• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Citrus
 Ornamentals
 Commercial vegetables
 Animal husbandry
 Field crops & beekeeping
 4-H club work
 Cooperation with other agricultural...
 Public affairs
 A significant story of extension...






Group Title: Annual report
Title: Annual report, Orange County Florida Extension Agents.
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095010/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report, Orange County Florida Extension Agents.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Orange County Extension Agents (Fla.)
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Orange County Extension Agents
Place of Publication: Orlando, Fla.?
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 1960
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Orange County   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1960; title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1960.
Statement of Responsibility: Orange County Extension Agents
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095010
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436870082
lccn - 2009229367

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Foreword
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Citrus
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Ornamentals
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Commercial vegetables
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Animal husbandry
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Field crops & beekeeping
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    4-H club work
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Cooperation with other agricultural agencies
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Public affairs
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    A significant story of extension accomplishments
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
Full Text
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ANNUAL


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AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

U. S. Department of Agriculture
University of Florida
Board of County Commissioners


Cooperating


NARRATIVE REPORT
of
COUNTY AGENTS WORK

Orange County
Florida


Date November 14, 1960


SUBMITTED BY:


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HMNR FY SAON----
Orange County Agricultural Agent
Period Covering December 1, 1959 -
November 30, 1960




Orange County Assistant Agent
Period Covering December 1, 1959 -
November 30, 1960



WILLIAM COIBURN
Orange County Assistant Agent
Period Covering December 1, 1959 -
November 30, 1960



R. BRUCE RISTMAS
Orange County Assistant Agent
Period Covering February 1, 1960 -
November 30, 1960


SHELBY L. BEiWtHERBS
Orange County Assistant Agent
Period Covering December 1, 1959 -
December 31, 1959


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


I

II

III

IV



V

VI

VII
VIII



IX
X


FOREWORD .... .. . .. ... .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . ..

CITRUS .. .. . . . . . . .

ORNAMENTALS . . . . . . . .

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES . .. ....

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . . . . .

FIELD CROPS & BEEKEEPING . . . . .


4-H CLUB WCRK . . . . . . ....

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES

PUBLIC AFFAIRS .. . . . .......


XI A SIGNIFICANT STCRY OF EXTENSION ACCOMPLISHMENTS .


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I. FOREWcRD


The County Agricultural Department is a cooperative agreement between
the local Board of County Commissioners, the local Land-Grand College
(University of Florida) and the United States Department of Agriculture.
This cooperative agreement was created by the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 and
it is referred to as the Agricultural Extension Service.

The agents being "off campus faculty members", of the University of
Florida, are charged with the educational responsibility of relaying re-
search information from the Experiment Stations to the growers and ranchers
in the county. This educational activity requires that they work with
youngsters (4-H ers) as well as adults. They work with all commodity fields
in agriculture, as well as with home owners with their lawn, shrubbery and
home gardening problems. Such educational activities require that the agents
work closely with all agricultural agencies, bureaus, etc. in the county and
to promote all phases of agriculture so that no stone will be left unturned
in keeping agriculture sound and progressive locally as well as nationally.

Annually we must submit a narrative and a statistical report of our
Extension activities to the Board of County Commissioners, the University
of Florida and the Federal Extension Service in Washington. Extra copies
are prepared to distribute locally to friends of agriculture who might like
to review the local Extension activities for the past year.



HENRY F. SWANSON
Orange County Agricultural Agent


-1-






II. INTRODUCTION


The County Agricultural Extension Service is housed in the Orange
County Agricultural Center at 2350 East Michigan Avenue. Each agent has a
private office and there is a special conference roma for the use of all
state members for groups of 50 and under. The large auditorium will accom-
odate 250 people and the huge exhibit building is used for many agricultural,
4-H and home demonstration activities during the year.

During the year (December) Assistant Agent Shelby Brothers, 4-H Club
Agent, resigned and several candidates were interviewed to fill this vac-
ancy. On February 1st Mr. Bruce Christmas was appointed to fill this vac-
ancy.

The County Agricultural Extension staff consists of two secretaries
and four agricultural agents. Mrs. Alice Ballentine serves as secretary-
receptionist and Mrs. Achsah Swickard serves as secretary-file clerk.

The agricultural agents and their subject matter responsibilities are:

HENRY F. SWANSON, County Agent, has the administrative responsibilities plus
the subject matter fields of citrus and vegetables.

ALBERT F. CRIBBETT, Assistant County Agent, is in charge of the subject
matter fields of beef, dairy, poultry, bees and agronomy.

WILLIAM E. COLBURN, Assistant County Agent, is in charge of commercial
nursery and homeowner programs in the field of ornamentals.

R, BRUCE CHRISTMAS, Assistant County Agent, is in charge of the boys' 4-H
program which covers all subject matter fields and numerous other related
projects and activities that 4-Hters may engage in their club work. Also
assists some with homeowners requests for home gardening problems.

Statistically the highlights of the agents activities for this past
year have been:

Days in Office 543 1/2
Days in Field 474 1/2
TOTAL WORKING DAYS . . . . .. 1,018
FARM & HOME VISITS . . . . . 1,491
PERSONAL OFFICE CALLERS . . . .. ,291
TELEPHONE CALLS . . . .. . 1067
BULLETINS DISTRIBUTED . . . . 26,049
RADIO TALKS . ..... .. . .. 54
TV PROGRAMS ............. 1
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES ......... 210
MEETINGS HELD OR ATTENDED . . . . 826
Attendance . . . . . 33,222
INDIVIDUAL LETTERS WRITTEN . . 3,315
CIRCULAR LETTERS WRITTEN . .. . 209
Copies . . . . . . 32,115


-2-






III. CITRUS
Henry F. Swanson, County Agent, In Charge



SITUATION

Orange County is the third largest producer of citrus in the state.
The farm income for citrus far exceeds the combined income for all other
agricultural commodities here in the county.

The growers who produce this fruit are of many kinds local residents,
out-of-county residents, out-of-state residents as well as local residents
who own groves in other counties. Such type ownership necessitates an
Extension citrus program that is flexible enough to meet the interests and
needs of all these folks.

The way in which they manage their groves is quite variable -- self,
through cooperatives, grove caretaking concerns, private caretakers or com-
binations of any of the above.

The manner in which they sell their crop is quite variable --- cash
buyers, special pools, cooperatives, etc.


PROBLEMS

1. Interest varies between growers because of nature of ownership and
supervision absentee (out-of-state or county) to local ownership and super-
vision.

2. Grove may be sole source of income or it may be an agricultural
investment.

3. Management may vary from complete owner supervision to complete
management by a caretaker or cooperative.

4. Professional caretakers have very little time to take in special
meetings, etc.

5. Additional raw citrus land for future citrus planting is exhausted.
Marginal land (too wet, too dry, or too cold) is about all that is left.

6. Urbanization pressures are beginning to have their effects on the
citrus industry zoning, taxes, water regulations, labor problems, etc.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Members of the local County Citrus Advisory Committee are:

W. C. Davis, Orlando
M. R. Bekemeyer, Winter Garden
A. E. Pickard, Orlando
R. I. Wetherbee, Boggy Creek
Jack Ross, Oakland
E. S. Dill, Winter Garden
R. G. Pitman, Jr., Apopka


-3-






Once during the year this committee met to discuss programs affecting
the local industry. Members were also contacted frequently for individual
advice.

PROGRAMS

(A) To try to keep all local segments of the industry (grower, caretaker,
production manager, tradespeople, etc.) abreast of special problems, a
monthly "Citrus Notes" letter is sent out.

At the end of each month over 1,600 letters go out to all of these
folks. Many letters are sent to absentee owners living in other counties
as well as those living in other states. Many of these folks write back
saying how much they enjoy being posted on Orange County's citrus activities.

(B) Once a month a special production meeting is held to keep certain in-
terested individuals abreast of current production problems. These monthly
production sessions are referred to as "Citrus Production Round-Up Sessions".
All caretakers, production managers and interested growers get a special
notice of these meetings.

(C) A special weekly citrus column was written to inform the general public
of all phases of the citrus industry.

(D) In the last program category is the special events category that were
of a specific nature such as tours, special meetings, etc.

A. Monthly "Citrus Notes" Letter

Some of the timely subjects passed on to growers during the year in
these monthly letters were:

December Some current citrus publications available to the grower. Pro-
duction Round-Up programs for the past year.
January Population forecasts for Orange County in 1975. Lack of raw
citrus land in the state for future plantings.
February Summary of citrus nursery stock orders by Orange County growers
for the past year.
March Report and description on new potential vine pest to Florida citrus
recently found in Orange County.
April The status of potential marginal citrus land available in various
counties in the state.
May The decline in California citrus acreage due to urbanization-population
and acreage by counties.
June Report on millipede infestation in a young grove.
July Florida Citrus Research Foundation's grove project. Results of GAC
and Mutual elections.
August Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute program sent to all growers, care-
takers and production managers in county.
September Announcement of the proposed grove workers machinery school.
October Announcement of special production session on wind machines,
grove heating devices and use of maleic hydrazide.
November Announcement of meeting on income tax and storm loss problems
pertaining to citrus; Farm-City Week activities and exhibits; and thermom-
eters checked for accuracy.


- 4 -






B. Citrus Production Round-Up Sessions for 1959 1960


These production sessions meet on the first Thursday of every month
for one hour (8 to 9 P.M.). After the topic is presented from a production
angle, the speaker answers questions from the floor.

Speakers for these monthly topics and their subjects were:

December 3rd. "The Citrus Breeding Program being conducted by the USDA
Subtropical Fruit Station" Dr. Phillip C. Reece, Horticulturist USDA.
January 7th. "Factors Affecting Quality in Citrus Fruit" Dr. Paul
Harding, Plant Physiologist USDA.
February 4th. "1960 Better Fruit Program Spray and Dust Schedule" -
James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.
March 3rd. "Two films on Biological Control"
April 7th. "Question and Answer Session in Regard to Fertilizer Inspection
Service" local inspectors Denning and Tucker.
May 2nd. "Your Grove and Urbanization 1975" H. F. Swanson, County Agent.
June 2nd. "Citrus Rootstock Problems and the Progress being made to Solve
Them" Dr. Frank Gardner, Horticulturist USDA.
July 7th. "Pure Food and Drug Laws in regard to Pesticides used on Citrus"-
Jack McCown, Assistant Citriculturist.
August No meeting Growers urged to go to Citrus Institute.
September 1st. "Travelogue to the Belgium Congo in search of Citropsis
gilletiania Dr. Harry Ford, Associate Horticulturist, Lake Alfred.
October 3rd. "Results of Experiments with MH 30 in Cold Tolerance studies
with Citrus" Dr. Charles Hendershott, Assistant Plant Physiologist, Citrus
Experiment Station, Lake Alfred.
November 10th. "The Federal Income Tax Law and the Citrus Grower" W. 0,
Daley, Certified Public Accountant and a representative of the Internal
Revenue Service.

C. Weekly Citrus Column

On January 31st. a weekly citrus column, under the title "Ridge Runner",
was begun in the Sunday edition of the Orlando Sentinel. This weekly
column was prepared for the Florida Magazine section and consisted of a week-
ly two and one-half page double spaced article covering some phase of the
citrus industry. These citrus articles were written in a manner to reach
the greatest potential reader audience possible. Each was ably illustrated
by a format of cartoons prepared by the cartoonist for the paper.

"Ridge Runner" articles dealt with the following topics:

January 31st. Introduction of column location of industry, etc.
February 7th. Future of the citrus desirable features.
February l4th. Decisions concerning the growing of a grove.
February 21st. Critical temperatures for parts of a citrus tree.
February 28th. Cynanchium cubense a new potential vine of citrus.
March 6th. Air and water drainage factors determine grove locations.
March 13th. Blossoms indicate new crop years beginning.
March 20th. Spring grove operations de-banking, fertilizing, etc.
March 27th. Leading citrus counties and acreage involved.
April 3rd. California citrus grower now a Florida grower)
April 10th. Post bloom citrus sprays.
April 17th. What is a Valencia orange?


-5-






April 24th. Introduction to citrus nutrition.
May 1st. Needs of the Florida Citrus Research Foundation.
May 8th. Urbanization and its impact on California citrus industry.
May 15th. Federal Marketing Agreement Elections, why, where, etc.
May 22nd. A large transplanting operation.
May 29th. Some friends and foes of citrus.
June 5th. Agricultural career opportunities attention high school
graduates.
June 12th. Water essential element for citrus.
June 19th. U-2 should examine your grove for skips, diseased trees, etc.
June 26th. Economics of the great citrus of Florida.
July 3rd. Who is a typical citrus grower?
July 10th. Description of activities of the two USDA Orlando stations.
July 17th. Potential use of grove cold spots satsumas, grapes, peaches,
etc.
July 24th. Citrus hedging procedures.
July 31st. Crop forecast and final pick out disposition of the 1959 -
'60 crop.
August 7th. Announcemnt of Citrus Institute Program.
August 14th. Desirable features of owning a grove.
August 21st. Population expansion and future citrus areas needed.
August 28th. Search for future raw land for citrus.
September tth. Federal Crop Insurance for citrus.
September lth. Development of a citrus harvesting machine.
September 18th. The role of a cash fruit buyer.
September 25th. Survey teams in groves census, fruit fly trappers, etc.
October 2nd. Role of the Citrus Inspection Service.
October 9th. Three branches of the College of Agriculture Service to
citrus.
October 16th. Role of citrus cooperatives.
October 23rd. Utilization of Florida citrus fresh versus processed.
October 30th. County Agents USA look at Florida citrus industry.
November 6th. Florida lemon industry.
November 13th. National Farm-City salutes citrus and other agricultural
industries.
November 20th. Cold protection methods and devices for citrus.
November 27th. Citrus nursery operations.

