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MEitrial Cunmiltee
Sir John Kaputin, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
Mr Stefano Manservisi, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

editorial stafl
director and Mitor-in-chiel
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Mitorial Assistant and Prluclion
Joshua Massarenti

Conributle in this issue
Bernard Babb, Elisabetta Degli Esposti Merli, Sandra Federici, Lucky George,
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani, Dev Nadkarni, Fernand Nouwligbeto, Clmence Petit-
Pierrot and Debbie Singh.

Public Relaions and Airlslic coordination
Public Relaions
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani (Public Relations Manager and Responsible for
NGOs' and experts' network)

Aristic Coordinalion
Sandra Federici

Graphic Conceplon, Layout
Orazio Metello Orsini, Arketipa, Lai-momo Roberta Contarini

contract Manager
Claudia Rechten
Claudia Arnold

Albina, he banks of the river Marrowipe
(Surinam French Guiana ronier) 2008. Hegel Gouier

Wilie Besler, Man wihU pipe, oil on lins in metl box.
Couresy of LARIETE artecontemporaneu, Bologna

The Courier
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Published every two monthsin Engish, French, Spanish and Portguese

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Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourier.info

Hegel Goutier

Gopa-Cartermill Grand Angle Lai-momo

The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official
view of the EC nor of the ACP countries.

The consortium and the editorial staff decline ail responsibility for the articles
written by external contributors.


Our privileged

partner, the


cultural centre promoting artists
from countries in Europe, Afri-
ca, the Caribbean and the Pacific
and cultural exchanges between
communities through performance
arts, music, cinema, to the holding
ofconferences. It is a meeting place
for Belgians, immigrants of diverse
origins and European officials.

Espace Senghor
Centre cultural d'Etterbeek
Brussels, Belgium

Place dedicated to other privileged






Table of contents

The State of grace

"One of the most exciting things for me in
Africa is the turnaround"

The new virtues of local governance
Supporting a growing process
The missing link
Bolstering local government in Kenya with EU funds
"If the state does not change, the decentralisation
reforms will lose much of their virtue"
Incomplete decentralisation process creating risks
Not ten... not a hundred... but a thousand
international cooperation links
The Diaspora and local government: natural partners
Media and Development Forum ion Ouagadougou
Words and commitment from the European Union
and African Union
Sowing seeds for Africa-EU-China cooperation
Aid effectiveness Forum disappoints some NGOs
Opportunities for SMEs in Africa's water and energy
Fondazioni4Africa: the new frontier of international
APRODEV : plus de comptences pour les ACP
avant les APE dfinitifs
Future Constitution of the Seychelles:
Brainstorming at the European Parliament
Relancer la dynamique rgionale
EPAs "in the midst of a maelstrom"
Photography. Prizewinners for Africa

When Science Gets Involved

Launch of the EU-Africa partnership for science 32
3 Ghana undertakes to control timber exports to EU 33

Fountain of life for ail 35
8 History as seen by the Amerindians 37
Ramdien Sardoje 38
"In economic terms, yes, we are doing well" 39
A small economy with huge potential 40
Foundations for spatial planning: forests, ecological
14 tourism and plantations 41
Good economic situation but too much bureaucracy
1 and sectarianism, according to the Chamber
17 of Commerce and Industry 42
A certain balance between good governance and
19 community-based allegiance 43
20 A la recherche de l'alliance de l'homme et de la nature 48
Discovery. The natural heritage 44
Nola Hatterman Institute 45

23 Surinam-EU Cooperation 48
Scotland's Highlands and Islands. An exuberance
of natural assets 47
"A myriad of inequalties" 48
27 Scotland' s international development policy
branches out 50
27 Highlands and Islands on a high 52
Scotch: from strength to strength 54
2 Africa in the Museums of Europe 55
Images of women 58
29 PSICD, support for the vibrancy of Beninese culture 57
Rama Yade in her own words 58
30 Mandela, a comic book hero 58
Now we can be more efficient 59



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ho would have believed, just three
months ago, that the State would be
freed from the purgatory to which it
had been condemned for decades as
recent history delivered a combination of a 'free mar-
ket revolution', the collapse of the Soviet system, and
the success of the so-called 'golden boys' who became
for many role models of success? Moreover, it was not
only the State and all that it stands for multinational
institutions and regional organizations included but
public service itself that had become synonymous
with developments that served no purpose; obstacles
placed in the path of prosperity and the protection of
the lazy and the incompetent.

Nobody would deny the weaknesses and inherent
clumsiness of any system that becomes too big. But
to create the dogma of the State as inherently harmful
is surely to give credence to the French philosopher
Alain, when he says that "Nothing is more danger-
ous than an idea, when it is the only one we have".
Indeed, to deny the State control over certain key areas
of human development to which it brings unequalled
added value brings the risk of a democracy built
purely for the strong, the gifted and the highborn.

The State is back and is being wooed and respectfully
asked to come to the assistance of a vessel that has
gone adrift. Without going as far as to ask it to clean
out the Aegean stables of the financial world, every-
body now seems to accept that it will have its say on
matters where its views were previously unwelcome.
However, even before the recent financial crisis, inter-
national institutions like the World Bank had already
adjusted their concept of the role of the State by plac-
ing more confidence in them in the fight for future

Our guest for this issue's 'To the point' column,
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, the Managing Director of the
World Bank, explains that her institution is increas-
ingly entrusting local government with managing
the fight against poverty rather than creating its own
units a practice that was adopted by the European
Union some time ago. Readers will also discover
in an article on the return of Togo to constitutional
order that between 2004 and today, the share of the
European Development Fund allocated to budgetary
aid in other words that part managed entirely by
the beneficiary ACP States has doubled from one
quarter to a half.

The result of the Accra ACP Summit shows that the
viability of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group
of States seems to be assured after 2020 and the expiry
of the Cotonou Agreement. That at least is the com-
mitment given by its heads of state when, just a short
while ago, many believed it to be threatened. This too
is a sign of the times.

The strength of States and of their component parts
(the regions) or their groupings (federations and
unions) have often been placed in opposition. To
judge from this issue's dossier on local governance
this would seem to be a mistake and this holds true
in Europe as well as in Africa. Spain serves as a good
example. Securely anchored in Europe, it is at the
same time perfectly at ease with decentralisation and
has a significant development policy. At the same
time, there are regions such as Catalonia which is
seeking to achieve the target of devoting 0.7 per cent
of its GDP to development aid by 2012.

Hegel Goutier,
Editor-in-( I-. f

o the point

Debra Percival

"One of the IOST EXCITlIG things for me in

ffrica is the TU RD H ROU D"

Nigeria's first female Finance Minister and Foreign Minister, appointed Managing
Director of the World Bank (WB) in October 2007, Ngozi Okonjo-lweala is a popular
figure in international fora for her wealth of experience, insight and straight-talking.
During a stop-over in Brussels following the 2-4 September Third Accra Forum on aid
effectiveness, she gave us her views on what was achieved in Accra and spoke about
the global food crisis, applauding the European Commission's move to propose a
fast disbursing C lbn fund to boost farming which she says, "would make a huge
contribution to hunger, poverty and malnutrition and sustainable agriculture so that
people can feed themselves." This matches a US$1.2bn from the WB of which US$586
have already been mobilised. Energetic and focused, Okonjo-lwaela, who holds a
PhD in regional economics and development, says that delivering in her work is what
drives her. She modestly casts off her effect to inspire others.

You'vejust got backfrom the Aid Fi~. i. . ..
Forum in Ghana. Were you disappointed with
the results?

As the World Bank, we were pleased with
the outcome. It was incredible. In Paris three
years ago there you had 600 participants. In
Accra, 1,700 showed up from 130 countries
and 40 institutions. There were delegations

that had never participated before; non tradi-
tional donors, South Korea and China, Brazil
and some of the new East European countries
who are just starting to look at how to be a
donor. And you had Foundations and before
the meeting, a civil society forum. For the
first time, developing countries had a strong
voice. The holding of the Forum in an African
country, Ghana, helped a lot. The meeting had
several things that I think really made it stand
out. First was the assessment of whether aid

"Conditionality is old

has had an impact on poverty and whether
since three years ago in Paris we have made
better progress in harmonising aid. Fifteen
years ago two in five people were below the
poverty line; now it's one in four, though
there are threats like the present Darfur cri-
sis that can reverse this. In terms of donors
harmonising, there's progress in a couple of
areas. One is in working to put developing
countries more in the leadership; management

of public finances by developing countries and
also some progress on more working together
of donors.
There have also been challenges. This fuel,
food and fertilizer crisis the three 'Fs' -
where prices have doubled or tripled in the
last few years depending on the commodity. In
many countries this has impacted the poverty
situation. This is why it is very important to
focus on aid effectiveness; you have to make
it real. If we don't act, 100 million more peo-
ple could be thrown into poverty. In Sierra
Leone, for example, the incidence of poverty
has increased by 3 per cent to 69 per cent
because of the food and fuel crisis, so what
does aid effectiveness mean in that situation?
What is it that was pleasing in Accra? Using
the aid effectiveness angle to focus on real
problems; putting attention on the fact that we
have to work together to address this crisis and
get away from the fragmentation. Let's use
country systems. So if a country has function-
ing financial management and procurement
systems, why can't we work through these
rather than create our own separate units.
Conditionality is old language; now what we
want to focus on is transition where a county
crafts its own programmes, makes its own
benchmarks and we monitor...


To the point

A lot of the EU's aid now consists of budget
aid. Does the World Bank support this policy?

The World Bank is very supportive. The WB
has been giving budget support where the
environment permits if the country is follow-
ing economic policies that are reasonable and
are carrying out reforms to its system, also
where it is possible to have some reasonable
financial management systems, so that when
you give budget support it does not disappear
and shareholders would turn around and say
that the money is not being well spent. In those
countries with weaker systems, we support the
pooling of funds. For example in Afghanistan,
we have been managing a fund to support the
development of Afghanistan where donors have
pooled up to US$2.5bn in resources and we help
the Afghanis the ministries to strengthen their
budget. You will weaken the state more when
you continue to use processes outside and you
can strengthen it by using the system because
you are forced to help them make it work.
Coming back to Accra, we also agreed that we
would be more transparent in aid commitments.
If you are supporting a country, publish what
you are funding so that parliaments, civil soci-
ety and the citizens can be aware. Everything
that the WB funds is out there.

Is thefood crisis a blip or does it denote some-
l,;,". deeper in that agriculture has not been
paid enough attention?

It's a bit of all of these things. It is not a blip in
the sense that it will disappear tomorrow. It will
be another two to three years before it works
itself out because a constellation of factors led
to this. The entire global community took its
eye off the ball of agriculture. Even the coun-
tries themselves did not prioritise agriculture in
their development priorities. Why? Because it
looked like the war with agriculture had been
won. There was enough food being produced.
You could move food around easily to places
where it was needed when a crisis occurred. I
think this happened, so the amount of financing
going to agriculture dropped. I don't think that
this is what has precipitated the crisis. High
fuel prices which have led to high fertilizer
prices and the use of some of the land for food
cultivation going to biofuels have been said to
be contributory factors. You also have some
external events on the climate change front;
floods and drought in many parts of the world
that have also affected production. All these
things happened and some people would also
add speculation making prices higher. It's not
one event but the coming together of a series
of events that has done this. The reason why


we say that it is not a blip is that you have to
look at some of the events. Some of them are
more structural in nature. There are structural
and speculative factors underlying the price of
oil. If this is the case, you have to look at the
impact on fertilizer. The use of land for biofu-
els is not going to change overnight, although
incentives have changed to stop subsidizing
such production. The other big factor is that
there is an increase in demand from emerging
countries and they are wealthier. The key issue
is that you can respond by mitigating the price
by encouraging more production and see the
high prices as a bit of an opportunity in a way
for farmers to benefit.

Were you disappointed at the collapse of the
Doha trade talks?

Absolutely. We cannot afford to accept any
collapse. We must not just sit back. Many
developing countries have a lot to do so that
they can benefit from the agreement when it is
finally reached. I'm talking here about aid for
trade. There are a lot of things that developing
countries still have to do; improve their infra-
structure; strengthen their regulatory capacity;
look at their trade policies. You can't talk
about advantages of trade if you don't have
the ports and the roads. Aid for trade has to get
real. Countries have talked about it but there
has not been action.

"Aid for trade has to

get real"

Do you support the Diaspora becoming bigger
players in developmentpolicy?

It's a good thing to include the Diaspora for
several reasons. Number one, they are very
strong in remittances. Many countries are get-
ting a bigger sum from the Diaspora in remit-
tances than they are getting in aid. Diaspora
remittances to Africa are about US$llbn
now annually of which US$3bn alone go to
Nigeria. They have knowledge of their coun-
tries and are quick to get things off the ground.
They are a totally under-utilised resource. The
World Bank has proposed a Diaspora sup-
port programme drawn up in Brussels and in
Washington; a Diaspora programme for Africa
is being developed to support the Diaspora's
projects, ideas and send back their expertise.

During your tenure is there one single change
you would most like to bring about in the
African continent?

I think that when you look at what is constrain-
ing growth now, one of the most exciting
things for me for Africa is the turnaround.
Just a decade ago, people had given up and
said this continent was not going anywhere.
Then, in this decade of the 2000s, you've seen
African countries growing systematically at
better than 5 per cent and even projections
of 6.5 to 7 per cent and I'm not just talking
of commodity exporting countries. There are
18 non-commodity exports that are growing
at better than 5 per cent and have been doing
so for some time. But because 5 or 6 per cent
is still not good enough to help achieve the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) you
really need to push growth to 7 or 8 per cent
- how can you do that? This is what drives
any desire I have to see something different.
When you do the analysis, you find out that
the private sector is key to this growth and
creating jobs. Foreign Direct Investment to the
continent has increased to US$38bn a year but
it is not always going into the sectors which
are creating the most jobs. So what's the prob-
lem? Many of them cite infrastructure con-
straints, so one of the things I'd really like to
see is bigger investment in infrastructure and
it has to involve public/private partnerships.
One example is telecommunications. The cell
phone revolution has really taken off in Africa.
Before, there were hardly any landline phones;
then the cell phone came in and in 2000 there
were ten million mobile lines on the continent.
Today, there are 180 million. This has been
brought in by the private sector. Governments
have created the environment to give licences
and the private sector has invested. Can we
get ports that function with the private sector,
roads that connect rural areas to markets and
railways? This is my dream. And can we do
this regionally? Some countries are landlocked
and their markets are small. We at the WB can
catalyse some of this through our private sec-
tor arm, the International Finance Corporation.
It is creating a US$100M fund for infrastruc-
ture and another one for health, so how can
other donors also catalyse the private sector to
go in and build infrastructure?
The full version of the interview will appear
on 'The Courier's' website: http://www.acp-
eucourier.info/ M

Ngozi Okonjo-lweala, Nigeria's first female
Finance Minister and Foreign Minister
World Bank/Simone D McCourbe

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala; World Bank; Africa;
Aid effectiveness; food crisis; trade; biofu-
els; budget aid; Diaspora; MDGs; private
sector; Debra Percival

......... .............

them to honour their commitments and achieve the Millennium Development Goals
n connection with current negotiations with the EU t tranorm their

privileged links into free trade agreements, in the form of the highly con-
At the Sixth African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACono) Summit of Heads of State and
Government in the Ghanaian capital of Accra on 2 and 3 October, the ACP Group
sent a clear signal to the international community and the financial institutions for
them to honour their commitments and achieve the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) by 2020.

John Kufuoprivileged links into free trade agreements, in the form of the highly con
troversial Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), Summit President
John Kufuor of Ghana announced the ACP Group'ds decision to negotiate
with certain European countries, including France, the United Kingdom and
Germany, with a vew to their r revision. "What we wato focus", declared the Ghanaian
President, "is a genuine partnership strategy and not agreements as they stand at
present and that give the impression of continue i dependence on Europe"

> Saung the economic and the people

John Kufuor sought to place the Summit under the theme of "the need to
ensure the security of people and of development". While recognizing present
difficulties, the President stressed the need to focus especially on youth, "who
should be nurtured into the mainstream of globalisation with competence and
self-confidence". He added that this demands a fair system of international
"" i trade to enable our economies to be sufficiently strong to permit appropriate
education and health programmes, criticising the EPAs that "divide the solidar-
ity between the ACP countries". The EPAs dominated much of the debate (read
also the interview with Ivorian African Integration Minister Amadou Kon and
comments of Glenys Kinnock in the 'Trade rubric'), together with the food and
., . .o .G oil crises, now with the added dimension of the financial crisis that is sending
*C, M .a. .i: .... "shockwaves across the industrialized countries.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Round up

> fn "almost apocalyptic"

"The consequences of the international finan-
cial crisis will be disastrous for the ACP coun-
tries as a whole, given their fragile economies
that are dependent on raw materials exports,
and for the small and vulnerable countries in
particular", Arvin Boolell told The Courier.
Known for his determination in defending the
interests of the Eastern and Southern African
countries in their negotiations with the EU
on the new EPAs, the Mauritian Minister for
Foreign affairs was adamant: "It is unfortunate
that lessons have not been learned from the
experiences of the past; today it is the weakest
countries, those whose budgets had already
been eroded by rising oil and food prices,
which must pay the price for irresponsible
management by the developed countries." He


believes there is a real danger today of seeing
a depreciation of the dollar coupled with an
increase in production, oil and food costs: "In
these times of great change, we will have to
confront an almost apocalyptic situation."
Rob Davies, South Africa's Deputy Minister

!ever.1 less seems.lr ssured Ini lleir
Itclosl'l.[in delationl thei ACPihea

for Trade and Industry, noted for his part,
as did his ACP colleagues, that the US
Government is prepared to pay US$700bn
to bail out its financial system and that the
European central banks are doing the same,
remarking that: "In this case they can find the
money and apparently not for development."
The minister was referring to the falling com-
mitments of the developed countries in regard
to the developing countries. By subscribing a
few years ago to the MDGs, which included a
pledge to reduce world poverty by 50 per cent
by 2020, the industrialized countries under-
took to allocate 0.7 per cent of their GDP to
development cooperation. It is a goal that few
countries have met; worse still, their commit-
ments have in fact decreased over the past two
years. "This attitude", continued Mr. Davies,
"is indicative of the priorities of the present
governance of the global economy". M

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IJ i icn i a I m: of

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The College-to-College (C-2-C) meeting in Brussels of the European Union (EU)
Commissioners with their African Union (AU) counterparts, 1 October, deepened the
eight partnerships of the EU Strategy for the continent launched at the Africa-EU
Summit in Lisbon, Portugal, December 2007.*

between ail 10 AU Commissioners
and on this occasion, 21 of the 27
European Union (EU) Commissioners
representing a gamut of policy areas. European
Commission President, Jos Manuel Barroso
said the event was, "a regular and important
feature on the political calendar allowing us
to address the key concerns of the day whilst

A regular and impor-

tant feature on the

political calendar

also mapping out our action in the agreed fields
of our strategic partnership whether they be
security, energy or climate change issues", a
view echoed by AU Chairperson, Jean Ping.
All Commissioners and other officials taking
part gathered in six thematic 'clusters' (whose
highlights are below). These covered all areas
of the Africa-EU strategy strategy; some more
political than others such as peace and security;
whilst actual projects are poised for funding in
the science and technology sphere (see separate
article in 'Interaction' section).

