Courier (English)
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Title: Courier (English)
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Language: English
Publisher: Hegel Goutier
Place of Publication: Brussels, Belgium
Publication Date: 08-2008
Copyright Date: 2008
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MCP Stock Exckanges
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Editorial Committee
Sir John Kaputin, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
Mr Stefano Manservisi, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Editorial staff
Director and Editor-in-chief
Hegel Goutier

Franois Misser (Deputy Editor-in-chief),
Aminata Niang, Debra Percival

Editorial Assistant and Production
Sara Saleri

Public Relations and Artistic coordination
Public Relations
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani
(Public Relations Manager and Responsible for NGOs' and experts' network)
Joan Ruiz Valero
(Responsible for Networking with EU and National Institutions)

Artistic Coordination
Sandra Federici

Graphic Conception, Layout
Orazio Metello Orsini

Contract Manager
Claudia Rechten
Tracey D'Afters

The Courier
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Tel: +32 2 2374392
Fax: +32 2 2801406

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The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the EC
nor of the ACP countries.
The consortium and the editorial staff decline ail responsibility for the articles written by
external contributors.


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Table of contents

Global fears in a global world 3
Strengthening the major partnerships 4
Media and Development: a new field of action for
Europe-Africa partnership? 10
ACP Stock Markets
Missing out on an opportunity? 11
Africa's hidden value 14
South Pacific Stock Exchange grows slowly 15
Kenya: Seeking to become a regional hub 16
NSE reaches out 17
Caribbean: Into a headwind 18
Nigeria Stock Exchange: Holding up 19
High stakes at ACP summit 21
A look back at a first historic summit 22
When is the Pacific 'un-Pacific'? 24
European Development Days. The countdown has begun 25
ACP wants Doha gains secured 28
APRODEV: More competence for the ACP
states before the final EPAs 27
CONCORD, a voice for European NGOs 28
A bigger regional drive 29
Scope for Africa-China-EU policy 30
Japan. Competing for trade and geopolitical influence 30
EU policy for all Africa's friends? 31
The Brazilian ambiguity 31
From the boxing ring to the political and social arena 32

The vital challenge of renewable energy
A Remarkable History
"We want to set an example for other ACP countries"
"An area of stability where resources can be
mobilised for development"
"Turing the economy around"
Natural resources that need managing
Decentralisation. ACORDS: A Pioneering Programme
"The MAP doesn't take enough account of
social problems"
Education: highly sensitive reforms
Creating greater congruence between human
and natural systems
A Malagasy medley
Attractions beyond the clichs
Fort-de-France, a city to experience, not to consume
In the footsteps of Aim Csaire
Martinique apparent opulence and economic fragility
Heading towards a definite yet hazy form of autonomy?
Martinique -poorly organised but well equipped
Fort-de-France's Festival of Culture
The whole world should be in the movies

The blogs: a meeting room for African cartoonists
Cultural Crossroads: the ZIFF festival
'Ethnopassion'- Peggy Guggenheim's ethnic collection

Goor's savings


.. .. ...

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bh iiinc J ~ u i.ii! .iing in Georgiaraised fears
.liiinh i c c! hi!cc of the return of the Cold
War, and thus of a bipolarised world with
fear maintaining the balance. One of the
negative effects of which had been the relative indif-
ference of each of the two poles to violations of indi-
vidual rights by members of their own camp.

The recent clash between Russia and Georgia over
South Ossetia and Abkhazia once again placed
Europe, unwillingly, in the position of having to extin-
guish a fire ignited or inflamed by others, correcting
through diplomacy the overreaction of a rebom super-
power and the errors of judgment of those that provid-
ed it with the pretext.

It also engendered strong fears in the poor countries,
especially in Africa, as the countries on the periphery
are well aware that "when the main house bums, the
outhouses must fear the worst" (Caribbean proverb).
Global fears accompany the global word.

Africa is increasingly distancing itself from its former
aberrations. The main dossier in this issue of The
Courier, which is devoted to the ACP stock markets,
includes an analysis by leading international experts
who attribute the success of African stock markets to
the virtuous circle initiated by democratic elections
and consolidated by the reduction of budget deficits,
with foreign financiers banking on Africa's "hidden
value" as a niche for profitable investments.

The Courier stresses the growing attraction of certain
large or growing economies for Africa, such as Japan,
China or Brazil. Also highlighted are the new steps
taken by the continent to secure its sustainable devel-
opment, such as the International Conference on
Renewable Energies in Southern Africa that plans to

increase tenfold the level of investment in this sector
over the next five years. The region clearly has great
need of this when one realises that in Madagascar, the
subject of a major report in this issue, the kilowatt-
hour is three to four times more expensive than in
Europe or even on the African continent. But the
fragility that would be generated by the continuation
of warring factions is not only of a nature to destroy a
house of cards.

The subprime crisis in the United States has made
whole sections of the global, European and Japanese
economies more vulnerable, for example, which are
nevertheless managing to more or less resist the
impact. The consequences for small countries, such as
the tourist economy of the Caribbean, are much more
serious, however. The result is that stock markets in
this region, after excellent results in 2007, are this year
reflecting a certain disquiet, with the exception of
Trinidad whose oil is in fact benefiting from the pre-
vailing fears.

Amid this depressed climate, the European Union is
helping to ease the pain with its pledge to help "feed
the world" -to quote Alain Joyandet, French state sec-
retary, speaking on behalf of a Union that has matched
its words with action by making an additional contri-
bution of one billion euros to maintain the food bal-
ance. And the European Parliament's first 'Africa
Week', with its mix of culture, diplomacy, debate on
development policy and exchange of ideas, is a won-
derful homage to the African continent and one that
brings joy to the heart. The Courier reports only
briefly on the event in this issue -but will retum to it
in the next.

Hegel Goutier


o the point

Debra Percival & Marie-Martine Buckens

the major partnerships

A newcomer to the French and
international political scene, Alain
Joyandet took over at the Department
for Cooperation and the French-
speaking world under the supervision
of Bernard Kouchner in March,
following a mini government reshuffle .
by French President Nicolas Sarkozy. At
the time, his friends in the 'Union pour un Mouvement Populaire' (UMP) saw this 54-
year-old press baron, who has also been mayor of Vesoul since 1995, more at the helm
of the Interior Ministry or Ministry for New Technologies. Today, after less than six
months in the job, the new man at the rue Monsieur has already travelled to more
than 20 African countries as well as causing some offence in certain quarters of
European civil society by stating that he has "convictions" but is also seeking "to
defend our country and its market shares". At European level, Alain joyandet is more
prudent and says he wants to play the partnership card, including the "new actors",
during the six months of the French EU presidency.

o the point

What are the main lines of development pol-
icyfor the French EU Presidency?

The main lines of our presidency are clear.
We want to better articulate our policies
while supporting human and economic devel-
opment and combating climate change. At the
same time, we want to increase our influence
and boost the effectiveness of development
and its financing, and respond to difficult sit-
uations. Finally, it is important to develop our
partnerships by -and I stress the importance
of this -strengthening the major partnerships
and including new actors.
In this framework, a series of priorities
awaits us, including progress towards the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),
improving goverance but also food security,
and affirming the link between culture and
development. In terms of aid, we must ren-
der it more effective and coherent at the
same time as developing new sources of fund-
ing. Finally, we must strengthen investment in

Right at the start of its presidency, France
organised the 'Feed the World' conference to
spark a wide-ranging debate on global agricul-
tural policy. Have the EU countries failed to
invest ,irri. .. ir in agriculture?

Agriculture has in effect become a rather for-
gotten sector for policy and operations, with
just a few donors such as France really remain-
ing active in recent years. The food crisis
showed the need for a rebalancing of public
policy on this point. That is the logic of the
global partnership for food and agriculture that
France launched to take care of this 'orphaned'
but crucial sector. It is important to bear in
mind that eradicating hunger is one of the first
Millennium Development Goals and that the
food shortage immediately constitutes a set-
back for all the MDGs.

The European Commission has already
announced a credit line of a billion euros to
stimulate agricultural production in develop-
ing countries in the short term. Do you have
other projects in view to deal with the current

The global partnership we propose has three
components. Firstly, a thorough review of pol-
icy to incorporate food concerns. That is pri-
marily a mission of coherence and coordina-
tion. Then an expert evaluation mission, simi-
lar to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC), which enables us to reflect on
the long-term impact and causes beyond the


present crisis. We must imagine a 21st century
in which 9bn inhabitants -from 2050, which
is just around the corner! -must be fed and in
a context of climate change. The upheaval this
will represent for poor countries must be antic-
ipated. Finally, there is the financing issue that
is fundamental if we want this global partner-
ship to be long term. In this respect, France is
proposing to create a 'credit line' endorsed by
the International Fund for Agricultural
Development (IFAD).
We want the food security logic to be incorpo-
rated in economic partnership agreements and
in regional integration processes. We also
want to place it at the heart of our economic
development strategies and support for the pri-
vate farming sector.

At present, more than 1,,irh the ACP states do
not want to conclude an Economic
Partnership Agreement (EPA) that they see as
contrary to the interests of their development.
What do you think . il;,

The debate on the EPAs has taken an emotion-
al turn that we must now go beyond. But it is
important to achieve progress in the negotia-
tions in both directions. Namely, greater flexi-
bility on products and timetables, and more
development by linking the EPAs to regional
integration processes and food safety impera-
tives. What is essential is that we have con-
cluded interim agreements that should sta-
bilise the situation of poor countries in regard
to the WTO regulations. We therefore have
time that must be used to work pragmatically
on concrete elements. I would point out to
you, in this respect, that no two EPAs are the
same. I note that the one on the Caribbean

region will soon be signed. We have come a
long way from the banana conflict!
Some observers predict that the ACP Group
will split after 2020 the date the Cotonou
Agreement expires. Is there any .;n, 'i. ...
for keeping the Group in place after that date?

That is a recurring question that the ACP states
should decide. I would point out that most
countries in the world are part of regional con-
figurations without in any way suffering as a
result. 2020 is still a long way off. We will
therefore concentrate on what remains to be
done in the intervening period and especially,
as you know, the review of the Cotonou

The European Commission wants to establish
triangular aid with China for Africa. What do
you think of this?

It is essential to open dialogue with China on
the subject of Africa. This dialogue must be
frank but without anything being taken for
granted. We must talk about the MDGs but
also about the impact of our respective poli-
cies in the partner countries. It is perfectly fea-
sible for us to also work on joint projects. Of
course this must be done on a case-by-case
basis and depending on the country. We will be
looking at this subject shortly as the EU-China
summit in early December will include Africa
as an item on the agenda.

Alain Joyandet; France; French co-opera-
tion; French-speaking world; MDGs; agri-
culture; food crisis; WTO; EPA; China.

Sound up

HFRICfIn UnIonD: a summit

against the BACKDROP of the food crisis

The food crisis, the ongoing situation in Zimbabwe and achieving the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) were the three key subjects of discussion at the 11th
African Union Summit. Held from 29 June to 1 July in Sharm EI-Sheikh on the Red Sea
in Egypt, it was attended by heads of state and government, officials and
representatives from the African Union's (AU) 53 member states and other invitees
including the EU's Development Commissioner, Louis Michel.

ing, the Egyptian president stressed that Africa is "one of the
world's most affected regions", and he invited the international
community to assume its responsibilities in finding solutions
through "sincere and constructive dialogue and collective approaches". It
was a call that was repeated a week later before leaders of the world's
eight richest nations' (G8) meeting in Japan.

> Call for dialogue

In a resolution, the AU called on Zimbabwean
President Robert Mugabe and the MDC
(Movement for Democratic Change) leader,
Morgan Tsvangirai, to honour their commit-
ment to a "dialogue for peace, stability,
democracy and reconciliation for the
Zimbabwean people". "Deeply worried about
the prevailing situation in Zimbabwe", the
African Union noted with concern the vio-
lence and loss of life in the country, stressing
the need to create an environment conducive
to democracy and the development of
Zimbabwe. Despite the "complexity" of the sit-
iiation in Zimbabwe, the AU expressed its
relief that the Zimbabwean people will be able
i.) resolve their differences and work together

once again as "one nation" with the assistance of the Souther Africa
Development Community (SADC), the AU and the world at large.
The AU also condemned Eritrea's military action against Djibouti in the
disputed border regions and called for the "immediate and uncondition-
al" withdrawal of Eritrean forces, calling upon them to "show restraint,
resort to dialogue to resolve any bilateral dispute and to cooperate with
all efforts deployed to make this happen".

> fn flfro-flrab forum

Meeting on the eve of the Summit, in the framework of the Executive
Council of the African Union, Africa's foreign ministers agreed to set
up an Afro-Arab Forum for Development. The Forum would group
trade unions, civil society organizations and the private sector from the
African continent and the Arab world and the first session could possi-
bly be held in the autumn of this year. This decision followed the state-
ment by AU Commission Chairperson, Jean Ping, expressing the AU's
intention of continuing its cooperation with the Arab world. He indicat-
ed that he would be meeting shortly with the Secretary General of the
Arab League to discuss the means to be deployed in activating the Afro-
Arab working committee. M.M.B. M

rr Mel -On

Christiane Taubira, one of the leading lights of the left who is mainly known as the
first female candidate to stand for the French Presidency, caused a surprise by saying
yes to President Sarkozy when he asked her to produce a report on the EPAs (Economic
Partnership Agreements) to help guide the French Presidency of the EU. It also
provides an insight into the cooperation between the French overseas administrative
areas (dpartements) and their neighboring ACP countries. To carry out her task,
Taubira met with hundreds of different people in just six weeks. One of her meetings
took place at the beginning of june with the ACP Committee of Ambassadors in
Brussels, the ACP Group's executive body.

Interview with Christiane Taubira, Member of the European
Parliament from French Guyana, on her report on EPAs to
President Sarkozy.

Couriers questions on her report
and also on cooperation, or rather
lack of it, between the French over-
seas administrative areas and the ACP and also
shared her thoughts on how this should develop.

What were the main recommendations to
President Sarkozy in your report on the EPAs
which shows great understanding for the ACP?

I have great empathy for the ACP which is gen-
uine and sustainable. And President Sarkozy
knew that; I didn't make a secret of it. I made
13 recommendations to the President of which
the following are the most important. We have
to support international law on the right to food
security and direct development aid more
towards agricultural production by supporting a
restrictive legislative framework. I also advo-
cate flexibility with regard to the EPAs as set

out in the provisions of the Cotonou Agreement,
expert legal opinion on Article 24 of General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to
ensure liberalism does not go beyond what
GATT calls for, an amendment to the European
Commission's negotiating mandate which has a
commercial interpretation of development that
is rigid and maximalist. I don't want either
party, the Commission or the ACP, to impose its
point of view on the other. This is why I have




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proposed the possibility of arbitration in the
interpretation of the clauses of GATT and other
agreements with regard to the EPAs.

How was your report received by President


I received a letter from President Sarkozy in
which he said that he fully shared those were
his words my points of view, except for on
one point, the cancellation of debt.

What is the situation as far as cooperation
goes between the French overseas administra-
goes between the French overseas administra-

tive areas in your region, the Caribbean, and
neighboring ACP countries?

Not much progress has been made. We're at
an initial stage, some buildings and some
sporting exchanges. The business sector is
carrying out some initiatives and the commu-
nities too. And that's it. The issue is the legal
framework in the French overseas administra-
tive areas of the Caribbean which does not
facilitate these kinds of exchanges. Under the
French institutional system, there is a
Regional Council regionn) and a General
Council (dpartement) in the French overseas
administrative areas which overlap.
Martinique, for example, is both a 'dparte-
ment' and a region. These institutions do not
have a counterpart in the ACP countries. The
relationship is therefore developed between
the French state and the ACP countries.
The state is often overcautious with regard to
its prerogatives and the communities lack
ambition. In my report to President Sarkozy, I
made proposals for the use of the EPAs to
strengthen cooperation between the French
overseas administrative areas and the ACP.
Because there are levers, fields of expertise of
the regions and communities. It is attitudes
that have to be changed. Politics has to be

tural factors into account.

Why does the joint use of EU funds for the
ACP (EDF: European Development Fund)
and those for EU countries, such as ERDF
(European regional development fund), not
work well in the Caribbean?

The Caribbean countries have difficulty in
using the ERDF and Interreg (funds for interre-
gional EU projects:* Large amounts remain
unused owing to a lack of expertise and also
because these funds are difficult to use. A very
good knowledge of the mechanisms of the EDF
and good contacts in Brussels are required.
This is crucial for both the French overseas
administrative areas and the ACP countries.
One of the reasons is that not enough use is
made of the knowledge needed at this level.

They talk about Vergs in the Indian Ocean;
why not about Taubira in the Caribbean as
you seem to be able to achieve unanimity
between the French overseas administrative
areas and the ACP countries in the region?

I am a Member of Parliament, not the region's
President. I do not have direct control over these
issues. My opinions are well known. They may
provide inspiration. I was the only one in the
overseas territories to oppose the tax exemptions
(editor's note: tax exemptions on certain invest-
ments made in the French overseas administra-
tive areas) which amounted to state withdrawal
from welfare in order to give gifts to the wealth-
iest taxpayers and encouraging tax evasion with-
out fostering local expertise. My struggle paid
off after five years. Now 60 per cent of the tax
benefits granted in tax-exemption cases must go
to farmers. And even this is not enough; it still
cannot be called a development policy. M

* The reference is to EU funds available for projects
between the Overseas Departments.


Round up

'Green Paper' released on 25 June is
to spark public debate on how to
modernise the EU's relations with
its 21 Overseas Countries and Territories
(OCTs)*, many of which are neighbours of the
79 ACP states. The paper explores the alterna-
tives to the current trade and aid clauses gov-
emed by the successive Overseas Association
Decisions drawn up since 1964. The current
one expires on 31 December 2013.
Each OCT has a different type of constitution-
al link with either Denmark, France,

Netherlands or the United Kingdom. What the
OCTs have in common is that they are all far
flung islands with high import levels and
transport costs and very narrow markets
mainly in services -and are vulnerable to cli-
matic and volcanic risks and tsunamis. On the
other hand, their ecological richness and
expertise in particular sectors could be devel-
oped to also benefit surrounding countries,
suggests the paper.
On the trade front, the paper also raises the
possibility of OCTs becoming members of
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) with

respective neighboring ACP states.
Individual 'classic' anti-poverty projects are
.iic iiil. funded for the bulk of OCTs under
the 10th EDF. D.P. M

* Greenland, New Caledonia and Dependencies, French
Polynesia, French Southem and Antarctic Territories, Wallis
and Futuna Islands, Mayotte, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon,
Aruba, Netherlands Antilles ( Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint
Eustacius, Sint Maarten), Anguilla, Cayman Islands,
Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Saint Helena and dependent
cies, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean
Territory, Turks and Caicos Islands, British Virgin Islands
and Bermuda (At the request of the Goverment of
Bermuda, the association's arrangements have never been
applied to Bermuda).

