,
I am very appreciative of the view that
plans to put 0.7% of their GNI to ODA.
But ... we will realize that it is aid des-
tined for a handful of individuals, not
countries. ... The means mean noth-
ing unless they are accompanied by the
necessary plans needed and willingness
to move forward. For me ... the crisis
of development is nothing but a crisis
of leadership. Continue to offer items
that provoke debate. It's a good exer-
cise for you and for us. One of your avid
readers in Africa (Extract from letter
received from Patrick Issa Kalenga)

A new era in EU relations with Africa
(Courier n.19):

Relations between Europe and Africa
moved on to a more mature era. It
is less important today to know the
quantity of development aid given
than to discover the quantity of
projects that contribute to the self-
sufficiency of the African continent.
(J A Falcon - IRGEI)

Report on Tanzania (Courier n.19):

Tanzania has to its credit one of the most
stable transitions between the founding
fathers and their successors hence the
continuity we see today. If countries in
Africa do not have changes in Headship
as frequently as those in the Western
hemisphere then they are labeled undem-
ocratic. It is time to complement develop-
ments that are progressive and not trash
everything especially when you don't
live on the continent. (Mike Dhliwayo)


Agenda January-May2011


1/1/11 Start of the Hungarian
Presidency of the Council
of the European Union
(see our dossier in
Discovering Europe)

20 -21/1 AGROTEC -EMRC
International Business Forum
Lisbon, Portugal


30-31/1 16th Ordinary Session of
the Assembly of the African
Union, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Theme: "Towards Greater
Unity and Integration through
Shared Values"
Conference Centre of
United Nations Economic
Commission for Africa

31/1 ACP -OIF Symposium :
Enhancing South-South
Cooperation : Challenges and
Opportunities for the ACP


7-9/2 4th Corporate Africa Business
Coalition Partnerships for
Prevention and Care Africa
Health Conference,
Sheraton Hotel, Addis Ababa,
www. corporateafricahealthfounda-

EU- Africa Trade and
Investment Conference,
Theme: Promoting Trade
and Investment - Mobilising
Diaspora Capacities and



14 - 17/3 African Utility Week,
Cape Town, South Africa
http://www.afr:.. -:.i.:i -.


9 -13/5

Fourth United Nations
Conference on Least
Developed Countries,
Istanbul, Turkey



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