Cluster One: Institutional capacity building,
administrative cooperation andCommunication.
This looked at how the Africa strategy is being
administered and communicated.

Cluster two: Political attiri,. Peace and
Security, Democratic Governance and Human
Rights. Here, the AU underlined all it is doing
in Darfur, Somalia, Mauritania, the Great
Lakes and Zimbabwe, whereas the EU spoke
about its mediation of African crises and
peacekeeping operations. The EU explained its
concept of development in 'fragile' states.

Cluster three: Infrastructures, Energy,
the Environment and Climate (i '... The
continent's 'Programme for Infrastructure
Development in Africa' (PIDA) aiming to
connect the continent in energy, transport,
water and Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) to expand trade, economies
and create jobs was in focus, also the EU's
respective roadmaps EU-Africa Infrastructure
Partnership and EU-Africa Energy Partnership
- and their future funding. There was dialogue
on promoting security and safety, environmen-
tal standards and satellite navigation in African
civil aviation and scope for further EU financ-
ing to arrest deforestation.

Cluster four: Social Ari..; Gender
Employment, Migration and Health. The EU' s
agenda for meeting Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) for health was assessed by
the partners, with the emphasis on univer-
sal basic health care for the continent. EU
Development Commissioner, Louis Michel,
spoke about plans afoot in the EU to assist the

creation of an African Remittances Institute,
also Migration Information and Management
Centres (see 'Interaction' article on the opening
of the first such centre in Mali). Both partners
were concerned about the illegal trafficking of
human beings and more protection of women
and girls from gender-based violence in con-
flict and post-conflict areas, recommending
prompt implementation of United Nations
Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325
on women, peace and security measures.


Round up

Cluster five: Trade Regional Integration,
Economic ArT..; The state of play of the
EPAs (see article on the 6th ACP Summit); the
EU's proposed lbn 'facility' to boost farm-
ing in developing nations and the recent EU
paper on regional integration in Africa (see
Courier issue no.7) were all under scrutiny.

Cluster six: Science and Technology, Space,
Information Society and Education.
The spotlight was on AU/EU projects ready
for funding in the area termed 'lighthouse

projects'. In education, AU initiatives for an
Education Observatory and an 'International
Centre for Education and Africa's Women and
Girls' were explained, whereas EU action on
meeting the MDGs in the sector was examined.

An AU-EU Task Force will move ahead
with working on some of the areas until
the next C-2-C meeting which is likely to
take place in 2009, indicate EU officials.
Funding for projects on the drawing board
is expected to be raised not only from the

European Development Fund (EDF) but also
EU Member States, Development Banks such
as the African Development Bank (ADB) and
European Investment Bank (EIB), Private
Foundations, Local Authorities, Civil Society
Organizations, International Organisations and
the private sector. The European Commission
(EC) manages a special programme to
strengthen the AU's institutions (C55M for
2000-07). D.P. M

* See box page 8.




1 Il

iii fITaF-1r ii

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ru qA


Mali; CIGEM; Migration; Diaspora; Lisbon Strategy.

Round up

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By Marie-Martine Buckens and Debra Percival

level has become part of the main
development strategies drawn up
by the European Union and other
international institutions such as the World
Bank. The European Commission in par-
ticular believes that local authorities must
become privileged players in cooperation.
Does that spell the end of centralised state-
to-state cooperation? Not at all; the central
governments of developing countries should
continue to receive the support of aid-provider
countries, in particular funds contributed by
the European Development Fund as budgetary
support which are relatively significant sums.


Some of these funds are then redistributed to
local government. The challenge is twofold
- ensuring transparency as well as good gov-
ernance at central and local level. In addition,
there is often the problem of financial and
human resources capacity for local authori-
ties, especially if some powers have been
decentralised, a trend which is prevalent on
all continents. In Africa, Mali was one of the
first countries to lead the way. Local govern-
ance also means an increase in the powers of
authorities such as the regions and municipali-
ties, issues that are tackled in the Commission
communication on regional integration (http://

This is true in the South as much as in the
north. In the North, and in Europe in particular,
the regions like Catalonia in Spain or groups
of regions like the Conference of Peripheral
Maritime Regions of Europe (CPMR) are
at the forefront of a new type of cooperation
with countries of the South. One of the central
themes of the European Development Days
2008 in Strasbourg is local governance (http://
eudevdays.eu/Public/Homepage.php). M

People's participation to work, Mozambique
Helvetas/Alan Meler

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example that, in the three years to 2007 alone, doubled its
development cooperation budget to C60M, the aim being to
allocate 0.7 per cent of its budget to development coopera-
tion by 2012. There are also other more modest examples, but with an
undoubted impact, such as the French town of Mulhouse that is advis-
ing the town of Majunga in Madagascar on rebuilding its market, or
the small region (population 13,000) of Santa Croce Sull'Arno in Italy
that put into place a system for recording births in five municipalities
in Burkina Faso. Until recently such cooperation was limited to twin-
ning schemes. Today, decentralised cooperation has become a new and
important dimension of development cooperation.
"The growing participation of the local authorities, the volume of
financial resources mobilised, and the diversity and growing number
of actors involved in the process are such that it is necessary to define
and quantify this development and lay the bases for a coordinated
approach", explains David Johnson, who is responsible for govern-
ance and migration issues at the European Commission's Development
Directorate-General. That is now a reality. At the beginning of October,
the European Commission adopted a communication addressed to all
the European institutions in which it proposes to put into place a struc-
ture within which local authorities can function as development actors.

> Increasing influence of the Committee of
the Regions

At European level, the Commission proposes putting into place "struc-
tured dialogue" under the auspices of the Committee of the Regions that
would include local authority networks. The European executive pro-
poses to draw up operating guidelines to enable these entities to pursue
actions that are complementary to those of the Commission.

The EU partner countries in the South are currently engaged in a grow-
ing process of decentralisation. It is a difficult process but one which
the Commission believes could be supported by the experience of
local authorities in the North. David Johnson stresses that this is par-
ticularly true in the fields of governance and local democracy, but also
in regional planning that includes local development within a broader
context and makes it possible to stimulate synergies between the public
and private sectors.

> H platform for the lCP countries

Finally, to avoid fragmentation, duplication and a lack of information,
the Commission is proposing to set up a platform for the exchange of
information. Launched in November 2008 this will include, in addi-
tion to the powerful CEMR (Council of European Municipalities and
Regions), and the non-state actors represented by Concord, the African,
Caribbean, Pacifie Local Government Platform (ACPLGP), set up on
a modest scale in 2001 but which should be able to extend its actions
through Commission financing. Its role? "To inform and network
local authorities in the ACP countries, represent them in Brussels and
Europe, and help them to strengthen their capacity thanks to technical
support", explains its head Lala Elisa Rafamatanantsoa. "It is no small
task", she continues, "as the capacities of the ACP local authorities
remain very weak". M.M.B. M
In the communes of the Grand Sud, Madagascar 2008.
Marie-Martine Buckens

Committee of the Regions; ACPLGP; Lala Elisa Rafamatanantsoa;
local authorities; David Johnson; Marie-Martine Buckens.


The miss

The regions of Europe say
the regional and local
approach must be properly
reflected in the forthcoming
new development policies

of the Conference of Peripheral
Maritime Regions of Europe
(CPMR), believes: "The mobili-
sation of the networks of local and regional
authorities is extremely important, otherwise
much of the efficiency of development aid will
be lost." Xavier Gizard has been involved for
many years in cooperation projects with the
regions of the South, such as the cooperation
protocols (17 in total) between the regions of
the North and South launched at the beginning
of the new millennium. He explained: "An
excellent example is the cooperation between
Guadeloupe and the Aquitaine/Brittany region
which we want to reproduce in Haiti." In
June 2006, the presidents of the regions of
the five continents met in the Azores together
with Jos Manuel Barroso, President of the
European Commission, representatives of the
OECD and the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) to look at ways of pre-
venting the adverse effects of delocalisation.
This was the start of the movement. The
First International Convention for a Regional
and Local Approach to Development was
adopted in Marseille in March 2007. Xavier
Gizard said: "The Marseille declaration was
signed by 11 networks representing the voice
of the regions at a global level." Four net-
works signed later. The Forum of Global
Associations of Regions (FOGAR) was estab-
lished soon afterwards based on the structures
of the CPMR. Xavier Gizard revealed: "The
idea is for it to become autonomous in 2010."
Finally, the CPMR and UNDP met Soulaima
Ciss, President of the Commission of the
West African Economic and Monetary Union
(WAEMU) in Lisbon in 2007 with the aim of
establishing a regional cooperation structure
within the framework of development policy
in cooperation with FOGAR.
There is no lack of initiatives, not least from the
Secretary General of the CPMR. Supporting
development cooperation also means coopera-
tion on combating climate change and on food
security in the event of global crises, two areas


where Xavier Gizard is looking to mobilise the
regions. He said: "With regard to food sup-
ply, the regions are particularly well placed
as they also have rural areas." The Secretary
General believes the European Commission
has until now overlooked the regional dimen-
sion, referring to programmes like URB-AL
where the aim is to foster exchange of experi-
ence between local authorities in Europe and
Latin America, but which are not programmes
open to the regions.

> H much coueted regional policy

In response to the consultation launched by
the European Commission on local govern-
ance, the CPMR stressed the importance of the
local and regional dimension in development
aid policy. The regions, active intermediary
authorities, are not referred to in the gen-
eral proposals presented by the Commission.
Whether representing a province, region or

administrative area, the regional institution,
which by its very nature has a broader and
more complete overview of all local visions, is
missing. Xavier Gizard said: "You can't imag-
ine how our European regional policy, which
has an enormous budget exceeding that of the
Common Agricultural Policy, is perceived by
people outside of the European Union. It's
a dream for everyone outside of Europe."
He was guarded about the process of decen-
tralisation initiated by a number of developing
countries. He said: "Decentralisation which
is necessary provided the players concerned
have sufficient fiscal resources is only ade-
quate if coupled with the capacity to promote
development strategy."
M.M.B. M

CPMR; regions, CPMR, WAEMU, region-
al policy, Marie-Martine Buckens.

Dossier Lo.: ,- ,i

BOLSTERIOG local government in

SKEIYl with EU funds

* ''* .

W ith 16.4M from the 9th > PoUertu Reduction fund

EDF, the programme which
got off the ground in 2006 A centrepiece is a C5.8M (Ksh 530M) Poverty
and runs to the end of Reduction Fund. This is currently backing 65
2009, fits in with the Kenyan government's selected projects, in various sectors, for 63
own Local Government Reform Programme local government entities who are posting good
(KLGRP), and with its 'Vision 2030' for mak- financial management. An initial group of 38
ing Kenya, "a middle income country provid- projects to a value of Ksh 518M**, with Ksh
ing a high quality of life for all its citizens by 281M co-funded by the EDF, started up in
the year 2030". September 2006. It was followed by a second
The programme is funding technical assist- wave of 27 projects in October 2007 (Ksh
ance to the KLGRP; advising on debt repay- 311M of which Khs 249M EU co-funding).
ments, boosting revenue, and how to deliver Across the board, projects cover the upgrading
services at a local level. Kenya has 175 Local water supply and sanitation, roads construction,
services at a local level. Kenya bas 175 Local water supply and sanitation, roads construction, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Authorities (LA), many neglected over 20
years and with little revenue. The technical
expertise given is also helping with the effi-
cient and transparent running of the transfer of
government funds to local authorities through
the Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATF).
Another prong of the programme whose
management unit (PMU) is headed by Wim
Eising* of the German consultancy firm,
GOPA, is supported through 11 locally-based
technical advisers to selected rural authori-
ties in the running of Country Councils, rural
Town Councils and Municipal Councils.

school rehabilitation, agriculture, and the build-
ing of health centres and markets (see boxes).
"One of the aims of the RPRLGSP is the
dissemination of lessons learned from our
interaction with local authorities in imple-
menting their programme interventions," says
RPRLGSP's coordinator, John K Waithaka.
Such information will be vital to the govern-
ment in moving ahead with its decentralisa-
tion policy. Eric Van der Linden, Head of the
European Commission's Delegation to Kenya
based in Nairobi said in the RPRLGSP' s quar-
terly newsletter for Autumn 2008: "Through

this programme, the EU contributes to dis-
seminating good practices in technical and
financial management of projects as well as
enhancing accountability and transparency in
Local Authorities." D.P. M
* See www.acp-eucourier.info for an interview with Wim
** 1 euro = 99.51 Kenyan Shillings (on 27 October 2008)
For more informations: www.RPRLGSP.go.ke

RPRLGSP; Kenya; local government;
transparency; 'Vision 2030'.


Local Governance Dossier

"If the state does not change, the


will lose much of their uirtue"

Interview by Marie-Martine Buckens

Seen as the 'father' of decentralisation in Africa, the Malian Ousmane Sy has
been concerned with this issue for 20 years, since the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) recruited him as expert responsible for local and regional planning
back in 1987. In 1993, the Malian Government charged him with implementing
its decentralisation reforms. In 2000, he was appointed Minister for Territorial
Administration and Local Authorities. His work was honoured in 2004 when he was
awarded the King Baudouin International Development Prize. Since then he has been
advising states in West and Central African, as well as Haiti, in the framework of his
Centre for Political and Institutional Expertise in Africa (CEPIA), which he founded in
2002. The Courier spoke with him.

What is your analysis of the state of local
governance in Africa and in the ACP States
as a whole?

In the general context of the crisis in public
management in Africa, proximity, thus the
local level, is a factor in lending legitimacy to
governance as it places in a direct relationship
the social need, as experienced by the actors,
and the public decision or service that responds
to this need. Governance is only good if it is
able to take into account the diversity of inter-


ests of these groups of actors and to provide
answers that are in line with the shared values.
In general, it is a break in cohesion or balance
that creates crises of governance that prevent
or delay development.

The decentralisation of public management,
thus the taking of public decisions as close
as possible to the populations, offers many
advantages, namely: better knowledge of their
expectations, the possibility for direct dia-
logue and thus a more solid partnership,
greater flexibility in responding to expecta-
tions, and better control over public managers
by the citizens.

In Africa, public action in general and local
public action in particular are in crisis. This
crisis is linked to the break in the cohesion
between societies and the institutions of pub-
lic management. The reasons for this break
run deep and, in my opinion, date back to
the colonial experience that the accession to
independence of countries and the creation of
post-colonial nation states have not yet man-
aged to absorb. One of the most evident rea-
sons is the superficial nature of the state and
its institutions that are not rooted in the day-
to-day life of African communities. States,
their institutions and their administrations are

'running on empty' and survive only thanks
to the 'crutch' of finance and other support
provided by donors. The way out of the crisis
must therefore involve increased anchorage
in the local level. The putting into place of
decentralised authorities and their administra-
tive freedoms as acknowledged in the current
decentralisation reforms is just the first stage
in this long process.

However, these reforms will only produce
the expected effects if they are inspired by a
political vision that revolves around a genuine
desire for change. Unfortunately, this is still
not very often the case. The decentralisation
of public management in Africa to create the
conditions for legitimate local governance is
today based much more on the desire to have
access to financing than on a real desire for
deep-rooted change to the traditional logic of
public management that is inefficient because
it is illegitimate. If the centralising state that
remains the principal characteristic of Africa
does not change, the current decentralisation
reforms will lose much of their virtue

What must be the response?

The strategies that will lead to genuine change
in the field of managing public affairs and thus

Dossier Local Governance

local government in Africa are: the building
of a consensus as the basis of management;
the organisation of competence, powers and
the allocation of (human and financial) public
resources on the basis that local legitimacy
prevails; the search for a good relationship
between the various legitimacies that co-
habit at local level. This question remains
of fundamental importance for the stability
of contemporary African societies. Finally,
the rooting of institutional constructions (the
Constitutions and other laws and regulations)
in the aspirations, references and experience of
African populations.

What are the major < i,.ii ... to befaced?

1 am among those who believe that there can
be no single and universal model of good
governance. For me the first major challenge
for building local governance is linked to the
management of the change process that has
to be long term as it must touch not only on
the way people think but also on the way
people act. Reform projects are designed and
implemented in the short and medium term
and respect for procedures takes precedence
over achieving the goals. There is therefore a

.ii .I.... ...
S'... ..
i9? .

,... $ ..-
It,~t l ,.% ...

need to rethink the bases and the methods for
implementing development cooperation.
To this major challenge I would add other
challenges that are strongly linked to it. In
particular, the need to support the actors and
not impose models on them and also to bear in
mind their diversity.

In its cooperation policy, the EU is granting
increasing importance to budgetary support
for the ACP countries. Is there not the danger
that this will be a threat to the construction of
local bodies?

One of the challenges of decentralisation in our
countries is also to improve efficiency in the
use of national budgetary resources that have
to be transferred to decentralised authorities in
line with their competence and responsibili-
ties as recognized by law and of which they are
the managers. In Mali, one of the indicators
adopted for triggering 'budgetary support' is
the increase in the percentage of public budget-
ary resources spent at the local level.

Some experts fear that the concentration on
local entities leads to the central state f. ;i;,,. -
. /..;i;, even more in some cases to assume

its responsibilities. Do you believe thisfear to
be wellfounded?