D. Special Citrus Activities

1. Annual Tour to the Citrus Experiment Station

Arrangements were made with the staff at the Lake Alfred Experiment
Station for Orange, Osceola and Seminole County growers to get a progress
report on current research studies being conducted. Approximately 38 Orange
County growers, along with several caretakers and production managers, made
this tour. Attendance was down because this was an extremely cold day.

2. Annual Citrus Institute Camp McQuarrie

All production managers, caretakers and growers were sent a special
program on this annual meeting. Also a special newspaper column, "Ridge
Runner' was devoted to this event to publicize it widely in the citrus belt.

This agent was a speaker at the program and gave an illustrated
talk, by the use of Kodachrome slides, on Urbanization and its Future


- 6 -






Impact on the Florida Citrus Industry.


3. Citrus Clinic for Home Owners

In cooperation with Bill Colburn, Assistant County Agent, a special
clinic for home owners with citrus problems was held on February 29th at the
Agricultural Center. Approximately 52 people attended this clinic. Many
brought in disease and insect problems they wanted identified.

4. Extension Workers Conference with USDA Citrus Research Workers

On March 17th this agent attended a one day training session for
Extension workers at the local USDA Research Station. As part of this
program, this agent gave a brief report on the new potential vine pest found
in the county. This vine has been identified as Cynanchium cubense.

Also attended a similar training session at the Lake Alfred Experi-
ment Station on April 19th.

5. County Grove Tree Count & Condition Recorded

On February 13th this agent made a grove plat on the county grove.
On this plat trees were recorded as to skips, diseased, fair, good, etc.
In making this count, a new potential vine pest was discovered. Plant Board
officials were notified of its presence as were the County Commissioners.

Fertilizer and spray recommendations for the county grove were
given to the Commissioners by the agent.

6. Gulf Coast Citrus Institute Dade City

A brief talk was made to the Gulf Coast Citrus Growers Institute
on April 29th concerning the new potential citrus vine pest recently found
in Orange County. Kodachrome slides were shown to the group.

7. University of Florida Citrus Class Field Tour

On April 21st the University of Florida Citrus class made a field
stop in the county. Lee Mathews, production manager, W. C. Davis, caretaker,
Dr. Art Whipp, research entomologist and this agent spoke to the class on
various angles of the Better Spray and Dust program for citrus growers.

8. Florida Citrus Mutual Directors Meeting

On February 17th this agent appeared before the Board of Directors
of Florida Citrus Mutual at its meeting in Lakeland to recommend a special
committee to study urbanization problems as they affect the citrus industry.

9. 4-H Citrus Activities

a. Junior Citrus Institute

Five 4-H'ers went to the 5-day Junior Citrus Institute at Camp
Cloverleaf in August. These boys received training on fertilizers, sprays,
pruning and general citrus culture.


-7-





b. h-H Citrus Projects

The 4-H citrus project consists of 15 club members.

10. Citrus Public Relations Program

During National Farm-City Week (November 18th 24th) many citrus
agencies and concerns were publicized in the Farm-City Week exhibits at the
Agricultural Center.

The Citrus Queen, Miss Florence Cloud, helped publicize the citrus
exhibits by personal appearance at opening ceremonies and interviews on
local TV programs.

11. Cooperation with Citurs Committees, Agencies, Etc.

a. Growers Administrative Committee Election

All growers in the county were notified of this meeting by
special letter notice, also by special newspaper article in the 'Ridge
Runner". Arrangements were made for election to be held at the Orange
County Agricultural Center. This agent served as secretary of the meeting.

b. Florida Citrus Mutual Meeting

Bob Pearson, Mutual Fieldman for the Orlando area, receives
the monthly "Citrus Notes" letter that keeps him posted on local Extension
citrus activities.

During the year, this agent attended several grower council
meetings as well as the annual general membership meeting at Winter Haven
on June 21st.

c. Central Florida Fair

The Citriculturist and his assistant were secured to judge the
community citrus exhibits at the Central Florida Fair on February 22nd.

d. Agricultural Stabilization Committee (ASC)

In the capacity as secretary to this committee, advisory support
was given to conservation programs affecting citrus.

e. State Plant Board

Many potential citrus nursery, etc. were referred to the local
Plant Board office to get information about nursery regulations, etc. Many
requests about citrus budwood certification were also referred to the Plant
Board office.

All local Plant Board Inspectors receive local "Citrus Notes"
letter to keep abreast of Extension citrus activities.

f. State Department of Agriculture

Names, addresses and telephone numbers and areas covered by


- 8 -





the two fertilizer inspectors were listed in one of the "Citrus Notes"
letters. Both men receive this monthly citrus letter.

12. Grove Visits

During the year many individual grove visits were made to give
specific recommendations to the grower.

13. Citrus Office Callers

Several hundred office callers came seeking information about the
citrus industry in general economics, advisability of buying a grove,
selecting a grove site, soil conditions, variety to plant, tree spacing and
countless other related information. Most of these folks were from out of
state and were seeking such facts so they would know what to look for in
buying a grove. Countless days were devoted during the year to this type
of Agricultural Chamber of Commerce service. A good many of these folks
bought groves and became residents of the county, so perhaps a worth-while
educational service was performed in giving them the necessary background
information.

14. Backyard Citrus Calls

Throughout the year many requests for assistance with home owners
and their yard citrus problems were taken care of by phone. Many others
could not be taken care of in this manner and necessitated a personal call
to check the problems with which they were experiencing difficulty. Most
of these were of a disease (foot-rot, psorosis) nature. The leading insect
problems were scale, white flies and aphids.


-9-






IV. CRNAMENTAIS
William E. Colburn, Assistant County Agent, In Charge



SITUATION

The commercial ornamental industry of Orange County is one of the largest
in the state. The Apopka area is considered the foliage plant center of the
world. The foliage industry alone markets over 100,000,000 plants annually.

There are numerous small landscape plant growers in the county but no
large ones. Most of these plants are produced in backyards in gallon cans
and sold very cheap.

Bulbs are produced in large quantities but we are not considered a major
bulb producing county. Two growers have one hundred acres of caladium bulbs
on the Zellwood muck and there are numerous small amaryllis growers in Orlando.

There are many garden centers and retail nurseries located in the area.
These people are required by the public to give out recommendations which
sometimes creates problems.

Horticultural spraymen are building a big business with the home owners
in Orange County.

Cemeteries, parks, and golf courses are competing with each other to be
more beautiful so this is an area in which much assistance is required.

There are over 650 businesses in Orange County licensed to sell plants.

With the O0-hour week and the great influx of retired people in Central
Florida, home gardening is a mjaor hobby. Competition is-keen among neighbors
and everybody wants to do his or her part in making Orlando the "City Beaut-
iful".


PROBLEMS

1. Inadequate research is the major problem of the foliage industry.

2. Marketing is beginning to be one of the major problems due to the
expanding industry.

3. Zoning and taxes are becoming problems.

4. Garden supply dealers often give erroneous information due to
ignorance.

5. Erroneous information is also given to sell more supplies. This is
more of a problem than the latter.

6. Sometimes horticultural spraymen are not ethical and do not want
the assistance of the Extension Service.


- 10 -






7. Catering to the hundreds of requests from home gardeners presents
a problem.

8. Answering letters from all over the state consumes considerable
time. These letters are the results of a weekly news article.


ORNAMENTAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

The Ornamental Advisory Committee is composed of the following members:

Mike Brosche, Apopka Foliage Grower
T, E. Edwards, Orlando Landscape Architect and Florist
Eddie Greenland, Plymouth Foliage Grower
C. E. Lynch, Orlando Landscape Nurseryman
Lamont Marchman, Apopka Foliage Grower
Mac Walters, Apopka Foliage Grower

This committee met during the year to discuss plans for landscaping the
Agricultural Center. T. E. Edwards had donated his services preparing the
landscape plans and discussed the plan in detail. C. E. Lynch donated many
of the plants which were used in landscaping the building.

This committee was contacted several times during the year for advice
on carrying out the ornamentals program.


PROGRAMS

1. Home Gardening Clinic

In December of 1959 we began a weekly home gardening clinic. The pur-
pose was to attract people, at our convenience, to handle their problems.
Anybody could bring whatever problems or questions they had to us on Monday
morning and get an immediate answer. We made this offer to people calling
in and to office callers. If we could get everybody to come at one time,
this would give the ornamentals assistant more time to devote to the commer-
cial industry.

We found it necessary to make this offer as attractive as possible be-
cause people want to come at their convenience regardless of the inconven-
ience to us. To encourage them to come we featured a lecture each Monday
morning on a particular subject and publicized it in the newspaper. This
seemed to draw a pretty good crowd, however, people still wanted to come in
all during the week. By now, almost a year later, many people have learned
of the service of the clinic and take advantage of it. Attendance varies
from ten to two hundred people. Lately we have found people are taking ad-
vantage of the service without the lectures. Attendance is not as good but
the clinic is serving its intended purpose.

2. Weekly News Articles

Eighty news articles were written during the year. Fifty-two of these
are obligated to the Florida Magazine of the Sentinel-Star newspaper and
appear each Sunday.


- 11 -





The title of the article is "Growing Pains" and deals with questions
which people ask through the mail. More than enough letters are received to
take care of the questions for the article. The other letters are answered
by individual letters. This article consumes an average of one-half day a
week and reaches thousands of people throughout the state. The majority of
the questions are received from out of county people.

This type article seems to encourage more people to visit the office
and call the office in regard to their home problems. This is fine if you
cater to the home gardener but not if you plan to work with commercial
people too.

3. Home Gardening School

Many people requested a night school since they were unable to attend
the Monday morning clinics.

We conducted a six-weeks school in July and August. The ornamentals
assistant presented five of the six lectures. Dr. E. W, McElwee presented
the lecture on Basic Principles of Landscaping.

There were one hundred people enrolled in the course. When the course
was finished, each person was asked to evaluate it. All the reports were
very favorable and encouraging.

There has been quite a demand for another similar school since many
people were on vacation during the summer.

4. Speaking Engagements

During the year this agent made over eighty talks to garden clubs, civic
clubs, gardening schools, clinics, professional clubs, FFA banquet, retire-
ment clubs, and various others. This does not include talks made to 4-H Clubs.

5. Lawn Grass Variety Plots

In March of 1960 we began work on establishing sixteen lawn grass
variety plots. The purpose was to have a good selection of grasses on hand
for people to see. This eliminated describing each grass to each interested
person. The names were painted on attractive signs and placed directly be-
hind each plot. This eliminated the need of explaining names to people. The
plots are considerable trouble to maintain, but we can justify this by the
results we get. It would be a good idea to have the following equipment on
hand before planting the various grasses: reel mower, rotary mower, sprink-
lers, hose, spray gun, trimmer, fertilizers, insecticides, and fungicides.
The number of different grasses increases the amount of equipment you need
to maintain it. If the grass is not maintained in a presentable fashion, the
public may lose faith in your recommendations.

6. Agricultural Center Landscape

After the Agricultural Center was completed, the job of landscaping it
in a suitable manner arose. It was decided that all materials should be
donated including the landscape plan. One of the local landscape architects
donated his services to do the landscape plans. The plans are very elaborate
and would greatly enhance the appearance of the building when finally com-


- 12 -






pleted. The plans call for over 2,100 plants from palms to day lilies.

At first we thought the nurserymen would donate the plants. Orange
County has a large number of nurseries but most of them are foliage plant
nurseries and we couldn't use foliage plants. The landscape nurseries either
buy their plants or grow a few on their retail lot. This increased the
difficulty in getting plants donated. To date we have set out approximately
one-half of the plants at no cost to the Extension Service or Orange County.
With just a little manpower and equipment help from the county, we could
finish the job.

7. Horticultural Spraymen

The horticultural spraymen of Orange County have been a very enthusiastic
group to work with. They are all eager to improve themselves and are con-
stantly calling on us for assistance. In October we formed a local Chapter
of the Horticultural Spraymen's Association of Florida. I feel this was a
tremendous step forward in improving the position of the spraymen in the
community. All the spraymen contacted have been enthusiastic about forming
the association. The association will have a large exhibit in our local
Farm-City Week which will publicize the work they are doing.

8. Garden Supply Dealers

We have made much progress with the garden supply dealers during the
year. Most of the dealers rely on us for recommendations to their customers.
We have worked toward a goal of similar recommendations so the customer will
be less confused. The dealers have recently formed a garden supply dealer
association and one major goal is to obtain latest Extension recommendations.
We will furnish all the dealers the same information which will lessen cus-
tomer confusion.

9. Parks, Golf Courses, Cemeteries, Industrial Landscapes

We have an excellent working relation with these people in the county.
We give them recommendations on fertilizers, weed killers, grass varieties,
insects and diseases and in return we receive much valuable information from
their actual experience. It is generally very gratifying to see the results
of your recommendations on the well kept areas. These people usually follow
our recommendations accurately where as the average home owner is somewhat
haphazard.

10. Landscape Nurserymen

The landscape nurserymen are very numerous in the county but there are
very few growers. Most of them are dealers in plants and supplies. Many of
these people are auto mechanics, bus drivers, etc. one week, and supposedly
expert landscape men the next. This really presents a problem to us since
most of them don't want us to even know they exist. Their logic is to do one
job for everybody in town which would last indefinitely. They don't care
about repeat business or about learning their trade.

The rest of these people are sincere in their business and we are able
to help them improve themselves. Generally this type person charges more for
his work but he gives his customers more for their money.