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j rliew points

media and Deuelopment:

a new field of action for Europe-ffrica partnership?

The following text is a communication by European Commission (Directorate-General for Development)

m* 1g,3Septembe, the Eu n Commission and th e Arica Union

e e s s s s -j il.0i .0-M B5aH-

> 8 key issue

Free information conveyed by independent
media is an essential condition for democracy
and development. The sustainable economic
and social development of states not only
requires a solid democracy but also an enlight-
ened and free debate on the future in which all
opinions can be expressed. The independence
of the media is therefore one of the important
elements in a global development policy for
our societies.
In addition to the question of the role of the
media in governance, the relationship between
the media and development is especially
important in countries where the vectors of
education, training in citizenship or quite sim-
ply entertainment, are rare and often limited to
urban elites. The role of the media as cultural,
educational, social, political and economic
relays must be strengthened, in particular
through support for their creation and
strengthened viability.

> The first step in a new Europe-
ffrica dynamic on the subject

The 'Media and Development Forum', held in
Ouagadougou from 11 to 13 September 2008,
was the first step in a new dynamic of analysis
and proposals on the subject. Launched jointly
by the European Commission and African
Union Commission, the forum was organised in
partnership with the Organisation Internationale
de la Francophonie (International Organisation of
the French-speaking World) the Commonwealth
and the CPLP (Community of Portuguese
Language Countries). It comes in the wake of
the Europe-Africa summit of December 2007
that launched a partnership for joint action.
The forum brought together professional jour-
nalists, representatives of civil society and pol-
icy-makers to discuss four main subjects:

- Media and good governance: what is the
link? (Discussion of govemance in relation to
the media and freedom of expression);
- Press freedom: the legal framework and the
situation in the field (including the advisabili-
ty of drawing up a pan-African charter on pro-
tection of the media);
- Combating stereotypes: the image of Africa
in Europe and of Europe in Africa (How to
change distorted media perceptions that are
harmful to Africa, Europe and their relations);
- The role of local media: local action to suc-
ceed at global level? (In connection with one
of the themes of the European Development
Days (EDD) 2008, the local dimension of
The speakers and participants were welcomed
by European Commissioner Louis Michel,
African Union Commission Chairperson, Jean
Ping, and President of Burkino Faso, Blaise
Compaor. Participants included leading fig-
ures from the African and European media
(Euronews, Deutsche Welle, BBC, Les
Afriques, Spectrum TV, etc.), political leaders
(commissioners, ministers from Mali, Ghana,
Burkina Faso, etc.) and representatives of civil
society (RSF, etc.).
In Europe, the forum will be followed up by a
series of debates as part of the European EDD.
The reflection and initiatives launched in
Ouagadougou will thus continue, with the
promise of a strengthened role for joint
Europe-Africa actions in the field of 'Media
and Development'.

> How to consolidate the media:
training, independence,
financing? What actions exist?
What actions are possible?

There are of course existing projects and initia-
tives in this field. In Sri Lanka, the European
Commission is financing a project designed to

promote the human rights of the most vulnera-
ble by strengthening the capacities of profes-
sional and independent media. This has result-
ed in the publication of a manual and the hold-
ing of training seminars on these issues.
Other actions also exist in the field of making
the media more viable financially. In the
Central African Republic, for example, the
Commission is helping to fund an original sys-
tem enabling 'Radio Maigaro' to increase its
broadcasting from just two hours a day to
between six and eight hours. The system in
question is a device that enables electricity to be
generated through animal traction -specifically
two bulls tuming around an axis and an electric
altemator connected to two lorry batteries.
Other players are also active in these fields. As
an international organisation whose task is to
promote media development, UNESCO has
very effective programmes. EU Member
States have also launched a number of initia-
tives, both at local and central govemment
level. The European Commission could have
a role to play in assisting coordination with
and between these Member States and in the
exchange of good practices between the play-
ers in these fields.
More generally, given its importance for
development, the European Union and African
Union could be called upon to play a more
developed joint role in the 'Media and
Development' Field. In any event, this is the
purpose of the Ouagadougou Forum that is
seeking to provide answers to the concrete
question of what to do and how. M

* An indepth report on the event will appear in issue 8 of
The Courier.

Media; development; Burkina Faso;
European Commission; African Union
Commission; OIF; Commonwealth; CPLP.


Rough seas and calm waters

A dossier by Bernard Babb, Lucky George, Dev Nadkarni and Debra Percival

and Pacific (ACP) Stock
Exchanges are performing in
these shaky times for investment
globally reveals increased investor attention in
sub-Saharan African markets (not including
South Africa) where investor returns are
greater than those in the more traditional
emerging markets of BRIC countries -Brazil,
Russia, India and China (see graph page 13).
Foreign investors are attracted by unexploited
commodities. "Africa is rich in natural
resources including diamonds, platinum, cobalt
and gold and has 7 per cent of the global oil and
gas reserves. The money generated from
exports is enriching consumers and increased
domestic sales", says Jamie Allsopp, who is
manager of a London-based investment fund

featuring under-valued African companies.
The fact that the Johannesburg Stock
Exchange is currently in talks with five coun-
tries: Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana and
Nigeria to create an index of Africa's 40
biggest companies is also a sign of growing
investor confidence in sub-Saham Africa.
New products are also being developed on the
continent such as government bonds and pen-
sion funds and there have been rushes when
government shares are put up for sale, as wit-
nessed in June 2008 when the Kenyan govern-
ment sold part of its Safaricom stock the
telecommunications giant.
Talking to financial observers both in African
nations and EU countries, what comes across
is the importance of fundamentals like good
govemance to create market confidence and

drive investment forward. By contrast, the
same financial watchers simply point to the
nosedive in value of the Zimbabwe Stock
Exchange created by current political tensions.
Nigeria's company valuations have been high
over the past few years -omitting the slump
over the past few months the stockmarket
underpinned since 2000 by rising oil prices,
positive developments in politics, policy con-
sistency and the govemment's positive stance
over private sector.
In the Caribbean, stock markets are facing less
fair winds outside oil-producer Trinidad and
Tobago; the lack of confidence in the fragile
tourism sector being rocked. It's not the best of
times either for the expansion for Fiji-based
South Pacific Stock Exchange.

Dossier ACP stock exchanges

missing OUT u- i

on an opportunity?

Many sub-Saharan African companies* are turning more and more investors' heads in
the EU and elsewhere. Returns on investment are higher than those in other less
volatile emerging markets of Eastern Europe, China and South Africa. The message
from brokers is to grasp the opportunities.



1 000

90 91 02 U 94 96 De a7 8 09 00 ci 02 03 04 06 OS 07 0

benjamin Graham, the
influential economist and
professional investor,
Should have loved African
companies. They are under researched and fur-
ther, almost without exception the companies
are profitable, dividend paying and have
strong market positions and good cash flow.
Many have European and US multinationals
as controlling shareholders thereby enhancing
corporate governance", says Christopher
Hartland-Peel, London-based sub-Saharan
Africa (SSA) specialist with EXOTIX, a glob-
al securities firm specialising in emerging
markets and alternative investments.

Investors have missed
many a good bargain

"For many years sub-Saharan Africa was off
investors' radar screens and during this period
investors have missed many a good bargain" ,
he says.
It is the second year of EXOTIXs coverage of
sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa).
Its recent study of the leading 30 companies
quoted on sub-Saharan Africa's Stock
Exchanges (SEs) reveals that their combined

market capitalisation has climbed 126 per cent
since December 2006, from US$40bn to
US$72bn (figure for June 2008). The leading
companies are mainly in Nigeria, Kenya and
Botswana, the Ivory Coast and Mauritius,
although EXOTIX currently caries out research
into 200 SSA companies, others being in
Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon and Ghana.
A combination of political and economic factors
has placed sub-Saharan Africa in the spotlight,
says Hartland-Peel. Democratic elections in
many countries and representative governments
have become the norm with a reduction of the
role of governments in the economy and privati-
sation now reaching many areas. In addition, the
increase in commodity prices and improved
terms of trade and macro-economic stability
have led to what he calls a "virtuous circle" with
"lower and manageable budget deficits, lower
inflation and interest rates, improvement of cur-
rent accounts and balance of payments and pri-
vate sector growth and investment".

> Do gou speak Chinese?

What's more, many operate in English or
French, which are widely understood. "Do you
speak or read Chinese, Indonesian or
Russian?" he asks. Many companies are sub-

IWest Africa has been the best performing region
followed by East Africa and Mauritius. EXOTIX

sidiaries of multinationals and have high mar-
ket shares. Debt levels are low, General
Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are
+hc nnrm nnd minnritieq' interetq nrre prntcct-

S -i .ii~.c "i ''e I

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o r c i l The in. 11 .1 c Lt-

The fixed line and mobile telecoms operator in
Senegal also controls 70 per cent of the Mali


ACP stock exchanges Dossier

Africa (ex.South
Africa) has out
,0 j, performed the
MSCI (Morgan
500 Stanley Capital
400 index of stock of
23 developed
300 nations) Far East
and the MSCI
200 Eastern Europe
and South Africa
as well as the
0 .i t t i a Shanghai
90 91 92 93 94 5 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 4 05 06 0708 OEX0TIX

mobile operator. In 2007, the company acquired mobile
licences in Guinea and Guinea Bissau. France Tlcom holds
a 42 per cent stake and Senegal's government is a 20 per cent
shareholder. Recent investor returs have been excellent, the
share price rising from US$30 in 2003 to ii !c>ii. US$420.
At the end of 2007, Sonatel had 4.2M mobile subscribers and
269,000 fixed line subscribers. Subscriber growth has risen
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r,,, .r...3 .." r",,I. : I"
t !SIlLs.:\ I- I *I I

l Finances; Stock exchanges; Africa; Hartland-Peel; EXOT-
IC; GAAP; Dangote Sugar Refinery; Nigeria; Sonatel;
Senegal; New Mauritius Hotels; Mauritius; East African
Breweries; Kenya; Debra Percival.


-CP sto


TFRI 's hidden ualue

There is no clearer sign of investors' interest in tapping sub-Saharan Africa's potential
than November 2007's launch of the New Star Heart of Africa Fund.' Its Lohndon-based
manager, Jamie Allsopp, explains the draw.of sub-Saharan .Africa for ..the
"sophisticated" investor.

M y investment process
has been built arounc
discovering hidder
value. I still feel that
Africa is a whole continent of undiscoverec
opportunity. I think there are still many undis-
covered companies, companies with a very,
very low valuation within the sub-Saharan
region", says Allsopp. He continues:
R.uil.i!!. the fund is an alpha-generating
growth fund driven by bottom-up stock selec-
tion. It also has an 'invest and hold' approach,
seeking long-term capital growth. Its focus will
be on inexpensive companies with the most
attractive growth prospects, an approach that is
known as 'growth at a reasonable price'."

/- ,,..I |il I 'r i ...,, l f il s .

Republic of South Af ca .The fund's current
valuation is 82.17M (30 June 2008). 'ay.-
!il! ' '! i+.'' .l| l .'i Ii n .i |i! ; .' !l. l !. l |i. |l !

luhin slub-uJuluuJ Alliia, cxJludJig LhJ
Republic of South Africa. The fund's current
valuation is 82.17M (30 June 2008). Says
Allsopp: "We've got very steady inflows com-
ing into the fund and it's a good start."
In May 2008, its 'Top 10' holdings were;
Central African Mining and Exploration, SIC
Company, Zambeef Products, the MTN Group,
Chariot Oil and Gas, Ecobank Transnational,
Katanga Mining, Celtel Zambia, .. .....
Breweries and Mauritius Commercial Bank.
"The fund is focusing on sectors that are going to
benefit from the wealth creation of African coun-
tries, so consumer staples, food producers, agri-
culture, breweries, cernent and mobile telephone
companies are areas in which the fund is gaining
the most exposure." For starters, individual
investors -both retail and institutional must put
in a minimum lump sum of 12,500, with subse-
quent payments in sums of 5,000 sterling.

> "Growth at a reasonable price"

Allsopp travels throughout the continent to
identify inexpensive companies with the most
attractive growth prospects, known in the trade
as those with "growth at a reasonable price".
With so few blue-chip companies or locally
quoted affiliates of multinationals, up to about
10 per cent of the fund consists of investments
at the "smaller end" of the market: shares in
unlisted companies.
In this market of "untapped potential",
investors have to weigh up such risks as expro-

priation, nationalisation and social, political
and economic instability, which are more com-
mon in emerging than in more developed mar-
kets, he says.
He closely tracks the "themes" in sub-Saharan
Africa which flag rising demands. He notes
Asia's current interest in sub-Saharan Africa
as a prime supplier of raw materials and also
the continent's growth in infrastructure,
including telecommunications, construction
and banking as urban areas expand and credit
markets develop. Such trends are unlikely to
change overnight, so the investment horizon
for a stock holding is likely to be measured in
years rather than months, he explains.
"The countries that I've been focusing on
since launch are the smaller countries, such as
Ghana, Mauritius and Malawi", says Allsopp.
Companies from the bigger players also occu-
py a big place in his fund's portfolio, with
Nigerian companies making up 23.92 per cent
and Kenyan firms 11.48 per cent of its total
allocation. D.P. M

Debra Percival; Africa; stock exchanges;
New Star Heart of Africa Fund; Jamie
Allsopp; New Star Investment Funds.



ACP stock exchanges Dossier


Stock Exchange grows slowly

Dev Nadkarni*

Despite the recent surge of interest in the information and communication technology
sector, the activities of the South Pacific Stock Exchange are still largely confined to
..Fiji's capital, Suva. An inkling of interest beyond the shores of Viti Levu Island is now

T he Fiji-based South Pacific Stock
Exchange is one of the Pacific
islands region's oldest securities
exchanges, having begun operations
as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Fiji
Development Bank in 1979.
Initially named the Suva Stock Exchange after
the Fijian capital which is where it is still head-
quartered, it got its present name in November
2000 to better reflect its re-positioning as a
regional stock exchange aiming to serve other
Pacific island countries beyond Fiji.
The pursuit of an enlarged geographical mar-
ket, however, has met with little success and
eight years later it continues to list solely Fiji-
based entities with no representation from any
of the other member nations of the Pacific
Islands Forum.
This may be due to the combination of a num-
ber of factors including the restrictions
imposed by the regulatory regimes of individ-
ual island nations, the lack of accessibility
because of the absence of an IT-based trading
infrastructure, and of course, the periodic bouts
of political instability in Fiji with two coups
2000 and 2006 -having taken place since the
exchange began trading as a regional facility.

> Trading unaffected by coup**

But according to observers and investors, the
perceived political instability factor has not
greatly affected trading volumes, which have
continued to be steady even during the coups
and the periods following them. The exchange
is yet to see any spectacular phase of growth in
either investment or listing activity.
The exchange currently deals with listed com-


pany shares, government bonds and treasury
bills, as well as other securities such as trad-
able term deposits. But trading in the govern-
ment securities is extremely rare with most
activity restricted to company shares.
Corporate listings at the exchange are few and
far between and at present it lists the shares of
just 17 Fiji-based companies. These listings
represent a fair cross section of business and
industrial activity in Fiji, which is the Pacific
islands region's second largest economy (after
Papua New Guinea).
Companies from the telecommunications,
media, manufacturing, consumer products,
finance, automobile dealership, real estate and
export sectors make up the listings. Some of
these companies have operations in other
Pacific island nations as well.
Just as the exchange has hoped to grow into a
regional listing and trading platform, it has
tried to attract investors from around the
region and beyond. But the number of
investors from outside remains very small and
comprises a tiny fraction of the total investor
base which, like the listed companies them-
selves, is predominantly Fiji-based.

> lew waue of interest

Over the past twelve months -following steps
taken by Fiji's interim government to deregu-
late the telecommunications market by disman-
tling monopolies and allowing in competition
there has been considerable interest in the infor-
mation and communication technology sector
in Fiji. The entry of new mobile phone opera-
tors and intemet service operators has created a
wave of interest in the investing public.

Amalgamated Telecom Holdings, the company
that holds the interests of all the incumbent
telecom carriers -being parent to Vodafone
Telecom Fiji as well as managing Fiji govern-
ment shares in FINTEL (the nation's Internet
gateway) has seen a surge in trading vol-
Some listed companies have more recently
been offering schemes like the option of con-
verting investors' dividends to shares. For its
part, the stock exchange itself is trying to pop-
ularise stock trading by holding trading ses-
sions in other cities, taking the stock exchange
to people's doorsteps, as it were.
For the first time ever, the exchange conduct-
ed a call market session in the western busi-
ness city of Lautoka (about 200 km away from
the capital Suva) and chief executive officer
Ms Jinita Prasad said that the session was a big
success and had to be extended into the fol-
lowing day.
Given the high interest in investing in stock,
the activity may be extended to other regions
including other islands of Fiji, she added. M

* Writer on Pacific business. Contact:
** In December 2006, current interim Prime Minister,
Commander Frank Bainimarama, ousted democratically
elected Prime Minister, Laisenia Qarase.

South Pacific; Stock Exchange; Fiji; Suva;
Amalgamated Telecom Holdings; Vodafone
Telecom Fiji; FINTEL; Lautoka; Jinita
Prasad. .

Dossier ACP stock exchanges

to become argon
E -OB"

When the Kenyan government put up for sale a 25 per cent of its stake in
-. .i Safaricom, its leading telecoms operator, earlier this year on the Nairobi

Stock Exchange (NSE), the investor pool was over-subscribed six to eight
Times. For the country's President Mwai Kibaki, the rush "indicated the
Depth of local resources available for profitable long-term investment".

l u Ji.ii,'i .,h "' ""ii li,, shareholders, the
S-i- :..!..Iw thich began on 9
June 2008 following the launch of
1 the Initial Public Offer (IPO) in
March, added KNshillings200 bn to the Stock
Exchange and raised the company's capitalisa-
tion to over KNshillings one trillion. One mil-
lion -or one in 18 Kenyans -now hold a share
in the NSE including in former state-run com-
panies; Kengen, Kenya Airways, Mumias
Sugar Corporation, Kenya Commercial Bank
and Kenya Reinsurance Corporation Ltd.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) pre-
dicts a slow down in the country's growth of
2.5 per cent in 2008 against 7 per cent in 2007
in the wake of political crisis and the global
credit crunch which is predicted to squeeze
Kenya's tourism industry, but Kenya seems to
be riding over the bumps and is eyeing a role
of regional financial hub.
Set up in 1954, the Nairobi Stock Exchange is
the largest securities exchange in East and
Central Africa and the 5th largest on the
African continent. It now has a fully automat-
ed trading system and an increasing range of
products. From 2007, the setting up of an
'Area Wide Network' enabled all stockbro-
kers, investment bankers and dealers to deal
with the stock market from their own offices.
Speaking at the NSE in June at the Safaricom
sale, President Kibaki said: "The capital mar-
kets will be key in mobilising long term funds
and infrastructure funds." He called for infra-
structual developments to be financed through
long-term bonds to raise govemment financ-
ing. Bonds are a quick way of institutions such
as govemments and companies to raise money
through the stock exchange for initiatives such

as road building or water supply structures.
The investor, also known as the lender, makes
a profit through interest attached to the bond.