My personal experience of public manage-
ment in my country and in Africa and the
lessons I have drawn from them cause me to
believe that, on the contrary, it is by having
local authorities assume greater responsibility
that the central state can be saved in Africa.
There is a need for a leaner model. The ineffi-
ciency and the failings of the African state are
linked closely to its strong centralisation and
its paternalist nature that relieves all the other
public players of responsibility.
In a world that is growing more global by the
day, the only pertinent, lasting and visionary
response to the crisis in the African central
state, which is constantly coming up against
the reflexes of an identity that is rooted in
communities (the seat of all the solidarities
that save and keep alive), is to give more
responsibility to the local level.
The responses to the major challenges that
Africa must meet in terms of the creation of
wealth and jobs for young people must involve
the 'redistribution' of responsibilities between
the central level and the decentralised levels
for implementing development. M

Local Governance Dossier



process creating risks

Interview by Marie-Martine Buckens

Local authorities can play their part only if the central state, which is enjoying a flurry
of cooperation, can ensure a genuine transfer of resources, according to Anne-Sophie
Gindroz, head of the NGO Helvetas Mali. A participant in the European Commission-
sponsored consultations on local governance, she also warns against launching
public-private partnerships that are of no real benefit to the population in countries
of the South.


Dossier Local Governance

Do you think a development policy sensitive to
local authorities is the answer to the problems
being reported and if you do, subject to what

The key issue of centrally concentrated finan-
cial resources to be found in some developing
countries is the outcome of budgetary support
being built up as part of a partnership with the
central state. Against the background of decen-
tralisation, this kind of approach weakens the
position of local authorities quite significantly,
particularly if the centre-to-periphery resource
transfer mechanisms are malfunctioning. The
financial partners are then bound to look to
systems that concentrate funds at central state
level, even though key responsibilities have
been transferred to local authorities. This is
what has happened in Mali, where the munici-
palities have been tasked with policy-making
in the areas of education, health and hydraulics
but have not been offered enough resources to
underpin these policies. In spite of this state
of affairs, the financial partners involved in
budgetary support initiatives continue to have
dealings solely with central ministries while
channelling funds in a central direction. Seen
through this prism, budgetary support systems
for decentralised local authorities should be an
avenue to explore, until the mechanisms for
transferring resources to local level are operat-
ing properly.

In the case of development, you express mis-
givings about the 1 ". i., of public-private
partnerships. Could you elaborate upon that?

The main development model now being
advocated is heavily biased towards promot-
ing the privatization not only of government-
owned companies but also of public services.

The framework in which a public service is
privatised is often poorly regulated in practice,
thus detrimental to the interests of consumers
and of the general public, as the service is run
on the basis of commercial principles: as the
aim is to generate profits, the public service
is focused on demand. This is why periph-
eral areas often have poor access to water or
electricity supplies. It is there that the poorest
communities are concentrated...
And the fact has to be recognized that it is
very often companies from the northern hemi-
sphere that occupy these markets in countries
of the South. So one conclusion to be drawn
is that countries granting aid use it to further
their own economic interests. Radio France
International announced a while ago that
the French Development Agency (AFD) had
made an investment in Veolia, a French mul-
tinational. This transaction was presented as
a "public-private partnership model to help
Veolia to tap into the AFD's expertise and be
in a better position in the midst of the priva-
tisation drives underway in the energy sectors
in countries of the South." A reference was
made to Mali and the government's decision
to cancel the deal struck with a major French
company for the privatization of the water
and electricity sectors. This was cited as an
example to be avoided now as a result of this
type of partnership. If the aim were to share
expert knowledge, was this type of financial
transaction called for? But the most disturbing
thing is the fact that AFD funding is already
being used to pay for surveys (undertaken by
private consultants from northern countries)
that call for public services in countries of the
South to be privatised (without this process
being underpinned by moves to consolidate
the local private sector) and to organise calls
for tenders. If a company in which the AFD

now has a stake (in this instance, Veolia) were
to make a bid, it would be reasonable to think
there was conflict of interest somewhere along
the line.

What is your assessment of the EU's decision
to review the procedures involved in the aid
granted to developing countries?

Resorted to more and more, particularly by the
EU, budgetary aid is not intrinsically good or
bad. It certainly could be an effective instru-
ment to use in dealings with a legitimate ben-
eficiary state, whose development policy is the
outcome of a large-scale democratic debate
and is able to manage the aid in a transpar-
ent way. However, these three conditions are
rarely met ... hence the vital need to provide
other aid systems on top of budgetary support.
Decentralised cooperation is an option well
worth considering, as a potential response to
the growing social inequalities, in spite of the
abundant material and financial resources. It
could, however, repeat the inconsistencies of
international cooperation if it unfolds outside
a clear institutional framework and is not
underpinned by the values of a mutually ben-
eficial partnership and respect for "people's
sovereignty". There is also a need to operate
with a wider range of people active in the
development process. Some of the shortcom-
ings could be overcome to some extent as a
result of the role played by community-based
organizations. M

Anne-Sophie Gindroz; Local authorities;
Helvetas Mali; NGO; local governance;
public-private partnership; decentralisa-

Giuseppe Frangi*, Andrea Marchesini Reggiani
and Joshua Massarenti

not TE ...

nota HUIDRED...


international cooperation _

Despite the fact that the level of public development aid is declining, Italy can hold its head
high thanks to the efforts of its local authorities. Bolzano, Trento and Lombardy are the most
active regional administrations in the field of decentralisedd' international cooperation.

nisms foster partnership relation-
ships between bodies in both
North and South hemispheres
who are dedicated to eradicating poverty and
placing greater value on human relationships.
These few words sum up the stated aims
of decentralised international cooperation in
Italy. Some prefer to talk of "territorial coop-
eration", as it is local authorities, specifically
the Regions, the Autonomous Provinces and
the towns who are at the very forefront of this
initiative. Although the public is still largely
unaware of it, this movement has gradually
become a driving force in the development aid
policy (DAP) being promoted throughout the
Italian peninsula.

> The figures speak for themselves

Decentralised cooperation saw a boom period
in the 1990s. After the Italian parliament passed
Law 49 on approved cooperation in 1987, the
Regions decided to adopt legislation designed to
promote technical-administrative and structural
initiatives in support of economic, social and
cultural development in southern hemisphere
countries, including the ACP countries. Twenty
years later, a survey carried out by the national
Italian weekly, Vita Non Profit Magazine, esti-
mates that projects financed by decentralised
cooperation in 2006 passed the threshold of
C44M. Lombardy (C5.8M), Tuscany ( -1 I 1.
Lazio (C3.8M), Piedmont (C3.6M) and the
Veneto (C2.8M) are among the most 'gener-
ous' regions. But first prize for decentralised


cooperation goes to the Autonomous Province
of Trento: C10M of which 45 per cent went
to Africa! Trento's fund-raising efforts are
a sure sign of the vitality of decentralised
cooperation, in stark contrast to the difficul-
ties that Rome has encountered for a number
of years now. According to the report on DAP
published in April 2008 by the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), Italy's public aid as a proportion of its
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) fell below 0.2
per cent in 2007, and risks falling below 0.1 per
cent if Parliament passes the current proposed
budget for 2009. "It's the global economic cri-
sis" is the whisper in Rome...
It is too early to tell whether the Italian
regions, provinces and towns will also reduce
their decentralised cooperation budgets. So it
is worth focusing on the challenges that face
the local authorities. Decentralised coopera-
tion is distinct from other forms of cooperation
due to its micro-development approach. Rather
than launching interventions that require large
amounts of capital that they do not have, the
local authorities favour small-scale long-term
projects involving direct collaboration with
local partners. The logic that underpins this
type of action is referred to as bottom-up. The
condition sine qua non for this type of inter-
vention is the identification of problems on the
basis of local needs and the local players who
communicate them. Each region, province and
town then acts according to its own model of
cooperation. In Italy, these models fall into
four types: the one adopted by Lombardy is
"open", and looks to involve the private sec-

tor; the Veneto, by contrast, favours the 'sys-
temic' model, which limits itself to regional
activities focused on a very small number
of countries. As for Tuscany, it opted for
the 'non-governmental' model, much to the
delight of the NGOs. And finally Piedmont,
which backs the 'integrated' model, where
the emphasis is placed on synergies between
regional authorities, non-governmental play-
ers (NGOs, universities etc) and towns.
When all's said and done, diversity is one
of the main characteristics of decentralised
cooperation. It is one of its strong points,
but also a drawback. That is why there is an
umbrella organisation like the Interregional
Observatory on Development Cooperation
(OICS in Italian). "But there is still a lot to
be done" says Sergio Marelli, president of the
association of Italian NGOs. "In Italy, there is
still too much distance between decentralised
cooperation and state-run aid projects. There
is such a bewildering profusion of ideas and
initiatives at both local and national levels that
it is hard to keep track of who is doing what."
* Giuseppe Frangi is Editor-in-chief of Vita Non Profit
Magazine. For more info: www.vita.it

Cartoon by Damien Glez (www.glez.org).
Cover of the Special Issue of Vita Non Profit Magazine
on decentralised international cooperation in Italy 2007.
Courtesy of Vita Non ProfitMagazine

Italy; decentralised cooperation; regions;
provinces; towns; Tuscany; Veneto;
Lombardy; Piedmont; Trento; Interregional
Observatory on Development Cooperation

The DIRSPORl and


natural partners

. .


Antony Otieno Ong'ayo, Research Coordinator at the Amsterdam-based African
Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC) in the Netherlands, says that the continent's Diaspora
- an increasingly prominent development actor in its own right is already building
bridges with local government in African nations and suggests how donors can help
such partnerships to thrive.

Are you looking at promoting links between
the Diaspora and local governance in ACP
Yes. This is based on first, the ADPC belief
that advancing institutional knowledge,
improvement of essential service delivery
facilities in such areas as health and education
sectors, upgrading and strengthening govern-

ance institutions, deepening democratisation
processes and facilitating knowledge transfer
(brain gain) are forms of development that
should get proper policy attention.
Second, the recognition that the Diaspora
organizations are beginning to initiate projects
that cultivate its strategic bridge-building
position through the kind of linkages being
developed with institutions and organizations

in host and homelands, whether formal or
informal. These linkages become key strategic
frameworks for fostering institutional links
whose impact could immensely contribute to
better governance at local authority level.
Third, it has been recognized that an increasing
number of Africans abroad are seeking elected
office positions in their home countries, either
as members of the national legislatures or



Local Governance Dossier

local authority or as presidential aspirants.
These are developments which require further
study to ascertain their respective potential for
improved local governance.

How can the Diaspora help build the capacity
of local governance in African nations?

Through the transfer of skills, experiences and
professionalism gained over time in the host
countries in Europe and America. A number
of Diasporas in Europe are in leadership posi-
tions in several parliaments across Europe.
There is even a much bigger number in local

authority politics and public services. These
experiences can be shared with local govern-
ment authorities in their countries of origin to
improve governance and service delivery to
the people.
They can also help improve on the systems
of local democracy and making local gov-
ernment accountable and transparent, inject
new ideas and create strategic linkages for
local development. The Diasporas are now
in a strategic position to facilitate the proc-
ess of trans-national activities and networks.
They can now channel information, innovative
ideas, intellectual capacities, new technologi-
cal skills, smart and innovative business and
trade practices, peacemaking tools and tech-
niques and democratic political habits and
practices from the West to Africa. This implies


the transfer of values and best practices that
they have gained and experienced in the host
countries. Such inputs would motivate the
local communities to re-engage with the local
leadership through popular participation, and
consensual decision making, based on demo-
cratic frameworks through which the local
communities can express themselves, and con-
tribute to the development agenda. Examples
include participatory planning and budgeting.
Through their social networks, the African
Diaspora can mobilise through community,
hometown associations and groups for com-
munity development. The networks can play
a significant role in resource mobilisation for
maintaining and extending public services
such as schools and hospitals. Through their
networks of professionals, researchers, entre-
preneurs, and investors, the African Diaspora
can also share much needed information on
various topical issues affecting their countries
and local communities, with their govern-
ments, peers back home, and develop frame-
works through which they can employ their
skills and expertise back home even is on
short-term basis.

Do you have any examples of any projects in
African nations of the Diaspora working with
local government in an African municipality?

The ADPC has been documenting and provid-
ing a platform for Diaspora organizations to
showcase experiences of Diaspora organisa-
tions as agents for development and best
practices. Examples include: the Federation
of Associations Franco-African Development
(FAFRAD) which is involved in international
development capacity building, institutional
development, local governance and capacity
building and covers such countries as Benin,
Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC);
the Sikaman foundation which is a Ghanaian
organisation based in the Netherlands provid-
ing training, capacity-enhancement and know-
how to community projects in Ghana and the
Kenyan Diaspora Network and its work on
anti-corruption, civil society strengthening,
and emergency assistance.

What does the Diaspora stand to gain from
such cooperation?

The benefits that accrue from such coop-
eration are direct and indirect; short but also
long-term. First, the Diaspora have close links
with local communities such as members,
families, relatives, friends, and they play a
significant role in the lives of these people
through other initiatives such as remittances,

social capital as well as emotional ties, which
shape the current functioning of most families
whose members are in the Diaspora. Therefore
improved local governance is likely to benefit
the Diaspora directly in terms of less depend-
ency. Many people in the Diaspora send back
money for family maintenance, sometimes as
an obligation and in most cases out of neces-
sity to sustain immediate and extended fam-
ily. Such responsibility puts a lot of pressure
on the Diaspora, especially in cases where a
Diaspora is also a student. Therefore improved
living conditions through better governance
and opportunities for upward mobility at local
level are likely to reduce the economic burden
the Diaspora have to carry.
Secondly, the Diaspora would benefit directly
in cases where they may be engaged in paid
consultancy services, or professional exchange
programmes but here too, such benefits must be
seen from a broader perspective. For instance,
where they may charge for such services, the
costs would not be exorbitant, which implies
that their engagement is out of personal voli-
tion to make a contribution to the betterment
of the local communities. However, one indi-
rect benefit which is very significant and has
long term impact on many lives applies to the
local communities, to whom service delivery
and democratic governance at local level
would have improved. The involvement of the
Diaspora in local governance would immense-
ly contribute to the improvement in the way
critical issues that affect such communities
are dealt with. These include ways to improve
health care, sanitation, and environmental
management, provision of essential services
such as water, infrastructure, and educational
facilities among others.

What sort of donor funding could encourage
such links?

In order to encourage linkages between
Diaspora and homeland local institutions,
donor funding needs to be structured and
channelled under a multi-donor trust fund
which can provide funding for specific pro-
gramme activities targeting governance in
local authorities. This would have specific
focus on local governance at municipal, and
county council levels, since these are the
main areas where large populations in Africa
experience deprivation, social, economic and
political exclusion.
The other important area is funding for
research and development. Research collabo-
rations between Diaspora host institutions
and home country counterpart research insti-
tutions could help provide local institutions

Dossier Local Governance

with the much needed knowledge in order
to be able to address the modern challenges
to better governance. This is an area which
could build capacity and empower the home
countries' local authorities to develop effec-
tive measures, and skills that would enable
them to create institutional frameworks that
improve service delivery. Improved services
and infrastructure would consequently enable
such urban areas to attract investment and to
be able to compete in the national and global
economy. It is also an area in which the home
countries would benefit through exchanges
and transfer of needed skills and information
for policy formulation, generated by innova-
tion and creativity in the process.
The other area is to fund technical expert
networks of the African Diaspora; and Policy-
relevant Action Networks. For example, such

funding could go to joint (Diaspora and home
country) expert teams established in strategic
areas of focus and priority set by the Diaspora
and home governments in order to improve
local governance. The influence of these sec-
tors and networks are immense and would
greatly impact upon the type of governance
system that are put in place at municipal level,
since they will set the bar higher enough to
force the local authorities to pull up, and meet
those standards.
Lastly, most important of all is to create a fund
(Marshall-type plan) that would specifically
target self-reliance and sustainability of any
donor funded activity, especially in areas that
require constant financial injection. Relying
on donor funding for programme activities is
not sustainable, therefore local institutions can
be assisted to generate their own funds which

would maintain the existing or newly estab-
lished programmes. This would also contribute
to the local ownership of these initiatives and
processes, since modern challenges in terms of
governance and institutional responsiveness to
global forces do not require a dependency cul-
ture as the main factor that determines alterna-
tive responses to people' s needs, especially in
the developing countries in Africa.
D.P. M

I Pov, Diaspora. Courtesy of the author

Diaspora; local governance; Antony
Otieno Ong'ayo; African Diaspora Policy
Centre (ADPC); brain gain; networks;
Federation of Associations Franco-African
Development (FAFRAD); Debra Percival.


Hegel Goutier

Words and commitment

from the EUROPERII Union

and BFRICIIn Union

A Media and Development Forum organised by the European Commission and the
African Union was held in Ouagadougou from 11 to 13 September 2008. The key
result of this meeting (opened by the President of Burkina Faso, Biaise Compaor,
the President of the Commission of the African Union, Jean Ping and the European
Commissioner for Development, Louis Michel) was the commitment made by the two
organising institutions to develop a road map to aid media development.

T he forum which brought together
a host of media professionals and
experts from Europe and Africa -
looked at four key topics: media
and governance; freedom of the media, the
fight against African and European stereotypes
and the role of local media. Each of these
themes was the subject of a round table. The
meeting was organised in cooperation with the
International Francophone Organization (OIF)
and the Commonwealth and the Community
of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP).
President Balaise Compaor, while underlin-
ing the important role the media has to play in
development, also denounced media involve-
ment in some situations where it served as
a channel for causes far removed from the
public interest and where journalists abandon
their real responsibilities. He said: "These fail-
ings have to be addressed. Africa must have
a sufficiently professional media in order to
strengthen democracy."
During the opening session, EU Commissioner
Louis Michel pointed out: "We are not com-
ing here with recommendations because we
have all the answers. These issues apply to
Europeans in the same way as to Africans,
and the same challenges have to be met -
financing, independence, ethics, respect for
the truth, protection in the courts and protec-
tion of sources, press specialised in political
analysis and other areas." Later, the President
of the Commission of the African Union, Jean
Ping, emphasised the progress already made,


but he also pointed out that political power too
often showed mistrust of the press. He said:
"Much still needs to be done to consolidate
the freedom of the press and to establish an
irrevocable basis for the progress of democ-
racy in Africa."
Based on the forum's conclusions, the
European Commission and the Commission
of the African Union drew up a 'road map'
seen as a first stage by these institutions. This
will be followed by specific proposals to their
respective Member States, particularly on
financing and legal protection for press organ-
isations, the promotion of a pluralist press, the
training of journalists and the fight against
stereotyping. In the short-term, a charter of
media rights and responsibilities will be drawn

up, a pan-African portal will be launched for
all media and a pan-African media observa-
tory will be established.
The conclusions of the Ouagadougou meeting
will be discussed at the global conference of
the Global Forum for Media Development
that meets in Athens from 7 to 10 December
2008. M

From leftto right: Biaise Campaor (President of Burkina
Faso), Jean Ping (President of the AU Commission) and
Louis Michel (EU Commissioner for Development
and Humanitarian Aid) 2008.
SHegel Goutier
Louis Michel; Biaise Compaor; Jean
Ping; OIF; Commonwealth; CPLP;
Ouagadougou; media.


frti'ngl' reain e EU Afiaan hn

w diaoge bewente t be sterped rJf

The EU and China share objectives
for the African continent; economic
growth, integration into the world
economy, pursuit of Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), conflict man-
agement and peacekeeping. Both have recently
individually set new parameters for relations
with Africa; China and Africa sealing a new
strategic partnership at a Summit in Beijing
in November 2006, whereas the EU signed a
new Africa-EU -i.i. in Lisbon, December
2007, creating 'partnerships' in eight areas
(see article in 'Round Up' in this issue).
The China-EU Beijing Summit on 28
November 2007 set the ball rolling on future
trilateral cooperation. A statement then "wel-
comed more practical cooperation by the
two sides through their respective existing
cooperation mechanisms with Africa ". And
further: "The two sides agreed to continue
their dialogue on African issues, and actively
explore effective ways and channels of coop-
eration among China, the EU and Africa in
appropriate areas".
Subjects for future trilateral cooperation
are outlined in the new Commission paper
published on 16 October. Peace and secu-
rity are singled out, as well as infrastructure.
Sustainable management of the environment
and natural resources is another area with the
suggested participation of China in measures

like the Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative (EITI), Forest Law Enforcement
and the Government and Trade (FLEGT) and
the Kimberley process which monitors the
diamond trade. Another area is agriculture
and food security, with the stress on raising
productivity in the sector to move ahead with
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
and possible joint research initiatives into food
staples, all within the 'Comprehensive African
Agricultural Development Programme'
(CAADP), which forms the long-term agenda
for Africa' s development.