- 13 -






11. Foliage Plant Growers

The foliage growers are the largest horticultural group in the county.
They produce in excess of 100,000,000 plants yearly.

This group of people is highly organized and information exchanges much
more readily among them than any other group in this county.

Before we can be very effective in assisting the foliage growers, there
has to be research done on their problems. We are now able to supply a
wealth of information to the less aggressive growers but the more aggressive
ones already have the information they need. There are many problems we
cannot answer and won't be able to answer until sufficient research is done.

We have helped several srall growers during the year to the extent that
they were able to stay in business. Without our help they may have been
forced out due to high production cost. An example is one nurseryman bought
a water soluble fertilizer for $21.00 per hundred pounds and we showed him
how to make a similar one for $4.50 per hundred.

Dr. K. S. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, was able to conduct a
test in the county on rotting of Nepthytis eyes. This problem is common to
most nurserymen and there is not an answer at this time as to what causes it
or what to do about it. Dr. Mullin set up an experiment at Nelson Brothers
in Apopka, treating the eyes with various fungicides, etc. We feel he has
made some progress which will be valuable to the nurserymen. The Nelson
Brothers have lost as high as 95 per cent of the eyes from this problem. I
would estimate they attempt to grow as many as 1,000,000 Nepthytis yearly.
This is a terrific loss to any nurseryman.

This is not the only problem in this field that needs research. We need
designs for better plastic houses and shade houses. We need intensive re-
search on disease and nutritional problems.

12. Summary

This first year has entailed quite a lot of decision making. There are
many groups which require horticultural assistance in Central Florida. Some
of these groups demand time and the tendency is to give them what they want.
The home owners, for example, could easily keep one man busy day and night
so the problem is where to leave off one project and begin another.

The foliage growers are the largest horticultural group so naturally they
should get their proportion of time. This group seldom ever request assis-
tance but we still visit with them and continue to build good relations.

The spraymen are continually requesting assistance from us and they get
it. I feel we have done a great deal for this group because we have infor-
mation from our research staff which is valuable to them.

I feel that the results of this position has been felt in most every
horticultural group in Orange County this year. The work with home gardeners
has reached quite a bit further than Orange County or Central Florida through
the news articles. Letters flow in from all over Florida each week request-
ing information on home gardening.


- 14 -





V. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
Henry F. Swanson, County Agent, In Charge



SITUATION

The vegetable farming area of the county is confined to the Zellwood
muck which consists of approximately 9,000 acres. The farmers in this drain-
age district are assessed accordingly so that all the road and bridge main-
tenance, ditches, etc. are paid by the farming interests in the district.
Mr. Arch Hodges is the engineer in charge of the district.

Approximately thirty farmers grow various fall and spring crops. These
farmers live in Apopka, Mt. Dora, Zellwood, and Oviedo.

Practically all farming operations close down during the latter part of
June, July and August. The leading crops are radishes, sweet corn, celery
and the salad crops such as spinach, chicory, endive, leaf lettuce, chinese
cabbage, etc.

The value of the crops produced in this area are probably in the neigh-
borhood of 3 1/2 million dollars. The spring sweet corn was conservatively
estimated to have been around 2 million dollars.

The Central Florida Experiment Station at Sanford has a small field
station on the muck where several staff members are conducting experiments
to assist growers with special production problems that are common to the
Zellwood area.


PROBLEMS

There are many problems which are of major importance to the farming
interests on the Zellwood muck. These major problem areas are: production,
marketing, public affairs and subsidence.

Of the various production problems the following ones are of major im-
portance: Helminthosporium disease of sweet corn, corn ear worm, lesser
cornstalk borer, pesticide residues, black heart of chicory, new vegetable
crops suitable for the muck, more research information in plant nutrition, etc.

The present marketing system for vegetable crops grown at Zellwood
leaves a lot to be desired for the grower. Because of the high rate of
perishability of vegetable crops and the few market outlets available to the
grower, these situations leave him in a most unfavorable marketing position.
There are no local processing plants for vegetable crops that are canned or
frozen. These must be trucked to Plant City, Tampa or to other areas several
hundred miles away.

In the realm of public affairs the farming interests are vitally con-
cerned with the lake level of Lake Apopka which affects their interests most
directly. If the Lake Apopka level should be maintained at a too high maxi-
mum level then in seasons of high rainfall their farm land might be subject
to flooding.


- 15 -






Maintenance of the major road through the farming district is of concern
to the farming interests. At the present time the drainage district is
largely responsible for this project. Some feel the county should assist
more in this endeavor.

Subsidence or shrinking of the muck at the rate of 1" to 2" a year
annually is of major importance to all land owners in the district.

If this process can be slowed down, then the area can be farmed over a
larger period of time. As the muck level subsides, it results in a higher
lake level on the levee separating Lake Apopka from the farming area.

Hence conservation practices such as flooding and summer cropping with
sesbenia are most urgently needed during the hot, non-farming months to re-
duce this oxidation process.


EXTENSION VEGETABLE COMMITTEE

Several growers were contacted several years ago and asked to serve in
an advisory capacity for programs they would like to have developed. No
formal meetings have been held this past year but various members were con-
tacted on specific projects and programs.

The committee members are:

Claire Roach, Zellwood
Rex Clonts, Oviedo
0. G. Calhoun, Mt. Dora
Kenneth Jorgensen, Zellwood
Andy Couch, Zellwood
Eric Hooper, Apopka


PROGRAMS

1. Conservation Practices

One of the most practical conservation practices that could be encouraged
is that of flooding the land during the non-farming season. To do this re-
quires considerable expense because the farmer must construct a dike around
his property and then must use a portable pump to flood his land.

Since the government, through the ASC Program, makes certain monies
available to farmers on a cost-share basis for conservation practices, an
intensive request was begun to get a special practice established for the
Zellwood farming interests.

This program was begun two years ago by securing a questionnaire from
farmers indicating their willingness to participate in a cost sharing practice
for flooding if such could be approved by the local County and State ASC
Committees.

The Soil Conservation engineering personnel made a survey of this
possibility and submitted an engineering report on the feasibility of such a
practice.


- 16 -





This report was evidently filed away with no action recommended for this
past year.

This year the County Agent asked the President of the State Soil Con-
servation Supervisors Association (G. E. Snow) who is also Chairman of the
Orange Soil Conservation District to investigate this request. Mr. Snow
started the wheels in motion and on September 2nd Dalton Harrison, Assistant
Extension Engineer, Al Swartz, Conservationist Orange Soil Conservation
District, and Bob Jessup, District Engineer SCS and this agent consulted
with the Zellwood Drainage Engineer about specific engineering aspects of a
flooding practice for the Zellwood muck.

On October 10th the local ASC County Committee accepted the special
flooding practice drafted to meet the needs of the Zellwood farming interests.
This has now been sent to the State Committee at Gainesville for considera-
tion and approval.

2. Vegetable Field Day

On May 13th the annual vegetable field day was held at the Experiment
Station's research station on the muck.

All growers and tradespeople were notified by special letter. They
were encouraged to be present to see an aerial dusting demonstration by
helicopter.

Trans-American Helicopter Service put on an aerial dusting demonstration
and later took 12 of the farmers for a helicopter flight over the muck.

Over 75 growers, tradespeople, etc. were in attendance. This is the
largest group to ever attend a field day at the station's research farm.

3. Special Grower Letters

During the year several special letters and publications were sent to
the growers to give them timely information.

Growers in a special letter on June 13th were informed of the 1975
population prediction of the greater Orlando area as revealed in the Con-
servation Needs Inventory Projection Report. They were advised of the favor-
able market position they would be in for local consumption of vegetable crops.
Flooding practices to reduce subsidence were encouraged.

On May 10th growers were informed of the program for the Experiment
Station farm field day.

A special letter on April 15th advised growers of a new mole drain
developed by a local grower, of a helicopter spray service and a forthcoming
publication on the vegetable industry.

The publication "Marketing Outlook for Vegetable Crops for 1960-61" was
sent to all growers late in the summer so they could plan future crop acreages
according to crop trends and predictions.

Circular 140 "Some Questions and Answers on Vegetable Pesticide Tolerances"
was sent to all growers, also Circular 193A "Commercial Vegetable Insect and
Disease Control Guide".


- 17 -






4. Public Affairs

An aerial picture of the Zellwood farming area was included in the slide
series on Good Land Use. Also during the talk to all civic groups, the value
of the vegetable industry to the county was stressed as a 4 1/2 million
dollar industry.

5. Grower Visits & Tours

Throughout the year many growers were visited to keep abreast of pro-
blems and offer assistance where needed.

Several foreign visitors were taken on a tour of the area during the
year.

6. Farm-City Week Display

A special display representing the Zellwood farming area was put up in
the agricultural exhibit building during National Farm-City Week, November
18th through 24th.

Miss Pegi Mitchell, Orlando was selected by the Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association as "Miss Florida Vegetables". She appeared on both
local TV stations and gave publicity for this segment of Orange County's
agricultural industry. She also formally opened the vegetable exhibits in
special opening ceremonies at the Ag Center during National Farm-City Week
activities.

7. Community Vegetable Exhibits Central Florida Fair

Arrangements were made for Gainesville staff members to judge the veg-
etable displays in the community booths at the fair on February 22nd.

8. Vegetable Research Needs Meeting

A special research conference with growers and Dr. John Wilson, Director
of Central Florida Experiment Station and Dr. James Montelario, Vegetable
Crops Specialist was called for December 2nd. Only one grower, Andy Couch,
attended to give suggestions for research projects he considered essential
to meet the needs of growers.

9. Vegetable Pesticide Conference

The agent attended a special vegetable pesticide conference called by
research workers on December 22nd.

10. Drainage Demonstration

On April 14th, the Extension Engineer, the Zellwood drainage engineer
and this agent put in a series of water measuring devices to check the
effectiveness of two mole drain systems on the Hooper farm.


- 18 -






11. 4-H Vegetable Activities


a. Vegetable Judging Team

Several practice sessions in vegetable judging was held at the
Orange County Agricultural Center with two teams one consisting of two
boys, the other with four boys.

Two District practice sessions were held in Sanford with these two
teams.

One team participated in the State Vegetable Judging Contest held
at the Orange County Agricultural Center on May 21st. Team members Kenley
Platt, Larry Hiatt, Dennis Kost, and Freddie Dietrich, placed 5th in the
state. Kenley Platt was high individual on county team. George Dietrich
worked out with the team but was too young to participate in the contest.

b. 4-H Home Gardens

Vegetable gardening is one of the largest 4-H projects in the
county. It is very popular for the younger boys to begin their club work.
Space for a small garden is usually available around the suburban and rural
homes, the investment is low and the work not too hard, but it is challenging
to the 4-H'er. Twenty-four 4-H'ers completed their garden projects.

c. Vegetable Exhibits

Several members exhibited vegetables in February at the Central
Florida Fair in Orlando. Sufficient prizes have been offered by the Fair
for many more.


- 19 -






VI. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. F. Cribbett, Assistant County Agent, In Charge



SITUATION

The general situation for each commodity of beef cattle, dairy and
poultry will be discussed separately under those headings. Items relative
to all fields of animal production will be discussed under the animal husband-
ry general commodity division.


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ACTIVITIES

1. Water and Storm Damage

Very little damage occurred to animals or poultry during the heavy
March rains. Among cattle the loss of weight or gain was the main factor.
With dairymen the loss of milk production. However, several poultrymen had
high water in their laying houses. One poultryman was forced to dispose of
his 6,000 layer flock.

After the September llth hurricane, very little damage was reported by
beef cattle, except to buildings or fed lots. Dairymen suffered a big loss
in milk production, due mainly to no power to run milking and cooling equip-
ment. Several dairymen had no power for 96 hours. A number of loafing barns
and loaf sheds were damaged heavily.

Poultrymen in the north and west areas of the county received very
little damage. One poultrymen in this area, who had recently established a
new breeding and hatchery flock, was completely washed out. In the eastern
areas of the county, several farms had roofs blown off their laying houses.

2. Brucellosis Committee

The County Brucellosis Committee met April 28th to review the county
brucellosis picture and discuss suggestions and recommendations for action.
Recommendations and requests were forwarded to the State Brucellosis Committee
on interstate shipment, health regulations, tatooing, breeding, vaccinating,
and market testing.

The County Committee is composed of the following representatives:

Dr. J. Kenneth Cooke, County Health Officer
Hanson Collins, Farm Bureau
E. L. Yates, Sr., Cattlemen's Association
A. J. Rusterholz, Jr., Central Florida Milk Producers' Association
Dr. H. E. Caton, Private Practitioner
Dr. L. A. Scribner, County Meat and Milk Inspector
A. F. Cribbett, Assistant County Agent

3. Bulk Feed Storage Tour

Several engineers were toured to various farms in the county April 19th,
to gather ideas on bulk feed storage, handling and mixing. Bulk dairy farm


- 20 -





storage tanks were seen at T. G. Lee farm. A farm pellet and concentrate
feed mill was seen at Magnolia Ranch. The Farmers' Cooperative Exchange,
Pine Castle, automatic mixing mill was seen in action. Two different
systems of bulk grain storage and farm feed mixing was seen at the Watts
poultry farm, Apopka and Poultry Products, Inc. Ocoee. Extension Engineer,
T. C. Skinner, Electrification Specialist, Ray Pettis, Experiment Station
Engineer, Elwyn Holmes and Florida Power and Light Company, Agricultural
Engineer, Don Adams made the tour.