> Government bonds

Professor Chege Waruingi, Chairman of the
Kenya's Capital Markets authority went on to
explain, also during the Safaricom sale, that
flagship infrastructure projects 2008-2012 part
of the govemment's "Vision 2030" to turn
Kenya into a middle income country, are
expected to cost KN500bn shillings. He fur-
ther stressed the need to remove those legal
and administrative obstacles which are pre-
venting finance from both local and foreign
Innovations ,ii! ciii.. being hatched to "con-
solidate" the Nairobi Exchange include an
Over-the-Counter (OTC) system where debt
securities can be traded off and the introduc-
tion of a primary dealership scheme (PDS)
where financial intermediaries are selected by
the government to promote investment in gov-
ernment bonds. Professor Waruingi also
warned that .i. .i,.I stockbrokers" would
not be tolerated.
The development of the East African Marine
System project creating a fibre-optic undersea
cable will lower costs of communication for
Kenya and its neighbours and mean more effi-
cient trading of shares on NSE, boosting its
image as a regional investment destination.
Steps are already being created to create an East
African Stock Exchange Limited with Uganda,
Tanzania and Rwanda, amongst others.
Waruingi also said that initiatives which make
Kenyans more financially literate were needed.

He suggested an 'Annual Capital Markets
University Challenge' to "get more young
Kenyans interested in the opportunities of sav-
ing in financial products". D.P. M

Debra Percival; Kenya; Nairobi Stock
Exchange; Safaricom.

ing mblle V*j k'l and IIne of
e -o- po i o, l es ieast


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& Al-

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Association. whlch m mhlI, sli i.' cl'il'po'icl
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L,. 1,.,,,^.. .Ill. ,J h. ... .. l I|"|L,, |,,.:H
sions wiih lhe D.iSIr-.s-.il..n 11 .i B
As partn of uir muniL'c t' LCu iea. !icttdI
tics excliange iJor Eastern AJica with tradn
lliior; in Kenya, Uganda. Rwanda and
TLii,',t n. wi havi als i iiiiii. d di 'L isisi,
'., Il i l L rie Ie L, t 'li'ilihed'l, R '.-. 1n J I 'i .,i l.
E'.L h.,iL D P M

'11 1._

i 1 ,I

Dossier ACP stock exchanges

Bernard Bb*

I i iRO
g --~

|| a "t.

Into a headwind

Caribbean investment experts are predicting tough times ahead for the region's three
leading equity markets in Barbados, Trinidad and Jamaica, as major economies in the
United States and Europe continue to experience downturns.

shocks -caused by rising energy
and food costs and contraction in
North Atlantic economies -lead-
ing investment firms have been warning
investors of volatility and the erosion of gains
over the short-term.
In its latest second-quarter report for 2008, the
Barbados-based Fortress Fund Managers
Limited informed Caribbean Growth Fund
shareholders that in the short-term, there were
few opportunities for further gains from
regional stock markets.
While acknowledging that 2007 was a positive
year for the stock markets in Barbados, Trinidad
and Jamaica, with the recording of double-digit
growth, the investment managers wamed that
exogenous shocks presented by the interation-
al markets threatened to undermine those gains.
"We believe that while share prices of most
regional companies are .iiciii:. reasonable,
that future eamings will soon come under
severe pressure because of the weak US econ-

omy and high energy prices and commodity
prices, which will soon negatively affect most
of the Caribbean, with the exception of
Trinidad and Tobago", they reported. Market
capitalisation on the Barbados Stock Exchange
stands at around US$9bn while Trinidad boasts
US$15bn and Jamaica, US$12bn.
The Caribbean Growth Fund, which is just over
10 years old, holds around US$125M in assets
both in cash and shares in public and private
companies that have their principal activities in
the Caribbean. They include leading companies:
food processors, Sagicor, construction company,
Neal & Massy and the Royal Bank of Canada.

> Righting of real estate?

Pointing to the negative impact of high energy
and food costs and downturns in the
economies of the United States, the United
Kingdom and Europe, the investment experts
also raised concerns over whether the righting
of the real estate markets being seen in the

developed world might start to occur in the
Caribbean. They suggested that it could also
be difficult for the region to manage the
impact on its vital tourism industry as a result
of rising energy costs and negative fall-outs
from the global airline and travel industries.
While most Caribbean countries are small
with fragile economies and high levels of
indebtedness, the headwinds thrown up by the
international markets could well have a greater
impact on the equity market in Barbados,
which has been under pressure in recent years.
Over the past five years, the BSE has been hit
by a number of delistings primarily through
take-overs -including AS Bryden & Sons Ltd,
Courts Barbados, BWIA and Barbados'
biggest conglomerate, Barbados \in',i.,',.. and
Trading -and this has led to a decline in mar-
ket capitalisation and a dwindling number of
companies listed on the local market.
In 2007, take-over transactions again played a
significant role in the overall trading activity
in Barbados as take-overs accounted for the



ACP stock exchanges Dossier

130,745,033 shares traded, with a value of
US$215M. The takeover of First Caribbean
International Bank had the greatest impact on
trading activity as 129,863,084 units traded at
a value of US$212M and accounted for 80 per
cent of total volume and 71 per cent of total
value for all shares traded in the entire market.
Three companies (Barbados \''i./-.,.. and
Trading, Barbados Farms Limited and West
India Biscuit Company) were subject to take-
over interest while another three companies,
which were subject to take-over transactions
in 2006, all concluded such transactions in
2007. "Most of the activity last year was
backed by take-overs and projections are for

such activities to characterise the market
going forward in the medium to long-term",
said Investment Analyst Olorundo Simmons,
of Bridgetown-based Caribbean Financial
Services Corporation.
A weakness of the Barbados market, Simmons
further contended, was that the intrinsic value
of listed companies was often not reflected in
the trading price and hence they were prime
take-over targets in a stable economy. "When
there is a large disparity between price and
value, companies become targets for others
with large cash flows", said Simmons. The
BSE has sought to counter the falling listings
by creating a fresh trading platform, the over-

the-counter (OTC) market, which should be
introduced by year-end. The OTC would
allow companies to trade their securities with-
out being listed or traded on the official BSE
board. M
*Barbados-based journalist.

Left: First Caribbean International Bank,
S Bridgetown. Bernard Babb

Barbados; Caribbean; Barbados Stock
Exchange; finance; real estate.

Lucky George*



Exchange: Ho

For the past few years, the Nigerian Stock Exchange (N.S.E.) has been a hive of
activity, receiving tremendous patronage from both corporate and individual
investors. But on 24 July 2008 its market capitalisation sank to N10.03 trillion**
compared with the high of N12.64 trillion on 5 March, slightly rallying by 5 August
to N10.64 trillion. Has the N.S.E caught the global credit chill?

established in 1960 as the Lagos
Stock Exchange and in December
1977 it became the Nigerian Stock
Exchange, now with branches in the main
commercial cities. Operations started up in
1961 with 19 securities listed for trading.
Today it has 262 securities across a broad sec-
tion of the economy, ranging from agriculture
through manufacturing to services. Many
companies have foreign affiliations.
Before the recent crash, investor confidence
was lifted by economic reforms that began in


2003, earning Nigeria a BB minus credit rat-
ing, which led to a US$18bn debt write-off
and created pension funds which now have
several billions invested in Nigerian securities.
For a while, though, the exchange had been
racing against time to create new instruments
to absorb a 'wall of money' and avoid a bub-
ble. It launched a secondary market in treasury
bonds in the middle of 2006 and volumes trad-
ed in the second half il.ii .. ...Ii surpassed the
value of equities traded during the whole year.
A reform of the banking sector, which raised
capitalisation levels and forced a wave of

mergers, also fuelled the boom. Most Nigerian
bank stocks doubled in value, despite billions
of dollars of new shares being issued, with
some stocks more than quadrupling in value in
less than a year. Companies that floated offers
were overwhelmed by demand. The capital
market became the fastest place to make
money. Many rushed for bank loans to lever-
age their equity trading. Men and women from
all walks of life began to throw in their savings
to benefit from the huge margins that were
coming from the market. For months, it
appeared that the Nigerian capital market was

Dossier ACP stock exchanges

0,09% ..
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 9g 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

on another planet: immune to the global finan-
cial meltdown triggered by the sub-prime
mortgage credit crisis in the United States.

> Sudden slump

The depression came so suddenly that the
market regulators appeared unprepared to find
an appropriate explanation for what was hap-
Various reasons are still being advanced for
the NSE's dive, including market correction,
the effect of purported Central Bank of
Nigeria's ban on margin loans by banks, the
preponderance of private placement in the
market and even the now suspended directive
for stockbrokers to re-capitalise to a minimum
of Nlbn. The impact of the global financial
crisis is just mentioned in passing.
Victor Ogiemwonyi, Managing Director of
Partnership Investment Company Limited, a
dealing member of the NSE, said that what
was happening in the market was a revalua-

tion of the prices of stocks. "The last six
months, particularly the last three months,
have witnessed a drastic revaluation of stock
prices", he said. While some of the stocks
were actually over-valued and needed price
adjustment to fall in line with their fundamen-
tals, some had been unduly punished by the
fear and pessimism which have entered the
He said what has happened is a lesson for all
to learn that financial markets are fragile and
thrives on confidence: "When you create
uncertainties, it erodes confidence and it
affects investors' ability to judge where the
market is going and everything else takes a
cue from there." He added: "It is an investors'
market now; speculators will be out for a
while. It is an educational process for
investors to realise that the bonanza of the last
five years will need a long gestation period
before it will return, but return it will surely."
Chidi Agbapu, Managing Director of
Emerging Capital Limited, attributed the mar-

ket slump to too much hot
money and liquidity-
induced speculations, and
discordant policies and
pronouncements by regu-
lators: "Fear coupled with
shaken confidence induced
desperate profit taking and
prolonged market correc-
S tion made investors more
08 discerning."
President of Nigerian
Shareholders' Renaissance
Association (NSRA), Mr
Olufemi Timothy, says: "Though stock mar-
kets across the globe often witness recession,
the current situation at the NSE stems from
unethical practices by dishonest operators. As
an economist, I knew that the prices we had in
January and February 2008 were not realistic.
The situation at the exchange is abnormal, but
the market is gradually correcting those fac-
tors that led to the malady, and the situation
will improve soonest." It seems that the Stock
Exchange in oil-producer Nigeria will ride out
choppier waters. M

* George Lucky is a Nigeria-based jouralist & editor of
** 1 Euro = 167.055 Nigerian Naira (on 19 September

Lucky George; Nigeria; Finance; Nigerian
Stock Exchange; global credit crunch; oil-
producer; Nigerian Shareholders'
Renaissance Association (NRSA).

Fernand Nouwligbeto*

High stakes at

BCP summIT

A packed agenda for the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Summit, September 30-
3 October in Accra, Ghana, likely to give rise to vigorous debate, was announced as
we went to press.

together 79 countries, was to take
place in Accra, Ghana, 30
September 3 October 2008. It was
to be preceded by a ministerial meeting on
'human development and human security'.
The summit was to look at current global
issues including the food and energy crises,
the impact of climate change, the breakdown
of the negotiations at the World Trade
Organisation (WTO) and take stock of negoti-
ations with the European Union (EU) on
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs).
The political situation in several ACP coun-
tries was expected to be under discussion in
the wake of missions to Chad, Djibouti and
Sudan this summer. The political crisis in
Zimbabwe was also likely to feature.
Progress on reaching the United Nations'
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was
to be addressed as well as consolidation meas-
ures required to achieve them, particularly
regarding the impact of increased food prices.
The energy crisis will also affect the chances
of achieving these goals. The ACP countries
were expected to seize the opportunity to dis-
cuss the development of alternative sources of
energy including biofuel, a possible area of
development for some ACP countries. The
main aim in this respect was to evaluate devel-
opment opportunities in the sector which do
not jeopardise the objectives of sovereignty
and food security.
The impact of climate change was also on the
agenda, the first victims being island nations,
in particular those of the Pacific region and the
Caribbean. The significant damage in Haiti
caused by a succession of hurricanes is an all
too recent reminder of this.


As for economic relations, the collapse of the
Doha round of the WTO and the negotiations
on the signing of the EPAs were expected be
an important part of discussions. Prior to the
summit, Abel Gbetoenonmon, Secretary
General of the Civil Society forum in Benin,
pointed out that "the main aim for ACP coun-
tries is to safeguard regional integration". In
West Africa, for example, "the challenge is to
move on from interim agreements signed by
Ghana and Cte d'Ivoire to agreements
accepted by the entire region, but also to know
how to approach the EPAs ensuring that devel-
opment interests are safeguarded. The EU says
the same thing. However, the two parties do
not attach the same importance to develop-
ment", he said. "On top of European

Development Funds (EDF), additional finan-
cial provisions are to be made available to
enable the ACP to introduce reforms linked to
the implementation of the EPAs and deal with
financial losses resulting from the lifting of
tariff barriers." Many involved like Abel
Gbetoenonmon think that "to reject the EPAs
would be short-sighted as the states have
accepted the signing of provisional EPAs and
regional integration would be seriously jeopar-
dised". M

* InfoSud -Proximits Bnin.

ACP Summit; Accra; EPAs; civil society;
climate change; Abel Gbetoenonmon.

Interaction ACP-EU


H look back at a first

historic SUM MIIT

1 L '

1. 1 C -U F

The first summit held between South Africa and the European Union (EU) took place
on 25 July in Bordeaux, France. It laid ambitious milestones to enable relations
between the EU and South Africa to enter a 'new phase'.

up of Thabo Mbeki, then President,
and three ministers, was received in
Bordeaux on 25 July by the President
of the European Commission, Jos Manuel
Barroso, and the French President Nicolas
Sarkozy, whose country holds the Presidency of
the EU until 31 December 2008. The agenda of

this historic summit focused on deepening
political dialogue and improving relations
between one of Africa's economic corerstones
and its main overseas investor (around 66 per
cent of South Africa's net foreign investments
between 2003 and 2005 were from the EU).
The discussions took place within the frame-
work of the Trade, Development and

Cooperation Agreement (TDCA) between
South Africa and the EU implemented in 2001
and consolidated in May 2007 by the creation
of a strategic partnership, the first signed with
an African country. The main objective of this
partnership is to create a free trade area by
2012. It also aims to achieve closer collabora-
tion at regional, continental and global levels


ACP-EU I Interaction

between the two parties and to improve coop-
eration on development and trade and to
extend it in other areas.
Prior to the summit, a meeting took place
between the foreign affairs ministers of France
and South Africa, Berard Kouchner and
Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, where the main
documents signed at the end of the summit
were discussed. The most important of these
was a report on the implementation of the
strategic partnership and the priorities for
future cooperation. Two joint declarations on
climate change and the role of the private sec-
tor in Africa were also signed.

> 8 privileged partner

This summit highlighted the strengthening of
the political and economic links which today
make South Africa a privileged partner of the
EU amongst southem countries. The day after
the summit, Thabo Mbeki said in an interview
on the South African television station SABC
that: "The EU now sees South Africa as a very
important partner because [...] the issues
addressed conceded not just bilateral chal-
lenges [...] but global ones too."
On the political front, the crises in Darfur and
Zimbabwe were touched upon, in particular
the importance of Thabo Mbeki's role as a
mediator for Zimbabwe. Economic coopera-
tion between the two countries was also under-

lined as bilateral exchanges between South
Africa and the EU increased fivefold between
1994 and 2007, increasing from 4.7bn to
26bn. Cooperation in certain sectors, such as
energy, science and technology, healthcare,
migration and transport, is to be increased in
the future. South Africa also takes part in the
EU's research programme which is enabling
South African researchers to carry out more
than 170 study projects thanks to European
subsidies totalling more than 20M.

> Stumbling blocks

While the summit focused on the strategic
importance of economic relations with the EU,
certain stumbling blocks were also discussed,
including the new Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPA), which are establishing the
future commercial structure of exchanges
between ACP countries and the EU. South
Africa still refuses to negotiate an EPA, where-
as other countries in the Southern African
Customs Union (SACU) zone initialled a pro-
visional agreement in 2007. During the sum-
mit, Thabo Mbeki voiced his concems and
stressed the importance of a single customs
policy for the SACU zone in order to foster
regional integration. In Bordeaux, President
Sarkozy announced the creation of an ad-hoc
committee to attempt to reach an agreement.
The signing of the agreement would provide

access to the European market without cus-
toms charges for more than 500 South African
A week after the summit, Rob Davies, South
African Minister of Trade and Industry, reiter-
ated South Africa's opposition to drawing up
EPA agreements as they stand. South Africa
challenges in particular the Most Favoured
Nation (MFN) status which would enable the
EU to obtain the same trade agreements on
these products as those agreed with countries
like China and Brazil. Peter Draper of the
South African Institute of International Affairs
sees the part of the agreement conceding the
liberalisation of services as a major problem
area. In contrast, the analyst Matthew Stem
believes that South Africa has everything to
gain from opening up its services sector to
competition and that "the real value of the EPA
services agreement is that it will make the con-
trolling of services transparent and reliable".
The vitality of these discussions highlights the
political and economic leadership role of
South Africa at regional level which makes the
holding of this first summit between South
Africa and the EU legitimate. M

Clmence Petit-Perrot; EU; South Africa;
EPA; Trade, Development and Cooperation
Agreement (TDCA); WTO; Thabo Mbeki.

Interaction ACP

WH EI is the Pacific
'UI -P I 1 FI By Debbie Singh*
The 39th Pacific Islands Forum Leaders meeting opened in Niue's capital Alofi on 19
August 2008 with Fiji dominating the agenda, amid calls for its suspension from the
Forum by traditional heavyweights, Australia and New Zealand.


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the ACP


civil society Interaction


RPRODEU: more competence for the

RCP states before the final EPRS

APRODEV, one of the EU development NGOs, sets out below, through its trade issues
expert Karin Ulmer, how it sees ACP EU cooperation, with particular emphasis on the
EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements). This is also the opportunity to find out more
about one of the most active lobbyists among the development NGOs.

The Association of World Council of
Churches related Development
Organizations (APRODEV) is a net-
work of almost 20 organizations
from different EU countries and was set up
some 20 years ago. They are all linked to the
World Council of Churches, a fellowship of
Protestant churches. Karin Ulmer immediate-
ly stresses her organisation's great concern
regarding implementation of ACP-EU coop-
eration, and in particular the EPAs (Economic
Partnership Agreements).