> How?

To get the ball rolling, different possibilities
for dialogue are put on the table, for exam-
ple, in cooperation with the African Union
Commission (AUC). And regional agencies
in Africa could become possible nerve centres
for cooperation of large energy and commu-
nications projects reaching beyond national
borders. Annual meetings of senior EU/China
officials are mooted to coordinate dialogue
and visit and exchanges of personnel rec-
ommended so officials can learn from one
another. Cooperation with Africa is expected
to be on the agenda of the China-EU Heads of
State Summit in December 2008.
The big question now is how to maintain the

momentum and get the dialogue up and run-
ning. "The Communication does a good job in
listing a few areas for collaboration and con-
firming that we are willing to develop a part-
nership that benefits Africa's development, but
in essence the difficult part still lies ahead",
says Jonathan Holslag, Head of Research at
the Brussels Institute of Contemporary China
Studies BICCS), a leading European think
tank on relations with China. "Member States
[EU] have to be persuaded of the need that
they will now have to come up with a more
coherent vision of their interests in Africa, if
they want to be taken seriously", he adds. He
says that triangular projects should be put on
track sooner rather than later. "If we do not
manage to realise this, the communication will
be nothing more than a paper tiger."
"The Chinese Ministry of Commerce is keen
on getting a part of its projects co-funded by
the EU: in particular if Chinese companies
are benefiting a lot in their execution. But
such projects will not become much more
than a small part in China's overall economic
cooperation [with Africa]", forecasts Holslag.
D.P. M

EU-China; Africa-China; EU-Africa-
China; infrastructure; MDGs; peacekeep-
ing; environment


Forum disappoints some iG0s

as not going far enough by some Donors to provide 3-5 year forward informa- by concrete targets and timelines," notes Vagn
Non Governmental Organisations tion on their planned aid partner countries; Berthelsen, the President of Alliance 2015, a
(NGOs), the 'Accra Agenda for Partner country systems to be used to deliver network of six European NGOs. D.P. o
Action' on aid effectiveness agreed by devel- aid rather than donor systems; Websites:
oped and developing countries at the 3rd Donor aid given in accordance with develop- www accrahlf net, www Alance2015 org
Aid Effectiveness Forum, 2-4 September in ment objectives rather than their own prescrip-
Ghana, agreed targets beyond those of the tive conditions of how and when aid money
Paris Declaration of 2005 to make donor aid is spent;
more effective. Organized by the World Bank An untying of aid meaning that donors will
and Organisation of Economic Cooperation relax restrictions preventing developing coun- Keywords
and Development (OECD), it also gathered tries buying goods and services from whom- Aid effectiveness; NGOs; Accra; OECD;
multilateral institutions, private foundations ever and wherever they can get the best quality Aance 2015; Vagn Berthelsen; Debra

SForum disappoints so Perciva
and cvle as a success b doors buociety. at o itents incle "The. actions aree are not e s cent
as not going far enough by some -Donors to provide 3-5 year forward informal by concrete targets and timelines," notes Vagn

Aid Effectiveness Forum, 2-4 September in ment objectives rather than their ovn prescrip-
Ghana, agreed targets beyond those of the tive conditions of hoeU and orhen aid money
more effective. Oranised by the World Bank An untying of aid meaning that dono ies x i
and Oraanisation of Economic Cooperation relax restrictions preventing developing coun- 1eUanOrd s
and Development (OECD), it also gathered tries buying goods and services from vhom- Aid effectiveness; NGOsa Accra; OECD;
multilateral institutions, private foundations ever and wherever they can get the best quality Alliance 2015; Vagn Berthelsen; Debra
and civil society. at the lobvest price. PercivaL


Interaction EU-ACP


for SlEs in flfrica's water and energy development

Africa's energy and water was the subject of this year's 'Forum Euafric Partners' held in
Lyon, France, 21-24 October, bringing together Small and Medium-sized African and
European businesses. Policymakers and development agencies from both African and
European nations also took part in the event whose sponsors included the European
Commission and France's Rhne-Alpes region.

Mapping of Ancient Megalake in Northern Darfur by Boston University
Scientists Catalyst for Global Humanitarian Outreach.
Courtesy of Center for Remote Sensing (Boston University)
J ean Philippe Bayon, Vice-President of the Rhne-Alpes region,
reminded participants that a third of the world's population still
has no access to drinking water and a half of this figure refers
to sub-Saharan Africa. 2.6 billion have no sanitation. He said
that water is the first cause of premature death and of present and
future conflicts. Abdoulaye Kant, Director of France's Agence de
Dveloppement des Entreprises en Afrique (Agency of Development
for Societies in Africa, in English) told participants that African coun-
tries shared an interest in developing such as the hydroelectric potential
of the Congo river to cover Central Africa's energy needs.
Broad themes discussed included African nations' respective national
strategies and policies towards water and energy and new technologies
in the sectors. The pumping of water by solar power, rural electrifica-
tion and the use of 'carbon credits' to offset climate change were other
themes of the event, not forgetting the 'hot' topic the development of
bio-fuels (see box on Africa's green gold). An exhibition gave SMEs
participants space to display the latest technologies. D.P. M

SMEs; Forum Eurafric partners; Lyon; Rhne-Alpes region; Jean
Philippe Bayon; Abdoulaye Kant.


Pnvate Sector Interaction

Andrea Marchesini Reggiani


the new frontier of international cooperation

I F ,' :: I


I Fondazioni4Africa's logo

For the first time, four Italian banking
foundations Compagnia di San Paolo,
Fondazione Cariparma, Fondazione Cariplo
and Fondazione Monte Paschi di Siena have
teamed up in a joint humanitarian action in
Senegal and North Uganda.

dations have individual supported
development projects in the South,
closely guarding their autonomy.
Today, following a lengthy exchange of ideas,
they have decided to pool their experiences
to launch a common project in favour of
the refugees of North Uganda and the rural
populations of Senegal. Scheduled to last three
years, Fondazioni4Africa will have a budget
of C10.5M, plus C600,000 financed by the
Foundation Umano Progresso. International
foundations have also expressed their interest
in an initiative that could benefit from their
The thinking behind this project is subsidi-
arity. Each organisation and institution invests
on the basis of the economic resources, mana-
gerial capacities and know-how it has acquired
over the years, in the belief that a project's
success requires partnerships.
Fondazioni4Africa started up in 2007 at the
time of organising work sessions with NGOs
already present in the field and that made
available to foundations their privileged rela-
tions with local partners. Together they iden-
tified the sectors and forms of intervention
before finally deciding to set aside humanitar-
ian operations so as to intervene in territories
with a certain stability conducive to a long-
term project.
North Uganda is distinctive for the presence of
a weak associative network and the predomi-
nance of institutional actors such as the county
and subcounty. In the field, Fondazioni4Africa
intervenes in the framework of a Ugandan


Government strategic plan that is designed
to encourage persons housed in camps for
displaced persons to return to their former vil-
lages, towns or transit camps in order to pro-
mote peace and development in the districts of
Gulu, Kitgum, Amuru and Pader.
Work began officially on 1 October 2008.
The field of action also implies both the
development of rural areas and of economic
activities plus water, health, education and
the management of a sustainable environ-
ment. The project adopts a multi-dimensional
and integrated approach to development that
the promoters believe will be better suited
to meeting the socio-economic challenges of
North Uganda, namely bringing peace and
reconciliation to the populations, establish-
ing a solid community and social structure,
and finally reintegrating former combatants
(often child soldiers) into their communities.
The principal Italian organizations involved
in the project are: the African Medical and
Research Foundation (AMREF), Associazione
Volontari per lo Sviluppo Internazionale
(AVSI), Cooperazione e Sviluppo (CESVI),
and the Consortium CTM Altromercato
(with the stated objective of promoting the
sale of local products in Italy and Europe).
In a second initiative that started up last
November in Senegal, the principal protago-
nists are associations of Senegalese immi-
grants resident in Italy. The involvement of
these migrants is part of the diasporic philan-
thropy's concept, a new field of intervention
that the foundations are promoting. The choice
of Senegal is not by chance: the Senegalese are

the largest sub-saharian African community in
the regions of origin of the four Italian foun-
dations. The project aims to improve the eco-
nomic and social conditions of the populations
living in a rural and semi-urban environment
and this in key sectors for the development of
Senegal, such as responsible tourism, micro-
finance, fishing, production processes, fruit
processing and marketing, and dairy products.
This initiative also seeks to understand what
could be the most appropriate types of aid
and organisational methods for ensuring the
smooth running of projects within which
migrants associations become a factor for
co-development alongside the NGOs. The
former were involved from the initial phases
of drawing up the project, showing particular
interest in responsible tourism, the promo-
tion of typical Senegalese products, the fish
processing industry and, in Italy, activities for
development education that include inviting
Senegalese instructors to schools and col-
Finally, the foundations are setting great
store on the possibility of understanding and
strengthening the link between the provision
of funds and micro-finance activities, espe-
cially in a rural environment. M

Banking foundations; Italy; Compagnia
di San Paolo; Fondazione Cariparma;
Fondazione Cariplo; Fondazione Monte
Paschi di Siena; migration; Senegal; rural
world; North Uganda; refugees; conflicts.

Interaction EU-ACP

Future Constitution of the Seychelles:

Brainstorming at the


A seminar on the future of the
Seychelles' constitution was organ-
ised on 7 October 2008 in Brussels
by the European Parliament's
Constitutional Committee. Participants includ-
ed Jo Leinen, the Chairman of the committee,
Francis MacGregor, President of the Court of
Appeal and the President of the Seychelles'
Judicial Committee on Constitutional Review,
as well as experts including Pr. Markus Kotzur
of the University of Leipzig.
Issues such as the length of the constitution
were addressed. Having a short text is seen as
giving greater freedom to the judges responsi-
ble for interpreting it, even though some parts
may be elaborated more than others, therefore
opting for "variable geometric precision" fol-
lowing the example of the American con. i i -
tion. The relevance of incorporating the r,.. 11i-
od of electing the President of the Repiil..
into the constitution was also debated in d.. pi|l-
The seminar considered the benefits oi i..i
confining the system within the constituil, i.
Other issues dealt with included the ip..-.-
tion of the jurisprudence of the Unitl..I
Nations Human Rights Committee and
constitutional guarantees against dis-
In an interview with The Courier,
Francis MacGregor outlined the cir-
cumstances in which the President
of the Seychelles had decided to cre-
ate a committee to prepare the draft
of the new constitution. The current
constitution, which was adopted 15
years ago by referendum, has laid the
foundations for establishing democ-
racy following a period of instabil-
ity. Mr MacGregor explained that the
future draft, which will be decided upon
by the people, is intended to adapt to the
requirements of a stable country that
is politically well established and is
enjoying relatively strong economic
growth. A major debate has
started within the island

in the Indian Ocean which could result in a
popular referendum. Various consultations are
being carried out, in particular with countries
in the region such as Mauritius.
Mr MacGregor added: "It is ultimately the
people of the Seychelles who will decide. But
we want to know how such changes have taken
place in other countries. As head of the com-
mittee responsible for constitutional review,
I opened the debate within the country. I
also believe it is appropriate to benefit from
the experiences of other countries. When the
Seychelles' ambassador to Brussels explained
the interest of the members of the European
Parliament in our procedure, I jumped at the

The conclusions of the Brussels symposium
will be made public in the near future.
H.G. M

Francis MacGregor Head of the Delegation of Seychelles
and Hans-Gert Pottering President of the EP.
European Parliament

Seychelles; Constitution; European
Parliament's Constitutional Conunittee; Jo
Leinen; Francis Mc Gregor; Hegel Goutier.


Held on 2 and 3 October
in Accra, the 6th Summit
of Heads of States and
Governments of the 79
African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP) Group served
to confirm the concerns
being expressed: the ACP
States are struggling to
work out a joint stance on
the Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs) being
offered by the European
Commission. A meeting
with the Ivorian Minister for
African Integration,Amadou
Kon, whose country has
concluded an EPA with the
EU, and comments by Glenys
Kinnock, Co-President of the
ACP-EU Joint Assembly.

> Cte d'luoire on the defensive

Amadou Kon sought to present a persuasive
argument: "my country, along with Ghana and
Nigeria, provides the dynamism in the region
in a bid to raise its level." The Ivorian Minister
for African Integration denied acting alone
by signing an interim EPA. Almost alone,
that is, because Ghana also followed suit. He
explained that "Cte d'Ivoire accounts for 70
per cent of all West African exports to Europe-
not including oil or a volume of goods whose
value is put at C700M. Bearing this in mind,
as well as its status in the region and its com-
mitment towards its people, was it not right to
conclude an agreement?" Exporting a volume
of goods put at C240M, Ghana is the second
largest exporter, when petroleum products
are not factored in, followed by Nigeria (still
excluding petroleum products) with C100M.
Amadou Kon also denies the pact is not in the
interests of the Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS), which comprises
all the West African countries due to negotiate
a 'regional' EPA with the EU. "What we have
actually done is to offer our region a breathing
space thanks to a clause in the interim agree-
ment allowing the ECOWAS to pursue the
negotiations with equanimity."


> "The EU should show flexibility"

"Contradictory to the numerous commitments
to trade justice made by the EU." This is how
the MEP Glenys Kinnock described the eco-
nomic partnership agreements (EPAs). She
was speaking during the opening of the Accra
Summit. She added that: "From the outset
the European Commission approached EPAs
as if they were conventional free trade area
agreements focusing on market opening rather
than tools for development." She stressed that:
"Several years later there is still the relentless
repetition of the mantra of reciprocity as if
that were a word which automatically denoted
fairness. It only denotes fairness when the
reciprocity is between equals. In fact in other
circumstances it can mean the opposite of
justice the contradiction of equity... I make
no semantic point when I say that that is the
case now." Glenys Kinnock suggested that
even in the midst of the global "financial
maelstrom", civilised facilitating treatment of
the poor by the super-rich poses no additional
threat to them. Consequently, the MEP urged
differential treatment on a case-by-case basis.
M.M.B. M

Amadou Kon, Cte d'Ivoire, EPA, Glenys
*ta t I wl] n f'eal -o e -i,,o in the

Kinnock, Ghana, Nigeria, Marie-Martine


1W]-----f-l J.uijjjr ]fiSlUri

* o

y Hegel Goutie :
y Hegel Goutier

JIL', J'uJiJ, JinJJL!i1.

his 'studio' when I
caught up with him,
relaxed, surrounded
by friends. Only one thing, his studio had
moved and he was welcoming his 'models'
at the European Parliament. And not just
any models at that, but the Euro-movers and
shakers... European Parliaments (MEPS),
lobbyists and an assortment of other visi-
tors. The reason for all this? The European

Parliament was organising its first Africa
Week from 8 to 12 September and a studio
had been made available for this guest of
honour. A studio where he could frame
his models and project their images onto a
giant screen in real time. Everyone wanted
to pose for this genius of a photographer,
now aged 75, and revel in the company of
this jovial character who exudes laughter,
warmth and humour.
Sidib has more than 40 years of profes-
sional experience behind him and more
than 15 years of international recognition.
The first major milestone came in 1995
with an exhibition of his work at the Cartier
Foundation of Contemporary Art in Paris.

Then in 2007 came the Venice Biennial
and the exhibition, 'Think with the Senses
Feel with the Mind', where he was award-
ed the Golden Lion for his life's work.
This was followed, in May 2008, by the
Lifetime Achievement Infinity Award from
the International Center of Photography
(ICP). Some years earlier, in 2003, he
also received the much coveted Hasselblad
Award. More than that, this Malian photog-
rapher has had his work exhibited at some
of the world's most prestigious venues,
such as the Museum of Contemporary Art
in Chicago, the Guggenheim in Bilbao and
the Kunsthalle in Vienna. A grand total of
66 exhibitions between 1996 and 2008.
Malick Sidib spoke about his personal
journey, his vision for Africa, of art and
above all of man kind, in the course of


. . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 1 . . . .


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a long day that started early and ended late.
He was overjoyed with his reception at the
European Parliament seeing it as being a mark
of recognition from the whole of Europe for the
value of Africa.
"It fills me with great emotion and joy," he
enthused. "There is a proverb in my country
that says when someone is overjoyed you must
not ask him to light the fire because he has so
much saliva in his mouth that he will put it out.
So I do not have so much to say to you, except
to say that after the Golden Lion in Venice that
paved the way to worldwide recognition and
the trophy I received in the United States, the
European Parliament is the crowning glory."

Venice was just last year. Do you not believe
that this recognition of your work has corne
rather late, even if you appear to be a young

Everything you do, in your life, in your old
age, you must prepare for when you are young
and when you have strength, vigour and a
clear conscience. It is with this spirit of youth
that you can keep alive until the age of 80 that
you must prepare for your old age. That is the
advice I give to young people. You have to
sow and after you will harvest.