U. Foreign Exchange Student

Turkish Exchange Student, Beysan Baysal, spent 11 days visiting a
number of Extension or agri-business projects during May. Mr. Baysal was
mainly interested in poultry and animal production. His itinerary included:

May 2 Tour Orange County Agricultural Center facilities, meet local agents,
review county livestock and poultry situations and programs, and
visit local livestock market weekly sale.
May 3 Visit Farmers' Cooperative Exchange's modern push button feed mill
at Pine Castle. Guest of North Orlando Kiwanis Club for lunch.
Visited several large dairy and poultry farms and toured the
Zellwood muck area.
May 4 Visit Haile Feed mill and poultry farm, Kissimmee and Central
Florida Poultry Cooperative with Wilfred Hedges, Haile farm manager.
May 5 Visit county dairy and poultry farms. Attended a 4-H Club meeting
and visited 4-H projects with Agent R. B. Christmas.
May 6 Visit several large contract poultry farms with Jerry Watson,
Purina district salesman.
May 7 Visit the Bar D registered Brahma Ranch and attend Eastern Brahman
Association Field Day in Pinellas County with T. M. Deal, Bar D
owner.
May 9 Visit the Agricultural Research Service, Entomology Division,
Orlando to see experiments and research carried on in controlling
insects effecting animals.
May 10 Tour T. G. Lee, dairy processing plant and farms and visit other
large dairy and poultry farms.
May 11 Visit several citrus grove operations with Agent H. F. Swanson.
Guest of Orlando Rotary Club for lunch.

5. Disease, Poison and Parasite Program

A special program was held July 18th for all county livestockmen and
supply personnel featuring new information on various diseases, poison causes
and parasites. Dr. Charles B. Plummer, Extension Veterinarian, Gainesville,
presented the information to some 31 livestock owners.

6. State Livestock Board

Several State Livestock Board meetings were attended during the year to
keep abreast of important issues and decisions affecting local livestockmen.
Three meetings were helpful in gaining a broader understanding of the sit-
uation of the specific problem at hand.

7. New Fly

Local dairyman, Hanson Collins, called about a fly that was causing sore
eyes with his dairy cattle. Samples of the flies were collected. One sample


- 21 -





was sent to Extension Entomologist James Brogdon and another given to the
ARS Entomology Laboratory, Orlando. The ARS sample was sent to Washington
for positive identification. The fly was identified as Ephydridae paralima
decipiens, commonly called shore flies known to breed around wet places.
The report stated the flies were not causing the sore eyes, but a heavy
population of gnats was found to be the cause.


A. BEEF CATTLE

Situation

Beef cattle and ranch numbers have remained fairly constant during 1960.
Some 78 cattlemen owned approximately 18,000 to 20,000 head of cattle.

A larger grass fattening operation, Magnolia Ranch, Inc., began a feed
lot operation during January. The feed lots had a capacity of 900 steers
by November. The steers are grown out on the ranch. These stockers are
shipped to the South Florida muck for grass fattening. The higher grades
are shipped back for a 60 to 90 days grain feeding period. The majority of
the steers were sold by private treaty to slaughter houses. Magnolia has
their own farm feed and pellet mills to mix their feed lot and pasture
rations.

Market prices on all classes of cattle were strong and steady through
May. However, lower grades of cattle began to decline in late May or early
June, followed by a gradual price decline of higher grades. Cattle prices
were steady during September and October, with a wider spread between grades
than in 1959. Cattle quality ran lower during late August, September and
October than any other time of the year.

No screwworms have been reported since early 1959. However, cattlemen
still call when other worm larvae are found in cattle. No fever ticks were
found in this county. Other than vaccinating calves, very little work was
accomplished on eradicating brucellosis.

Beef Cattle Activities

1. Central Florida Cattlemen's Association

Serving both Lake and Orange Counties, the CFCA Board of Directors
have met 8 times during the year to discuss association problems and business.
The association has 70 paid members. The decline in cattle numbers and
ranchers has made it extremely difficult for the association to meet its
assessment to the Florida Cattlemen's Association.

During the annual association meeting in the County Agricultural Center,
January 26th, the membership voted to incorporate as a cooperative. Some
125 persons attended the family style barbecue. Prior to the supper, county
equipment dealers displayed and demonstrated their 1960 line of balers,
rakes, conditioners, etc. Candidates for Commissioner of Agriculture were
invited to speak to the membership.


- 22 -






Officers and Directors elected to serve during 1960 were:


President, Orange County
Vice-President, Lake County
Vice-President, Orange County
Secretary
Treasurer, Orange County
State Directors
Orange County
Lake County
Directors
Orange County
Lake County
Lake County

During the year the Directors worked
during extreme water periods, Articles of
cide and feed additives, and financing.


- Al Smith
- Dick Scovil
- George Terry, Jr.
- A. F. Cribbett
- E. L. Yates, Sr.

- Don Rybolt
- R. W. Maxwell

- George Terry, Sr.
- Dick Whittington
- Zera Giles

on emergency help for cattlemen
Incorporation and By-Laws, pesti-


2. Livestock Market

Several visits were made each month on sale day to the local livestock
market, Mid-Florida Livestock Market. The purposes of these visits are (1)
to keep abreast of market prices and trends and (2) to contact cattlemen
concerning the cattle production situation and problems. A number of differ-
ent cattlemen are contacted through this practice that might not be contacted
through other means.

3. Beef Cattle Shortcourses and Field Days

Five cattlemen and this agent attended the annual Beef Herdsman Short-
course at the University of Florida, April 21 22. This group was very
impressed with the cattle outlook information presented.

Nine county cattlemen and this agent attended the Range Cattle Station
Field Day at Ona May 27th. The pasture tours were the best ever presented
by the station.

4, Production Testing

The T. M. Deal Bar D Ranch herd, Pine Castle, was placed under the pro-
duction testing system during early June. Complete international records
were accomplished on the registered Brahman herds. During September the
first group of weaned calves were weighed and graded by J. E. Pace, Extension
Animal Husbandman and this agent. The second group of calves weaned were
weighed and graded during November.

W. T. Champney's small registered Hereford herd, Apopka, discontinued
weighing and grading this year. Mr. Champney felt the information obtained
on the small herd was not worth the cost involved.

5. County Cattlemen's Field Day

The County Beef Cattle Advisory Committee met during April to plan a
county cattlemen's field day for May. The purpose of the field day was to
show cattlemen the type, weight, grades and breeds of stockers and feeders


- 23 -






grass and grain feeders were looking for. The Florida Ranch Lands ranch was
selected as the site. Because Florida Ranch Lands ranch was extremely wet
and the pastures were behind in growth, the manager asked the field day be
posponed until August. In July, Florida Ranch Lands asked the field day not
be held on their ranch.

The advisory committee was again consulted and Magnolia Ranch was
selected as the field day site. The field day date was set for late September.
However, Hurricane Donna dealt Magnolia heavy damage to the feed lot areas
and the ranch was extremely wet. The field day was posponed to November 17th.

The field day was held at Magnolia Ranch on November 17th. Cattlemen
toured the ranch feed mill, feed lots, work pens, pastures and other points
of interest.

6. Contacts

Each month a circular letter is published containing production, manage-
ment and marketing information of interest to cattlemen. Specific information
requested by the County Cattlements Advisory Committee is included from time
to time. A semi-annual cattle outlook is published in this letter as well
as matters of public affairs.

Aside from answering a number of cattlemen's request for assistance, a
number of persons interested in going into cattle production were advised of
the situation and given specific information.

Several cattlemen were assisted with special projects. For example,
Magnolia Ranch was assisted by Extension Electrification Specialist Ray
Pettis and this agent in laying out a plan for grounding their feed lots to
guard against lightening damage.

Beef production and management information was presented on several
monthly radio programs.

7. 4-H Beef Cattle Program by Robert B. Christmas

Situation

There were very few beef projects in Orange County during the past
year since only a few 4-H Club members have the opportunity and space to
own and keep a beef animal. .However, those who have projects have been very
interested in beef and have excellent projects.

a. District Beef Show Kissimmee

Five 4-H Club members from Orange County showed beef animals at the
District Beef Show held in Kissimmee in February of 1960. They included:
Ronald Stephens, George Dietrich, Fred Dietrich, III, Steve Rumpf, and John
Talton, Jr. The group won a $5.00 prize for having the third best kept show
area in the barn.

b. State Show Tampa

Orange County did not participate in the State Show nor the State
Livestock Judging Contest due to the lack of staff personnel to train a


- 24 -






judging team. However, several practice sessions were held at the beginning
of the reporting period.

c. County Show

The Beef Division of the County 4-H Youth Show was held November
12th. Five h-H Club members participated in this show.

d. Judging Sessions

A judging team held practice sessions during the last two months of
the reporting period.


B. DAIRY CATTLE

Situation

During 1960, all major dairy plants in Orlando were placed on a frozen
base basis, due to heavy surplus. In late June, a milk price war started
in the Orlando market on half gallon retail milk. The war continued through
early August, when the Florida Milk Commission established minimum distri-
butor price controls.

The heavy winter milk surpluses coupled with the heavy spring rains,
the price war and Hurricane Donna dealt not only the distributors, but the
producers damaging blows. The number of dairy producers decreased from 32
to 26. Some 7 producers sold out, while one new producer went into business.
Three major processing plants, 4 branch distributors and one cash and carry
producer-distributor service the market.

The industry is serviced by the Central Florida Milk Producers' Assoc-
iation, the American Dairy Association of Florida and the county DHIA and
ABA, all located in Orange County. Several producers and the various dis-
tributors are members of the Florida State Dairymen's Association and the
Distributors Association.

Dairy Cattle Activities

1. Dairy Heifer Replacement Study

During January a dairy heifer replacement cost study was initiated on
11 farms. The purpose of the study was to find out the overall cost of
raising replacements as well as the cost of 6 months, 15 months and fresh-
ening heifers.

After the first quarter 6 herds remained on the study, two herds placed
their heifers on contract raising, two herds sold and one herd dropped off
the study due to an extreme change in herd management.

Although the study has not been completed, the first 6 months figures
indicate the following cash costs.
Cost per Month Total Cost
(1) Heifers O to 6 months $11.65 $69.90
(2) Heifers 6.1 to 14.9 months 7.48 67.32
(3) Heifers 15 to 27 months 7.84 9L.08
Total cost 0 to 27 months $231.30
25 -






Total cash and indirect costs will be tabulated at the end of the year.
Records covering approximately 1,000 animals were obtained on this study
through the third quarter of 1960.

2. Dairy Herd Improvement Association Activities

The Orange County DHIA has provided service to 27 farms in three
counties totaling some 5,600 cows on standard DHIA, EDPM or partial testing.
Three supervisors Gilbert Ross, Jeffery Thompson, and Calvin Zettle work
on a full time basis.

Some 22 members and guest attended the association's annual meeting
January 14th. Of the 21 members, 13 qualified for National PDCA National
Honor Roll Certificates with over 8,000 pounds of 4% FCM production, while
3 received certificates for 400 pounds herd butterfat averages. The associ-
ation showed a yearly average of 7,892 pounds of milk with 348 pounds butter-
fat per head.

The Board of Directors met 11 times during the year to discuss partial
testing programs hiring a third supervisor, association By-Laws, insurance
and bonding program, herd book record keeping, and various items of associ-
ation business.

New supervisor, Calvin Zettle, was hired by the Board February 1, 1960.
In order to give Mr. Zettle adequate income, one new herd was signed for
standard DHIA, three herds were reassigned from the other 2 supervisors and
2 herds were signed on a partial test basis. The 2 partial tests herds
placed 1,100 cows on once-a-month milk weight plus butterfat test and barn
sheet for 150 per milking cow.

In March, one partial herd dropped from testing. In August, the other
partial test herd reverted to once-a-month milk weight test for 50 per milk-
ing cow. During the year, 4 herds dropped from standard DHIA or EDPM,
while 5 new herds have been enrolled. One small Jersey herd is on DHIR.

During March, the Directors began drafting the Association By-Laws with
the assistance of Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Extension Economist Marketing and this
agent. After several meetings and considerable checking, the By-Laws were
adopted by the membership during an August 19 special membership meeting.

Herd books were checked 3 times during the year by this agent. This
measure was taken to insure herd books were in good keeping at all times.

Officers and Directors of the Association were:

President Hilton Teal
Vice-President C. L. Ward, Jr.
Secretary A. F. Cribbett
Treasurer Mrs. Alice Ballentine
Directors Darrow Robinson
B. W. Judge, Jr.


- 26 -





3. Breed Clubs Organizational Work

a. Florida Guernsey Cattle Club

The Florida Guernsey Cattle Club annual membership meeting was held
January 14th in the County Ag Center. Some 65 members and guests enjoyed
lunch served by the County Home Demonstration Agents Department. Two county
club members, Tommy Edge, Winter Park and Phil Younavjak, Union Park, were
recognized as outstanding Guernsey project members. Local breeder, C. L.
Ward, Jr., Lay Laine Farm, was elected Club Vice-President.

Several Directors meetings were attended from time to time as well as
Golden Guernsey, Inc. This agent has assisted Florida Golden Guernsey
representative, J. Mc. Jeter, with a number of Guernsey cattle and milk
projects. Other Guernsey activities, such as breed shows, were attended.

The Club Sales Committee was assisted in making arrangements for sale
facilities, pre-sale dinner and annual sale details. The annual sale was
held in the County Ag Center August 31st and September 1st. Thirty-nine
head of registered Guernseys sold for an average of $401.00.

b. Florida Jersey Cattle Club

As a member of the Florida Jersey Cattle Club Promotion Committee,
this agent and Extension dairyman, C. W. Reaves, selected a registered calf
in January at Christmas Acres Farm. The calf was presented to the outstand-
ing Junior 4-H dairy member in Florida during the 1960 State 4-H Dairy Show,
Orlando. Called Christmas Jersey Star, was featured in various state
magazines and newspapers.