Karin Ulmer -The strategies implemented by
the European Union are all directed towards
new configurations of the ACP when the inter-
ests of the latter were to remain a strong group.
Like many other NGOs, we would have liked
the ACP states to have had the time to acquire
more competence in the area of trade negoti-
ations before concluding the EPAs. The
Cotonou Agreement stipulates clearly that
they must strengthen their regional integra-
tion. We now have the situation whereby one
of the parties, the EU, has more scope to influ-
ence the course of negotiations. Despite recent
admonitions from Member States such as
France, the Commission has acquired a strong
mandate while on the other hand the negotiat-
ing structures have been very weak and the
mandates very vague.

Hegel Goutier The Commission could reply
that the EU and the ACP states reached a con-
sensus, through the Cotonou Agreement, on
the timetable and process for negotiating the

The EPAs were also supposed to be in the
service of development. There is a certain


incoherence between the EU's foreign policy,
its development cooperation and its trade strat-
egy. One has the impression that it is trade that
sets the tone. Negotiators from the
Directorate-General for Trade do not have the
same training as those from the Directorate-
General for Development. The latter should
have enough influence to point the process in
the direction of EPAs that are genuinely linked
to development. The Directorate-General for
Trade claims that its plan will allow foreign
investments to be attracted to the ACP coun-
tries. We, the NGOs, doubt this correlation.

Should not the process be given time before
reaching such conclusions?

We can already clearly see the weaknesses.
After Seattle, Doha and Cancun a number of
elements, various Commission Directorates-
General, should have been brought together.
At first we had concerns, but now the problem
is visible. There were many promises and rhet-

oric, but clearly not sufficient commitment to
make the ACPs anything other than Free Trade
Zones with the EPAs.
Even if we take the Caribbean States that
seemed more inclined to sign a regional EPA, it
is only now that experts from the region are
studying the agreement and realising that it is
not favourable. The EPAs are being revealed as
a kind of WTO-plus in the sense of more rigid-
ity, more market access. The trade deficit of the
ACP countries will increase. APRODEV and
other NGOs and organizations such as the
ICTSD (International Center for Trade and
Sustainable Development) or the UNCTAD
(United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development) evaluated these agreements for
us on the basis of precise criteria. That is the
conclusion that unfortunately resulted. H.G. M

Hegel Goutier; Karin Ulmer; APRODEV;


v uoice for European IGOs

Comprising 18 international networks
and 22 national NGO associations from
European Member States, CONCORD
(European NGO Confederation for Relief
and Development), lobbies European
institutions on EU policy towards
developing nations and closely monitors
European development aid.

, '.... .....
"";r]* I
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(African, Caribbean and
Pacific countries, climate
change and development,
gender...), CONCORD* seeks to ensure good
governance and aid effectiveness for concrete
results for developing nations.
CONCORD submits documents, proposals,
research and sometimes harsh criticism on
themes such as aid effectiveness and trans-
parency to European institutions, and diver-
gence between the EU's Common Agricultural
Policy and the food security policies. It does
not hesitate to remind G8 governments that
they have not lived up to Millennium Goal
pledges to increase public development aid.
We put some questions to CONCORD.

How are NGOs making the voice of public
opinion in development cooperation heard?

Development cooperation and international
solidarity are important in the eyes of the pub-
lic. In the last 20 years, support for civil soci-
ety organizations has grown extensively. In a
world driven by personal and economic inter-
ests, NGOs pursue social aims and have moral
standards that appeal to the public.
NGOs have been involved in development
cooperation for decades. As they both work in
the field and monitor political decisions, they
play a crucial role in the development process

as innovative agents of change and social
transformation. At European level, they
inform stake-holders and the public on the
impact of European policies and development

Transparency and accountability are keys.
Citizens, donors and recipients have the right
to know how effectively and efficiently devel-
opment aid is spent.

Do NGOs care about re . i. i .

NGOs are highly conceded about their effec-
tiveness as development actors. They regular-
ly reflect on how to improve their methods
and how to be accountable to the people and
countries they are working with and for. To
this end, civil society organizations have set
up the 'Open Forum for CSO Development

Is CONCORD connected to the NGOs of the

European NGOs and their partners in the
South exchange experiences, knowledge and
best practices regarding the role of civil socie-
ty actors and their main common areas of
advocacy. CONCORD is connected with the
South, through its members, but also directly
with regional platforms such as Mesa de

Articulacidn in Latin America. Advocacy
towards international stake-holders is more
effective if it is done in partnership with
organizations that are primarily conceded by
the issue at stake.

What do you think of last September's Accra
High Level Forum on aid ... . in

CONCORD believes that the EU has an
important role to play on the international
stage. We want donors to set out detailed plans
showing how and when they will meet their
aid commitments. Without new targets and
new ways of measuring progress, it will not be
possible to assess how much is really deliv-
ered to developing countries. CONCORD
issued a report earlier this year showing that if
the EU keeps delivering aid at the same slow
pace, it will have given E75bn less between
2005 and 2010 than was promised. The EU
provides the majority of the world's aid, giv-
ing it a crucial leadership role in the fight
against global poverty. M

* For more information: www.concordeurope.org

CONCORD; NGO; Aid effectiveness.


Interaction Civil society



.....11.. "..

the political front, the EU has also set in motion "dialogues" with
Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific respectively.
As globalisation has gained momentum, it is regional blocs that are seen
as the motor of economic and social growth in Africa, says the paper.
This new 'Communication on Economic Development and Regional
integration in ACP countries' provides food for thought for all EU insti-
tutions and member states on how to best move forward with such devel-
opment. The paper highlights the benefits of regional integration; polit-
ical stability, economic growth stimulating investment, creating the free
movement of goods, services, capital and people and setting up
economies of scale. And the preservation of "public goods" such as food
and other natural resources can be best done at a regional level, it reads.

> Weaknesses

It also looks at weaknesses to overcome areas such as the lack of insti-
tutional capacities at regional and national levels and their "ownership"
by civil society and administrations. There is still fragmentation in
regional markets, a lack of diversification in national economies with a
high dependency on a small number of export commodities, insufficient
infrastructure networks such as roads, railroads, power grids, telecom-
munications networks with high costs of inter-regional transport and

oversee the EPAs. It also says academic institutions should be encour-
aged to analyse regional initiatives and monitor the progress of EPAs.
An enhanced role for science and technology to help find solutions to
poverty and foster growth is also highlighted in the paper of the
Directorate-General for Development.
And a regional dimension should be a corerstone of future EU policies
in developing nations. For example, the EU has recommended regional
projects be drawn up under its lbn 'Rapid Response Facility' to
counter soaring food prices in developing countries, 2008-2009. The
fund is currently being approved by EU institutions (see Round-Up).
The paper also foresees scope for links between ACP nations and the
EU's Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT), many of which have
ACP neighbours. D.P. M

* Cariforum members expected to sign an EPA are: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, St
Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam and Trinidad and Tobago.
School feeding programme in Kenya. CONCORD

Regional integration; EPAs; Food Facility; science and technology;
EU Trade; Debra Percival.


ft rade

Scope for fFRICf-CHIIf-EU police

Ahead of the European Commission's (EC) Development Directorate's unveiling mid-
October of plans for future EU-Africa-China dialogue, an open EC 'consultation'
carried out mid-April to mid-June 2008, gives a few pointers on what the public thinks
about a triangular policy.

top of an in-depth survey of African cultural dialogue. Sciences, commented on the awaited paper:
diplomats and more generally aca- Respondents had differing views on the role of "This kind of dialogue can help the three par-
demics and civil society that EC's civil societies in such future cooperation and ties understand each other better and find the
Directorate for Development worked on since on projects to promote good govemance in meeting point for future cooperation," adding:
2007 and which shows similar results accord- Africa, but the survey concluded: "There are "The principle of non-interference in other
ing to sources in the Commission. still new opportunities arising for civil society countries' domestic issues will not be changed
Eighty-six per cent of the handful of those to engage and influence the nature of Sino- for the foreseeable future since it shows
who said the time was not ripe for any triangu- African relations: through joint research and respect to sovereignty, territorial integrity and
lar partnership were EU businesses who fear projects with Chinese institutions; and through national dignity. However, we have witnessed
unfair competition since Chinese companies contact between African communities and the flexibility and pragmatism of Chinese
do not have to respect the same trading stan- Chinese 'Diasporas' to help to improve aware- diplomacy when it deals with some thomy
dards. ness on the poverty reduction strategies devel- issues such as Darfur and the DPRK nuclear
As for future areas of cooperation, recom- oped by GONGOs (Government-operated issues." D.P. a
mended by most in descending order are: sus- Non Govemmental Organisations) in China."
tainable management of natural resources, Canvassed by The Courier, Professor He For the surveys ful results see: eceuropaeu/develop
gooFor the survey's full results see: ec.europa.eu/develop
good governance, environment, infrastructure, Wenping, Professor of African studies at the ment/icenter/repository/Consultation6

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ior ait niricals menus

""The EU should avoid having a sino-centric Africa policy. It is doubtfl ti

communication that is completely devoted to China is desirable in a strategic co

that is dominated by several other players such as the United States and In

Johnathan Hoisiag who is Head of Research at the Brussels Institute of Contemp,

China Studies (BICCS) toid The Courier,*

ndia's closer bi-lateral partnership with peacekeeping and global warming topping the with Africa: "We should build a bc

Africa was signalled by the holding of a agenda. Calling Africa "a land of awakening" consensus with all Africas friends thai

summit in New Delhi, 8-9 April, organ- Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, from short-term interests and aims

ised by the African Union (AU). It was the announced trade prefrences for 34 Least term stability." D.R

first meeting of Indian and African 1-leads of Developed African countries (LDCs). www.vub.ac.be/biccs

State and govemment with 14 invited African Closer cooperation in regional integration, pol-

governments present including South Africa, hies, science, technology, sanitation and pover-

Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia and ty eradication were agreed and measures to help Reywords

ranzania. Indians small landowners comply with quality india; Afr onathan liol ig; Briv

On the table was a new strategic economic part- and safty standards for food production. I nstittite ina Stui

nership with trace, investment, energy security Recommends 1-lolslag on future EU policies Dhra Per j

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N. 7 N. 8

He is here. On the first floor of a rather dilapidated building, one of those 1950s
buildings which houses in a rather rambling way the public library of Ixelles, one of
the 19 local authorities that make up Brussels, and the offices of the Alderman for
Employment, the Family, Youth and Social Integration. Quite an agenda for this
former professional boxer who turned politician at the express request of local elected
representatives, who see him as a paragon of social integration.

B a Diallo is seated behind his large,
shiny desk, surrounded by photos
recording his exploits in the ring.
His eyes sparkle in his welcoming
face, while a flamboyant tee-shirt hugs an ath-
lete's frame. It is 2.30pm. It is the middle of
summer, hot, and politics has become a bit
dull. A moment's respite in an exciting life. By

way of introduction: "I asked for a new office
18 months ago, but when you work for the
local authority it is a bit complicated, you need
to organise a public call for tenders." Sigh. "I
used to be a boxer, and I ran a business too."
He recovers: "I still train, but I have not had a
fight for a year. And I still have companies;
here, as well as in Guinea-Conakry, my coun-

try of origin." There is a knock at the door.
One of his young assistants apologises and
crosses the office to before rushing into the
neighboring room. Ba smiles patiently: "We
have also been waiting 18 months for the local
authority to drill a hole in the wall so that my
staff can get into their office without having to
come through mine."


- ......'......

Pstros ilohnig nhsfc h


> Boxing as a school

Flashback. Ba Diallo tells his story in a gen-
tlemanly way, clearly, and with the driving
energy that appealed to a sizeable minority of
Brussels electors. He was bom in 1971 in
Liberia, where his Guinean father was
Ambassador. Then he went to France, in the
days of the Front National, as well as of 'SOS
Racisme' and the 'Touche pas mon pote'
('Leave my buddy alone') campaign. "At the
time, I was a rebel and even violent. I used to
hang around in the street, and was ready to
pick a fight at the slightest excuse. My parents
did not understand me any more. Every day, I
moved further away from the values they had
instilled in me. One day, on my way back from
a concert, there were five of us between 11 and
12 years old, with my Yugoslav friend, the son


of the concierge." Ba was caught up in a
brawl with some skinheads. "I managed to get
away, but my friend ended up in hospital. He
lost an eye, and was semi-paralysed." He
became even more frustrated. He took it out on
a woman teacher who mortified him to the
core. "As I couldn't put it into words, I became
violent and, paradoxically, racist."
"I was lucky that my father was transferred to
Brussels. In Belgium, I did not encounter the
same hypocrisy as in France, where they only
accept people if they 'have something to give',
such as people who excel at sport." Ba was
still a rebel and a fighter. "But fortune smiled
on me. We formed a group, a Turk, two
Moroccans, a Belgian and me, and we used to
go training in the park with boxing gloves.
One day, the Turk found a boxing club where
we could train without needing our parents'
consent." This was a turning point. He discov-
ered a different world. "We took a beating. In
the street, it is often not the strongest who
wins, but the most cowardly." Of the five in
the group, three did not accept these new rules,
and gave up. Ba and his Belgian friend, Jean-
Franois, remained. "Boxing is what saved
me. I met people there from different origins
and backgrounds, sharing the same passion.
That made an impression on me, because I was
stuck in my clan."
Very soon, the "highly talented novice", as he
was described in the specialist press, moved
up the ladder of fame. He successfully defend-
ed his title as IBF intercontinental mid-
dleweight champion several times. Ba could
have had a longer professional career, "but at
the same time, I wanted to remain independ-
ent." He has not forgotten his past. To help
young delinquents, in a splendid paradox, he
set up a security company, 'Champ Angels'.
"When I was younger, and I saw a security
guard, unpleasant, provocative, lacking self-
confidence, I felt like beating him up!" So the
security guards at 'Champ Angels' are athletic,
often from 'rough' areas who, when they come
into contact with delinquents, try to talk them
into participating in theatre, boxing or foot-
ball. 'Champ Angels' is a victim of its own
success. While waiting, Ba decided to get an
education, and finished studying at the
University Libre de Bruxelles with a degree in
economics and marketing. Then, he set up 'My
Choice', an association aimed at helping
young people in school through 'positive dis-
crimination'. This year, I have been in 30-odd
schools, I have met young people, and some-
times trained with them for a day". A fight that
this new Belgian he became naturalised in

1988 has taken to his country of origin too,
Guinea, through the 'Ba Diallo' foundation.
There is no shortage of initiatives: a medical
centre, playing fields and even a public trans-
port company. With mixed success. His pride
and joy is the football club of Conakry, Hafia
FC, where he is the Chairman. "I took over the
club in 2000. There is a lot of work left to do.
1 tell the young players who dream of being
recognized in Europe: you can play, but leam
a trade, or get an education. To avoid them
falling into the hands of unscrupulous
European companies who promise them the
earth, and then abandon them if they are not
signed by a club, I advise them. If their trial in
Europe is unsuccessful, they retum to their
club in Guinea, where they are paid wages."

> So many ideas in 24 hours

It is 4 p.m. Ba's assistants can be seen wait-
ing behind the door. "We are on summer work-
ing hours, so the working day is shorter than
usual." But what days they are! Getting up at
6 am ("when I used to be a pro, it was 4 am"),
an hour of jogging, followed by breakfast with
the children. Because Ba Diallo has four chil-
dren! Two that he adopted from his Belgian
wife, "they are 17 and 22 years old", and two
born later: Ibrahim, aged 9 and Julia, 6. "I drop
them off at school my wife leaves home at
7.30 and then the merry-go-round of political
meetings starts: at the local authority, on
Monday and Thursdays, the Brussels parlia-
ment on Tuesdays, not forgetting the meetings
of local councillors, parliamentary committees
and surgeries where he listens to the views of
local residents. It is difficult sometimes.
Fortunately, there are concrete actions, when I
can pass on the problems that I come across
when talking to people on the ground to the
parliament in the form of a bill. I always have
so many ideas in my head, and it is difficult to
keep up with me." And the week-end: "I still
have official engagements, but I try to spend
time with my family." Time with his children,
where as his wife reminds him regularly: "it is
not the amount of time that you spend with us
that counts, but the quality."

M.M.B. M

Ba Diallo; boxing; Belgium; Brussels; pol-
itics; Guinea-Conakry; football; develop-
ment; Marie-Martine Buckens.

S .i


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T hat at least is the opinion of the
Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), set
up following the 2002 Johannesburg
summit on renewable energy and financed by
about 40 industrialized countries and the
European Union.

> f long road plemented by wind power. The REEEP and
associations such as Earthlife Africa are deter-
At present, coal is the source of almost 90 per mined to use the constant electricity cuts by
cent of South Africa's electricity. The rest the South African public company to argue
comes from the nuclear power plant in their cause. They are not alone. According to
Koeberg and hydroelectricity, with just a tiny the international consultancy firm Frost &
contribution by solar energy, soon to be sup- Sullivan, "South Africa is ideally situated for




*^ ^
* Ifa


..... ..... ... ....

Our Planet

solar energy, but also for wind power and bio-
gas, which means it is becoming increasingly
important for encourage private investment in
the renewable energy sector." It also believes
the same applies in Namibia, whose electricity
sector is set to experience very strong growth
over coming years. That country ,iicni i.
depends on South Africa's Eskom company
for 80 per cent of its supplies. It is a dependen-
cy it shares with other countries in Souther
Africa, such as Zambia. Eskom's failings are
having a knock-on effect not only on the South
African economy but also on the economies of
its neighbours. The REEEP is adamant: the
electricity crisis throughout the Southern
Africa Development Community (SADC) a
crisis that Frost & Sullivan sees as likely to
continue until 2012 -no doubt poses the sin-
gle greatest risk to the region's economic

> Strengthening regional

Although the South African Government has
adopted a new policy on renewable energy, it
is not a very ambitious one. In the medium

term it foresees these sources meeting less
than 3 per cent of total energy consumption.
As for the REEEP, it believes the figure could
easily be as high as 50 per cent by 2050. But
this is on two conditions: a strengthening of
regional planning -notably through the
RERA (the SADC's energy programme) and
the SAPP (Southern African Power Pool)
and the introduction of long-term contracts to
guarantee renewable energy supplies and
attract private investors. Another Achilles'
heel of a committed policy for renewable
energy is the extremely low price of South
African energy, one of the four cheapest in the
world. This is the result of 20 years of overca-
pacity, now overtaken by economic growth
without appropriate government reforms. The
government currently seems prepared to
introduce a price increase for electricity of
close to 70 per cent, a move that would make
renewable energy almost competitive.