For Sidib, life is pure happiness. His face
is forever alive and cheerful and he tells of
how he came to photography as if it were a

I didn't do anything special for that. It's life.
l've never studied photography. I came to it
late in life. I was a designer at first, trained as
a jeweller at the Sudanese School of Crafts. It
is design that gave me my opportunity, because
for an African in 1952, being helped by the
governor general who chooses you to go to the
craft school when he didn't know me or my par-
ents I lost my father in 1947 was a unique
favour. At this school they discovered my
talents as a painter and designer and it was on
this basis that the director of the school recom-
mended me to a French photographer, Grard
Guillat-Guignard, who was looking for a deco-
rator. That was in 1955, and I was 27. When he
saw my designs he asked me to become his first
employee for photography. I met up again with
Guillat-Grignard in 2004 when I went to see
him in Biarritz. We talked for hours.

Was photography .... l,;,,. new for you or
the < ,l, i;,,. ...i;. il,.' crafts you hadpracticed

I was already busy with images. When you are
involved with photography, you are engaged in
drawing on something that is to do with events,
with the media. People came to me to be pho-
tographed. At that period, in the years 1958 to
1960, it was young people above all who had
changed. And it was not politics that brought
people together, it was dancing to European or
Cuban music. And I took pictures to fix these
moments of joy experienced by these young
people. I was in demand all the time. Young
designers dressed the girls and they dressed the
boys. You had to be in the swing of things to
dance the tango, the cha-cha-cha.

So, you were a kind of permanent reporter of
life in your country and today your work is
regarded as a historical archive on Malian
youth in this period.

I am pleased to have worked in this way and
for my work to have achieved this. It also
contributed to correcting the image others had
of our way of life as outsiders to word trends.
You have seen photos of young people danc-
ing the twist in 1972. I was pleased to show
that what people said about the Malians, about
Africa, was not true. But of course there are
the unfortunate everywhere.
I wanted to photograph the Malians where
they lived: in the streets, in the shops, the
jewellers. I am pleased that as the world has
changed my work has come to be regarded as
having archive value. That young people seem
pleased to see through my photos that not all
of Africa was behind the times. We may be
behind the times materiallv but psvcholo2i-
..III *.* .I... i.i.. ..I 11., ,. 1. l lU h i ,Ili IIl.\


I have a fear today, since Europe entered Mali
through the image and the notion of contem-
porary art. With money, you can be led astray
and away from the path of your life. I say to
young people not to try and pursue money. Do
your work as a painter or a photographer. Be
yourself, act on what you think. That is what
you must do, not follow people who want you
to do things a certain way or follow certain
ideas that do not suit you.

Apartfron photography, how do youjudge the
dynamism of art in Mali and in Africa. Is it a
good time now?

It is a good time for us because this art that
people wanted to reject, this art that the
African did not want to look at, is now being
awarded due recognition. We were lucky; we
had nothing to do with art as such we simply
just made it. Now today the experts have
evaluated and attached value to this art that
is earning money. It is just that we have seen
that the African is in the process of moving up
to varied forms of art and that he is going to
reach a high level when it is primitive art that
is being seen as of value. We must not return
to what has been done but continue moving
forwards. M


Malick Sidib; photography; Mali;
Malians; Bamako; Africa Week; European
Parliament; Golden Lion at the Venice
Biennial of Contemporary Art; Lifetime
Achievement Award ; Hasselblad Award;

Il -







developing countries to industr-
ialised countries be halted? By
involving this expertise in field
projects, but what's still needed is money. This
is what the new ACP Science and Technology
(S&T) Programme is providing.
The Artemisia plant, whose leaves are used
to produce Artemisinin, a powerful antima-
larial drug, is among the best treatments for
malaria. Increasingly grown in China, India,
Vietnam and East Africa, it helps boost farm-
ers' incomes. But there are still many issues
to resolve. The World Health Organisation is
taking a long time to approve drugs derived
from medicinal plants as it is concerned about


.. i.l.lh,.. 'i'. II,.l''l lli .h i..Il', .I,.lll,.'h,,h,,I
guaranteeing their sustainable cultivation and
ensuring that forest communities continue to
profit from these crops. Raising these barriers
entails the participation and networking of
stakeholders from various backgrounds: local
authorities, research institutes and NGOs.
There are many other projects involving
researchers and technicians working alongside
businesses and civil society: reducing pol-
lution and traffic congestion in major urban
centres in developing countries; developing,
according to local needs, renewable energies,
such as solar and wind energy; and ensuring
'sustainable' commercial agreements, etc. All
that is needed is funding. This is where the
I >. 1111 i l,. ..,III,._ -III l uiii r III.. -I

up to 85 per cent) projects with an interdisci-
plinary approach and to enable ACP countries
to establish and introduce S&T policies that
will help ensure sustainable development and
reduce poverty, by encouraging economic
growth and progressive integration into the
world economy. The programme is aimed at
institutions (political and administrative) and
research centres, private companies and civil
M.M.B. M

ACP Science and Technology (S&T);
Marie-Martine Buckens.

Launch of the EU-IfRICH

partnership for SCIEDCE

Food security and Internet expansion are featured among the six priority projects
identified by the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU) as part of their new
strategic partnership for science, information and communication technologies (ICTs)
and space.

J anez Potocnik, European Commissioner
responsible for research and develop-
ment, and his African opposite number,
Mr Jean-Pierre Onvhoun Ezin, met on
1 October, in the presence of other European
Commissioners, most notably Development

Commissioner Louis Michel. The outcome
was the adoption of a joint statement serving
as a framework for implementing the AU-EU
partnership for science (the '8th partnership',
agreed at the AU-EU Summit in December
2007 in Lisbon) and presenting 19 flagship

projects. They also agreed that six of these
projects should be a priority and would receive
immediate attention.
The European Commission stressed that this
joint statement is in line with the spirit of
partnership inherent in the common Europe-



I l


Our Planet

Africa strategy that involves working 'with'
Africa and not only 'for' Africa. The 19 pilot
projects were selected and developed by the
African Union Commission to meet certain
African needs. They must help the continent
to develop the science and technology that
will enable it to achieve the goals of the other
partnerships concluded between the two par-
ties, namely to eradicate poverty, combat
disease, reduce the digital divide, stem the
deterioration of the environment and improve
economic competitiveness.

> Pilot project in the Hile Basin

The six priority projects include two projects
that are designed to improve the dissemination
and use of the Internet in Africa (the 'African
Internet Exchange System') and to extend the
reach of the high-speed network for research
and education, GEANT, to sub-Saharan Africa
('Africa Connect').
Two other projects seek to help the African
Union to develop its own scientific resources.
The 'African Research Grants' project will

commits Ghana to put into place a
production tracking system by 2010
while Europe the leading importer
of African tropical timber must step up its
border controls. The result of three years of
negotiations, this "voluntary partnership agree-
ment" (VPA) is the key element of the FLEGT
Action Plan to "improve the governance and
application of laws concerning logging and
trading in timber products" adopted by the EU

help the African Union Commission to put
into place an African framework programme
for research. In the framework of the project
on water and food safety in Africa, the Nile
Basin will serve as a pilot case for research
and demonstration activities designed to com-
bat problems of food supplies and encourage
efficient water and land management.
In the field of space, the GMES-Africa project
(GMES is Global Monitoring for Environment
and Security) aims to strengthen the use of
remote sensing by Africa and its contributions
in this field, in particular by implementing
operating systems. A second project should
make it possible to improve the African
Union's capacities in the geospatial field. The
transfer of technologies to the African Union
will be made possible in particular through
the duplication of the Africa Observatory for
Sustainable Development at the European
Joint Research Centre that provides scientific
information on natural resources, food safety,
crisis management and renewable energies
(see also The Courier no. 6, page 33).
The 13 remaining projects include, in particu-

Council of Ministers in 2005. By the terms of
this VPA, no export of Ghanaian timber to the
EU will be allowed unless accompanied by a
licence confirming its legality. For its part, the
EU is offering Ghana technical and institu-
tional assistance.
Other countries that export tropical timber
have shown an interest in the FLEGT proc-
ess. Assisted by a number of Member States
(Germany, United Kingdom, the Netherlands,
France), the European Commission is engaged

lar, an African leadership initiative in the field
of ICTs and research and development for the
expansion of African SMEs and an AU initia-
tive on climate change.
Thejoint statement calls on the 27 EU Member
States, the 53 African Union Member States,
the private sector and civil society to coordi-
nate their commitment to the 19 projects, and
in particular to define the suitable financing
instruments, the source of financing possibly
being community, national, regional or pri-
vate. For its part, the European Commission
pledged that Africa would be encouraged
to participate to a greater extent in the EU's
Seventh Framework Programme for Research,
especially in the fields of health, the environ-
ment and climate, energy, agriculture and
food, the information and communication
technologies and space applications.
M.M.B. M

R&D; EU-AU partnership; priority
projects; Internet; GEANT.

in informal discussions with producing coun-
tries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Gabon,
Congo-Brazzaville and, most recently, the
Democratic Republic of Congo. Formal
negotiations with Cameroon commenced in
September 2007. M.M.B. M

FLEGT; voluntary partnership agreement;
tropical timber; illegal trading.


A report by Hegel Coutier

Surinam is a little-known country. The last time it
hit the newspaper headlines was in the early 1980s
with the 'coup d'etat' that followed independence.
As with Botswana or other countries of the South,

the lack of attention is a sign that things are not
going too badly. It is also an encouraging sign for the
genuinely curious traveller who does not wait for the
green light from the tour operators before exploring
new horizons.

e A >5k : kk:? k k: k :?k: ? kk A: k k: I:A k:y.: A : k5 A A:k5 k A: 5 kk: A k>Ikk: A k>5 k: k :ekk k kk ? k:k: k k: k Ak: y I: k: I:.. ..
X : : : : :: -: :k+ + :+-K :+x- -.. k- y k; -xkk +.- + + +: k k: K K+ && +< *K + *%% + +l *XK +\< *XK *%E +% E- +^A ^^/ ^" *** *

Sunnam report

urinam is one of those countries
made up of a rainbow of ethnic
groups and cultures living together,
if not in perfect harmony, then at
least in a spirit of tolerance, courtesy and
friendly relations. The close proximity of the
Grand Mosque and the Grand Synagogue in the
capital Paramaribo is just one example of this.
What is more, not a single guard is to be seen
protecting either building, a notion regarded
as unnecessary and seemingly unthinkable.
This cultural syncretism is deeply ingrained
in many areas of Surinam's society. While


Dutch is the official language, the genuine lin-
gua franca is Sranantongo, a language of the
'Black Maroons' that is also rich in African
influences. In addition, English is widely
spoken as Surinam was previously colonised
by the British Empire that exchanged it with
the Dutch for the city of 'New Amsterdam',
later renamed New York. There are also eight
important Amerindian languages, Sarnami (the
local Hindi), Javanese, Chinese, Portuguese,
Lebanese and others.
Surinam can pride itself on having been one
of the first, if not the first, South American

country to have included Amerindian min-
isters in its government, immediately after
independence. The current government has
four Amerindian ministers. The country is
generally regarded as providing a good model,
with a well-established democracy, growing
economy, social peace and ecological aware-
ness. The ancient city centre of Paramaribo is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site with its coloni-
al houses and wooden buildings, one of which
is the cathedral, the most imposing example
of this architectural style to be found in South
America. In addition to this notable homage
to man, there is also a homage to nature in the
form of the Central Surinam Nature Reserve
located in the Sipaliwini region. Amazonian
vegetation covers almost the entire country
and the focus is very much on green tourism.
The country has made a brave choice for eco-
tourism and it is one that is certainly destined
to bring rewards in the long term. This is not
its sole resource, however, and Surinam also
has reserves of bauxite, gold and oil. Last but
not least is the 'joie de vivre' of its inhabitants
and Parimaribo is very much the centre of
nightlife for the three 'Guyanas'.

> ca

Covering 163,000 square kilometres, Surinam
is one of the smallest countries in South
America. Neighbouring Amapa, Brazil's south-
ernmost state, it nestles between Guyana on its
Western border and French Guiana to the east.
Surinam is a basin with four major rivers flow-
ing up from the South to their river mouths in
the North and many others flowing in every
direction towards neighboring countries.
Before colonisation, the country was in fact
known as Amazon. As for Surinam, that is the
official name approved by the United Nations,
also in foreign languages. The inhabitants are
Surinamrs, while the adjective is Surinamse.
In the karayib language, Surin means 'all
nations', while 'ame' is the contraction of
Amazon that means 'fountain of life'. A literal
translation of Surinam would therefore read:
"land of the fountain of life of all peoples".
The Amerindian populations who lived in the
Guyanas were known as the 'Surinen'.
In Surinam, these people today represent
almost 500,000 inhabitants, 85 per cent of
whom are concentrated in the coastal strip and
almost half of them in the capital Paramaribo.
In addition, there is a Diaspora of 200,000
living in the Netherlands. These are no longer
purely Amerindians and many other Surinamrs
have since joined them. One of the close col-
leagues of Christopher Columbus, Alonso de


Ojeda, travelled to the coast of present-day
Surinam in 1499, shortly after the explor-
ers arrived in the Caribbean in 1492. At the
time the country was inhabited principally
by Caribs and Arawaks. The Arawaks made
up the majority of the population of the large
islands in the Northern Caribbean and were
the first to settle in Surinam, in around 500
A.D., followed 50 years later by the Arawaks.
However, traces of life in Surinam go back
almost 10,000 years.
In 1593 the Spanish, by way of Domingo de
Vera, took official possession of Surinam.
The Dutch arrived at the beginning of the
17th century. These were then followed by the
English who arrived in neighboring Barbados
in 1662, led by Lord Willoughby of Parham.
In 1667 the Dutch, led by Abraham Crijnssen,
conquered the country. At the beginning of
the XVIII century Paramaribo was already a
flourishing centre.
Surinam quickly became a prosperous col-
ony with more than 400 plantations devel-
oped in the 18th century. As elsewhere, these
exploited African slave labour. The slave
population of Surinam proved to be notably
rebellious, however, and fled the plantations
in their droves. These 'Bush Negroes' and the
Amerindians established a relationship based
on retaining their distance and non-aggression.
The Maroons defined a new culture made up
a various elements introduced from many dif-
ferent parts of Africa.
After slavery was abolished in 1863, there
was recourse to foreign labour, from India,
Indonesia and China in particular. The con-
tract workers took over the work on the
plantations, most of them choosing to remain
in Surinam after their contracts expired. The
discovery of bauxite deposits later gave a new
emphasis to the Surinamse economy. After the
Second World War, the calls for independence
grew louder. A first step was made in 1954
when the Netherlands granted the territory the

status of an autonomous territory. But this was
not enough to satisfy the large Amerindian
and Black (Creoles and Maroons) communi-
ties. Full independence was proclaimed on 25
November 1975 after three centuries of Dutch
colonisation and two centuries of autonomy, to
the great displeasure of the East Indian com-
munity who did not want this break.
The new democracy soon encountered a
number of problems. The middle classes of
principally Indian origin started to desert the
country in their droves, moving to the United
States even before independence was declared
officially. This was followed by the departure
of the Dutch industrialists who left the com-
panies in the hands of unqualified personnel.
The deteriorating economic and social situa-
tion brought the temptation to seek salvation
in a strong leader. This presented itself in the
form of a young officer, Sergeant Major Desi
Delano Bouterse, who launched a coup d'etat
in 1980, making convenient use of the Marxist
phraseology of the time and winning the sup-
port of a large section of the Surinamse popu-
lation, especially the Black and Amerindian
communities. A decade later he was to stage
another coup. In the meantime, he remained
in power between 1980 and 1987, accused of
having established a dictatorship and of exe-
cuting in 1982, 15 prominent members of the
opposition intelligentsia, including journalists
and union leaders. He later yielded to interna-
tional pressure and an internal revolt, agreeing
to hold elections in 1987 and to install a new
democratic government in 1988. The 1980
'coup d'etat' had in fact caused the Maroon
Negroes to engage in a guerrilla war between
1986 and 1989, headed by the former soldier
Ronnie Brunswick. In retaliation the govern-
ment army destroyed many villages used as
rear bases by the insurgents. This is the period
referred to as the 'civil war'.
Bouterse's second coup was launched in 1990
and lasted a year. In 1991, Ronald Venetiaan



The tirct oL': onials to aIrri..e ri S rinani
'*.e le iaiinly let'. fiio ELiI 'pe and
Prazil. Thev, settled on the banks of
the Surin.iin Ri.'er mrainl, at tlhe place
kno,.n as the lev.ish Sa,-nnah The
tirsi inmp-'sinq s.iiag'gLJu-e Be-acha
.e shalorm' (Benediction and pence)
dates back to 1695 and the ruins are
open Lo the public


recycled as

good democratic


Surinam hls a lo of political parties
lmc.ct ot then itoLnded on a commnu-
nity o1 dJnoiintinjtonal bacit Thei e
aie se.'eirl Hindu and la..anese paitiet
adid also ipar[ltlie ro ,td in the Mara cn
N.jrco. .A\lerindian and Creole com-
muniitis niione ot tlhese par l[.t is
able t. i.-rnimmand an abscluIte milajcrit
the:, ivork together within n ccalitionc.
These cc'.liLticns are rnotabikl fc'r the facL
thiat the, al.va\.,s ini:lude parties ot all
religious d:enonminationrs and represenL
all the comniunities Within these co.ali-
ticns difterent ideological perlcualiclns
aie apparent. Sometimes liberal, and
soritieiiii mror.e ionserl\ar.e these
coalitions therefore recycle as demo-
cratic practice tlihe risk o-t cc'rniiniira-
utriiasm or clinnishness
The present i:ippocitii:n leader is Desi
Delano B,: uterse a main 4vho culs a
dasliing tigure and .:hi: hia ne:er
lost his graLt popularinti broadening
his ele-toi al base a rosc ,.,ri'i u Lc:im -
nunities The cooliti. n he leads stands
a qoI Clinii -e ot being retuLJnen t.,
p:.,wer vilhli hiiii as leader In terms c'f
denmoirai the irei :ling i .i~: iking.