During the Florida State Fair, Tampa, the F.J.C.C. Promotion Committee
constructed a Jersey Booth in the Dairy Barn. The booth featured yesterday's,
Today's and Tomorrow's Jerseys.

Local breeders have been assisted with various Jersey projects. Other
activities such as classification, directors meetings and open breed shows
have been attended and assisted with.

The Club Sales Committee was assisted in making local sales facilities
arrangements and annual meeting. The annual sale held September 7th and 8th
in the County Ag Center, sold 36 head for an average of $462.00.

4. Dairy Business Management School

As suggested by the County Dairy Advisory Committee, a Dairy Business
Management School was planned by a joint school committee of dairymen from
Orange and Seminole County, Extension Farm and Home Developement Specialist,
Clifford Alston, Seminole Agent Cecil Tucker and this agent in mid January.
The 5-week school was held in March and April for the purpose of acquainting
dairymen, feed dealers and others with the principles and value of farm
business analysis. The school topics included:

March 1 "Size and How it Affects Profit" by Clifford Alston, Extension
Farm and Home Development Specialist.


- 27 -





March 8 "The Milk Producing and Marketing Enterprises" by Dr. Ralph
Eastwood, Extension Economist Marketing.
"The Heifer and Forage Producing Enterprises" by C. W. Reaves,
Extension Dairyman.
March 15 "Labor Effects and Management" by A. F. Cribbett, Assistant
County Agent.
"Machinery and How it Affects Farm Income" by Clifford Alston
March 22 "Response of Physical Production to Increase In-Puts and Factors
to Consider in Determining the Most Economic Rate of In-Put" by
Dr. H. B. Clarke, College Economist.
April 12 "Effects of Total Farm Income of Increasing Production" by Dr.
R. E. Greene, Experiment Station Economist.

There were 39 dairymen, feed dealers and others enrolled in the school
with an average attendance of 32 members. Another business school was called
for during 1961.

5. Farm Tour

A farm tour was arranged for George Owens, Clay County Assistant Agent,
Mr. L. Starkey, Manager, Foremost Dairy Farms and Mr. Leland Fiske, Con-
sultant Engineer, The group saw heifer replacement program and facilities,
bulk feed storage system and walk-thru milking barn, used by the T. G. Lee
dairy farm. The group also saw the Magnolia Ranch farm pellet mill in action.

6. County Artificial Breeding Association

Serviced by American Breeders Service, Chicago, the County ABA served
33 members farms in 4 counties. The association's two full time tech-
nicians, Norman Braune and John OtSteen, performed over 5,642 first services
during 1960.

The Board of Directors met 3 times during the year to conduct association
business. The main business project was revision of the association By-Laws
and association insurance program. Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Extension Economist
Marketing and this agent assisted the board on these projects.

The 1960 annual membership family supper was held in the County Ag
Center, October 25th with 52 members and guests in attendance. County Agent
Henry Swanson spoke to the membership on "Land, Water and People", a color
slide presentation.

President A. J. Rusterholz, Jr.
Vice-President Darrow Robinson
Secretary A. F. Cribbett
Treasurer B. W. Judge, Sr.
Directors Spencer Hardin
Ira Barrow
B. M. Eunice
Hanson Collins

7. Dairy Statistics

A meeting was attended May 14th held in the County Ag Center on the
topic of dairy statistics. Dairy industry leaders, USDA reporting personnel
and Extension personnel from Florida met to discuss and determine the types


- 28 -






of statistics the dairy industry of Florida needed. The meeting was arranged
by Extension Economist Marketing, Dr. Ralph Eastwood.

8. Farmers Cooperative Exchange

Located at Pine Castle the Farmers Cooperative Exchange, a dairy feed
cooperative, was assisted in drafting proposed amendments to the association
By-Laws. Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Extension Economist Marketing, and this agent
met with the By-Laws Committee and the management several times during June,
August and October to discuss the various ammendments.

9. Herdsman Shortcourse

This agent spoke to the Dairy Herdsmen's Shortcourse, a 3-day Short-
course at the University of Florida, on the topic of "Labor Turnover and
Working Conditions" Data from the 1959 Dairy Labor Study in Orange County
conducted by this agent was the basis for the July 28th talk. Various labor
management principles were stressed.

10. Breeders Show

At the request of dairy cattle breeders in the county, a committee of
breeders was selected to study the possibility of holding an open breeders
show in Orlando. The committee was composed of A. J. Rusterholz, Apopka
(Holsteins); C. L. Ward, Jr., Goldenrod (Guernseys); B. W. Judge, Jr, Conway,
and V. G. McKibben, Christmas (Jerseys). No definite immediate action was
decided upon. However, the committee decided to begin planning for a 1962
show.

11. Dairy Field Day

Annual Dairy Field Day at the University of Florida was attended by
6 dairymen, 1 county DHIA supervisor, several feed dealers and this agent.
During the annual Field Day banquet, A. J. Rusterholz, Apopka, was presented
first place plaque in the State Dairy Production Contest and Jeffery Thompson,
county DHIA supervisor, received second place supervisors plaque.

This agent sopke during the Field Day on "Getting and Keeping Quality
Labor". Principles of personnel management and factors affecting working
conditions were presented.

12. Dairy Production School

In August, the Dairy School Committee met to discuss plans and programs
for the 1960 County Dairy School. The school committee composed of A. S.
Hammond, Hanson Collins, Don Platt, Darrow Robinson, George Baumeister, and
Lawrence Hiatt, selected speakers and school topics.

The 3-week school began September 20th with 60 dairymen, farm workers,
plant fieldmen and feed dealers enrolled. The program presented was as follows:

September 20 "Udder Preparation and Milking Conditiond'by T. W. Sparks,
Assistant Extension Dairyman, and a film No Hand Stripping.
September 27 "The Value of a Good Letdown' (a live animal demonstration) and
"The Udder" by Dr. Sidney Marshall, Dairy Husbandman, University
of Florida.


- 29 -






October 4 "How to Detect and Treat Common or Petty Ailments" by Dr. Gibbs
Ashley, DVM and "Labor's Responsibilities" by A. F. Cribbett,
Assistant County Agent.

The purpose of the annual school is to increase the dairy knowledge of
the average dairy farm worker.

13. Dairy Advisory Committee

The County Dairy Advisory Committee met during November to discuss long
range goals and plans. The committee selected the 1961 dairy work to be
accomplished. Those serving on the committee were:

Donald Platt Bithlo
Darrow Robinson Conway
George Baumeister Lockhart
B. W. Judge, Jr. Conway
Alden Hammond Pine Castle

14. Portland Cement Association

The Portland Cement Association was assisted in gathering pictures for
a national farm building publication. Pictures of new dairy structures were
taken at the T. G. Lee farm, Conway; M. W. Tarte farm, Apopka; and the Bass
and Sons farm, Kissimmee.

15. Contacts

Many personal visits have been made to dairy farms to assist with
various problems ranging from herd testing to land drainage. A number of
inquiries from visitors have been answered concerning dairying in Orange
County. Each month, a circular letter containing dairy production and manage-
ment is sent each dairyman. Several radio programs have contained information
of interest to dairymen.

16. 4-H Dairy Heifers

Several county agents were assisted in locating quality grade dairy
heifers for 4-H Club members. Three loads of 10-day to 3-weeks old grade
Jersey, Guernsey, Holstein calves were selected and sent to Dixie and Taylor
Counties during February, March and September.

Dairy Manufactoring, Distribution and Marketing Activities

1. Dairy Plant School

The final 3 sessions of the County Dairy Manufacturers School was held
during December with the school program beginning November 24, 1959.

The program for the entire school was:

November 24 A discussion of the Composition of Milk by Howard Young,
Assistant Extension Dairyman Film "Nutritional Value of Milk"
Microbiology and its Application to the Dairy Industry by Dr.


- 30 -






H. H. Wilkowske, Assistant Director, Agricultural Experiment
Station.
December 1 Causes and Prevention of some off-flavors and colors in milk
and Identification of off-flavors in Prepared samples by Dr.
L. E. Mull, Professor of Dairy Manufacturers.
December 8 Procedures for Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing Dairy Plant
Equipment by Dr. D. H. Klegn, Assistant Professor of Dairy
Manufacturers.
Care of Pure-Pak Machines and Proper Handling of Paper Cartons
& Wax by Bill Henderson, Supervisor of Maintenance Pure-Pak
Corporation.
December 15 Discussion on Processing of Milk, Industry Receiving, Pasteur-
ization, Clarification, Homogenization and Bottling by Professor
W. A. Krienke, Associate Professor of Dairy Manufacturers.
Discussion of State Milk Laws and Regulations by Sam Noles,
Milk Consultant, State Board of Health.

The school was planned by the Dairy Manufacturers Committee, Howard
Young, Assistant Extension Dairyman and this agent. The purpose of the
school was to improve the dairy manufacturing knowledge of the average dairy
plant worker.

There was a total enrollment of 148 including 12 guests with an average
attendance of 115 for the 4 night sessions. Certificates were awarded those
attending all 4 meetings.

2. Dairy Manufacturers Advisory Committee

The Dairy Manufacturers Advisory Committee met December 8, 1959 to dis-
cuss plans and programs for dairy manufacturing during 1960 and 1961. The
committee was composed of the dairy plant supervisors as follows:

Sam McDugald T. G. Lee
Bill Williams Bordens
W. L. Henry Perfection
G. A. Baumeister Jersey Jug

The committee met again during November to expand their program plans
for 1961.

3. Dairy Sanitation Shortcourse

The Dairy Manufacturers Advisory Committee met January 19, to evaluate
the 1959 Manufacturers School and to plan a sanitation shortcourse for plant
workers. The committee met'again March 10th to lay final plans and arrange-
ments for the shortcourse.

The shortcourse was held April 5th with 70 plant workers in attendance.
The program entitled "Good Housekeeping, Personal Appearance, and Plant
Sanitation" was presented by Howard Young, Assistant Extension Dairyman.
Dr. E. L. Fouts, head, Dairy Department, University of Florida spoke to the
group on University Programs.

4. Milk Cooperative Marketing Conference

On February 16th, a conference was held in the County Ag Center for all


- 31 -






cooperative milk processing and distributing firms. The purpose of the
conference was to discuss mutual problems and marketing milk and dairy
products. This conference was arranged by Dr, Ralph Eastwood, Extension
Economist Marketing.

5. National Dairy Council

NDC Southeastern representative, Dutch Cavender, was assisted in
arranging a dinner meeting for all producers and distributors in the county
December 10, 1959. During the meeting a proposal was made for a committee
to investigate the possibility for a combined producer-distributor deduct for
NDC and American Dairy Association. A committee of William Boardman, ADA;
Dutch Cavender, NDC; Don Conkey, Central Florida Milk Producers; Dolph
Allison, Bordens; County Agent Swanson and this agent met December llth to
select a committee of distributor and producer representatives to discuss
the proposal.

The distributor-producer committee selected was composed of Dolph
Allison, Borden Company; Richard Lawrence and B. W. Judge, Jr., Perfection
Dairies; Charles Wentworth and Scott Sheffield, Foremost Dairies; and A. F.
Cribbett, Chairman. The committee met January 5th to discuss the proposal.
No definite decision was reached and the matter was not introduced again.

6. American Dairy Association

The annual ADA of Florida district meeting at the Cherry Plaza was
attended February 23rd. The 1960 ADA fluid milk promotional campaign
was reviewed.

District Dairy Princess Chairman, and County Home Agent Mrs. Marjorie
Knight was assisted with selecting a Dairy Princess Committee. Those ser-
ving on the committee were Richard Lawrence, Perfection Dairies Manager;
B. W. Judge, Jr. ADA President; E. C. Farless, dairyman; Joel Moore, Orlando
Convention Bureau; and this agent. The committee planned the Princess
dinner, secured sponsors and prizes, established rules, and arranged for
publicity.

A dinner sponsored by the county dairy distributors was held May llth
for the Orange County Restaurant Association in the County Ag Center. Some
110 persons saw 7 lovely daughters of area dairymen compete for the Princess
role. Miss Linda Jacobs, DeLand was chosen Princess and Miss Carolyn Collins,
Orlando, was selected runner-up.

The Central Florida Princess competed for the Florida Dairy Princess
contest, June 4th and 5th. The annual Dairy Princess dinner at Cypress
Gardens, Florida was attended. The Central Florida Princess, Linda Jacobs,
DeLand was selected runner-up.

7. Central Florida Milk Producers' Association

Central Florida Milk Producers, secretary, Donald Conkey, was in con-
stant contact with this agent. Mr. Conkey keeps this agent posted on
association activities and actions as well as the area milk marketing sit-
uation.

The annual association membership meeting was held in the County Ag
Center, March 15th. An excellent program was presented on milk marketing in
other areas of the county.
32 -






8. Contacts

From time to time, each dairy plant manager and plant superintendent
is visited to discuss the marketing and distribution situation and problems.
Several have been assisted with odor or taste problems.

4-H Dairy Club Work by Robert B. Christmas

1. Club Meetings and Project Work

The Orange County 4-H Dairy Club operated as a joint club with 25
active members throughout the year. All members carried a dairy project
during the reporting year. Club meetings were devoted primarily to dairy
education.