> Initial initiatives

Eskom has not remained inactive, however.
This is evident from its two flagship projects
for renewable energy: a wind park on the

Atlantic coast whose first turbines have start-
ed to supply the Cape Town grid, and the solar
thermal park in Upington, a site where solar
radiation is among the highest in the world.
Expected production is 100 megawatts (MW),
which is scarcely more than a few electrons
among the 40.5 gigawatts (GW) produced by
South Africa in 2004. Nevertheless, these two
projects remain among the most ambitious in
sub-Saharan Africa.
In addition, there are plans to build a third
hydroelectric dam at the Inga site in the
Lower Congo by 2009. The promoters believe
this could supply electricity to the whole of
Southern Africa by 2021. These 'big' dams
are not included in the list of renewable ener-
gies, however.
M.M.B. M

Renewable energy; electricity; SADC;
REEEP; EU-ACP Energy Facility; South
Africa; Eskom.

EU fud fo rua Ia

-e ea p er -.- - - contribution.

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A report by Marie-Martine Buckens

Madagascar, the island continent, is a land torni
between two desires. One is to look to itself, to the
'land of the ancestors' who are much venerated, as
is clear from the long litany of mausoleums along
the roads of the south. This is a land governed by
many 'fadys' or taboos. The other is to open up to
the world, a desire embodied by Marc
Ravalomanana, the president elected seven years
ago by a population bled dry by failing leaders. A
committed opening up, the main principles of
which are laid down in the MAP or Madagascar

Action Plan, a genuine roadmap whose aim is to
remove the country once and for all from the unen-
viable list of the world's poorest nations. The energy
deployed by the president to convince donors, and
first and foremost the European Union, seems to
date to be bearing fruit, even if his will to act swift-
ly, in rupture with the 'mora-mora' (softly-softly)
philosophy that typifies the Madagascan approach
to life, and his vision as a businessman can be upset-
ting to some Madagascans who are often inherently


Madagascar report

H remarkable

The last geological remnant of the break-up of the
supercontinent Gondwana over 160 million years ago,
Madagascar, the Red Island, likes cultivating the
mystery of its origins.

ying 400 km off East Africa, one and
half times the size of France, its origin
is said to be divine. Its inhabitants will
tell the 'vazaha' (the foreigner) that
they are probably part of Africa, but that they
are not African. They are Madagascan.
Madagascan, but also Merina, Betsileo,
Betsimisaraka, Sakalava... so many ethnic
groups (18 in total), each speaking their own
dialect of Malagasy. This is one of the island's
wonders; it is a melting pot of Austronesian
peoples and Bantu, Arabian and European cul-
tures, speaking one language and living
together peacefully. Since when? This is
where hypotheses come in, much to the delight


of anthropologists and scientists. Oral tradi-
tion holds that the Vazimbas were the first to
inhabit the island 1500 years ago. A mythical
people, they were supplanted by successive
waves of Indonesians and Malayo-Polynesians
(from whom the Malagasy language origi-
nates) who occupied the central plateau. The
coast would gradually be populated by Arabs
and black Africans, probably former slaves.
By the 17th century there were numerous
independent kingdoms. The Betsimisaraka had
established authority on the eastern coast,
while the Betsileo and, above all, Merina king-
doms ruled over the uplands. The Merina
expanded in the 19th century with the unifica-
tion carried out by Andrianampoinimerina
(1786-1810) who summed up his territorial
ambition with, "the sea is the boundary of my
rice field." His son Radama I, helped by the
British, conquered the whole island. Next
came the anti-European and anti-Christian
reign of Queen Ranavalona I (1828-1861). Her
son, Radama II, re-opened the country to colo-
nial powers; worried, the Madagascan oli-
garchy had him strangled in 1863.
Rainilaiarivony, a Merina and leader of the
army, became prime minister and successively
married three queens, staying in power for
over thirty years (1864-1895). This was an era
of increased schooling and evangelisation; in
1835, the first Malagasy Bible was printed.
In 1895, France sent a task force to
Tananarive, which led to the treaty of 1
October 1895 establishing the French protec-
torate over Madagascar. The treaty stripped
the monarchy of its power and placed it in the

hands of the Resident General. Facing colonial
authority, a local resistance force developed,
becoming more radical until the brutally
repressed insurrection of 1947. On 26 June
1960, the country's independence was
Since its independence, Madagascar has had
three Republics. By way of legacy, the first
president, Philibert Tsiranana, left a solid
school network, but a declining economy. In
1972, he was replaced by General Gabriel
Ramanantsoa. There followed a period of
instability, which led to the election of Didier
Ratsiraka, the president who would be remem-
bered for forcing socialism on the country.
Social discontent was such that, in 1991, he
accepted the creation of a transitional govern-
ment of national unity. In 1993, Albert Zafy
was elected president of the 3rd Republic, but
disagreement with his prime minister desta-
bilised his government; Didier Ratsiraka was
re-elected in 1997. He modified the
Constitution and established a strong presiden-
tial government. He stood for a second term in
December 2001. Opposition leader, Marc
Ravalomanana, disputed the result. The inter-
national community became involved. A
recount finally gave victory to the opposition
leader who was re-elected for a second term at
the end of 2006.

Gondwana; Madagascar; history; Marie-
Martine Buckens.

report Madagascar

"We want to set

for other fCP countries"

Madagascar's Action Plan (MAP) is a key government tool to combat poverty, explains
Prime Minister, Charles Rabemananjara.

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Six reforms

The plan contains six reforms concerning the weakest
aspects of the iMadagascan systeni public finances
(strict budgetary control and dra'tic retoini ot taxa-
tion, the tax bLiden, 10 c per cent ot GDP in 20u7, is
amoncgst the lowest in Africa), investment (new lawv
on gLJuaintee< for investors as I.vll as a 'ingle point ot
contact, a law i' being drawvn Lup to provide foreigners
with access to property tiqht against corruption),
agricultural reform intrc:lduction :cf the 'green re -
c:lutlion". public security (stepping up the fight
against the 'dahlo', cattle thie',es seen as a scourge,
illegal tishini|, sniuiggiling iof precious stones anid im-
ber' family planning reductionn oif the size of
hciuseholds and combating malaria and AIDS which
remains contained to 1 per cent compared to l3 per
cent in Souih Africa), and finally tle tiansto.rnmtiion ot
a relatively, corrupt judicial system and an obsolete
prison system This plan depend' heavily on eternal
aid. In 2008. public aid toi development con'titJuted
36 per cent ot the budget (7 per cent of the GDP), ot
which 51 per cent ivas dicnated includingn ELI) For the
period 2u05-2u07, aid contributions increased t':
E350M1 of v.hich 24 per cent came fromi the European
Commission, 6 per cent trani France and 2 per cent
from Gerniani.

\#' s*.~

where resources can be mobilised for

Jean-Claude Boidin
Head of the European Commission's Delegation in Madagascar
Interview by Marie-Martine Buckens


report Madagascar

,.', role does Madagascar
i.'y in relations between the
ti.,ropean Unione (EU) and
rj'ican, Caribbean and
P'.. iI. (ACP) countries, and within ACP con-

Madagascar has a special role in many
respects. First of all, it was one of the found-
ing countries of the future ACP Group. As
long ago as 1963, long before the Lom
Convention, Madagascar and 17 African
countries signed a first historic partnership
with the countries of the European
Communities in Yaound (Cameroon). Since
then, and this is worth bearing in mind, the
country has experienced great stability,
despite several periods of tense political tran-
sition; it has not lived through wars or open
conflicts, unlike many African countries. So
Madagascar represents an area of stability and
relative peace where resources can be
mobilised for development.
Madagascar is among the poorest countries on
the planet. It is in this capacity that it is one of
the top five beneficiaries of the European
Development Funds (EDF) allocated to the
ACP countries. But it is also a very efficient
partner. The fact that it has made particularly
good use of European aid, especially since the
8th EDF, has earned it a significant increase in
Another feature, its insularity, makes it more
difficult for this country to integrate fully in
regional cooperation arrangements. It is true
that Madagascar belongs to several regional
organizations, such as the Common Market
for Eastern and Souther Africa (COMESA),
the Southern African Development
Community (SADC) and the Indian Ocean
Commission (IOC), and since 2004, the coun-
try has adopted a dynamic integration strate-
gy; but due to its geographical situation, the
possibilities for cooperation are limited by
nature. So it is difficult to participate in cross-
border projects, for example sharing in the
field of energy. Migratory flows between
Madagascar and its neighbours remain low,
unlike the situation observed between other
ACP countries. Even compared with the other
islands around it, Madagascar is less reliant
on its regional links, due to its much larger

What are the main cii., ,,... facing the
island and which are the areas where the EU
can make a contribution?

The first challenge is undoubtedly poverty,
which is still very great. The average income

of Madagascans is Tl .,;i s .ici' and 68 per
cent of the population live below the poverty
line. Combating this poverty requires contin-
ued strong growth over a long period. The
second challenge, which is linked to the first,
is that of fairness. The distribution of the
rewards of growth remains very unequal.
Although since 2002, we have seen sustained
economic growth, in particular in the con-
struction industry, mining and tourism, this is
not being spread everywhere. A large number
of people in rural areas do not benefit, and the
growth centres (close to mining areas or
tourist sights) remain relatively isolated from
the rest of the economy, in a country where
many regions are still cut off. Thirdly, I would
like to mention environmental conservation.
Madagascar has very rich biodiversity, it has
rich water resources and fertile soils, but that
richness is threatened by growth in population
and economic growth. Finally, the fourth
challenge is connected with regional integra-
tion which I mentioned earlier. Madagascar
must take up the challenge of integration into
the global economy. Madagascar must choose
the type of trade and cooperation arrange-
ments that it wants. So it can decide to
increase its trade with Africa, as well as
strengthening its links with Asia -India,
China, Malaysia and Japan are becoming
important partners -a region that is growing
strongly, and with which Madagascar is nur-
turing affinities.
The EU's contribution to Madagascar's devel-
opment is structured around three objectives:
the fight against poverty through road-
building and rural development; integration
into the global economy through Economic
Partnership Agreements (EPA) and our
regional cooperation funds; and finally, con-
solidation of goverance through budgetary
aid and many actions providing support to
institutions. It should be borne in mind that
via the EDF, we are providing grants, not
loans as is the case with the European
Investment Bank, the African Bank, the World
Bank or certain bilateral aid programmes.
When it comes to investing in particularly
profitable sectors such as energy, mining or
port infrastructures, it is natural to use loans.
However, long-term, concessionary finance is
necessary to undertake structural investments,
which are less viable and very long-term, such
as large national highways or basic amenities
for local authorities.
This is the case of the EDF, whose resources
are allocated first to projects in isolated, dis-
advantaged regions, such as the south of the
country. By building roads (40 per cent of the
budget of the EDF), by financing rural and

local development (20 per cent), we are help-
ing Madagascar to build a more balanced
economy which should avoid forced migra-
tions to urban centres. Thirty per cent of
resources are allocated to budgetary support
and 10 per cent of the actions are outside the
'concentration areas' (support for the judicial
system, etc.). These policy directions for the
EDF were decided in the 1990s, and have
been strongly re-affirmed from the 9th EDF
onward. For the 10th EDF, the government
chose to adopt the same priorities, but with
even more funds (E588M): the EU has now
become the leading donor of official develop-
ment aid (ODA) to Madagascar.

Apart from your responsibilities at the seat of
the European Commission in Brussels, you
have spent time in severalACP countries such
as Burkina Faso and Ethiopia. Compared
with your other experiences, what have
Madagascans given you in terms of human
and professional qualities?

The people of Madagascar have taught me a
lot, and make people think about the values of
our own society.
First of all, I would like to mention their calm-
ness, and the respect that typifies social rela-
tionships. It is a very courteous, civilised soci-
ety, seeking harmony, where tensions are not
expressed aggressively. Then there is a con-
cern to work precisely and well, which you
find in crafts or in the attention paid to tradi-
tional cultures, as well as in administration or
industry. This hard-working, conscientious
character, this attention in taking the time that
is necessary, are too often missing from soci-
eties that live at a hectic pace.
1 am also struck by the resilience of the peo-
ple, often very poor, and their ability to accept
difficult circumstances with courage, whether
we are talking about poverty, the effects of
cyclones or flooding.
Finally, everyone who comes here feels the
strength of the spiritual dimension. In a socie-
ty which remains very structured, faith, reli-
gious observance and the respect of tradition-
al values -particularly about the family and
the ancestors -are profound, and material
concerns are usually secondary. Of course,
this influences the progress of development
and our cooperation work.

EDF, Madagascar, Jean-Claude Boidin,


Madagascar report

"Turning the


* The challenge of

* aagri-foodstuffs

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To, ensure food security and produce a surplus for export: that is
the goal :f the 'green revolution' laid dor'i n in he ladagascan
Action Plan

i For that, explains Philibert Rakotl:scn, Secrelary General at the
Nlinitry ot Agi cultuLe, 'wve mLJst double food produLtion That i'
a toiridable challenge toi an economy charactersed by 'manll
e*tensire tarms that haie to deal with a land tenure !,.'stem that i!
often chaotic (ii 2C0i6 ust 1 0 per cent of enri oiy was covered by,
land ceirtiicates and titles) Then theei aie the ditticulties ot siall-
scale farmers (8n pei cent of the population) ii gaining access to
credit. 'These aie ill problems the KMAP i' tackling But, it is not
about reproducing Atrica's first green revolution' wrnrs the
Secretary General. 'That did not wc:urk Ibeiause it cc:pied the Asian
mi:cdel. Thev sought to privatise the inputs wvtiih:iut having ade-
quate infrastructure: it is that which mode the difference He adds
IhaL: 'This is wh% nimstl i Mladagascar's agriculture has remained
:,ni the high plateaus without entering the co astal ,illages that
needed thee inpuLL But wvhat about the developrient of intra-
structuie, a miajoi priority' for opening up[ the ruial world'
"Certainly., provided tlat one remembers the human tactor,
tlirough training in pa tiulJar '
To acliie-e tiis twotold objective, the ,lAP is also tLckling another
feature ot Mldagascar's agricultLJil production tliat is dominated
b% the rice crop. Rice is the staple liet of a pc:puilation who li,.e in
fear of ever. fliuctuati:cn in wi:rld rice prices Despite an implressi,.e
ne.twcrk ot rice fields, Mladagasar is not selt-sufficient in nce and
ever% Septembber it experiences a bridging perici:i during w.hichr
rice is often in short suppl)yv. One of the solutions is the famous
Sstenim o Rice Intensiticaticin (SRI' wvhiclh, when coupled w.ilth
System ot Rice Inmprovement (SRA). would make it possible to diou-
ble the average yield per hectare to 5 tonnes. Philibert Rakotson
recognizes that this iequJles a lot ot iork and etticient watei man-
agement. But the M1AP also includes plans lo diversity crops. in
particular in the direction of a naiket-tocused production atlihe
than a subsistence diet, notibly with cash cops suchh as \anill.
and cottee). fruits, and market grdeniiing" This also brings a fur-
thei challenge: to meet the international demands of quality stan-


port Madaq car

In figures

--7 ,_


JiI 'I I Lt C i

Lnndl aira 587,n40 sq rnile5

Indepl'JndcInc 26 luin 1960

Preiient MaKl Ravalomanann (party ',Tiako
i l adagasikaia' I love ladJaga'car')

Populiatoni 18 million

Main e:poit; vanilla, cloves, shrimps, min-
ini products, textiles

Main irnipoilt industrial iooids niachinerv
tood. chemicals. iietals

l.alue or kc.pon-s. I67?M1 (2005)

.oaliu iot airport; 1 ?ul 1

Life e:pecicnc. cit chirth an \,ars 62 5 (20018.

Intn'rt rnortatilt Iare' (per 1.000 l te binh'i

CN: LISSSbn (2005)

Ctl per capital LISS271 (200u7)

GDP ral qronth raie. 6.3 per cent (200u7)

Intention rare 1l0 ? per cent (2007) vs 18 4
pei cent (2n05)

Noriinal legi:lature- Bicairimeial sy,,tenim with
elections by universal suffrage ever. five
sears Ne.t presidential election due in

Main political parties 'Tiako i .iadagasikara
(TlKli, 'Anltcko liombiina Ezaka (AlAE) and
'Aant-qiarde pour la rno.aotion de
Mliadaiascar' (AREKlMA Note that 22 lppo-
siti:n parties ha,.e formed i ccniimmion front.

member countries, 10, including Madagascar,
signed an interim agreement in December
2007 when faced with the seeming impossibil-
ity of signing EPAs by the deadline set. "We
offered to host this conference as the safeguard
measures vary depending on the characteris-
tics of each country and it is time to adopt a
common position", continues the minister. The
sectors judged to be a priority range from agri-
culture to fishing and include trade. For
Madagascar, the priority is the very concept of
level of development. "In the framework of
EPA negotiations, we want questions linked to
development to be treated in the same way as
those linked to market access."

What Ivohasina Razafimahefa is defending is
the notion of 'supply capacity'. "Take the
price of electricity for example. In Madagascar
it costs 30 cents per kilowatt hour, whereas in
Europe and Africa it costs a third or even a
quarter of that price; if we open up our market,
we are going to be swamped." Another exam-
ple is the marketing of lychees. This is a par-
ticularly promising market as Madagascar,
which controls 90 per cent of the fresh lychee
market, is the only country to be able to supply
this fruit for the New Year festivities. It is a
sector that has to deal with an often chaotic
production organisation and difficult transport
conditions: "The lychee has to travel 500 km
before arriving at the port of Tamatave. Given
the state of the roads, it is a trip that can take
as long as a week, and this without cold stor-
age", explains the minister, who adds that:
"We need support measures apart from
the European Development Fund.
This 'trade aid' is also of benefit to
Europeans who will ultimately suf-
fer from the lack of purchasing
power of Madagascans. If not,
what is the point of the EPAs? If
the EU sends us a strong signal
on the development issue,
there is every chance that
we will reach an agree-
ment within the ESA

Developing international trade is a major chal-
lenge for the traditionally inward-looking
islander. The Minister for the Economy is well
aware of this, but is counting on regional inte-
gration as "a first step towards opening up
internationally". He also points out that
Madagascar is one of the 11 countries that
signed, on 18 August, the agreement on the
free trade area (FTA) of the Southern Africa
Development Community (SADC), a group-
ing of 15 countries. Nevertheless, the volume
of trade with Souther Africa remains of mar-
ginal importance (just about 2 per cent of
Madagascar's exteral trade), far less than
with the EU for example. So what are
Madagascar's leading export products? First is
textiles. "This is a relatively important sector
with 150,000 jobs. Although affected some-
what by the dismantlement of the Multi-Fibre
Agreement (MFA), it remains solid," stresses
Ivohasina Razafimahefa, who adds that: "We
are contemplating enlargement of the legal
framework (free zones, editor) to include other
export sectors; negotiations are in progress
with the private sector, in particular in the
tourism and artisanal sectors so that they can
benefit from promotional measures even if
they do not export 100 per cent. The legisla-
tion is in the pipeline." M.M.B. 1

Development; supply capacity; Ivohasina
Razafimahefa; agriculture; rice; Philibert
Rakotoson; Marie-Martine Buckens.