was elected President of the Republic. A year
later, he signed a peace agreement with the
Maroon and Amerindian rebels. Since then
democracy has been respected. In 1996, the
coalition government headed by Venetiaan
lost the elections. In 2001, Venetiaan was
returned to power and then again in 2005.
H.C. M


he history of Surinam as told by the
former colonialists is apparently
full of falsehoods if one looks at
the information handed down from
generation to generation among the Indian
communities. The first of these untruths is
that the Amerindians were too weak and
died and that is why Blacks were brought
in from Africa. In fact it is rather that the
Europeans who occupied the country forced
the inhabitants to work in inhumane condi-
tions; conditions against which the revolt was
immediate. When Alonso de Ojeda arrived in
1499, he didn't remain. In 1593, Domingo de
Vera, received fittingly by the Pyai, king and
spiritual leader of the indigenous population,
attacked his host and cut off his ear because he
judged the water he was offered to be undrink-
able. But de Vera and his men had to make a
quick retreat, many of them losing their lives.
After that the European presence was reduced
to some furtive visits. Until the arrival of Lord
Willoughby in 1662 who had been given the
territory by the Prince of Wales. "Another big
lie", says Henk Tjon.
In fact, recount the Indians, de Vera had asked


their ancestors for permission to set up a trad-
ing post. "He therefore arrived in the country
like a snake." De Vera then surreptitiously
allowed foreigners to enter in small num-
bers. When his deviousness was revealed, he
was expelled. He returned after having made
amends and promising to change his ways.
It was the Dutch who finally established a
colony but the Indians never gave up their
resistance, and this until independence was
won in 1975.
Tjon explains why, fortheAmerindians, among
the territories of South America that of present
day Surinam was a symbol to defend at any
price. The Indians believed in the virtues of
the Sun King and Amazonia was regarded as
his privileged domain. Surinam is the place on
the continent where the sun's rays are already
to be seen when the sun is positioned over
Africa. The Gonini (Harpey eagle), Anuwana
in the Karib language, was venerated because
it represented the spirit of the rising sun. That
is why Surinam, place of pilgrimage for the
South American worshippers where they were
assured of food and shelter, acquired its name
of 'nation of all nations'. To become of this

land, one must pledge oneself to the earth by
burying one's umbilical cord that was often
guarded and protected since birth.
Well before the arrival of Christopher
Columbus, the Pyai had had a vision of
huge birds arriving, carrying on their flanks
white sea monsters. This heralded a period
of 500 years of death, wars and desolation.
There would be suffering and genocide. And
afterwards, the people would be freed. What
shocked the Indians of Surinam was that the
new arrivals had settled without their umbili-
cal cords, without pledging themselves to the
earth. If they had, they would have become
Surinen. "Like everybody", concludes Tjon.
H.C. M

Marcel Pinas 'Monument Afaka', to the memory of
the maroon negro Atoemoesie, founder at the begin-
ning of the 20th century of the vocabulary of Afaka,
both alphabet and ideogram, consisting of 56 signs
which are still in use 2008. Hegel Gouter

Hegel Goutier; Surinam; Henk Tjon;
Amerindians; Domingo de Vera; Pyai;

report Sunnam


Vice-President of Surinam

Former Co-President of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly

Interview by Hegel Goutier

for the benefit of Surinam and the whole
of humanity. Our banana industry has been [.* n i en ii:].el
improved with the banana plantations lost
three to four years ago having recovered.

In the health sector, we are endeavouring to *.. *e I *p
provide more clinics and facilities to improve i e m pl s
access to health facilities I should mention the
fact that we are prioritising good governance
on the basis of rule of law and principles of
democracy and a judiciary which is independ-
ent from any kind of influence.
The government's priorities for Surinam's
development. Surinam inside CARICOM.

The essential point is that we have to develop
our country with our own energy and capa-
bilities. We will use our own country's human
resources to the maximum. We are trying to
make good use of funds but besides funding,
we also need know-how and technology that
we currently have to import. We have taken
measures to upgrade the salaries of civil serv-
ants and those of senior persons. There are now
more facilities for agriculture and the fisher-
ies sector and also for schoolchildren. In the
country's interior, where the situation is very
difficult, fuel can be obtained without tax.

Implementation of development policies.

Six months ago, we signed an agreement with
China for renovation of our asphalt roads
and construction of 500 kilometres of roads
involving contracts with local firms. We are
constructing a road stretching from the North
to South of around 250 kilometres. Our prior-
ity is to give people of the interior access to
educational and other facilities.
We are focusing on our tourism industries and
are making progress in the mining sector on
the exploitation of gold. Production capacity
of oil has improved with some companies now
prospecting offshore. We are also constructing
a new harbour to export production. Wood
is being exploited from sustainable forests
according to specific criteria so that the nega-
tive impacts of its exploitation will be kept to
a minimum. We are trying to use the resource

In spite of our own capabilities, energy resourc-
es and own achievements on the development
front, attention is also being given to forging
regional links. We are moving ahead to become
an increasingly active member of CARICOM.
We are also part of the Cotonou Agreement
between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
countries and the European Union (EU) and
making good use of its European Development
Fund (EDF), having committed all funds allo-
cated to our country. We also have bi-lateral
relations; firstly between Surinam and the
Netherlands. Currently, we are busy with com-
mitting the final part of monies made avail-
able by the Netherlands in 1975 on Surinam's

Geopolitics and Surinam.

In the bilateral sphere, there are good relations
between Surinam and China, also with India
and Indonesia and with the US, France, Brazil
and Guyana. Venezuela is supporting our oil

On EPAs and why the ACP agreed to negoti-
ate EPAs.

At the time I was a member of the ACP-EU
Joint Parliamentary Assembly (1998-2005),
EU countries wanted to change their devel-
opment policy. I got the impression that
they are now taking backward steps as far
as the responsibility of EU countries to ACP

Sunnam report

countries goes, having divided ACP countries
into six regions in drawing up an EPA.
We are in CARICOM and are moving for-
ward on EPAs. The EU is under pressure
from other countries. There are differences
between CARICOM countries but in general,
CARICOM is trying to take steps forward on
an EPA (Editor' s note: Surinam signed an EPA
with the EU along with 13 other CARIFORUM
countries on 15 October). Other ACP coun-

tries are not so far on with talks but they do
not have possibilities to refuse.(Editor's note:
ACP states made the commitment within the
Cotonou agreement to negotiate EPAs). They
had to accept the principle of EPAs because of
their economic situation and interest in ensur-
ing a new agreement with the EU. At the time
(2003-2004), when I was co-President of the
ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, we
had to accept. We now have to work together

to defend our own interests. We must not wait
for the Europeans to come to us. We have to
make choices and take decisions. ACPs must
come together. I

Ramdien Sardjoe; Vice-President of
Surinam; ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary
Assembly; EDF; EPAs; CARICOM.

"In economic terms, yes, we are

Ricardo van Ravenswaay

Minister of Planning and Foreign Aid,

EDF National Authorising Officer

Interview by Hegel Coutier

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report Surinam

f economy

with potential

Joyce van Genderen-Naar*

Surinam has a small, diverse economy but one with
huge potential. Its micro-economic climate over the
past five years has been characterized by positive
growth, whereas its macroeconomic performance has
strengthened markedly in recent years. The government
has taken measures to guide the country on the path of
sustainable economic development.

ver many centuries, Surinam had
a plantation economy with a pre-
dominantly agrarian structure. It
was a well-known sugar planta-
tion colony, described by Voltaire in 1759
in his complaint in Candide ou l'Optimisme
against the cruel slavery system in Surinam:
'c'est ce prix que vous mangez du sucre en
Europe' ('This is the price you are paying in
Europe for eating sugar').
A fundamental change to the mining economy
occurred during the two World Wars in the
20th century. Exploration of bauxite grew for
the U.S. war economy. In 1941, American
troops were stationed in Surinam to protect
this strategic raw material from attacks. 71 per
cent of Surinam's total earnings between 1941
and 1950 came from bauxite. Today, 22.5 per
cent of the country's revenue comes from the
bauxite, gold and oil export sectors.
On the micro-economic front, Surinam's has
seen an average real growth, 2000-2005, of
4.4 per cent. But the economic weight of
manufacturing has declined apart from alu-
mina production and some (mainly fisheries-
related) food processing industries.
Surinam's macro-economic performance has
become much stronger in recent years. The
bolstering of the Central Bank's independence
and reduction of foreign exchange market
fragmentation, have contributed to higher
growth, lower inflation, large accumulation
of international reserve, and a sharp decline
in public debt as a ratio to Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) according to the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) Executive Board. Terms
of trade have improved by about 30 per cent

in 2005-2007, amounting to a real increase of
income of over 10 percent, although inflation
rose to double digits in 2007. GDP grew by an
estimated 5.5 per cent, with strong perform-
ance in both the mineral and non-mineral sec-
tors. The external account surplus was about
3 per cent of GDP, and international reserves
rose by over 60 per cent. GDP growth is
projected to accelerate to about 7 per cent in
2008, led by a rapid expansion of domestic
In its multi-annual development plan,
2006-2011, the Government of Surinam has
indicated that the economic development of
Surinam for the coming years will be based
on sustainable economic development. There
will be a continued focus on the agricultural
sector and on developing and processing min-
eral resources. The aim is to double per capital
GDP by 2020.
The mining sector is still Surinam's most
important economic sector, led by Suralco,
the Surinam Aluminium Company linked to
Alcoa (Aluminium Company of America)
and Billiton. Although the mining sector is
an important foreign exchange earner for
Surinam, it contributes little in employment
terms (3.5 per cent). Surinam has a long
history of gold exploration. Nowadays the
Canadian company, Cambior, is the market
leader in gold exploration. Gold mining is also
an important source of income for more than
20.000 Brazilians living in Surinam.
Oil production is mounting, explored by the
State Oil Company 'Staatsolie'. In 2005, pro-
duction amounted to 4.4 million oil barrels of
crude oil, an increase of 5 per cent compared to

Surinam Figures*

Pr.pul Jion: 5? .uniu 20iu8
4rin ul/l /hanae 1 5 'c, id
f'.ounal GDP: (LIS $ BillionIc- 2 i4 Id
Nrrinirl CDP per alpita 4,.4Ui id
AnnLuil chIIMe 5 0
E..ports Cin -, :.f GDPI 31.1 2ciU5
(ot which ni.:.re important S.,ices in
ot GDP)
TruJe 1b.nt" i"'i 4 4k 20u6
CuiireT OiOiini tokli.nce (.i GDPi
2 4ln, 2ln7
Eafinnl .delL', < (GDPi 16.?. 2nu8
F,',i_' e.--tclitoni e ir.se'i v 2 U id
(in months of infmp.:rt! of g ajod aind
nc .n-.fai(ticl S'-r ci )
l .i-l'Ur?1Pm i. i nT/nt,' n: 4 ?. id
1',innuai a'eraqip e -hani e in j ip.,
iuri i rl[ iiiil ii nfl \a ,-,in, r; I linJ il'.[] i

2004. Production is to be increased to 15,000
barrels per day. Fuels are the biggest category
of exports to CARICOM countries. 'Staatsolie'
intends to meet Surinam's total domestic
demand for diesel and gasoline by 2012.
The country's forestry sector has a poten-
tial net production capacity of approximately
2.5M hectares. This area can produce annually
1-1.5M m2 round wood with a minimum value
of U.S. $40-45M.
Agriculture now accounts now for around 5
per cent of the country's GDP and 7.4 per cent
of its exports. It exports both rice and vegeta-
bles; 50 per cent of its rice being exported to
Europe. Rice and bananas account for 11.2
percent of employment. The fishing indus-
try in Surinam operates mainly for export.
Its major export destinations are Japan, the
U.S., Europe and its CARICOM neighbours.
Surinam' s private sector companies are active
in the fishery sector and employ over 5,000.
The tourism sector is a priority economic
sector of development in Surinam, especially
eco-tourism, with a current annual average
growth of almost 8.2 per cent per year. S

* Journalist and Lawyer (born in Surinam, based in

Jaribaka Estate, after scrupulous selection, bananas wait
to be thrown out. 2008. Hegel Gouber
"But why did the EU help a sector to become competi-
tive ifit was only to clip ils wings afterwards?"

Surinam; economy; CARICOM; bauxite;
mineral resources; oil; tourism.


Surinam has decided firmly in favour of a policy of sustainable management of its

territory. Forestry, banana plantations and eco-tourism are keysectors in implementing

such a policy. Placed under the control of state foundations, they have benefited

greatly as a result although there are some clouds on the horizon when it comes to

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"But why did the EU help a sector to become
competitive if it was only to clip its wings
Spatial planning also takes into account the
promotion of ecological tourism. Many of the
roads planned to open up communities living
in the interior have been designed with this
purpose in mind. Teaching programmes at all
levels with accompanying attractive techni-
cal manuals and audiovisual supports have
also been adapted to include tourism. These ..
not only seek to increase awareness among
the population but also to provide the techni-
cal skills needed to help develop the sector.
School buses visit communities to instruct
private individuals on how to build traditional
pavilions that meet the necessary standards
and prepare food that meets health standards.
Sector professionals such as Armand Li-A-
Young, Director of SurinamTourism, have f..,
expressed great praise for the government's I
choice of eco-tourism. In this sector at least,
there do not appear to be any clouds on the
horizon. H.G. II
* Under the new EPA agreement with CARIFORUM,
bananas from Surinam can enter the EU quota and duty-
free although a new challenge looms in a proposed EU
tariff cut for bananas from Central America (see this issue
on page 29).

Hegel Goutier, Surinam, rice, banana,
forest, tourism, Ren Somopawiro, SBBS,
Jaribaka Estate, Philippe Dury Pierre
Marie Defo, Armand Li-A-Young.

report Sunnam

but too much bureaucracy and sectarianism,

according to the

according to Robert L. A. Ameerali,
President of the Chamber of
Commerce and Industry, Surinam' s
economic situation is stable and
sound, but with excessive state bureaucracy that
is a burden on companies. He stresses that eco-
nomic growth is based largely on bauxite.
He condemns the government for having used
profits from the high price of mining exports,
namely bauxite, gold and oil, to employ an
army of civil servants. "So it is not a produc-

tive government", he declares. Among other
problems, he draws attention to the adminis-
trative red tape involved in obtaining land use
rights. This has a significant impact on many
branches of industry. As for government,
"there are a lot of words but no results". There
is thus no real planning of Surinam's develop-
ment or concerted implementation on the part
of the public authorities and the private sector.
Any entrepreneur who has to invest for the
coming decade is therefore compelled to take

a risk. "It is a master performance to survive in
such this situation." Where Mr Ameerali does
acknowledge that the government has done
a good job is in expanding infrastructures
and roads in particular. But he also says that:
"There is no development planning but devel-
opment with no plan." Why is this? "Because
of all the communities, to stay in power each
has to be given its share of the cake. 'If you
don't give this to my region, I will leave the
government.'" H.C. *


There are dozens of political parties in Surinam. Each ethnic community and every

religious confession has several of them. So what is the impact of this 'communautarism'

on democracy and good governance? One would suppose it to be negative, but in

practice, despite some shortcomings, the system has been able to find a balance that

provides for generally effective governance.

here are many potential subjects of
discord between Surinam's differ-
ent communities. Yet this discord is
contained and everything is settled
by means of discussion and a subtle balance
of political power. Although Surinam has seen
a coup d'etat and period of civil war, the com-
munities were ranged against each other. Desi
Delano Bouterse, the man behind the coup and
today's opposition leader, has always head-
ed a trans-community party. He has found,
and continues to find, his supporters and his
detractors in all the country's ethnic and reli-
gious groups. The aberrations of his govern-
ment were not rooted in communautarism.
Hans Breeveld, a political scientist and pro-
fessor at the Anton de Kom University of
Surinam, explained to us that when it comes
to the ordinary citizen there is the tendency,
whether in a private business or state adminis-


tration, to choose as a colleague someone from
one's own group, be it Javanese, Hindustani,
Black Maroon, Amerindian, Chinese or what-
ever. But at government level the situation is
more complex. Everybody looks at the attitude
of the colleague and Breeveld believes that
"officially, there is a good harmony at the high
level, among the party leaders, but the officials
are attentive to the interests of their ethnic
group and watch those who 'hire too many
people who look like them'. In the coalitions,
you find a multi-ethnic balance between par-
ties built along ethnic lines, with one impor-
tant exception, the party of Bouterse".
The balance in the system is based on a subtle
interplay within a complex set of political
parties. For example, the New Front (NF)
coalition, which won the last election, includes
President Ronald Venetiaan's National Party
Surinam (NPS), an essentially African party

that nevertheless includes many white or
mulatto leaders and which over the past dec-
ade has sought to recruit members from other
communities. The coalition also includes Vice
President Ramdien Sardjoe's Progressive
Reform Party (PRP), which is Hindustani,
and a Javanese Party, the Pertjaja Luhur (PL).
Within each ministry a balance is generally
struck between the different departments. The
result is a subtle system guaranteeing good
global governance despite or thanks to a har-
monious spread of allegiance. H.G. M

Hegel Goutier; Surinam; Hans Breeveld;
Anton de Kom University of Surinam;
communautarism; Ronald Venetiaan;
Ramdien Sardjoe; Desi Bouterse; National
Party Surinam; New Front; Progressive
Reform Party; Pertjaja Luhur.


l, ''lll iii- I '

:r=.1:1:.--.-~i 1.^ ^1 \ ^


he virginAmazonian forest is almost
intact in Surinam with its long riv-
ers whose calm waters suddenly
give way to rapids and waterfalls
and with its rich wildlife. Although the allu-
vium carried down to the sea gives little scope
for fine sandy beaches, the river banks and
lakes offer ample compensation. The towns,
all on a human scale, are ideal for the stroller,
the affability of its colourful population being
an invitation to curiosity and complicity.
In the early 1970s, before the country acceded
to independence and ecology was in vogue,
a decision had been made already for nature
tourism. Today more than 50 tourist operators
suggest every day a variety of walks, excur-
sions, adventures and breaks, including to the
neighboring countries of French Guiana and
Brazil that, together with Surinam, offer the
first 'all-in tour of Amazonia'.
The first contact with Surinam for the visitor
is with the unique colours of the Amazonian
sky, especially if arriving in the late afternoon
on international flights and in the autumn just
ahead of the rainy season when the storm
clouds threaten the fine weather, painting in
the firmament a spectacular patchwork of
flaming reds and dark greys.
Before setting out in search of nature in all its
wildness, a good idea is to start by immers-
ing oneself in the fantasies of Paramaribo. It
is more like the set of a romantic film than a
major city, with its colonial buildings, mag-
nificent 18th and 19th century residences and
above all its wooden houses that are straight
out of a fairy tale. Entirely in white, save for a
few dark-painted window or door frames, they
are often laid out in avenues or alleys like an
endless litany.