2. 4-H Dairy Exhibits and Shows

a. West Coast Dairy Show

Orange County 4-H members carried 18 head of dairy cattle to this
show. They were accompanied by a crew of four club members and Agent
Cribbett who remained the entire week. All members were at the show on show
day to show their animals. Orange County cattle won 18 blue ribbons in
regular classes and two blues in "Bred by Exhibitor" classes. Mary Frances
Fischer of Windermere showed Grand Champion Jersey and best fitted animal
and fifth best showman. Jeanette Foote of Lockhart showed Junior Champion
Jersey and fifth best fitted animal. Larry Hiatt of Bithlo was Best Showman.
Jackie Platt of Bithlo showed Junior and Grand Champion Holstein, while
Kenley Platt of Bithlo showed Senior and Reserve Champion Holstein and was
fourth Best Showman. Roberta Warren had second best fitted animal and re-
ceived the Florida Aryshire Breeders Association Award of a registered
Aryshire calf.

The county judging team consisting of Brenda Dennison, Jeanette Foote,
Larry Hiatt and Kenley Platt placed first while a team consisting of Denny
Dennison, Joyce Hardy and Phil Younavjak placed fifth.

Seventeen head were entered in the open show and all placed in the money.

b. State Dairy Show

This show, held in Orlando, included twenty-three Orange County
animals. Agents and 4-H boys including Wayne Partin, Loy Caldwell and Steve
Fedditt were primarily responsible for the cattle during the week. The
animals received 14 blue, 5 red and 4 white ribbons in regular classes.
Jeanette Foote showed Junior and Reserve Champion female and "Best Bred by
Exhibitor" calf in registered Jerseys. She showed Junior and Grand Champion
grade Jersey female and best "Bred by Exhibitor" calf. She also was sixth
best showman and showed fifth best fitted animals. Kenley Platt of Bithlo
had Senior and Grand Champion Holstein. Larry Hiatt of Bithlo had best
fitted animal and was fifth best showman. Mary Frances Fischer of Windermere
had fourth best fitted animal. Roberta Warren had seventh best fitted animal.
Barbara Ward was ninth best showman.

The county judging team placed eleventh with Brenda Dennison placing as


- 33 -






twenty-fourth high individual judge thus earning a place in the run-off
group for the State Judging Team. Brenda later was selected as a member of
the State Judging Team and judged with the twentieth nationally placed team
at Waterloo.

c. Mid-South Show at Memphis

Eight cows owned by six Orange County Dairy Club members were
selected to represent the county at this show. Cows owned by Jeanette Foote,
Barbara Ward, Clara Ward, Janis Ward and David Ward were awarded Blue ribbons
in regular classes while the heifer owned by Freddy Ward won a red ribbon.
Jeanette Foote's cow placed eleventh in the futurity class. Two club members
and several adults represented our county on show day. Agents in the county
assisted in arranging for hauling all cattle to the show.

d. County Dairy Show

The Orange County Dairy Show was held on November 12th in conjunction
with the County Youth Show.

Twenty-one youngsters showed forty-seven animals in the show spon-
sored by the Dairy Products Distributors Bordents, Foremost, Jersey Jug,
T. G. Lee, Perfection Cooperative, Sealtest and Velda.

Sponsors of trophies were as follows: South Orlando National Bank -
Best Junior Dairy Showman and Best Junior Dairy Record Book; Winter Park
Kiwanis Club Best Showman; Dairy Herd Improvement Association Best
Junior Fitter; Farmers Cooperative Exchange Best Dairy Fitter; Orange
County Artificial Breeders Association Best Dairy Record; and Orlando
Rotary Club Junior Dairy Project.

Judges for the show were: J. McKissick Jeter, Secretary, Florida
Guernsey Cattle Club, V. C. McKibben, dairyman, Christmas Acres and Wilbur
Aiken, District Sales Manager, Artificial Breeding Association. Record
Books were judged by Fred Rumpf, Lockhart Local Leader and M. B. Sunday,
Pine Castle Local Leader. Ronald Stephens acted as Ring Master.

The first place winner received $75.00 towards the purchase of a pure
bred dairy calf. The top six animals were selected to compete in the Area
Dairy Show at a later date.

3. Other Dairy Activities

The Dairy Club conducted two showing and fitting schools, sponsored
concession stands, served refreshments to adult organizations, conducted
tours, visited farms, visited businesses and among other things assisted in
all of the major county group activities.

The Club was responsible for a large majority of its planning, programm-
ing and work necessary to execute them. Several parents and adults assisted
with the functions of the club at almost all occasions.


- 34 -






C. POULTRY

Situation

Although a number of poultrymen have dropped from business, bird numbers
have remained about the same. Some 47 producers had approximately 118,000
layers. 19, 500 of these were owned and contracted by the local Purina Store.

There were 4 contract pullet growers growing approximately 50,000 pullets
per year. One poultryman managed a contract hatchery flock. Two turkey
growers produced about 6,500 birds during 1960.

There were 3 egg marketing firms in the county. One was a small egg
handler with a wholesale route. One was the Central Florida Poultry Cooper-
ative, which handled about 1,200 cases weekly. The third was E. R. Gertner
Company, which marketed eggs only. Gertner did wash, grade, pack and market
wholesale. However, an out of the county egg room now performs the washing,
grading and packaging steps. The Central Florida Co-op increased their
capacity through utilizing newest washing, grading and packaging machinery
to process their members' eggs.

Egg prices have fluctuated up and down throughout the year. During the
first quarter prices were up and fairly steady. The second and third quarters
found prices down, but fluctual. The fourth quarter was high, but fluctuating.

Poultry Activities

1. Egg Quality School

An Egg Quality Control School was presented December 7th and 14th in
the County Ag Center. The Florida Egg Commission and the Florida State
Marketing Bureau personnel assisted in presenting the subject matter.

The first program was devoted to explaining the Florida Egg Laws and
the Composition of the Egg. The second session covered grading and candling.

Some 60 poultrymen, egg graders and club members attended the school.
Frank Risher and Guyton Williams, State Marketing Bureau, Carl Binger, Florida
Egg Commission and Dr. G. 0. Hall, retired poultry professor assisted with
the school.

2. Orlando Area Poultry Association

During the year, this agent served as program chairman of the Orlando
Area Poultry Association. Programs for the association during the year were:

December Membership Business meeting.
January Fly Control by Dr. T. A. LaBreqre, Entomologist, ARS.
February Promoting Eggs and Presenting Your Product by Carl Binger,
Florida Egg Commission.
March Refrigeration and How it Affects Egg Quality by Carl Binger, Florida
Egg Commission.
April Types, Cost and Installation of Farm Refrigeration Units by T. C.
Skinner, Extension Engineer.
May How I Market a Qaulity Egg With or Without Refrigeration panel
of poultry producers.


- 35 -






June A Look at Contract Farming by Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Economist Marketing.
July Film arranged by a feed dealer.
September The State Association Program by Ted Harvey, Florida State
Poultry Producers Association and membership dinner.
October Land, Water and People by Henry F. Swanson, County Agricultural
Agent.
November Poultry Statistics by Gene Rowe, Dairy and Poultry Specialist,
USDA Crop Reporting Office.

Members of the OAPA are from Orange, Seminole and Osceola Counties.
The association has increased their membership through a new membership
program started by the State Program. Officers serving during 1960 were:

President Ronald Muirhead Seminole
Vice-President Ralph Bornman Orange
Secretary-Treasurer Wilfred Hedges Osceola
State Directors Ronald Muirhead Seminole
Wilfred Hedges Osceola

3. Florida State Poultry Producers Association

Florida State Poultry Producers Association convention chairman, Wilfred
Hedges was assisted with local publicity and registration for the associ-
ation mid-winter meeting in Orlando. The meeting was held at the Angebilt
Hotel. The association has been assisted with their 1961 mid-winter meet-
ing in Orlando.

4. Egg Cooperative Marketing Conference

A conference of all the cooperative egg marketing firms in Florida was
held in the County Ag Center. The purpose of the conference was to allow
managers to exchange ideas and discuss mutual problems. Dr. Ralph Eastwood,
Extension Economist Marketing, arranged the program.

5. Fly Control Project

The local Agriculture Research Service Entomology Division was assisted
in locating poultry cooperators for a new fly control project. The project
entailed enclosing young birds under cages to feed on the fly larvae.

6. Poultry Institute

The annual Poultry Institute was attended on August 16th to hear pro-
grams on farm management and marketing. Several poultrymen from the county
attended. The information presented at the Institute was later sent to
county poultrymen.

7. Central Florida Poultry Cooperative

The annual meeting of this cooperative was attended September 13th.
The management was consulted several times during the year about programs
that Extension could present to aid egg processors. Dirty eggs were a big
problem all year. Therefore, a program was suggested to be presented in
1961 to help poultrymen with this problem.


- 36 -






8. Poultry Farm Business Management School

At the suggestion of the County Poultry Advisory Committee, a poultry
farm business school was planned. A joint committee of Orange-Seminole
County poultrymen was asked to meet January 28th to plan the school program.
Clifford Alston, Extension Farm and Home Development specialist, Seminole
Agent Cecil Tucker and this agent assisted with the planning. The agents
met in early May with speakers to finish plans for the school.

The school began May 31st with 20 poultrymen, feed dealers, poultry
servicemen and guests enrolled. The program for the school was as follows:

May 31 A Poultry Business Analysis by Clifford Alston, Extension Farm and
Home Development Specialist.
June 7 The Nature of Management and How Management Functions and Size and
How it Affects Profit by Dr. R. E. L. Greene, Economist, University
of Florida.
June 1h- Production Rate Measures by L. W. Kalch, Extension Assistant in
Poultry Husbandry.
June 21- The Pullet and Egg Enterprises by Professor N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry
Husbandman, University of Florida.
The Marketing Enterprise by Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Extension Economist
Marketing.
June 28- Efficiency and How it Effects Profit by Julian S. Moore, Extension
Poultryman

Refreshemnts for the school were sponsored by Haile Feed Mill, Kissimmee
and Check-R-Board Store, Orlando.

The purpose of the 5 weeks school was to acquaint poultrymen with the
processes of farm business analysis. Although the school was highly pub-
licized and promoted through letters and personal contacts, enrollment was
disappointingly low.

9. Contacts

Many poultry visits have been made throughout the year. Each producer
received a monthly newsletter containing management and marketing information.
A quarterly outlook report was sent each producer.

Special visits were made to the 4 contract pullet producers and poultry-
men installing new farm feed mixers. A number of inquiries were answered
concerning the poultry business in Orange County.

4-H Poultry Program by Robert B. Christmas

1. Youth Exhibits

a. County Poultry Show

Seven Orange County 4-H boys exhibited ten birds each in the County
Poultry Show which was held in conjunction with the Youth Show.

The show was sponsored by the Sear, Roebuck Foundation and the State
Bank of Apopka.

All of the participants were members of the Sears Poultry Project and


- 37 -






received 100 Rhode Island Red straight-run chicks during the month of May.
A trophy was sponsored for the Best Junior member, Best Record Book and Best
Dozen Eggs by Apopka State Bank and Orlando Rotary Club.

b. State Poultry Show

Several Orange County youngsters worked during the week at the
Poultry Show. Some ten 4-HHers exhibited birds in the show. Brenda
Dennison exhibited the best pullet and the best dozen eggs in the show. The
county had the best ten dozen eggs also.

2. Poultry Judging

A team consisting of Brenda Dennison, Fred Dietrich, III, Marcus
Newberg, and Steve Rumpf placed second in state competition. This team also
selected the best ten dozen eggs. The team was coached and given several
training sessions by Dr. G. 0. Hall, retired Professor, Poultry Husbandry,
Cornell University.

3. Poultry Institute

Two Orange County boys worked during the week of Poultry Institute.
They were commended for doing an excellent job at the institute.

4. General Poultry

Several Club members attended adult meetings periodically and also do
part time work in poultry operations in the county. Several projects are
considered to be outstanding.


D. SWINE

Because there are only about 2,500 hogs in the county, program activi-
ties are limited to personal requests. The swine producers are under the
supervision of Mr. C. W. Johns, County Swine Inspector for garbage fed hogs.
Several requests were answered during the year.

4-H Swine Program by Robert B. Christmas

There were only a few swine projects in the county during the past
year. The boys with the major breeding swine projects were John Talton, Jr.
and George and Fred Dietrich. There were several barrow projects also. Our
County Youth Show had a small swine division.


E. RABBITS

The Central Florida Rabbit Producers Association met for monthly meet-
ings in the County Agricultural Center.

1. 4-H Rabbit Record Book

This agent served on a special agents committee to draft a 4-H Rabbit
Workbook. This agent drafted the chapters on equipment, sanitation and
diseases and parasites. Material was collected, screened and compiled on
these topics from various publications.
38 -






VII. FIELD CROPS
A. F. Cribbett, Assistant County Agent, In Charge



SITUATION

For the third consecutive year, forage and pasture production was a
problem for livestockmen throughout the county. Only one damaging cold snap
occurred during the winter. However, coal weather began early and remained
through March and early April.

Rainfall was again the big problem. The yearly average of 54 inches
had been reached by mid-August. Record rains were recorded in February
and March 1960. The March rains prevented fertilization and cultural prac-
tices from being carried out. The heavy rains during June and July and the
periodic showers during August and September reduced hay production sharply
and grass ensilaging drastically. Many pastures were covered with water
several different times. Pastures were in bad condition going into the
winter months. Hay quality was poor, because of the rain. Quality corn and
sorghum silage was stored in a few instances. Very little millet was stored
as silage.