Ivohasina Razafimaheva, Minister for the Economy, Trade
and Industry 2008. MarieMarIne Buckens

that need managing

Ilmenite, nickel, tuna, wood and precious stones; an abundance of natural wealth
that attracts new operators.

largely under-exploited, the Madagascan
subsoil rich in precious stones, quartz,
chrome, gold, ilmenite and nickel, as
well as crude oil ranks high on the
Goverment's list of investment priorities. "We
prioritise large-scale mining projects", says
Patrick Dany Razakamananifidiny, General
Secretary of the Mines and Energy Ministry,
"for which we have created a special law, the
large-scale mining investments law, LGIM". A
law that should reassure promoters who want to
invest more than US$200M.
Testament to this are two flagship projects cur-
rently under way. At the Ambatovy
nickel/cobalt mine; 80 km east of the capital
and about 220 km from Madagscar's largest
port, Toamasina, minerals are treated before
being exported, as the waste materials can be
used to produce fertilizer based on ammonium
sulphide. A particularly key project for which
the European Investment Bank has decided to
allocate nearly US$300M of the US$2.lbn
borrowed for a project estimated to cost a total
of US$3.78bn. The demand for nickel (primar-
ily for producing stainless steel) and cobalt
(for batteries for portable electronic devices) is


constantly rising, while at the same time the
fertilizer can contribute to the Madagascan
'green revolution'. The project is headed by a
Canadian promoter (Sherritt Intl) and its
financing, apart from the EIB, is guaranteed
by the African Development Bank and
Canadian, Japanese and Korean export credit
agencies. It should produce about 60,000
tonnes of nickel and 5,600 tonnes of cobalt per
year, which in fact makes it one of the largest
integrated vertical investment complexes ever
created in Africa.

There is also the ilmenite project at Fort
Dauphine (in the south-east of the island),
which has been on hold for about ten years
until there was at least some regulatory frame-
work, a favourable market price for titanium
dioxide and some ad-hoc measures to counter-
balance the negative effects on local environ-
ment and population. A deep-water port
(Ehoala) has been built to enable Canadian
promoter Rio Tinto to export some 1 million
tonnes per year. A far-reaching project, yet one

that leaves a great many questions unan-
swered: the viability of the 230-hectare con-
servation zone (a tenth of the whole area of the
site), even distribution of revenue among the
communities and long-term local employment
In addition to the impact on local populations
of these large-scale projects, the government
must also confront another challenge: illegal
exports of its natural resources, of its precious
wood and above all of its fishing products. A
distressing subject. The Madagascan
Government therefore intends to seek a revi-
sion of the tuna fishing agreement signed with
the European Union. Furthermore, the recent
law prohibiting the export of uncut stones dis-
courages the operators, inasmuch as the coun-
try does not yet have the required structures to
cut the stones before they leave. M.M.B. *

Top: Floating factory extracting ilmenite in Fort Dauphin
2008. c MarieMartine Buckens I

Ilmenite; nickel; BEI; tuna; mining invest-
ments; Marie-Martine Buckens.


Toliara (or Tulear), is the principal city in the south-west of Madagascar, on the
Mozambique Channel. It is in this arid and poor region, covering the whole of the
Grand Sud to Fort Dauphin on the south-eastern tip of the island, that the European
Union has set up an innovative local development programme, a real laboratory for
the process of appropriation by local decision-making authorities.

initiated in 1994, decentralisation in
Madagascar was given new momentum in
2004 with the revision of the
Constitution, which supplanted the
provinces and recognized the regions (22 in
total) and communes (approximately 1,550) as
the decentralised local and regional authori-
ties. This process has been fully supported by
the EU even though it has slowed somewhat
with the postponement of the Act providing
for the direct election of the regional executive
and the suspension of mayors who were

replaced by a special delegation president
brought in by the govemment. "The support
programme for communes and rural organisa-
tions for the development of the south
(ACORDS: Appui aux Communes et
Organizations rurales pour le dveloppement
du Sud) is pioneering in two ways," explains
Thierry Rivol, head of rural investment pro-
grammes in the Delegation of the European
Commission to Madagascar. "Firstly, it is a
subsidy paid directly to the communes, repre-
senting large-scale use of the European

Development Fund (EDF) subsidy system.
Secondly, it is a project judged by those who
make up society within the commune itself. It
is a major first for European cooperation."
Nine regions in the two former provinces of
Southem Madagascar, covering 662 eligible
communes, are involved in ACORDS. These
are among the poorest in the country. The area
is arid with warm winds that have already
released their moisture on the eastern side of
the island bordered by high mountains. The
towns have cob-roofed schools, dirt roads and


Madagascar report

a rudimentary drinking water and electricity
supply. Decentralising powers is a priority,
recognized by the MAP (Madagascar Action
Plan), in reducing poverty in this area.

"Decentralisation is a vehicle for many preju-
dices", continues Thierry Rivol, "received
ideas, such as 'mayors are ignorant; they
steal', ideas shared across the country. In real-
ity, it is very different". Sakaraha, some hun-
dred kilometres from Toliara, on the RN7, may
serve as an example. It is an atypical com-
mune, like two or three others in the region,
that has seen its population triple (reaching
40,000) in just a few years because of the sap-
phire deposits. With a rise in insecurity caused
by the influx of migrants (Madagascans, Indo-
Pakistanis, Sri-Lankans) searching for pre-


cious stones, "the number of health issues, not
just fight injuries but also illnesses, has
soared," explains the former mayor of the
commune. It is the latter that initiated the com-
mune's first ACORDS projects. "The priori-
ties were a new health centre with an operating
room, then water and then education."
Included in the project, therefore, was the con-
struction of a water tower. But since the proj-
ect was approved, things have changed. The
sapphire hunters use a lot of water to clean the
stones. As a consequence, the ground water
level has dropped considerably. "We have had
to bore to 45 metres, instead of the 25 metres
planned, resulting in an unexpected cost
There are any number of these "unforeseen
circumstances", which come on top of other
imponderables, the most obvious being the
rise in fuel prices. "But local officials are able
to take control of their future; they are made
responsible", explains Claude Rakotoarisoa,
ACORDS project coordinator. "It is the com-
mune that defines its needs", he continues. "It
is the project owner. Moreover, the subsidy is
paid directly to the local budget, an effective
practice of local governance. And at the end of
the initiative, it undergoes a financial audit and
a technical audit of the completed projects,
creating the culture of accountability not just
to the public, but also the government and the
programme." The commune programme is
spread out over a three year period, "on aver-
age, each commune receives E70,000 per
three-year programme", explains Thierry
Rivol, the equivalent to ten times the local
budget in the case of Sakaraha. The pro-
gramme makes provision for a training pack-
age to assist the local councillors. "This has
not always been easy," acknowledges the for-
mer mayor of Sakaraha. "But it is an experi-
ence; when we understand what is being done
at local level, we understand the machinery of
state." And if it all had to be done again? "We
have put in a lot of effort, we don't want to
loose the experience", recognizes the mayor of
Ampanihy, a commune located on the road
between Toliara and Fort Dauphin and which
received European subsidies to rehabilitate its
large local market and build a primary school.
M.M.B. 1

S Stop-market' in the Grand Sud 2008.
| Mane-Marhne Buckens

Madagascar; ACORDS; decentralisation;
MAP; Marie-Martine Buckens.



In the same areas cif the Grand Sud, the
ELI is also funding proigraiiines aimed at
imprni, inq the food security cf rural pop-
ulati,,ns la ni micro-financinq and agricul-
tural ser'.ices This is the case n
Ambovombe .where with European
tending (1 2 million euLJos), lie GRET
(Gioupe de reiheiche et d'changes
technologiques, iesearcli and technolog-
ical e.chianqe group) is developing new
needs paIticuldllyv dIouiiht-reistlant
seed' 'uch ia millet and sogliumn, and
setting up input shops for farmers. In
these verv dr% regicins, a network cAf
water tanks, collecting run-off trom
schools is starting to see the light as part
of the Nutrimnd child nutrition pr:o-
qramme, also funded b\ the EU.


opening up


Infrastructure and transport sLipport is a
priority% o:f European cooperation in
M.iadagasicar, representing 40 per cent of
the European Develcpi:ment Fund budg-
et The EU thus funded the main roads
between the capital and the counti,'s
tour mnin ports, Tollara,
Toamasina, Mahajanga and
Antsiranana, along f with other
main ioadc servingg export crop growing
regions. One tcl twcu percent cf the
budget is used, moreo,.er, Lo fund initia-
tives to integrate these major projects
inltc their natural and social environ-
nent The Grand Sud, hciu,;ever, is still
isollated na'.igated i:n difficult rc'ads "It
i' the sanie in the w-est', explain! Thierin,
Rii- l, 'theie aie no cioss-coiiintrv links
and the terrain is much erc:ded, making
rcad co:nstructii:i n ,,er- dltficult Lastly,
tra'.ellinq in the Grand Sud is still 'erv
difficult due to uncertain tuel supply ".

report Madagascar

doesn't take enough

account of

Meeting with Sylvain Ranjalahy, editor in chief of 'L'Express de Madagascar'.

he Madagascar Action Plan (MAP)?
"It's not bad in itself; it could even
be a good lever for development, if
we manage to achieve it", declares
Sylvain Ranjalahy. "No doubt", he continues,
"the previous programmes, initiated in the
1980s-1990s by institutional donors, did not
succeed because they were not adapted to the
reality in Madagascar. The MAP, on the other
hand, was conceived in Madagascar, but it is
still true that it reflects the personal conception
of the president and his entourage. It was land-
ed on us, without being submitted to
On the positive side? "Major projects for
infrastructures", the chief editor tells us,
"these will break the isolation of the country-
side and give farmers, who make up three
quarters of the population, a chance to bring
their products to the towns. The same holds for
hospitals". "But," Sylvain Ranjalahy adds, "it
does not take enough account of the difficul-
ties the population has to cope with". Then he
cites free healthcare and education, which are
far from realistic. For salaries too. "A civil ser-
vant eams from 50 to 70 per month, a
teacher about 60. But an apartment measur-
ing 40 m2 costs 40 per month. It is true that
the MAP provides for a reform of education
(read the separate article), but the teachers
have been forgotten and they are the worst off
in terms of wages while the State has given a
raise to the police and civil servants and infla-
tion is raging."
The ones who are really disappointed, com-
ments the editor of 'L'Express', are the people
in town, in Tananarive ('Tana'), the capital, the
very people who supported Marc
Ravolamanana and brought him to power in
2002: "Municipal elections are a good sign;
and the young, new mayor of Tana, Andry
Rajoelina, elected in December 2007 by a 63
per cent majority vote, is an independent. The
townspeople consider that this self-made man,
who started out with a small dairy business
and succeeded in creating the Tiko group and

later the Magro company specialising in
wholesale trade, "has a hand in everything,
leaving little room to manoeuvre for other
operators". There is a serious risk, Sylvain
Ranjalahy feels "of running headlong into a
form of authoritarianism".
"He does what he pleases: for example, he got
the World Bank International Development
Fund to partially finance the construction of
churches". The President is indeed a fervent
protestant and vice president of the
Madagascar Reformed Church, the FJKM.
The new Constitution, approved by referen-
dum in 2007, has eliminated the separation of
Church and State. A provision criticised by
Reverend Andriamanjato, the opposition
leader in Parliament under the First Republic
who was also Mayor of Tana for 18 years -he
prefers "more of a layman's vision of relations
between State and Church".
What about the opposition? "In Parliament, out
of 127 MPs, 100 are from the President's party,
TIM (Tiako i Madagasikara 'I love
Madagascar') and 27 are 'independent', pre-
sented by their associations.
There are no opposi-
tion MPs", Andry
Rajoelina tells us,
blaming the elec-
toral code. "The

opposition has trouble getting mobilised". And
he adds: "In 2002, there was a siege, and the
population defended Ravalomanana's candi-
date; even protecting his home. Now, people
don't want to tum their backs on the person
they supported". M.M.B. M

Madagascar report

highly sensitive reforms

The big issue of reforms in education, in the wake of an act of parliament passed
last July, is raising hopes but is also provoking fears. Of particular concern is the
policy for the 'malgachisation' of education advocated by the government.

hen one speaks of 'mal-
gachisation', people are still
haunted by what happened
in the 1970s. But we have
learned from this experience and now want to
avoid the negative effects", explains Minoson
Rakotomalala, principal private secretary to
the national education minister. He is referring
to the 1972 decision to make a general switch
to teaching in Malagasy rather than French.
Put forward by Didier Ratsiraka, who was at
the time a young foreign minister he was
elected president three years later -this
reform, although laudable in itself, proved a
disaster in practice. Poorly prepared and with
few textbooks available in the national lan-
guage compared to French, it created a gen-
eration denied access to knowledge.

The government believes that this time it is
well prepared for the switch. "We have been
studying the reform since 2003 and consulted
with the 22 regions". Also, there is no question
of banishing French. "We have opted for a dif-
ferent methodology", continues the principal
private secretary, "French will be taught, from
the 5th year of primary school, as a foreign
language". As will -and this is new -English.
But the educational reforms also include the
building of at least 3,000 classrooms, the
recruitment of 7,000 new teachers every year,
and the opening of canteens in 600 schools,
especially in the particularly underprivileged
South. The school system will also be restruc-

The reforms iii be iniplemented
proliessieily, over three years. Yet thiee
years is not very long when you consider
the target set by the government a suc-
cess late in pinmaiy school of 85 per cent
by 2012 (compared witli 57 per cent in
2006) and of 56 per cent comparedd with
19 per centi fi:r lunior seic-ndary school,
14 per cent comparedd wilh 7 per cent.i
for secondary school as a whole and an
increase in the number of hIiher educa-
tion giraduiates tIc bring the number tc.
lu,0u0 a year (compared with 4,760).
Finally, it is seekingg to concentiate efforts
on improving liteiaciy amonq young peo-
ple aged ovei 15 as a means ot leducinq
illiteracy t. I 2u per cent (48 per cent at
present) in this age iruciup


tured, with primary school extending over
seven years as opposed to the current five
years, "so as to try and bring schools closer to
rural households who sometimes lack the
means to send their children to secondary
schools that are often a long way away".
According to Mr. Rakotomalala, it is this
measure that is at the bottom of the Catholic
system's refusal to back the reforms. With a
reputation for quality, the Catholic system
creams off the prosperous middle classes.
After some friction, at the end of August the
episcopate was granted an additional period
within which to implement the changes.
The country's universities (including six state
universities) will be modernised, notably by
dividing the courses (English or French) into
bachelor's/master's/doctorate levels. But,
above all, the government plans to improve
technical education: "We want to target the
needs of Madagascan industry and enable stu-
dents to innovate and create their own busi-
Minoson Rakotomalala accepts that the
reforms will be costly. In 2008, 20 per cent of
the state budget was allocated to education,
and that is not including aid from the World
Food Programme (WFP) (for the school can-
teens), from the World Bank (WB) (for train-
ing) and from UNICEF for the publication of

Page 46, on top: Sylvain Ranjalahy, editor-in-chief of
'L'Express de Madagascar' 2008. Marie Marhne Buckens
Left: Ampanihy's children 2008. MarieMartine Buckens

Malgachisation; educational reforms;
Ratsiraka; English; Marie-Martine

report Madagascar

Creating greater congruence between


'p'g.- .~4

- k

chosen as the emblem of Madagascar,
lemurs hold a mirror up to the
island's unique biodiversity, which
is the result of being cut off from
outside influences for over 160 million years.
However, this biodiversity is in bad shape owing
to extensive clearance. Opting for environmen-
tal protection as one of the key concers of his
action plan, President Ravalomanana announced
in 2003 his decision to ensure a threefold
increase in protected areas: from 1.7 million to 7
million hectares. "The process is now underway,
many areas have already been created", accord-
ing to Guy Suzon Ramangason, the Director-
General of the National Protected Area
Management Association (ANGAP).
"The economic degeneration affecting rural
and urban communities in recent years has
taken a heavy toll on biodiversity", he stress-
es, adding "it is all very well creating protect-
ed areas but account also has to be taken of the
extremely unstable situation of the communi-
ties, who cannot survive without access to nat-
ural resources. It is by no means easy trying to
find a compromise". The integrated conserva-
tion and development projects (ICDP) seek to
provide an answer. For example, the ICDP for

the Tsingy -coral limestone formation dating
back 160 million years, when half of
Madagascar was covered by the sea -in the
Bemaraha region, in the island's middle west.
The EU injected E5M worth of funding
between 2000 and 2005 in a bid to offer com-
munities a chance to earn an income from
alternative profitable systems that do not put
any strain on the natural resources.

"The ICDP were developed in Madagascar on
the basis of UNESCO's biosphere reserves
concept, which is returning with a vengeance",
explains Guy Suzon Ramangason. In a nut-
shell: a nucleus of land that is 'off limits'
(except for scientists!) and a buffer zone
around which the local communities may
carry out certain 'sustainable' activities. The
icing on the cake is eco-tourism. "I have a lot
of faith in this", says the head of the ANGAP,
adding, "it cannot provide a magic cure for
everything but it does offer the benefit of a
profit-sharing component". This is the case
with the Manarara coastal reserve, in the
north-east, which is populated by lemurs, aye-
aye, sea turtles, whales while coffee, cloves,
vanilla and sugar cane are also grown there.

Reconciling an incredible
biodiversity and access to
resources: the challenge
facing Madagascar.

However, such an approach does have unin-
tended consequences. "In Mananara (Editor's
note: a wet tropical region with an annual rain-
fall of nearly 3 metres) we discovered that we
could build 50 or so run-of-the river dams for
growing rice, which has succeeded in drawing
people from the areas not covered by this
buffer zone status". A very sobering thought.
The Director-General acknowledges that "the
problem is the lack of any broad-based system
of management. We need a comprehensive
approach. This is a political issue not a techni-
cal one. I am delighted that the principle of
decentralisation has been accepted, backed up
by regional development schemes.
Consequently, tourism has become one of the
options, as the profits can be shared". He ends
by stressing that "the protected areas policy is
only one component of the development
process, even though people outside
Madagascar think the country lives from its
protected areas. But take the case of the zebu
(cattle) which would be a splendid develop-
ment tool if a clear management policy were to
be formulated towards this end. More is
invested in protected areas than in the live-
stock population, even though it is of basic
importance for the population".
M.M.B. I

The radiated tortoise of Madagascar, a species native to
Madagascar and on the brink of extinction 2008.
Marie-Martine Buckens

Protected areas; ANGAP; Guy Suzon
Ramangason; Marie-Martine Buckens.