Surinam's coastal towns are also well worth
a visit. From Paramaribo to Nickerie on the
border with Guyana, the cultural heritage of
the peoples of Surinam is on display. There are
the mosques of the inhabitants of Indonesian
origin, known here as Javanese, the Indian tem-
ples of the 'Hindustani', and the magnificent
little wooden churches of the various Christian
faiths, including Anglican, Roman Catholic
and Moravian. One first passes through the
district of Warnica with its vegetable planta-
tions before crossing the River Saramacca at
the entrance to the region of the same name,
with Catharina Sophia, a pretty little town
with a primarily Javanese population with its
cemeteries with roofs on the tombs as the dead
too are in need of shade. Not far from here
lies the country's first ever synagogue, in the
Jewish Savannah. Between Saramacca and
Coronie there is a vast expanse of wilderness
where monkeys, anacondas, ocelots and other
wild animals wander across the road. Coronie
is home to the descendants of the British, but
also to the Javanese, the Black Maroons and
the mixed race Black-Chinese. The marine
nature reserve of Bigipan is also well worth
the detour, if only for its bird populations with
120 different species. This is the land of rice
fields stretching almost to the horizon, crossed
by equally endless canals and polders. It is
the tropical flatland. The Hindustani make up
almost three-quarters of the population of this
region. Also not to be missed is the small town
of Groot Henar with its footbridges over the
little canals that flow past each of its houses
that are home to the fishermen and rice grow-
ers. The town of Nickerie, the region's capital,
has retained the easy charm of a provincial
capital despite being an important port.

If one sets out early in the morning in the
direction of the border with French Guyana in
the West, one can admire the first rays of the
sun penetrating the romantic mist that swirls
around the suspension bridge over the River
Surinam as it leaves Paramaribo, offering one
of the most beautiful views of the capital. The
town of Moengo in Commewijne, a centre
for bauxite mining, is a place of clean streets,
lawns and flower beds with beautiful hous-
es with their tennis courts, pools, basketball
courts and gymnasiums. It is the flat country
of Holland, Miami Beach and a Florida town
all rolled into one.
You arrive at the River Marowijne by way of
the town of Albina, opposite St-Laurent de
Guyane. From here, the best and the quickest
way to discover Surinam's nature is to descend
the river for one or two hundred kilometres in
the dug-out canoes that change tack constantly
as they weave their way through the succession
of sandbanks.
On the French side, the halt at Armina gives
the visitor the chance to experience a town
inhabited by Amerindians who divide their
time between the two banks with the tacit
agreement of the two countries that recognize
the right of continuity of their territory. On
the Surinamse side it is possible to stop at the
Indian villages of Patamaka, Langatabiki or
Bigiston to buy theirjewellery or amulets or at
the Black Maroon villages such as Lemikibond
where the craftsmen build the dug-outs that
flow down the river. H.C.

Amazonian forest; Surinam; tourism.


Story of a breeding ground for art reflecting the passionate

commitment of its creator

his story was told to us by Rinaldo
Klas, the head of the Nola Hatterman
Institute, a centre for art, a school
and a museum all rolled into one,
which is located in an elegant townhouse along
a riverbank in Paramaribo. It is primarily about
the life and work of a woman of passion. As a
young Dutch artist, Nola Hatterman was swept
away by the charm of Dutch Guyana. She sold
all her possessions to go and live there. One
section of her home there was earmarked to
set up a school, the 'New School of Fine Arts'
(NSBK), with the quite straightforward aim of
ensuring that a young person from any country
should be able to study an artistic discipline at
a high level.
The first class comprised four students. Rinaldo
Klas was in the second one. The various sub-
jects available in the four-year curriculum
included painting, calligraphy, sculpture and
philosophy. Talent was the sole requirement
for admission to the school, while successful
students would be able to take a higher educa-
tion diploma away with them when they left.


Thanks to the school's prestigious reputation,
several of them were awarded grants to study
abroad. A primary school with artistic leanings
was also set up for children aged 8-10.
Nola Hatteras decided in 1977 to hand over
the school to one of the previous graduates
and withdraw into the hinterland, from where
she continued to keep a close watch on her
creation. The school suffered badly during the
political turmoil of the 1980s, having to make
do with increasingly cramped conditions, until
the institute finally ceased to exist. Then
came the day when Carlos Andres Perez, the
President of Venezuela, fell under the spell of
a painting by Rinaldo Klas. Thanks to the rela-
tionship that developed between the two men,
the artist ended up heading a Venezuelan arts
centre and became a director at the Ministry in
charge of youth policy
In the meantime, Nola Hatterman, on her way
to the capital Paramaribo to attend a private
view of an exhibition, died in a bus accident
in 1984. This event was one of the factors that
persuaded Rinaldo Klas to do his utmost to

convince the government to help revive the art
centre in the spirit and according to the exam-
ple set by its creator. This bid to pay tribute to
her turned out to be a success. H.C. i

Rinaldo Klas Raimen Bijlhout". Hegel Gouter
"The death of Nola Hatterman was one of the factors that
persuaded Rinaldo Klas to do his utmost to convince the
government to help revive the art centre"

Nola Hatterman Institute; Surinam;
Rinaldo Klas; Carlos Andres Perez; Hegel



For the Surinam Business forum, the

EPH is an opportunity

Crlosj MAleer is iejJ nnt i [i the SurinireI Tinde & InJdr tih 4 ',y1'ion 1Id IF'P lJent [li the
Caribbe i Empl ,,te s CoitlJ1atiotin and t thc ct.e lrt .:.. th urtnnIf BS /injes
For.'rii Our target in building the Surin ni Business forum '.'s to, iire the cL':untr,
a str:'nl pri'aL&e sector includiin the snim ll and medliiin size enterprises S,:, oui best
enterprises can '.'i:krk together ti:i pirti-ipaite to the implenientatiun ot the Ei:inomic
Partner ship .\greem-ient (EPIA)
Notr. r.e lhae to ,',-lk .vith partners. V\.e had hopLed that the EPA .Lould Lreate heie more
in'er-es in the. EU (Oui plan is t:' prorimot'e co'ope-ation -:f bIiiinewss both of sides o-f Atlantic
It is necesar', that businessmen meet. P.,iliticiann aie not killing g to facilitate these imeet-
ing! or businessi people Be-fore the C'o[tonou Aqgreem11en I wa! in BLusisels and I pFiiti.-l
patePd in the diLcuLsion the idea l',a t-:, put 1u-15 pet cent ot the t'otonouL iesoLJICce
Under the maniagmeni t fi vCil sciet. Put the final tet said the private cecItr-, had fo'
leleir the Nr.tiionial Authorising Oticer i!'NAO. I .'as hoping that ':n another oiicsiii: n
thlee :uld be nim re place t,-r the pri.ait sect-'r. This occaL ion ic EPA

Ichieuement of ciuil society

AM Sh/rjA Coina, Her orrti.hnr.tirn. Pfi i'p I i n t/i i he-, l _rr 'focratUtJiToln ,nd
qo'oJ l. vernrIl. C ie is s5C a 1flm mrnlel
'About LIender. .ve ha.e niade a lo.t of propCi sales. That .via n. t a pnri iit for the gL:'ern-
menLts iii tlle 8rls and ihe 90is On HIV' *:r 'exudl abuseci f. r iiistaiince we made a pubIli-
aiimpaiiln. a.i,.reness, adocatincl, li,)l)ling \'ne puirhed t.:i the enforcement ot las., and
the liaw his changed IIn edLWiil:n, if there lias been a prri:|i-ssion n [h. siuLJation :,f
the inltelir that is alo thanks to the NJOs. Hfealih iaie in the interi,:, ij lone mninl, b,
NLGOs Tlhe government is in':old but the main irsp':.isibilit', is in the handi of the iil
sector '

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iii' I II',. .,, I. ..,,hii i..i I Ii II'.
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because of the political turmoil in 1980, which
was followed by the Government's difficulty
in complying with the Financing Agreements
criteria. But since 1996, the implementation
can be considered rather successful.
Surinam was allocated C23M from the
8th European Development Fund (EDF)
(1995-2000) and C19.3M from the 9th EDF
(2000-2007). The 10th EDF runs 2008-2013.
For the 'focal sector', namely transport, the
contracts for two main projects were signed

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IIi,. i.i i I.i li hIi l ,I IIi .. i ,,I ii ..iliii. l. '. I
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from Meerzog (close to Paramaribo) to Albina
(border with French Guyana). After the nec-
essary studies, these projects have recently
In the non-focal area, priority is given to rein-
forcement and capacity building of economic
actors and civil society. Under the 9th EDF,
financial agreements were also approved for
sustainable capacity building of the private
enterprises (tourism sector, banana industry
and Surinam Business Forum), the NGOs,

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support to the private sector is concerned, all
the projects can be considered successful. As
an example, the Surinam Business Forum is
now giving major support to the private sector.
Exports are growing in the banana sector.
The EU has also provided support to safe-
guard cultural patrimony. The restoration of
the Paramaribo wooden Cathedral, an Unesco
patrimony site, is nearly completed. M






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diu- 'ir. rl' li'u- n:.'.- t'luriil. -u T -n Iu nd h f l ir .' .: .'.u .n in u :::rl.i :l '.-u u pilr i l [l :u i :t l i -l[ r n l i u .i

i . severingg Europe

.. ...I ...

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ey.I I lo I I.Irdi
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l u II I .. ..[ii i ..l, h il i, i i .l

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l..1 : i u l ui". I i 'i.i l di il ii 1' uii l i l. u ..

u1..4"1,u' D.P.

'tIdI.iiill. IlhiEhlal l'.l- S. I.inI l-. I:NII .1

EU support

for Highlands

6 Islands




discovering Europe

Scotland's Highlands and Islands

Scotland's international

branches out

Interview with Linda Fabiani, Scotland's Minister for External Affairs

Linda Fabiani is Scotland's Minister for Europe, External Affairs and Culture in the
Scottish National Party (SNP) government elected in May 2007. With a background in
local governance, particularly in housing issues, she is furthering the work of the Scottish
Parliament's previous administration which secured a budget for development under
Scotland's devolved government powers. The new three-year development budget;
6M in 2008, 6M in 2009 and 9M for 2010, will be spent between now and the next
election to the Scottish Parliament in 2011. A big share is for Malawi, the country's
capital Blantyre named after the Lanarkshire birthplace of Scottish missionary explorer
Dr. David Livingstone who left for Southern Africa in 1841 recounting his actions
against slavery in 'Missionary Travels and Research in Southern Africa'.

Foreign Policy is not a power devolved to
Scotland, so how and why has the coun-
try secured a development budget from
Westminster (the seat il,. United Kingdom 's

Scotland gets a bulk grant from Westminster.
International Development is a 'reserved mat-
ter'; not something that would normally be
funded under the budget but under the last
administration we had a joint agreement that
Scotland should have an international develop-
ment programme, first agreed in 2005 but on a
much smaller scale. We (the SNP government)
also felt strongly that it was such an important
thing for Scotland because it has always felt a
social obligation to other parts of the world.
This had to go through the Parliament in the
usual way but there was absolutely no concern
raised at all about the development budget
from Parliamentarians.

How refunds being spent?

I've completely revamped the development
budget. Scotland has a very special relation-
ship with Malawi including also the Catholic
Church of Scotland. We have ring fenced a
minimum of 3M a year for Malawi. We have
also decided to look at its neighbours; Zambia,

Tanzania, Rwanda, also Sudan, for obvious
reasons. Because Scotland has quite a large

"A social obligation
to other parts
of the world"

immigrant population from the Indian sub-
continent, we are also looking at a programme
for the Indian sub-continent. Another strand of
our cooperation is emergency aid.

Exactly what projects are in line for Malawi?

We have a joint agreement with the gov-
ernment and meet regularly at ministerial
level once a year. We will not do anything
in Malawi that has not been agreed with
Malawi's government but we do not give
money directly to the government. We also
run anything that we want to do in Malawi
past the UK's Department for International
Development (DFID). We generally fund
Scottish-based NGOs to carry out work in
Malawi. We also want to capacity-build insti-
tutions in Malawi. For example, our own
Scottish voluntary organisation has links with
Malawi's civil society body, the Council for

Non-Governmental Organisations in Malawi
(CONGOMA), helping it build capacity to
represent civil society on governance issues.
Another strand of our policy is health, espe-
cially pre- and post-natal care for women and
then education. One thing we are very keen on
is vocational education; providing a pathway
to work, earning and entrepreneurship. This
leads to another strand business development
and business partnerships with Scotland. We
also work with joint programmes institutions
like universities.

How far on are you with planning for other

We are just at the stage of having completed
a funding round for Malawi and once agreed,
will look at the wider picture for other African
countries. We are looking for people in con-
sortia with themed bids. Perhaps one of our
NGOs will say, look I have a project plan
for Zambia or Tanzania. We want people to
show imagination because when you're talk-
ing about small amounts of money you have
to be very, very focused. I wanted the policy
to have very firm criteria for applicants. For
example, we will not fund container-loads of
equipment unless related to one of the wider
programmes and you cannot source locally.


Scotland's Highlands and Islands

discovering Europe

Donors are now clubbing ,.... il. to avoidproject duplication.
What about Scotland?

We rely on the expertise of NGOs and also institutions in
Scotland. We have been working with countries for decades.
The expertise is there and we must tap into this and work as
partners. Perhaps one of the larger donors might say, that is a
great idea but we don't have the expertise. There are a couple
of projects where we've been able to get match-funding from
donors to allow a project to go ahead.

Would Scotland like to become more involved at the develop-
ment policy-making level in European and international fora?

I think that this is something that incrementally we can look at.
There is no reason at ail why our ministers could not be helpful
to the UK' s strategy and positioning. International development
is an area where nobody wants to try and cause any political
division. I would like to build up the relationship so that if were

"We want people to show


jointly felt that such an approach would be helpful, then we
would be more than willing to take part.

What about other links with developing nations, say at local
governance level?

One of the really interesting links that is not government-funded
is that between the Scottish parliament and Malawian parlia-
ment which is a whole separate programme and has been going
on for a few years now. Officers and members of the parliament
have come over from Malawi to see how our systems work and
meet with committee members and committee chairs. We also
have active links with the Commonwealth Parliamentary Forum.
Glasgow City Council has links with Malawi, and the Glasgow
charity, 'A Caring City', provides funding. My strategic group
for Malawi includes the Provosts of Scotland's cities.

London-based Caribbean High Commissioners (to the UK)
recently visited your Parliament...

It was really good to see them. They met with the First
Minister, Alex Salmond, and myself. We spoke about the links
that are there between the Caribbean and Scotland, particularly
Jamaica, also Barbados. There was also a discussion about
the fact that quite a lot of countries now have an Ambassador
in London but also have a Consul General in Edinburgh and
Honorary Consuls all over Scotland to represent them. So we
spoke about a Consul or Honorary Consul in Scotland to repre-
sent Caribbean nations.

I understand that Former First Minister, Jack MacConnell
(Labour) is still closely involved in African ic.r..; 2

He was to be UK High Commissioner to Malawi from February
2009 but that changed last week. It seems now that he will be the
UK's peace and conflict resolution envoy for Africa. D.P.



__ __



i, i,-..i..:partmental public body
,.i iii. Scottish government, the
ii ..... ess-based Highlands and
i-.l..i.l-. Enterprise (HIE) has the
task of boosting the region' s economy with an
annual budget of around 80M, the bulk from
the Scottish government but also the rental
income generated on the property it owns and
from the European Research and Development
Funds (ERDF). It invests in big infrastructure
projects such as the European Marine Energy
Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, developing tidal
and wave power, as well a plethora of mainly
grants to smaller ones such as tourism training.
Another of HIE's big infrastructure projects is
the Lifescience Facility, its first phase opening

in 2006. Businesses operating there include
the diabetes institute and 'LifeScan' owned
by Johnson and Johnson, the largest private
employer in the Highlands and Islands.
"This is what people find strange; this 'wee'
(small) bit of Scotland right at the Northern end
of Europe: we've got links with some of the
biggest players in the world who are helping
us to achieve all of this", says Alex Paterson,
Director of Regional Competitiveness at HIE.
He says that the United States' software
giant, Microsoft, recently voiced an invest-
ment interest.
More traditional industries include food and
drink. According to the Edinburgh-based
Scotch Whisky Association (SWA) value of

exports reached a new high of 2.8bn in 2007,
earning 90 every second for the UK's bal-
ance of trade (see separate article).
"Seafood is trucked overnight to France and
Spain. Quite a lot of people are now look-
ing at adding value to seafood, especially by
investing in organic produce", says Paterson.
The 'Orkney' brand produces many organic
products and the Shetland Isles are going the
same way with fish products. The bigger food
companies are there too like food processing
firm, Baxters. "Scotland has a provenance for
good, wholesome food", explains Caroline
Rham, HIE's press officer.
The Highlands and Islands sells Scotland; its
favourite attraction being the elusive monster





Onshore wind power takes a battering

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'Nessie' at Loch Ness near Inverness. Only
a raft of adjectives can begin to do justice to
natural attractions of the islands; peaceful,
magical, wild and ethereal. HIE's Marketing
Manager, Maria Peters, predicts that tourism
numbers will dip slightly as belts are tightened
as a result of the financial crisis, but a drop in
US visitor numbers is being offset by UK resi-
dents coming to Scotland. Spain is a key mar-
ket for tourism in the Highlands and Islands,
also France and Italy, she says. And high end
tourism is buoyant from stalking wildlife to
whisky tasting tours and rounds of golf. "We
have an incredibly good portfolio of extreme
sports from mountaineering to kayaking", adds
Peters. Events held along the shores of Loch
Ness include the 'Rockness' music festival and
in October, the Loch Ness marathon.
Energy is a growing sector too (see box on top
of the page) with many downstream economic
benefits from the harnessing of wave and tidal
renewable power. HIE also backs the flour-
ishing creative industries sector, art, music,
fashion, writing or technical designs.


Paterson says there's a lot of potential too
for the whole data centre industry with some
of the biggest players in the world already
employing over 3,000 people in the Highlands
and Islands. "We want to exploit this more and
see if there are niches in financial services.
Given the economic crisis, businesses are
looking to locate some of their financial activi-
ties in lower cost situations and Scotland could
become particularly attractive for 'Green Data
Centres' using the renewable energy", says
Paterson. Scotland's chillier climate is also a
business plus. "There' s a lot of heat generated
by data centres, so the cooler the climate, the
better", says Caroline Rham.
HIE is also lobbying for more transport links
in and out of the region. "If the region is going
to be a place that people want to come to live,
study and to set up to do business you have
to have a certain level of infrastructure", says
Paterson. More air links are being considered
to connect up with international hubs such as
Brussels, Paris and Amsterdam. "If you are
trying to attract businesses, they expect good

discovering Europe

I unique


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Highlands and Islands Enterpri.se ,:l r

le-inScoh Whi Arssoci .:on r'Ie ; hlnd

Paterson; Caroline R ham; Debra PercivaL
he ill.:.tr [rem] :tei [:,irr i .:.t t rhe eion
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le[ulrini:l t[.:,lfl III +: ]e e:.h[h .'.,:.ik

connectivity and easy ways to get in and out of
the Highlands and Islands", he says.