Temporary grazing and green chop crops such as oats, ryegrass, millet
and sorghums were planted extensively by dairymen. However, the rain in
many instances washed out many new plantings. Millet production was re-
duced sharply because it was too wet to plant. In several successful millet
plantings, the ground was too wet to cut when the crop was mature.

White clover in most sections was late, but was producing well until
the late February and heavy March rains. These rains set back clover growth
drastically.

Insect damage in pasture and forage crops have been light. Spittlebugs
have been reported in heavy infestations in some areas of the county, with
high damage. Infestations of grass worms fall army worms and stripped
loopers began showing in late September.

All county livestock producers were kept informed of the various
changes in regards to pesticide tolerance information. The latest pasture
and forage pesticide recommendations were furnished each producer.

The three forage needs expressed by livestockmen are a productive
summer clover or legume, a productive high land clover or legume, and a
winter perennial grass to balance out their year round forage programs. A
productive summer clover or legume could greatly enhance pasture and forage
production in this area.


FIELD CROP ACTIVITIES

1. Pesticide Tolerance Information

An intensified forage pesticide information program for dairymen and
beef cattlemen was started in December, 1959. The latest pesticide infor-
mation was sent to every livestock producer in the county.


- 39 -






After a mid-January 1960 district pesticide training and information
conference, latest recommendations were disseminated by circular letters.
As new information and recommendations developed these were disseminated
through circular letters. In practically every newsletter published this
year, producers were reminded to read and follow label directions.

2. CattlemenIs Pasture Seminar

Information on pasture and forage programs for concentrated cattle
operations, was presented by D. W. Jones, Association Extension Agronomist,
FAES. Some 18 cattlemen participated in the lecture-discussion type meeting
held February 16th. Mr. Jones stressed management and utilization factors
to be considered.

3. Farm Machinery Show

Local Ford equipment dealer, Monty Hood, flew this agent and several
county farmers to Jacksonville, Florida, to see the 1960 Cavalcade of Farm
Machinery. The show was an excellent musical production featuring new farm
equipment. A spectacular well worth seeing -- both educational and enter-
taining.

4. Land Capability Information

Ways of disseminating land capability information to county livestock
producers was discussed with Al Swartz, County Soil Conservationist. A
committee of dairymen and cattlemen were selected to discuss methods of
dissemination. In June, 1960 the committee met and decided the best methods
to use were:

a. Programs and discussions through farm meetings.

b. Inform lending agencies of the availability and importance of
land capability information and how farmers should use the information.

c. Educate Vo-Agriculture and 4-H members on land capability and
how the information should be used.

5. Water and Hurricane Damage Surveys

Immediately following the record March 15 17 rains a visual survey
was made of pasture areas in various parts of the county. Water, except
in the marsh and river range and certain pocket areas drained off much
faster than anticipated. At one point it was estimated approximately 30
percent of the improved pastures were covered by water.

After the September 11 hurricane pasture areas were again visually
surveyed. However, water conditions were not as bad as during the March
period.

6. Spittlebugs

During early June, the first infestation or flight of the two stripped
spittlebug was discovered on the T. G. Lee dairy farm by Mr. Hunter Kelley,
farming manager. The Extension Entomologist, James Brogdon was notified of
the infestation. After a visit by the Entomologist was made, several pest-
icide materials were selected to use to set up test plots. However, due to


- 0o -






heavy rains, the materials were never tested.


Those pastures infested with spittlebugs were mowed. This practice
helped to keep damage to a minimum. However, it did not cut down the in-
tensity of the infestations. Spittlebug damage was not as severe as that
occurring during the 1959 season.

7. Silage Tour

A tour of three farms putting up corn, sorghum and grass silage was
planned by the Dairy Advisory Committee for July 7th. Information was
collected from each farm on their machinery and labor costs. A brochure
was published including economic, equipment and various ensiling information.
Twenty-one dairymen, cattlemen and machinery dealers viewed the processes
used on the B. W. Judge farm (grass silage), T. G. Lee farm (corn and sorghum)
and A. J. Rusterholz farm (corn). The group saw 300 tons of silage being
sotred per day with 3 men. The purpose of the tour was to emphasize the
economics of silage making.

8. Agronomy Program Planning

The agronomy program plans are set forth by the Dairy and Beef Cattle
Advisory Committee. These plans are combined to form the annual agronomy
Plans of Work.

9. Contacts

Livestockmen were advised through a number of personal visits on fer-
tilizing and liming several thousand acres of pasture based on complete
soil analysis. New pasture and forage production information including
fertilization, management and utilization information was published in reg-
ular monthly circular letters reaching some Wh dairymen, 78 cattlemen and
numerous agricultural service personnel. Pasture production information was
featured on several monthly radio broadcasts.


A. BEEKEEPING

Situation

There was approximately 9,500 colonies of bees owned by 30 commercial
Orange County beekeepers in 1960. The major portion of the honey produced
locally was citrus and palmetto honey.

The citrus honey flow was one of the best on record due to the dry
April and May periods and an excellent citrus bloom. The palmetto honey
flow was good also.

Although the honey price has been down, beekeepers were in a much
better position than last year. Several larger beekeepers continued to ex-
pand.

Excessive rainfall has hampered beekeepers various times of the year
when working their colonies and bee yards.


- 41 -






1. Central Florida Beekeepers Association

Several meetings of the Central Florida Beekeepers Association were
held in the County Agricultural Center throughout the year. The association
was assisted in arranging for these dinner meetings. On several occasions
this agent acted as secretary for the association.

2. Contacts

A quarterly newsletter was published reaching some 44 beekeepers. The
circular letters included production, marketing, management and meeting
information.

Several beekeepers were visited throughout the year. A number of bee-
keepers were called about picking up swarming colonies in various areas of
the county. Several beekeepers were assisted in locating possible bee yard
sites in Florida and mid-western states.

4-H Beekeeping Program by Robert B. Christmas

There are 8 4-H Club members with outstanding apiary projects in the
county. These club members are ably lead by M. B. Sunday, local leader.

1. Apiary Training Session

A training session was held in Orlando and Mr. M. B. Sunday, local
leader assisted Mr. John Haynie, Apiculturist with this session.

2. Awards

John Rumpf placed second in the State Beekeepers Awards Program.


- h2 -








VIII. 4-H CLUB WORK
Robert B. Christmas, Assistant County Agent, In Charge



Agent R. B. Christmas was responsible for the county boys 4-H olub
work after accepting the position February 1, 1960. Prior to this time,
Agent S. L. Brothers was responsible during the first month of this re-
porting period. The 4-H program was without a full time agent during the
month of January and Agento Swanson, Cribbett and Colburn shared these
responsibilities during this month.

Even though the 4-H Agent is primarily responsible for the entire
program, he was assisted with the planning and the acutal execution in many
cases by fellow agents as well as occasionally help from the Home Demonstra-
tion Staff.

1. CLUB MRGANIZATICN AND PROGRAMMING

During the first three months of this reporting period regular meetings
were conducted in eleven school clubs, three community clubs and one special
interest club (dairy). A second special interest club (marksmanship) met
periodically. The school clubs met twice monthly during the school year,
while the community and special interest clubs met one per month. One
community club and the special interest club met throughout the entire year.
Mr. M. B. Sunday and Mr. F. J. Rumpf assisted with the Pine Castle and
Lockhart Community Clubs respectively. Older 4-H'ers also were responsible
for much of the leadership and accomplishment in their clubs. During April
of the past year an additional community club (North Orange) was reorganized.
John Odom, Jr. assisted in the reorganization of this club and in its oper-
ation.

A total of 5S9 4-H Club members were enrolled during the year. Of
these 267 were first year members, 109 were second year members and 83 were
third or more year members. There were many deletions during the year and
also project completion left something to be desired. This is felt to have
been partially the result of there being staff personnel changes.

There was approximately 356 club members attending meetings regularly
at the close of the school year with 193 of them completing 268 projects
ranging from personal health to beef production. Mary boys visited the club
meetings during the year.

A program booklet containing programs of an educational, organizational
and recreational nature was drafted immediately prior to this reporting
period and was presented to the school clubs. The programs presented during
the reporting year included:

a. Parlimentary Procedure and Officers Duties
b. Growing Slash Pine
c. Entomology
d. Beekeeping
e. Beef Cattle Breeds
f. Rally Day
g. Public Speaking
h. Record Books


- 43 -







The Community Clubst programs consisted of various talks, demonstrations,
films and plan making as decided by the members, adult leader and assistant
agent.

The special interest club in dairy held monthly meetings throughout
the year. The club also held periodic schools, training sessions, recrea-
tional activities, shows, demonstrations, tours, etc. Jointly these are
discussed under section on 4-H dairy events. Many adults devoted time to
this program. These included Mr. and Mrs. A. Foote, Mrs. Glen Dunlap,
Mr. Carrol Ward, Sr., Mr. Carrol Ward, Jr. and many others.

During September 1960 fourteen school clubs, four community and one
special interest club began a new year of club work. The school clubs and
two community clubs meet twice monthly while two community clubs and the
special interest club meet once monthly. A program booklet containing pro-
grams for the entire year was drafted. Programs presented near the end of
the reporting period included:

a. Introduction to 4-H
b. Officer Election
c. Officer Duties and Parlimentary Procedure
d. Record Keeping

Community clubs have planned their programs for the coming year and are
in the process of securing new leaders and assistants.

The Boys' 4-H Council consisting of two members from each club was
active during the year with monthly meetings. The council planned and
sponsored many activities during the year such as: Junior and Senior
Christmas parties, trip to State Fair, County 4-H Contests, Rally Day, 4-H
Club Camp, Farm-City Week exhibit, Awards Program, refreshment stands and
many others. Many of these were joint affairs with the Girls' 4-H Council
or other 4-H girls organizations.

2. PROGRAM PLANNING

Adult and Junion Leader planning groups met periodically during the
year to lay the ground work for the I-H program.

The Dairy Club selected a special parent committee to assist them and
help with their dairy program.

Joint planning sessions were conducted extensively during the report-
ing period.

3. PROJECT WORK

Orange County boys carried all of the major projects listed in 4-H Club
work during the past year. However, the majority of projects, especially
those of younger members, were electricity, home beautification, entomology,
home gardening and safety.

A large percentage of the 4-H membership is from the urban areas and
consequently take projects which require no additional acreage to the home
lot.


-1h -







A twenty-acre forestry plot is owned and maintained by 4-H Club members
at Christmas, Florida.

Good project work and good record keeping was continuously encouraged.

4. 4-H CAMPS

a. County 4-H Club Camp

Orange County 4-H Clubs camped 56 boys and 106 girls at Camp
McQuarrie during the month of June. This camp was planned primarily by the
4-H Club members themselves and all of the government and activities leader-
ship was provided at camp by them.

An approach to eliminate as much regimentation as possible was intro-
duced at this camp. Honor tables, squads and tables were discontinued.
However, constant cabin cleanliness was required. The campers appeared to
be very much more relaxed and at ease in this type camp. Five camp scholar-
ships were given by the Orlando Rotary Club.

The camp itineary included instruction periods in swimming, crafts
and first aid in the mornings and general tours and recreation in the after-
noon and evening. The afternoon activities consisted of a wildlife or
nature tour, games, trip to Juniper Springs and free swimming. Evening
programs consisted of games, folk and modern dancing, candlelighting cere-
monies, and others. Adult women leaders and a man bus driver accompanied
our county to camp.

The outstanding boy and girl camper of the week award was discontinued
and replaced by a camp chief and princess who were elected by popular vote.
Marcus Newberg and Vivian York were chosen for these honors.

b. Wildlife Camp

Five 4-H Club members attended the camp at Camp McQuarrie for a one-
week period. Those attending were Loy Caldwell, Carl Kost, Wayne Partin,
Marcus Newberg and Steve Rumpf. The boys received special training in wild-
life, conservation, marksmanship and other worthwhile information. Wayne
Partin placed high in rifle competition while Marcus Newberg was the leader
of the camp Honor Squad.

c. Junior Citrus Institute

This institute was a week long camp and school held at Camp Cloverleaf.
Boys from Orange County attending were Loy Caldwell, David Main, Robert
Main, Nathaniel Meeks and Marcus Newberg. General instruction on citrus
nutrition, disease, insects and management were stressed during the week
along with adequate recreation. Marcus Newberg was winning Senior Camper at
a question bee on material covered during the week. He also was selected
as the outstanding camper of the week. Loy Caldwell was first place
Freshman in the question bee while David Main was third place in the
Sophmore question bee.


- 5 -







5. COMPETITIVE CONTESTS


a. Count

1. All Livestock
-
These are discussed in the respective specialized sections of the
report.

2. Public Speaking

a. County -H Speaking Contest

Some thirty-five contestants spoke in club contests. From
those, the top 7 juniors and the top 6 seniors were invited to speak at the
County 4-H Public Speaking contest. Denny Dennison was junior winner and
Ronald Stephens was senior winner.

b. Soil Conservation Speaking Contest

Four Orange County boys entered the annual SCS Public Speaking
contest. These were Denny Dennison, Fred Dietrich, George Dietrich and
Xonnie Swanson. Fred Dietrich was second place speaker.

c. Optimist's Public Speaking Contest

Fred and George Dietrich represented 4-H in the Optimist's
Speaking contest. Fred placed second.

3. Tractor Operator

County Tractor Driving contest was held in conjunction with Rally
Day. County tractor dealers furnished the tractors and prize money for the
contest and Orlando Kiwanis Club Agriculture Committee judged the contest.
Senior winner was Kenley Platt of Bithlo and junior winner was George
Dietrich of Bithlo. These boys represented Orange County at District Events
Day. Six seniors and five juniors participated in this event.