Madagascar report

f medley

One thing they can claim to share is a deep fondness for their Malagasy brothers. This
love also extends to the country of Madagascar, a place they can turn to for its
healing or inspiration.

"I come from a family boasting four genera-
tions of practitioners and traditional doctors. I
myself was taugh therapeutic arts at four years
of age. I started to treat people when I was 12",
says Jean-Claude Ratsimivony by way of
introduction. He then set off to 'wander far
and wide'. First in Madagascar, to meet other
traditional practitioners; then in Asia and
Europe where he studied homeopathy. Back
home, he and his wife, pharmacologist, decid-
ed to set up a company: Homeopharma, which
specialisess in traditional medicine but has
one foot set firmly in the modem age thanks to
its pharmacological approach". Homeopharma
now has 97 institutes throughout Madagascar,
200 retail outlets and dispensaries (also oper-
ating inside hospitals). Against the back-
ground of a society where "just 30 per cent of
the population has access to healthcare, we are
universally accessible, at very reasonable
prices", stresses Jean-Claude Ratsimivony.
The country's National Nutrition Agency
recently concluded an agreement with
Homeopharma for the distribution of a 'high-
energy' product to help fight hunger". The
base product is the Moringa tree, known as the
'magic' tree because it is full of vitamins A and
C, potassium and proteins.


Olombelo Ricky, too, spent 13 years criss-
crossing Madagascar, looking for his roots.
He has a keen interest in the culture of the
Vazimba people, the mythic aboriginals of
Madagascar, as well as a deep affinity for tra-
ditional rhythms and instruments. This period
of his life is reflected in his musical creations:
the aponga (or drums): "The way the drums
are played is more melodic, more oriental
than the African way". Traditional rhythms,
such as the sireko, a special song for funerals,
or the balitika, a dance from the south east
region. Ricky's lyrics are heavily influenced
by mythology. He and his musicians organise
an annual ritual performance in the wake of
the baccalaureate examinations: "'Manala
asy' is a rite of passage and purification, help-
ing young people face up to the next stages of
their life". The musician and his Vazimba
Production company have exported these per-
formances all over the world: particularly to
South Africa, Brazil and Europe (the Couleur
Caf festival in Brussels, for example).
Mystic Ricky? Maybe. But it is definitely

"Today you are in a rubbish tip", Father
Pedro tells us. In fact, this garbage dump is
just a stone's throw from the buildings of the
Akamasoa association, 'good friends', which
was set up 19 years ago to aid thousands of
Malagasy people scraping a living off these
mountains of rubbish tipped daily by
Antananarivo's collection service. "We prove
that you can cut down poverty by 80 per cent,
not with United Nations' experts but with 410
Malagasys; engineers, doctors or schoolteach-
ers". Since its formation, Akamasoa has
reached out to help over 250,000 people and
has built thousands of social houses -"and I
mean houses not buildings, keeping people in
contact with their surroundings" has taught
9,277 children and planted thousands of trees.
This has been done with the help of Non
Govemmental Organisations (NGOs), also the
EU. Soon to be sixty, this Argentinian Priest of
Slovenian origin transmits the enthusiasm of
his rebellion to others. M.M.B.

Further items on Madagascar can be found on the website:

Madagascar; culture; music; Marie-Martine

(DMaieMatie ucen



A report by Hegel Goutier
Martinique is a tropical country that is so much more than the clich of white sandy
beaches, rum producers and beaming smiles. Ail of these exist, of course, and are much
appreciated, but the island is known for other attractions too. For its groups of
musicians such as the famous Kassav, talented film-makers such as Euzhan Palcy,
medalled athletes and many writers of great fame.
ne of these writers alone would be > flamboyant tree and the bougainvillea in all
enough to guarantee Martinique's their many shades. The elegance of the fanlike
reputation: Aim Csaire, a great The visitor to Martinique is immediately traveller's tree and the aroma of tamarind,
literary talent and man of political struck by the lushness of nature, even in the soursop and basil add to the magic. The coun-
courage and humanism. For Martiniquans, he towns. Viewed from the surrounding hills, try's position with one side exposed to the vast
stands as a force for development and awaken- Fort-de-France resembles a park with houses, expanse of the Atlantic and its topography a
er of conscience. enhanced by the fiery red of the flowers of the mixture of high mountains and deep valleys



Martinique Iscovering Europe

favours high rainfall and Martinique is in fact
one of the wettest countries in the world with
an annual rainfall of 10 metres high up in the
mountains. This explains the richness of the
vegetation. The flora is 200 times more varied
than in continental Europe, with specimens of
great beauty such as the black and red
mahogany and rosewood found in the tropical
forest that covers one tenth of the territory,
giant trees in the mountainous regions and
more stunted vegetation in the high altitude
'cloud forest'. Visitors to the Botanical
Gardens in Balata can admire some of the
most beautiful examples of the trees and flow-
ers of the tropical forest, porcelain roses, heli-
conias and bamboo orchids. Indigenous rari-
ties include white mahogany found in moun-
tain regions, the kapok tree with its stretched
out horizontal branches -credited with vari-
ous medicinal virtues -not to forget the
'Soucougnans' that, according to popular
belief, inhabit its branches with other spirits.
The fauna is equally varied, especially in the
marine waters and on the coral reefs. As for
the coastline, it offers a great variety: from the
cliffs in the north pounded by the huge waves
of the Atlantic to the many small islands and
the white sandy beaches of Le Robert or Le
Franois in the south-east protected by the
coral reefs, to the deep waters of the area
around Fort-de-France and the extensive man-
grove swamps. Then, on to the tranquil waters
of Sainte-Anne or Anses d'Arlets and the
creeks in the south that remain a virtual
wildemess to this day. A multitude of rivers
and streams of picturesque charm also flow
down to the coast even if some, unfortunately,
do not guarantee safe bathing due to pollution,
while many others remain a source of fresh
and healthy water for hikers. The hot water
springs of Didier, Absalon and Pcheur are
also among the attractions.
The large banana or sugar cane plantations are
no less beautiful. In Martinique, they are often
laid out like genuine parks with magnificent
residences alongside the distilleries of the
great rum producers, Clment House being
one of the finest examples. This is home to the
foundation of the same name, a cultural site
including a museum on the history of rum and
sugar cane and a gallery presenting a wonder-
ful collection of contemporary works of art by
Martiniquan artists. It was also here that Bush
and Mitterand held an historic meeting on the
eve of the Gulf War.

Culture.You hear this word as many times in a
day on Martinique as perhaps you hear the


word 'money' in the United States. It seems to
come from a desire to proclaim adherence to a
people whose culture was not sufficiently
taken into account in the past, not even by the
Martiniquans themselves. Aim Csaire is
seen by everyone as the catalyst who triggered
this awareness, a kind of introspection that is
palpable in the films of someone like Euzhan
Palcy, in the jazz of Fal Frett, in the nostalgia
of Kassav or in the Martiniquan novel Texaco
by Patrick Chamoiseau that captures it so

The history of Martinique, at least at the start,
is akin to that of most of the Caribbean islands.
The first traces of human habitation date back
to the fourth century B.C. In the first century
B.C., Arawak farmers arrived from the conti-
nental Caribbean. This movement gave rise to
the refined culture of the Tanos four centuries
later. In the mid-14th century, the Indians
arrived from the Southern Caribbean.
Conquerors at first, and later peacemakers,
they mixed with the Arawaks-Tanos until the
Europeans arrived in the summer of 1492.
From Ayiti (Hispaniola), Christopher
Columbus, after his second voyage, set off to
conquer the island of 'Martinino', regarded as
home of the women warriors coveted by the
soldiers. It was in 1502 that Columbus set foot
on the island but for a long time it remained no
more than a stopping off point for adventurers.
In 1635, a French settler, d'Esnambuc, seized
Martinino, appointing one of his protgs, Du
Parquet, as govemor. The latter eventually
managed to secure the backing of the
Compagnie des Iles. In 1664, the King of
France purchased the islands. Renamed
Martinique, for a time rival colonial powers
disputed ownership of the island. Circa 1650,
the population was 60,000, half of them black
slaves and half of them white 'conscripts'.
There followed a period of great development
based on sugar, coffee and the slaves. It was
Louis XIVth's 'Black Code' that govemed the
savagery of slavery and the settlers' ignorance
of the achievements of the French Revolution
meant that it was 1848 before the slaves were
At the time of the First World War, Martinique
paid a heavy toll. During the Second World
War, despite the support of the Vichy regime
by the local French admiral, many
Martiniquans fled to join the Free French
Forces. After the war, Aim Csaire led the
struggle for the 'departmentalisation' of a
Martinique that would remain attached to

France. It was a campaign he won with the
vote of 18 March 1946. Aim Csaire himself
simply held the post of mayor of Fort-de-
France. It was in this, .ip.iiL.. li.ii .. r thepeo-
ple of Martinique, he came to be revered as the
man who gave them, "the strength to look at

Hegel Goutier; Martinique; Martinino;
d'Esnambuc; Du Parquet; Richelieu;
Arawaks; Caribbean; Aim Csaire;
Didier; Absalon; Balata; Anse d'Arlet;
Euzhan Palcy; Kassav.

What are your towns principal strengths?

Fort-de-France is a heritage city in the broad-
est sense of the term, testimony to the history
of its human components and to the emergence
of a society bearing all the wounds, scars and
riches of its people. Heritage in the material
sense and also with creativity, one that is true
to the past of a colonised country reborn after
the end of the most ignoble of all pasts, that of
slavery. Today Martinique has chosen to be
both of Europe and of the Caribbean, in Africa
and in the Caribbean, to resist European
assimilation while at the same time being a
part of that continent, and to combat the desire
to forget.
All of this has translated somewhat into the
urban landscape. I say to visitors: core and

touch our heritage, while savouring our identi-
ty and living with us in our emancipation. It is
an eminently political city that bears the hall-
marks of a capital even if France resists
describing it as one. This city envisioned by
Aim Csaire possesses the beauty of its suf-
fering that allows it to speak both of 'itself'
and of 'us'. It is this that gives me such over-
whelming confidence in Fort-de-France and in

How can one sense all o ,i.' f when in Fort-de-
France ?

By experiencing it and not consuming it. One
feels it in the social, cultural and human histo-
ry the city displays. Look at the working class
district of Trnelle, the expression of a popula-

tion's will and freedom to lay claim to its own
space. The municipality has supported it by
providing services, starting with schools in
order to ensure that no separation between the
rich and the poor areas remains. In Fort-de-
France there is no divide between the poorest
and the richest neighborhoods.
This city has an intimacy that is insufficiently
exploited. In terms of tourism, for example,
one often seeks proto-European or proto-
American standards rather than creating our
own standards. I am thinking here in particular
of the green areas, of biodiversity plans, of the
reintroduction of medicinal plants into the city,
of fruit trees for example. The popular, vemac-
ular architecture is also very attractive. It
would be very rewarding to include Trnelle in
a tourist tour of the city.


aI w


discovering Europe

i ..,,...

between the logic that determines town planning
in Europe and in Martinique. There is a decou-
pling of the two social fields. The urban is a lan-
guage. The frames of reference are different and
there is a trauma that cannot be transcended if
the human is not placed at the basis. The day the
Martiniquan becomes aware of his worth, he
will be able to write of methods of construction,
improvement and transformation that are partic-
ular to Martinique. If we succeed in this, the city
will become a very beautiful one.

So what is it that attracts you in Fort-de-
France ?

Its character, its a.iiiuciu ii. the spatial articu-
lation between the different social levels and its
culture of appropriation. The city was protect-
ed by Svre and Csaire (former mayors as


neignDournood were most or me revolution-
ary workers lived. They are not beautiful hous-
es. It is the popular architecture that is interest-
ing. At the cultural level, it is a city of great sol-
idarity in which the citizen gets involved. The
SERMAC (Service municipal d'action cul-
turelle/Municipal cultural action service), set
up in the 1970s, is the poto-mitan* of progress,
of emancipation, and of awareness to lend cul-
ture an important role and to render it accessi-
ble to the people. It is through culture that Fort-
de-France is a city of resistance.

Like Texaco, celebrated in the novel by Patrick

There too it is change while respecting the pop-
ulation. One of the rare attempts to restructure
a neighbourhood while respecting the popular

squat architecture. The SEMAFF (Socit
d'Economie Mixte d'Amnagement de la Ville
de Fort-de-France/Fort-de-France Semi-Public
Company for Town Planning), which carried
out the works, won a number of prestigious
planning awards for this renovation of Texaco,
including the Sem d'Or in Paris.

Fort-de-France seems to be i .....*d.. '.,, but
what is its real economic situation and that of
Martinique as a whole?

Fort-de-France and Lamentin account for
more than two-thirds of the island's economy,
which is a lot. The city has experienced an
economic depression over the past 15 years.
There are now signs of recovery. The popula-
tion fell from a peak of 104,000 to 94,000.
Several companies left. Over the past four to
five years these have been returning, together
with the inhabitants.
As regards its economy, Martinique is a para-
dox. If we compare it with other Caribbean
islands on the basis of sanitary, school and uni-
versity facilities, or infrastructures, it is a
developed country. But then again the long-
term unemployment level on Martinique is 23
per cent, compared with 10 per cent in
Jamaica. 47 per cent of young Martiniquans
aged under 27 are unemployed compared with
8 per cent in France. There are between 700
and 800 socially excluded in Fort-de-France,
when 15 years ago there were only between 10
and 15 homeless. If we look deeper, there are
houses unfit for human habitation, precarious-
ness and a clearly visible poverty. Martinique
produces just 10 to 15 per cent of what it con-
sumes. This country has two faces and that
generates revolt and creates anguish. On one
hand too much and on the other social unease.

So what solutions do you propose?

In addition to social democracy, there must be
economic democracy to continue the struggle
for emancipation. There must be a particular
framework for economic relations between
Europe, France and the ACP states that protect
local production. Martinique must be able to
act at local level without going through
France's National Assembly.

* Central pillar.

Serge Letchimy; Fort-de-France; Aim
Csaire; Trnelle; Sainvilles.

5" r


nHeywultI i[us Ai sI

ni Rim 1i tmim 1

Aim Csaire has left his mark everywhere on his island. Extracts from his writings are
on every wall and on everybody's lips. Since he passed away on 17 April, he is more
present in the heart of the Martiniquans than ever. Three people who knew him well
revealed a few anecdotes to The Courier.

Maor of For-eFacCsi s poliia Noveit poct t c It, D cor of M me of h Euopa rlmet(E

SreLthm ome fom a ua aiyta oolafi aem cop ofAdte admsl.W t1 id mosti i h
w ore to mirt o th oorct uub oswr ie .I a sif1hd enbt luiou nes of i ys a n fom h
whr i ote woreasalang wom ove teha i abmoo stc. h erys nof d son to th me yof
Car wa o mte o enuigta vr ou mnte atdto beom w of sprse nr.ThMEwo i ovnl
faiyhdawg anr o.oili deoloniton raimadte al o rct yha eiecaprsof
"W e a oy inTel,1ue o oe h ondto of theBak.Csie rtns assei ro.tdi

oun ont a n soue 'Vv Pap Pai mto. e ou a crfl y'A deig s am acos th Pico eo

mothrten of rcta a gowigna eas t oo perf o go u o hi, 'lmoyac' a beomn th isad
*u door.Ta sowda seta hrcrii c contn onhswy W ePi trt yougs womn e ofteGyns

*ep hmath onhlfor 56yas ts in Prs cook m o vstheN iona Anile i hcbcasi mroun e l
beas cwsamnacsil o th oor a Asml.1w aou 25a th ie te ote potosw ofi al uhs Seoln
mnof veygethmn .Popl cm o se mgn aigCsiea ou gud o vi oya or Sroz e vr foraan1

whtmd i o ipesv. volto. oh orerwbie

Martinique covering Europe


and economic

The viewpoint of councillors from Gros-Morne, an under-
developed rural community.

Agriculture in Martinique typifies the country's failure in terms of economic
development over the past 50 years. This is the view of Raphal Vaugirard, deputy
mayor of Gros-Morne and a general councillor in Martinique. Catherine Nris, a
Member of the European Parliament and the municipal council of Gros Morne, is in
complete agreement.

ros Morne has felt the full force of
economic change. Sixty per cent
of its working population have
had to look for employment out-
side of the community. The infrastructure is
relatively underdeveloped in this area and
schools are rather rare compared to the rest of
the island. Ruled by the right for many years,
Gros-Morne has carried out what Vaugirard
calls a "revolution against the long dictator-
ship of the old guard".