Highlands; Scotland: ERDF; EMEC;
Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE);
Scotch Whisky Association (SWA); Alex
Paterson; Caroline Rham; Debra Percival.

Scotland's Highlands and Islands

here continues to be
optimism about Scotch
Whisky's future interna-
tional prospects. Over the
last 18 months, there has been 500M new
investment in production capacity in dis-
tilling, bottling and warehousing across
Scotland", says David Williamson, spokesman
for the Scotch Whisky Association (SWA).
According to SWA's figures, exports reached
a new record of 2.8bn in 2007, with the ship-
ment value of Bottled Blended Scotch Whisky
- which can be a blend of as many as 30-40
whiskies up 15 per cent to 2.22bn. Bottled
single malt exports rose by 11 per cent in
value (to 454M) in 2007. The largest export
market for all Scottish whiskies is the USA,
with Spain the largest European market by
value. Tariff reform mid-2007 boosted exports
to India by 36 per cent in value (to 33M).
Scotland's whisky exports were up 9 per cent
in value (to 91M) to South Africa, putting the
country in the top ten of its customers, accord-
ing to SWA.
Chris Conway, of the organisation Scottish
Whisky Heritage, says that 23 per cent of
all visitors to Scotland go to a distill-
ery. He is in l

charge of 'The Whisky Coast' project which
has created a network of 18 hotels or 'Whisky
Embassies' around Scotland and especially on
the islands, giving visitors detailed informa-
tion on flavours, origins and whisky anec-
dotes. A total of 98 distilleries across Scotland
produce some 300 whiskies.
Whereas the soft, gentle lands of the Scottish
lowlands give a softer, lighter, refined and
delicate whisky, in the Northern Highlands
-the land of Clansmen and deerstalkers -
whiskies are more peaty and saltier, explains
Conway. Half of all distilleries in Speyside
on the Eastern side of Scotland, produce
blended whiskies whereas the Islands such as
Orkneys, Jura, Skye and Mull Islay produce
"a sea soaked, full, robust and salty dram",
says Conway.
Although many distilleries are owned by
the 'big boys' of the spirits world such as
Diageo, Pernod Ricard and William Grant,
there's an increasing cachet to
doing everything at the distill-
ery. At Kilchoman distillery,
the westernmost distillery in
Scotland and one

of Islay's eight distilleries, barley is grown
on the distillery's Rockside Farm. The single
malt whisky is also malted, distilled and bot-
tled on-the-spot.
The European Union (EU) has helped protect
the authenticity of Scotch Whisky. Regulations
passed in 1989 and 1990 (1576/89 and
1014/90) protect its geographical indication
and have helped the industry' s work to protect
consumers and Scotch Whisky from unfair
competition, says SWA. In 2007, a clearer EU
definition of whisky from Scotland legislated
that it could not be flavoured or sweetened.
But there are still barriers to trade in around
130 different export markets, says Williamson,
including high tariffs, discriminatory excise
taxation, and a range of technical barriers to
trade (including certification and labelling
requirements). Says Williamson: "Markets
which put high tariffs on Scotch include India
(150 per cent), Vietnam (65 per cent) and
Thailand (60 per cent). In comparison, the
Tariff in China is 10 per cent and in
Brazil it is 20 per cent." D.P.

Whisky; David Williamson; Scotch Whisky
Association (SWA); Chris Conway;
Scottish Whisky Heritage; Northern
Highlands; Speyside; Debra Percival

Sandra Federici

ffrica in the


of Europe

Against a backdrop of the challenges and
complexity of globalisation, African art is at
the centre of a lively cultural and political debate
on its representation in European museums and
the future of artistic treasures pillaged from Africa
during colonialism.

W ith the importance of an edu- kind of accusation, pointing out that it is
national role, going beyond an experimental project open to redefi-
the ethnographic approach, nition based on its relationship with its
the need to renew the out- visiting public, which should not be
look towards exhibitions and meeting the an elite but as popular and diverse as
expectations of a new multicultural public, possible.
African museums in Europe are today faced
with a new set of challenges. > The restitution of cultural
The debate on the place of African art in treasures plundered under
European museums goes back some time, but colonialism
the construction of the Muse du quai Branly

(Paris) has rekindled the fervour of experts.
It is a monumental cultural project, support-
ed by the former French President, Jacques
Chirac, which brings together the collections
of the Muse des Arts d'Afrique et d'Ocanie
with those from the Muse de l'Homme.
Officially opened in 2006 amid controversy,
Quai Branly was engulfed by the criticism
of anthropologists who were "astonished"
by the combination of anonymous exhibits
and work of contemporary artists, the lack of
historical information on the exhibits and the
way in which they were acquired, as well as
by an architectural structure (created by Jean
Nouvel) that represents tropical vegetation
from a primitivist and naturalist perspective.
Buoyed by their success with the general pub-
lic (the museum welcomed 1.7 million visitors
in its first year of opening), the organizers
have always defended themselves against this


The museums and their representa-
tives come together at meetings
and research projects. These include
'Broken memory, or how to end
the colonial history', 'Patrimonio e
intercultura' at the ISMU Foundation
in Milan, the 'Museums as Places
for Intercultural Dialogue' project,
financed by the Lifelong Learning
programme, and the READ-ME
(Rseau Europen des Associations de
Diasporas et Muses Ethnographiques)
project, which involves the Muse Royal de
l'Afrique Centrale de Tervuren (Brussels),
Etnografiska Museet (Stockholm) and the
Muse du quai Branly (Paris). One of the
most intriguing topics of discussion con-
cerns the restitution of cultural treasures
plundered during the colonial period as
a means of moral reparation. Most of


the items were expropriated from Africans
between 1870 and the First World War, there-
fore at a time of colonial and military con-
quest. There has been an increase in recent
times in requests for the restitution of objects,
some of which have already been returned to
Africa. In 2003, Algeria received the seal of
the dey (governor) of Algiers seized by the
French colonial army in 1830. The obelisk of
Aksoum (Ethiopia), appropriated by Italian
soldiers in 1937, was handed back to the
Ethiopian authorities in 2005 after intensive
Even if they acknowledge the legitimacy of
requests made from public or private claim-
ants, the directors of museums in the western
world point to the role that they play in promot-
ing the cultural heritage of southern countries,
and to the fact that they share their expertise
worldwide. And who should these objects be
given back to anyway? This is a question that
museums in the west, among others, ponder.

The owners are no longer identifiable and the
states do not have sufficient infrastructure or
resources to preserve collections of great artis-
tic value. Bourema Diamitani, Director of the
West African Museums Programme (WAMP)
is proposing greater cooperation between the
museums of the northern and southern hemi-
spheres to address this issue.
The Secretary General of the International
Francophone Organisation (OIF) and former
President of Senegal, Abdou Diouf, said: "The
issue of restitution, often presented polemi-
cally, deserves reasoned treatment (...) The
law must apply (...) but cooperation, part-
nership and joint responsibility remain key

> Ind what about migrants?

Let's not forget projects aiming to foster
non-western heritage by providing an inter-
cultural mediation service in response to an

increasing demand for culture and citizenship
from peoples of foreign origin. These require-
ments are met by projects like 'Migrants and
Cultural Heritage in Piedmont', which tend
to involve immigrant mediators in activities
where African masks and fetishes are used as
narrative stimulus in their approach to integra-
In the context of migration, the role of ethno-
graphic collections is to use treasures that have
often been obtained unjustly and violently to
build new bridges between former colonists
and colonised countries whose common des-
tiny is linked to migration. Narrative accounts
of pillaging can help to strengthen this link
rather than undermine it. M

Africa; African art; museums; Europe;
Muse du quai Branly; artistic treasures;
cultural heritage; plunder; colonialism;
OIF ; Abdou Diouf.

Images of women

How are women portrayed in African art? The Muse Dapper in
Paris aims to provide answers to this question with an exhibition

^ dedicated entirely to 'Women in the Art of Africa'.

Such has been
said about the
central role
women have
S.,il, pl., ed in African soci-
.i,.-. i'iiim reproduction to
I- .,. I- .luties, a rich body of
Ii,.,.,ii,,. p.,is testimony to the
i.ili.ii-l.. pi..ition women have
S i..l.II Iii., iili.,,,it history in domes-
I. 1i,1. ,i ,, cultural level, the
\lI,..... I '.III... highlights the fact
i. ii..,i ...ii ...i ....t is full of exam ples
'i. 1 Ilh I. ...'c-ntation of women's
E als. ii- r..c*'yday life. This at
I ...,.I Iil, view of Christiane
S i ..,il. .., .Ieis-Leveau, director
.I i i,. \ h, -.e Dapper and exhi-
hli, i ., ,ator: "The theme of
v ..1,i,.. ,n African art is one
I. II... ...:hest subjects in the
i. oIii,.. )f the continent. We
l,.i,. .,e wanted to look at
bIIl. approach of different
h .1 .1 .

Judging by the approximately 150 exhibits on display, including stat-
ues, statuettes and masks, from the Muse Royal de l'Afrique central
de Tervuren, the Louvre museum in Paris, the Ethnographic Museum
of Antwerp and other prominent European institutions, it seems African
artists have little interest in nubile body forms. This is certainly true of
the Bembe sculptors (DRC) whose sumptuous parturient figures are
an ode to maternity and fertility. Beside their aesthetic qualities, the
exhibits provide an insight into the roles occupied by women in politi-
cal, social, economic and religious life.
'Women in the Art of Africa' also provides an opportunity to reflect on
the great debates that affect women in Africa today. Seminars, some-
times with documentary showings, will look at hotly debated issues like
polygamy and sexual mutilation. These events which also include an
exhibition by Angle Etoundi Essamba (image at page 55), a photog-
rapher from Cameroon whose work examines the representation and
identity of African women in the age of multiculturalism aim to pro-
vide a greater understanding of the female world. Falgayrettes-Leveau
said: "All of these women will certainly help to open up a different
outlook on the world for us." S.F. M
'Women in the Art of Africa' from 10 October to 12 July 2009 at the Muse Dapper (Paris)
Open every day from 11 a.m. until 7 p.m. (except Tuesdays and public holidays)
For more information please visit: www.dapper.com.fr
Women; art in Africa; Muse Dapper; Paris; Christiane Falgayrettes-
Leveau; Angle Etoundi Essamb; Sandra Federici.


PSICD, support for the uibrancy of


The partnership agreement between the ACP countries and the European Union includes
the cultural sector as one of the fields of support for social and human development.
In this framework, the government has decided to support the Decentralised Cultural
Initiatives Support Programme (PSICD).

world of culture, lend it new impe-
tus and, if possible, strengthen
it: that is the triple challenge the
PSICD set itself in Benin when it started up
its activities in March 2006. Allocated financ-
ing of C2.940M under the 9th European
Development Fund (EDF), the programme,
scheduled to run for three years, aims to cor-
rect the cruel lack of structures and profession-
alisation in the Beninese cultural sector.
Entrusted to a consortium that appointed the
experts responsible for the programme's tech-
nical and financial management, the project
is being implemented in a number of stages.
Initially, the operational structure (OS) identi-
fied the needs and expectations of the Beninese
cultural operators. With sufficient data to ori-
ent it in implementing the Programme, the OS,
through its group meetings, drew up a geo-
graphical map of the distribution of cultural
activities and demand for them in Benin's
various regions. Six sectors were identified,
namely the visual arts, cinema, the perform-
ance arts (theatre, music and dance), cultural
heritage, applied arts (cartoon strips, photog-
raphy) and literature.


After taking stock of the situation, technical
support sessions were organised for the pro-
motion of cultural journalism and art criticism,
the management of cultural buildings and
spaces, and the organising of cultural activities
and events. These support structures sought to
inform cultural operators of the conditions of
access to PSICD financing so as to equip them
with the appropriate tools with which to fol-
low the guidelines of the application form for
subsidy requests.
Conditions of access to financing are among
the most innovative and important of the
project's aspects, the aim being to provide
the Beninese with the necessary training and
instruments for managing cultural develop-
ment in their own country. The actors can thus
apply for subsidies without having to pass
through intermediaries. Benin is also a very
responsive country in this area: a look back
at the cultural life of Benin shows the many
activities in all areas of art and culture, ranging
from communication to local folklore.
Proof of this can be found in the response to
the first call for proposals. Among the 86 sub-
missions received, 11 were selected, includ-
ing a Hip Hop festival, a project to pep up

and consolidate Benin's International Theatre
School, the screening of films in the villages
and working class districts of Benin, the pro-
duction of a series of cartoon films entitled
Ana et Bazil, and a popular theatre.
The second call for proposals was launched
on 3 April 2008. "After strengthening the
capacity of the cultural actors", says Babacar
Ndiaye, the PSICD coordinator, "this call is
addressed to projects whose financing request
does not exceed five million CFA francs* (as
opposed to the 15-30 million CFA francs of
the first call, ed.)".
Finally, to complete the support for the cul-
tural initiatives, the project is supporting the
publication of 'Tam Tam', a quarterly news-
letter distributed free of charge, the launch
of a cultural website (www.artbenin.com)
and the creation of the Espace Rencontres, in
Cotonou, which will be open to the public on
Monday to Fridays, from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. M
* 1 Euro = 653. 761 CFA (24 October 2008).

Benin; Decentralised Cultural Initiatives
Support Programme (PSICD); culture;
EDF; subsidies; Babacar Ndiaye.

Nelson Mandela; comic book; South
Africa; Verne Harris; Xhosa.


i SCHOOL in my UILLHGE!...

T his morning for the first time, I didn't
have to get up at five o'clock to go to
school! It's wonderful to be able to
sleep another two hours. To get up
without rushing, have breakfast, wash my hands
and face, brush my teeth and I'm off to school.
I walk a few hundred yards to the market place,
I cross it and core up to another square where
for a few days now, the main attraction has been
the brand new village school.
The mayor decided to build it, after consulting
with the local officials and the parents. This
is a real first here. Up to now, the Minister
of Education in the capital decided where
schools would be built. And since his budget


is limited, there were few schools, and they
were concentrated in towns. Which explains
why, up to now, I had to walk 12 km in the
morning to get there.
But since the new law on decentralisationn'
has been adopted in the capital, things are
changing in the villages. The mayors can now
decide to do things that concern life in the
village directly: build schools, health centers,
sewers, electric grids, and other things too.
This is what we call 'local governance'. To
manage this, the ministries in the capital trans-
fer part of their budget to the villages. The
budgets are limited, and our mayor had to be
very ingenious to manage to build the school.

At this point, there is just one classroom, with
a little apartment on the side for the teacher.
He comes from a big town, but he agreed to
work here, because, since decentralisation,
he will be paid directly by the village council
- he won't have to take the rural taxi to the
capital every month to get his pay. Despite all
his cleverness, the mayor still hasn't collected
enough money to deal with the increase in the
price of oil that we use to generate electricity
in the village. So electricity is down frequent-
ly, and the mayor can't use the computer that
the European Union has given to the village
council. M.M.B. M
* Cartoonist from Madagascar

!or younger readers


Words from


Dear Sir,
Actually The Courier magazine is fantastic,
informative and technically covered. Finally
congratulations on your education magazine.
Yours Faithfully
John Nechesa Makokha (Kenya)

I am a member of the World Association of
Nongovernmental Organizations (WANGO),
Peace and Collaborative Development Network,
and I am a Board Member of the Central PA
Chapter of the United Nations Association of
the United States of America. Your publication

seems to be an asset to anyone interested in
international development and cooperation
Tony Antonio_Karantonis
Harrisburg (Pennsylvania, USA)

Good topic. Good text on this man, who writes
with the charm of the Caribbean soul. It's
always good to take a look inside, even if it's
only a quick peek, to look outside afterwards,
towards the world, the sensitive eyes of Derek
Walcott... The great poet, dramatist and critic
deserves to be read more and more by every-

We are interested
in your point of view
and your reactions
to the articles.
So do tell us
what you think.

one who encourages literary work with charm
and connects possible interfaces with reality.
Italo Bruno

We apologise for an error which slipped
into the title of our interview with Christiane
Taubira on page 7, issue 7 of 'The Courier'.
The correct title is: What cooperation exists
between ACP countries and the EU' s overseas
territories within the framework of the EPA?


December 2008 March 2009

December 2008
> 29-2 Follow-up International Conference
on Financing for Development to
Review the Implementation of the
Monterrey Consensus, Doha, Qatar

> 1-12 United Nations Climate Change
Conference, Poznan, Poland (http:/

> 4-5 Heads of ACP Regional Integration
Organizations, Brussels, Belgium

> 7-10 Global Forum for Media Development,
Athens World Conference,
Athens, Greece
www. gfmd-athensconference.com/

> 11-12 88th Session of the ACP Council of
Ministers, Brussels, Belgium


Czech Republic takes over
presidency of the EU

> 11-16 5th EGU Alexander von Humboldt
International Conference I African
Climate Change Conference, Cape
Town, Western Cape, South Africa

> 29-2 African Union Summit, Addis Abeba,

> 12 High Level Parliamentary Conference
on Policy Coherence for
Development and Migration
organised by EP, COM and OECD

> 23 Redefining South-South Cooperation:
Africa on the Centre stage, Mumbai,

India www.mu.ac.in/arts/socialsci

> 28-3 The Panafrican Film and TV Festival
of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

> 28-3 The Panafrican Film and TV Festival
of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

> 10-11 "Changes: Successful Partnerships for
Africa's Growth Challenge", Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania

> 31-2 UNESCO World Conference on
Education for Sustainable
Development, Bonn, Germany
en/home.html M



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Antigua and Barbu 1ii E i.i ... Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican
F .-.lL.ii i I.- ,.i i, ;i i. ,, i ii i. ,naica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint
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The lists of countries published by The Courier do not prejudice the status of these countries and territories now or in the future. The Courier uses maps from a variety of sources.
Their use does not imply recognition of any particular boundaries nor prejudice the status of any state or territory.

Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Niue
Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

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ISSN 1784-682X