* T h c* l!' u. l 1ii .1 I il .li. l l ii li
.l!liill li .ct.1 1.i 1 Thi c i .iic ihli! ,ci iiii .i

. i al.. 11 h I'. I 1 ,C'i Ill 'Il lI J.. -I lI lc l '

i.l i l 'i1 ill ii.ri lili l.i l iii.iil.i I. i ic .iild
ilihi'r .1 !u'il ,,. l, lk l il l nill .1,'.' .I i iro il lh i Ii hl-
1 .1 ule 1 10 pri d ir i -d I in illn Ill qhe piip l. Il 11

Vaugirard believes the small farmers were
used by the big ones. Europe negotiated its
subsidies on the basis of the production costs
of the small farmers which were higher than
those of the larger ones. The bigger farmers
cashed in with professional associations amal-
gamating large and small farmers. This is why
Mrs. Nris has been attempting to reverse the
image created in Brussels by the lobbies of
Martinique's large cane and banana producers
by encouraging the European Parliament to
listen to the small producers.
T I 1 il!! | ll .I l Ii 1 I Ii l II LII l Ilhi| 1 l I I l*l* .I I !
,Id nlh ll!,ll!' -l! i1 M .,l! ikl ln Il I i l! .".! I.-

I1,I 111 I [l; l [ t ll ,I I ILhe [T*, [TLi ll. I,,II III II -4 h. -4
[el .Llll[ III l l i l.I II ll bi l Li[c 'i 'd ill | !'
dl" cll ,i] lk ,i.il.11i h l l' .i, .'ll Lllll .i l .illd '.' .i

. lblutLillU', i lh, 11.i l d J ll' l ', ^l i l l.in'i llji l. illJ
.il 1. Illlll . ,l.1 h LIl h 1i r i c l l ll J" ,il' lld.i o l
I .1 i l1 11. I I T'ril l llllp 1111 IllluL lll.ll dTIrI M.I
Stil L il 1 I' u I dii Y 1 1 l ii. i il.1111 i i
( ,i ll,,

In 1986, the French Parliament passed the so-
called tax-exemption law to encourage invest-
ment and housing in the overseas administra-
tive areas. As a result, the French overseas
administrative areas have become tax-product
regions. The anticipated miracle cure for
unemployment and social integration has not
materialised. Within the country, the banks are
more likely to agree a 75,000 loan to pur-
chase a car than to start a business. While the

Il,,rJ l, Ill e i ild I b| F ,[hk.l ]r l.I l 2l
.i ri.iiiiiil .i iid ilL %n-lli F4r .i oaerse;ias
.idllilll ,ii.i ll l 'L .il' .lm1 c.lll i fOl1 Il iL iUCti d
In Il.i. i '.,: lrplii, buil %)lii ,Ilbi, groups w1t'
lielii lll tr i il di o lit Tl[ Lu discuss it.
"Th'LL liii.ilciui iiirniirisiLis have encouraged
eii'.' h iilnt nJi d'.'lipigent." Vaugirard con-
lIudeJ. H.G.

discovering Europe

jJ rJ Fr.s j r' JYJ\ IAjF _.I>.J



a definite

hazy form

.-' j

rh:-e- -- .1jEf1 ., ort-,aulonomy.'Aut

e__ Y r - ___ -a#fff__f -
-- ~ ~~ '-;1. -- -I

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--rfera~f~i~~~r;e~~efrilC- ~iMi~7s warshas t~Iire - -: aWX4rtiia wazc:
i..11 ai, Ul r nk, "i;
_ - *.. r f '1II~.L w$3
-- -- 2-St~ -rn- -."" -.I" i"'i TW-~lc~~''T

artinique has many political
parties. Most support autono-
my or even independence.
However, it was the 'No' cam-
paign that won the referendum on institutional
development by just 1000 votes on 7
December 2003. Apart from three local vari-
ants of France's presidential party, which are
minority parties in Martinique, all of the polit-
ical parties called for the electorate to vote for
constitutional development. This even includ-
ed the non-autonomist left who hoped the
development anticipated would eliminate the
inefficient administrative division between the
region and French 'dpartement' system.
Raphal Vaugirard of 'Dynamique Gros-
Mornaise', one of the island's politicians with
momentum, believes like all the other autono-
mists that the issue will be back on the agenda.
He said: "We are coming out of a long period
of 'assimilationism' which is teetering on
autonomy. In 2003, the process was not com-
pleted, but 'Martiniquans' consciousness is
forming and becoming educated."
Other people have a less specific explanation

and simply believe that the people voted 'No'
because 'institutional development' would not
have guaranteed future autonomy.
Joseph Virassamy is a lecturer at the
University of Antilles and Guiana and an
influential member of the Martinique Socialist
Party seen as one of the left-wing parties
favouring assimilationism and the French
'dpartement' system of administrative organ-
isation. He says that autonomy is not neces-
sary, not because he is opposed to it, but
because the laws of decentralisation already
provide regions like Martinique with enough
scope to shape their destiny. The Socialist
Party has set a challenge for the autonomists.
They want them to compare 10 key projects
for the island in terms of both the current
decentralisation system and autonomy to show
the futility of the latter.
He believes that disputes between the autono-
mists are preventing them from mobilising to
take advantage of forms of autonomy and
development that already exist. He also
emphasises the opposition of those who hold
the main positions of political power on the

island including the President of the Regional
Council, Alfred Marie-Jeanne of the MIM
(Mouvement indpendantiste martiniquais),
the President of the General Council, Claude
Lise, RDM (Rassemblement dmocratique
martiniquais), and the mayor of Fort-de-
France, Serge Letchimy, PPM (Parti progres-
siste martiniquais).
Virassamy's conclusion is clear. Taking into
account the fact that people from mainland
France hold most of the management positions
in the administration and the private sector
creating resentment in particular amongst
intellectuals, he says that the people do not
support autonomy because they know that
"you can't say to people, 'give us your money
and clear off"'. It's a glittering argument.

Hegel Goutier; Joseph Virassamy; Alfred
Marie-Jeanne; Claude Lise; Serge
Letchimy; Raphal Vaugirard; Mouvement
indpendantiste martiniquais;
Rassemblement dmocratique martini-
quais; Parti progressiste martiniquais.


Martinique discovering Europe

organised but


An interview with Martinique's Madeleine Jouye de Grandmaison,

Vice-President of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly.

How do you view Martiniques current eco-
nomic situation?

Martinique's economy is at a crossroads and
on the brink of a major crisis. Martinique has
only ever known an economic regime charac-
terised by the Colonial Pact involving trade
with France, supplying its coffee, cotton,
cocoa, tobacco, sugar and bananas depending
on fashions, tastes and fluctuations in the laws
of international trade and at the expense of real
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customer to this standard of living. Martinique
is well served even if not well organised (air-
ports, ports, hospitals, roads). Europe has sup-
ported agricultural exports, the upgrading of
farming to meet standards and irrigation, and
has partially offset the island's structural dis-
advantages by providing European funding.
For example, the EU is contributing 100M to
the Martinique Rural Regional Development
Programme for the period 2007-2013 (E 172M
in total). From now on, all players involved in

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What about cooperation between Martinique
and its ACP neighbours?

Part of the EPA (Economic Partnership
Agreement) provides for the removal of
import barriers between the European Union
and the ACP countries by all sides. One prob-
lem is that while we are expected to be offen-
sive in terms of services, we have yet to ensure
free movement in both directions in the
Caribbean to avoid a situation where the peo-

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Papa Slam 2008. 0 Hegel GSder

blished thirty-seven years ago, the Festival of Fort-de-France was gven a simple
,ctive from the start, to provide reflection and entertainment, explains Lydie Btis,
-tor of SERMAC (Service municipal dAction cultural), an organisation which aims
mnate cultural alienation and ensure openness to the outsde worid. This year's
val has an eloquent title "the strength to look to the future. -,

lection and Jacky, playing the piano and the synthesis- Balata and the church of St Christophe on the
er, with Alex on bass. Around 15 artists per- outskirts of Fort-de-France. With Magali
the festival's many events is 'the form with them, many of them family, as well Albertini on the piano, Rosclyne Cyrille (a
or open air debates held on the as guests such as Andr Woodvine (Barbados) mezzo soprano from Martinique), Carole
1 on social and political issues where on the saxophone and the flute and the croon- Vnutolo (a lyric soprano from Guadeloupe) and
lie gets to grips with a discussion topic er Tony Chasseur or Papa Slam. Bewitching Danielle Bouthillon (lyric-dramatic soprano).
around two speakers. It is a spectacle swing and nostalgic melodies from Martinique Rosclyne Cyrille bas a voice which produces
SERMAC also runs courses offering and the Caribbean, old French songs, rock, the purest sounds and it can bc enjoyed inside
classes in subjects ranging from the jazz and hip-hop. without interfrence. She gives a sublime per-
iing arts to plastic arts for a fairly rea- Couleur Cav starring Alan and Syto Cav. formance of Qui sedes from Vivaldis Gloria.
annual fe. This is also a family affair. Syto is one of Carole Vnutolo provides a voluptuous and
1-lati's most talented directors and actors sensual hint of tremolo. 1-ler Ave Maria by
rtaInment adopting many styles. Alan, his son, bas Schubert, enhanced by Magali Albertinis fan-
emerged in New York. A landmark project tastic car on the piano and the beauty of her
;tival, which was one of the first to the duo performance of Alan, La Pson, and playing, is a delight. Danielle Bouthillon bas
ohnny Clegg, this year paid tribute to Tanya St-Val is based on a text by Syto. radiant power. 0 Salutatus in Petite Messe
Africa to mark Nelson Mandelas Sometimes they do cach others walk-on parts solennelle by Rossini is rarcly performed so
Umoja gave the star performance. The in performances, but this rime they decided to naturally. And her duet with Magali Albertini
other events included concerts, thcatri- produce something together. This bas resulted of Hore Israel from Mendelssohns Efijah is
e, modern chorcography, lyrical song in an astonishing performance. We started with itself worth the price of the ticket. H.G. a
1 exhibitions and pre-premier films, and a concert and weIl finish with ... a concert!
cre many highlights, not Icast Kassav. This is one where lots happens fcaturing many
1 threc exceptionally high-quality per- forms of the performing arts but with a rock
-es stand out in the first week of the atmosphere and rhythm. Remember the nome Hegel Goutier; Fort-de-France; SERMAC;
. The first is the concert by Fal Frett Ado Coker, the American-Japanese pianist. Fal Frett; Couleur Cav; Magali Albertini;
-ss in the stomach), a jazz band from A little gem: two evenings of sophisticated Roselyne Cyrille; Carole Venutolo;
Danielle Bouthillon.

.1 uldI i 1 th i Iul'u

ilI l Il I II I

Interview with France ZOBDA, actress, director and producer
from Martinique.

France Zobda is an actress. Together with Jean-Lou Monthieux, the producer ofmega-hits
like Asterix at the Olympic Games, they founded 'Eloa Production'. And she has started
directing with Assa Maiga and is preparing a portrait of Toussaint Louverture, the black
Spartacus, with a screenplay commissioned from Raoul Peck. Before embarking on her
career as an actress, she earned a doctorate in English and another degree in business
management. France Zobda talks to The Courier about her work, her Martinique, her
Caribbean and most of ail humanity, which she wants to put across in her work.

rance Zobda am appearing in various living there comes from that denial. My more And Martinique?
TV series. First of all, La Parker on 'local' career in the Caribbean was with direc-
M6,andSOS 18 onFR3 which isnow in tors like Guy Deslauriers in L'Exil du Roi Martinique is where my heart is, my roots.
its seventh season, in which I play an Bhanzin. And Gregg Germain in Adieu Everything I do is so that Martinique can be
emergency doctor, a role which I relish. The Foulard. proud. I want to enhance the country's reputa-
character was written for me by Didier Cohen. I tion, which has great writers like Raphal
have also worked a lot in North America: three And now you've started to produce and direct? Confiant, Edouard Glissant or Maryse Cond,
years in Quebec on the series Lance et compete the talents of young people Martiniquais from
and a further nine episodes which I have just The aim of our production company is to get Guadeloupe, Haiti and elsewhere, even French
been making; a series and Counter strike with people talking about history. Our plans people from France. I want to offer great roles
Peter Sinclair in English-speaking Canada; and include Toussaint Louverture. If there is one to our multicultural community. The whole
in the USA, Sheena by John Guillemin, acting man with a capital 'M' who means a lot to us world should be in movies.
alongside Tanya Roberts, and The Baron by in Martinique, he's the one, the first person to
Alessandro Fracassi. make possible the abolition of slavery. By
r ,.... ,FI.',,< I- .I ,l ni lbi."- G u lillt"s Ih nik
bringing Toussaint's story to a present day Recrd' i
Sheena was a great success in America but in audience, it gives hope to Haiti's new begin-
.1.!1..' .1 i !i l'bi ii i J lli.c .il i ,1 l l .ii r li-r
France, we really saw you first in 'Les ning. Working again with Aissa Maga, I'm
!'iii ii' III Il' ii l ill ,iL lii Ih' 1 i .illc'lr
caprices du fleuve'? also involved in a programme about immi-
h n l, I r I l'- li ,i_' .i ". ,r l,. ,,I ,.,,!, "ir
grants without papers for FR2, Pas de toit
Yes, I played the part of a sensual mixed race sans moi. There is also Les amants de l'ombre
woman in Bernard Giraudeau's film. It was a about the GIs who liberated France in 1945, a
tremendous success although a section of the time when women who had slept with black Keywords
press was critical. The film covered a period in American soldiers had their heads shaven.
Hegel Goutier; France Zobda; Jean-Lou
French history which was not exactly a glori- And Faire danser la poussire, the autobio- Monthieux; Gregg Germain; Sheena; Les
ous one. France has always tried to deny part graphical story of a young mixed-race daugh- Caprices du Fleuve; La Parker; John
Guillemin; Assa Maga.
of its history. The unrest among black people ter of a Breton mother in the 1960s.



Sandra Federici t, i
S ii. i ,,,, ,,, Il - i. : '
-I ~'''.. i .. i. ....i -I -
Below: Pov, Blogbuster cartoons. J'

Courtesy of the author

BLOG : a meeting room

for ffrican cartoonists

n the past, to get a name for themselves, African cartoonists have
traditionally had to migrate to Europe. This is because of the weak-
ness of Africa's publishing industries, making it very difficult for
cartoonists to get their work into print without the funding of Non
Governmental Organisations (NGOs) or international organizations.
Now cartoonists and comic strip authors have started to use the Internet
for global recognition, using information technology to both exchange
and sometimes to produce their work. There are blogs of up and com-
ing authors structured as a diary might be; spontaneous, with no divi-
sions by issue, containing very little written information and with mul-
tiple illustrations. Then there are also more structured websites which
are real showcases to put authors in contact with potential clients.
Behind every cartoonist lies a wealth of expertise; layout, advertising,
fine arts, cartoons, animated drawings and web design.
Particularly interesting is the blog of Congolese cartoonist, Pat
Masioni (http://patmasioni.canalblog.com), who has one of the best
pens in Africa, already achieving success with two albums of the series,
Rwanda 94. The blog of illustrator and caricaturist, Willy Zekid, who
has worked with the Ivorian satirical weekly journal Gbich!, with its
amusing lead character, Papou, published for the association Plante
jeunes, also stands out. And that of Chadian cartoonist, Adjim

African cartoonists have started
using the Internet to become
better known the world over.
They are publishing personal
blogs or launching websites to
promote their products.

nngar, (http://adjimdanngar.over-blog.net/) shows how this tool can
be used by authors to denounce political facts and situations in the car-
toonists' respective countries. And even though the site of the Beninese
author Didier Viode is inviting, "Welcome to my space. Feel at home!
For orders of cards or individual caricatures, please contact me," it also
contains quite sharp political cartoons (http://ziba.oldiblog.com/).
Surfing these blogs and reading through the comments, you are aware
of dialogue between artists who have got in touch at a distance.
Sometimes they meet up at a workshop, an exhibition or a festival,
promising to "see you on the blog" rather than writing a letter, as in the
past. The seeds of joint projects are sewn from blog exchanges. There's
news about about a scenarist and an illustrator who are hatching an idea
together... The blog texts frequently contain onomatopoeic expressions
and mimic the typical language of the comic strip author. Rich in draw-
ings and intimate commentaries as in an authentic diary, the blog of
Moniri M'Ba, from the Comoros Islands, entitled Little Momo World,
contains the following commentary alongside the 'drawing of the day':
N I. !.ii !c i a hero. I arrived in Paris with my father. Why mention this?
Because he has come to see me for the first time in Angouleme and it's
great. I just wanted you to know..." The blog of the Gabonese Pah,
who has recently been successful in Europe with the publication of La
vie de Pah, Ed. Paquet, contains interesting articles about his work,
travels and workshop experiences.

Getting personal, some authors recount their motivations about how
their desire to reach out led to starting a blog. The well-known
Madagascan author Pov (http://povonline.wordpress.com/) explains
how he started out: "For a long time, I have dreamt of putting some of
my works on line. Finally, here is povonline. Here are samples of draw-
ings, editorial cartoons, and photos and stories to discuss. It's a start. I
was hesitating between a blog and a website." In fact, some authors


Occhiello Creativity

have chosen to create personalised websites, such as Bob Kanza the hurdles of distance and finance in the way of a successful career.
(http://bobdestin.site.voila.fr/index.html), born in Congo Brazzaville In the past to meet the good scenarist or the interested publisher, would
and author of the character Sergent Deux Togo for the Ivorian journal only have been possible at a major event like a comics festival. Now,
Gbich! The web page www.mayval.eu is a well thought-out site by the with very little money, they are showing what they can do; to their
Cameroonian Mayval, who advertises his full range of work; posters, friends, to readers, to the world, with the hope that something will hap-
CD covers, graphic layout and drawings etc. pen one day. M
The website of Damien Glez (http://www.glez.org/eng/home.htm),
author of Journal du Jeudi, in Burkina Faso is well worth a visit for its Keywords
portraits and caricatures, such as the comic strip, Divine Comedy. Just Internet; blog; african cartoonists; Pat Masioni; Damien Glez; Pah;
having details of their work posted on the web does not automatically Bob Kanza; Moniri M'Ba; Mayval; Adjim Danngar; Didier Viode.
bring in business for artists, but it does give the opportunity to overcome


*K IMei7words

*'~~*-r' :.LUI I H

.. .. .. .

................. ...


'>1 llC C ot) Ce W ta d bo se th Wol- Cis C C C lCC C

1 or younger readers


* Cartoonist from Senegal.


Words fro


We are interested
in your point of view
and your reactions
to the articles.
So do tell us
what you think.

Africans are a very special people in the fact
that they are different from ail other people.
The article 'Being African in Romania' (Issue 4)
is quite interesting as it gives a clear image of
how an African is perceived and treated out of
his country.
Kalmie's population in the Democratic
Republic of Congo (DRC) is not aware of what's

happening in ACP countries. The Courier
enables our people to get to know these coun-
tries better. Thank you.
Director of Kabulo library
Kalmie (DRC)
I am really pleased that a new series of The
Courier is out. My children, who are studying
geography at Dakar's University Cheikh Anta

Diop, will also be happy. The break in publi-
cation upset their research.
Sadia Sambou
Bignona (Senegal)
I found the article on '50 years of Cooperation
between EU and ACP' (Special Issue 1) well-writ-
ten, informative and giving a clear overview.

Rumyana Dobreva

Addrs Th Courer 45 Ru de Trve 100 -usl Blim
e al no@acp-ucurir.n- wesie vv wape ucourS S


October December 2008

sa1rirsb g 5- 17 inu a r O t m1u11dl u

October 2008
> 2-3 6th Summit of ACP Heads of
State and Government,
www.acp.int, Accra, Ghana

> 8 Publication by EC Commission
of Communication on
China-Africa-EU relations

> 20-23 Second Meeting of
ACP Ministers for Education,
Brussels, Belgium

> 21-24 8th EURAFRIC-Partners Forum
on Water and Energy in Africa
Lyon, France

> 27-30 Second Global Forum on
Migration and Development
Manila, Philippines

> 15-17 European Development
Days 2008, www.eudevdays.eu
Strasbourg, France

> 20-28 16th Session of the ACP-EU
Joint Parliamentary Assembly
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

> 29-3 Conference Financing for

Monterrey consensus
review conference,
Doha, Qatar

> 4-5 Heads of ACP
Regional Integration
Organizations meet,
Brussels, Belgium

> 11-12 88th Session of the ACP
Council of Ministers.
Brussels, Belgium.



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fifrca -Caribean- PaIfi
In II'panUio cutIe

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Antigua and Barbu 1ii E i.i ... Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican
F .-.lL.ii i I.- ,.i i, ;i i. ,, i ii i. ,naica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint
. ,... ,'i .-".] r i. ,.ii, -. Suriname Trinidad and Tobago

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The lists of countries published by The Courier do not prejudice the status of these countries and territories now or in the future. The Courier uses maps from a variety of sources.
Their use does not imply recognition of any particular boundaries nor prejudice the status of any state or territory.

Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Niue
Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

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