4. Lamp Making Contest

Six Orange County 4-H Club members entered their lamps in the
county contest held at the Central Florida Fair. Lamps exhibited by Fred
Dietrich and Denny Dennison were selected as winners for the senior and
junior division respectively. These boys represented our county in the
District contest.

5. Dairy Pasture Essay

The boys submitted their essays to the county office which were in
turn forwarded to the State office for judging.

6. Entomology

Seven 4-H Club members exhibited their insect collection at the
county contest at the Central Florida Fair. The winners of the junior and
senior division were Peter Fekete and John Rumpf who represented the county in
the District contest.

66 -







7. Other Contests

Charles Foxbower had the best ornamentals exhibit, best vegetable
exhibit, best fruit exhibit and best home beautification record book at the
county contest which was held at the Central Florida Fair.

Fred Hoffman exhibited the best honey sample also at the Fair in our
4-H contests.

b. District

District Events Day was held at Brevard County Agricultural Center.
Orange County entered a contestant in each of the eight contest divisions.
Peter Fekete and John Rumpf placed first in junior and senior entomology
exhibits. Denny Dennison and Fred Dietrich placed third in their respective
lamp entries. George Dietrich and Kenley Platt placed second and third in
respective tractor competition. Denny Dennison was second placed junior
public speaker. Ronald Stephen placed first in senior public speaking. He
later placed second in the bi-district contest.

6. CLUB APPEARANCES AND MEETINGS

a. Civic Clubs Appearances

1. Orlando Rotary Club

Two members, Loy Caldwell and Ronald Stephens spoke to this club on
the subjects "How the Farmer Feeds the Nation" and "We Have a Problem".
These talks were well accepted by the club and many favorable comments given.

2. Orlando Kiwanis Club

Fred Dietrich and Xonnie Swanson reported to this club their re-
quirements for going, activities while there and suggested future benefits
from Annual Boys' Shortcourse. This club sponsors the Shortcourse trip
each year.

3. Winter Park Kiwanis Club

Ronald Stephens and Fred Dietrich spoke to this civic club on 4-H
Club work and its meaning in Orange County.

b. Annual Meetings

Many of the county 4-H members attend the annual meetings of the
Cattlemen's Association, DHIA, ABA, Farm Bureau, Farmers Cooperative Exchange,
Production Credit Association and other such farm organizations in behalf
of I-H.

7. SPECIAL 4-H EXHIBITS

a. Farm-City Week

The county 4-H Club constructed an exhibit for annual Farm-City Week
in the county exhibit building. Several members displayed their projc~ie
in this exhibit.


- h7 -







b. Central Florida Fair

During the fair 4-H members have one exhibit booth to display all of
their contest entries such as lamps, vegetables, honey, insects and others.

c. P.T.A.

The club members in the Union Park area presented a joint program to
the Union Park Elementary School P.T.A. on 4-H, its work and accomplishments.
The program consisted of various talks, discussions and demonstrations.
Projects were also exhibited to the P.T.A.

8. SPECIAL 4-H PROJECTS

a. Refreshment Stand

The community clubs and dairy club sponsored refreshment or concession
stands at all schools, cattle sales and shows. All profits were placed in
the treasury of the respective club. Approximately twenty such stands were
operated during the reporting period.

b. Christmas Forestry Project

The 4-H forestry plot at Christmas was maintained by the county 4-H
clubs.

c. Individual Club Projects

1. North Orange Club sponsored a clean up of some local city pro-
perty.

2. East Orange Club also planned sponsorship of a clean-up pro-
gram of some public property.

3. Lockhart Community Club had a food drive during Christmas
holidays for needy families.

4. Christmas Elementary 4-H Club planted several citrus trees in
the school yard. These trees were donated by the Sangster Nursery.

9. 4-H RECREATION

a. Christmas Party

A Junior and a Senior Christmas party was held jointly with county
girls' club at the County Agricultural Center. Both parties were sponsored
and planned by the 4-H Club Councils and were attended by approximately 400
club members and guests.

b. Rally Day

Some 100 Orange County 4-H boys and guests attended the County Boys'
Rally Day. The day's events included various races and sporting events.
The winning senior club was Lockhart Commnity and the winning junior club
was Apopka Elementary.


- 48 -







c. Brevard Fun Day

Six county high school age 1.-H Club boys attended a Fun Day sponsored
by Brevard County 4-H members. This was a joint affair with some 50 or
more members from District VII in attendance. The day's activities included
a tour of the Minute Maid concentrate plant, swimming and lunch at the beach,
and recreational games and folk dancing.

d. Miscellaneous

Various community clubs and special interest clubs held parties, pic-
nics and other recreational activities from time to time throughout the year.

10. STATE 4-H PROGRAMS

a. State Fair 4-H Day

Some sixty Orange County 4-H Club boys attended this event by the way
of a special Charter 4-H train. A total of 300 youngsters from Orange and
Osceola Counties made this one day trip. A host team of two Orange County
boys served one day in the State Fair 4-H booth.

b. 4-H Shortcourse

Fourteen Orange County senior 4-H Club members were sponsored by the
Orlando Kiwanis Club to Annual 4-H Boys' Short Course in Gainesville. First
year boys attending were James Taylor, Claude Dowda, Xonnie Swanson, and
Norman Mallard.

Senior boys attending were John Rumpf, Marcus Newberg, John Odom, John
Talton, Jr., Luke Crossley, Jr., Fred Hoffman, Kenley Platt, Fred Dietrich,
Wayne Partin and Loy Caldwell. Adult leader F. J. Rimpf attended also.

Fred Dietrich and John Rumpf served as delegates to the State Council,
Loy Caldwell was alternate.

11. JOINT FFA AND 4-H PROGRAMS

A Meats Identification and an Insect Identification contest were held
jointly with the county 4-H members and FFA members in conjunction with
Farm-City Week. Special training sessions were held for both groups and
some 75 or more boys participated.

12. AWARDS PROGRAM

a. County -H Awards

The County Awards Program recognized thirty-one boys, one alumni and
three leaders for their outstanding 4-H Club work for the past year. The
program was held jointly and was attended by some 250 4-H girls and boys,
their parents, friends and guests. The program was sponsored by the North
Orlando Opti-Mrs. Club. Refreshments followed the program. A special 4-H
edition in the Orlando Evening Star honored the boys. Paul Hendrix was the
main speaker.


- 49 -







b. State 4-H Awards

Initial records of fourteen Orange County boys were forwarded for
inspection by State staff members. Additional information was requested
from nine of these i-H members. From these were selected a seventh place
winner, a sixth place winner, four second place winners and two State winners
The two State winners were John Rumpf, Entomology and Fred Dietrich, Boys'
Agriculture. These two boys attended the State Awards banquet held in
Jacksonville and attended National h-H Club Congress in Chicago. Second
place winners were Marcus Newberg, tractor; Luke Crossley, home beautifi-
cation; John Rumpf, apiary; and Kenley Platt, Citizenship.

c. Other Awards

1. State Cooperative Contest

Lockhart Community Club was selected as District Boys' winners.
Six Club members attended the Cooperative Institute held at Camp Cloverleaf.
This was an expense paid three-day program.

2. Poultry

Steve Rumpf was selected to receive one of six poultry scholarships
to Short Course.

3. Citrus

Marcus Newberg received an award for being the outstanding camper
at Junior Citrus Institute.

13. MISCELLANEOUS 4-H PROGRAMS AND PROJECT AREAS

a. Officers Training School

This joint school was conducted for all new club officers. Classes
were taught in four areas by older members and Mr. G. W. White. The program
was sponsored by the North Orlando Optimist and Opti-Mrs. Clubs who pre-
sented flag sets or gavels to the clubs having a certain required number of
officers present. This school was attended by some O0 or more Boys' Club
Officers. Nine of the eighteen boys' clubs received flag sets.

b. Rabbit Program

Interest in rabbit projects appeared to increase during the reporting
year. Completions were poor but a good record book for this program will
help extensively. Members with rabbit projects may show their rabbits at
the open show at the Central Florida Fair.

c. Ornamentals

Several ornamental projects were completed in the county. This
appears to be a popular project with many possibilities in this county.


- 50 -







d. Forestry

Several pine projects were started during the year. One red cedar
project was started also.

14. 4-H DISTRICT PLANNING MEETING

Several of these meetings were conducted during the year. Agent
Christmas served as secretary to this group.


- 51 -





IX. COOPERATION WITH OfHER AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES


A. AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION & CONSERVATION COMMITTEE (ASC)

1. Organization

The County Agent is the secretary to the ASC County Committee. The ASC
office is located in the Federal Office Building at the corner of Central
Avenue and Court Street. Mrs. Lenora Sloan is Acting County Office Manager.
In October the following officers were elected to the County Committee for
the 1960-61 year.
Chairman Clarence Datson
Vice-Chairman Walter F. Bronson
Regular Member Neil Dale
1st Alternate Cecil Tucker
2nd Alternate Harry Price

2. Duties

As secretary to this organization, the agent had to attend many County
Committee meetings during the year. The Agricultural Conservation Program
is a means of making Federal cost-sharing available to farmers and ranchers.
For this past year there were 88 payees who received $51,09.81 gross
assistance under the ASC practices.


B. ORANGE SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT (SCS)

The County Agent is secretary to the Board of Supervisors of the Orange
Soil Conservation District. This Board meets on the Ith Friday of every
month at 9:00 A. M. at the office headquarters at 1127 W. Central Avenue,
Orlando.

Supervisors are as follows:

G. E. Snow, Chairman
Donald F. Rybolt, Vice-Chairman
Donald D. Platt
Robert M. Dilatush, Jr.
Robert H. McColley

The SCS personnel consists of: Al Swartz, Conservationist; Donald
Vandergrift, technician, West Orange; and Dave Decker, aide.

The biggest work load of the SCS has continued to be in the field of
engineering, including irrigation systems for dairies and ranches.

The County Agent's office has many times during the year encouraged
new land owners to request the services of the local SCS office. Many of
these folks were unaware of the engineering assistance which was available
to them.

Conservationist, Al Swartz and Assistant Agent, A. F. Cribbett, worked
together on farm plans and land capability several times during the year.


- 52 -





C. ORANGE COUNTY FARM BUREAU

The County Agent is agriculture adviser to the County Farm Bureau which
is the largest Farm Bureau in the state with 2,003 members. The county
office is located at 2750 W. Washington and Mrs. Elizabeth M. Russell is
secretary.

The Board of Directors meet regularly every other month on the 3rd
Monday of the month during the year. The agent attended these Board meetings
regularly in an advisory capacity.

Directors for the County Farm Bureau for the 1960-61 year are:

President Jack Ross
Vice-President Charlie Root
Secretary-Treasurer Harold Henschen
Directors Eric Hooper
R. H. Gibbs
Hanson Collins
T. G. Lee
George C. McClure
Tom Mahaffey
Chester Karst
R. G. Pitman, Jr.
Rollo Thoren


D. OTHER AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES

During the year many requests for services rendered by other agricul-
tural agencies were received by the County Agent's office. These folks
were referred to these departments and this office made every effort to
cooperate fully with these agencies in every way possible. These agencies
and men in charge were:

Farmers Home Administration Curtis Green
State Plant Board Aubrey Crews
Central Florida Production Credit Association John Payne
Florida Citrus Production Credit Association A. H. Whitmore
Orlando National Farm Loan Association H. D. Freeman
State Fertilizer Inspectors Thurmond Tucker & Kenneth Denning
Crop Forecasting Service Charlie Townsend
Florida Fruit & Vegetable Association Joffre David
State Veterinarian Dr. M. E. Legge
County Dairy & Milk Sanitarian Dr. L. A. Scribner
Florida Forest Service Charles Chellman & Joe Carroll
State Mastitis Control Program Ray McCown
Florida Egg & Poultry Inspector W. W. Perry & T. R. Crawford
Pure Foods, Weights & Measures D. L. Smith
Federal Crop Insurance Tom Moore
Federal- State Frost Warning Service Ray Shearouse
Federal Wildlife Service R. M. Brantley
Bee Inspection Service Russell Martin
Civil Defense Henry F. Swanson, Agricultural Chairman
Screworm Eradication Program Mose Tindall


- 53 -






X. PUBLIC AFFAIRS


1. "AG FRIEND" LETTER

This monthly letter is sent to 434 agricultural folks here in Orange
County who, in their official capacity either sell, service, supply, regu-
late or administer various agricultural programs.

The purpose of this letter is to acquaint these folks with the overall
agricultural picture locally and what all of us can do in various capacities
to see that agriculture remains sound and progressive due to joint team work
of local "Ag Friends". Some of the highlights of these letters were:

December Present status of Orange County's agriculture rank and acreage
and Conservation Needs Inventory projection of status in 1975.
January (No letter sent out)
eruar Need for a county committee on agriculture to promote and protect
agricultural interests.
March The bank deposits for agriculture -- land, farmers and scientists
are getting low.
Aril 4-H & FFA Youth activities in Orange County.
Ma County Agricultural Extension staff members and their job
responsibilities in the various agricultural commodity fields.
June Crop Reporting Service location in town and services they
perform for agriculture.
y (No letter sent out)
A st Taxes and how they affect agricultural interests.
Sepember Agricultural zoning.
October Farm-City Week activities a chance for good public relations
for agriculture.
November Soil types in Orange County and their agricultural potential.

2. GOOD LAND USE APPROACH ILLUSTRATED TALKS

Once the Conservation Needs Inventory Report was completed for the
county, it was quite obvious that a great deal of educational work would be
needed to determine the future of agriculture not only in Orange County but
in Central Florida as well.

The projection report for Orange County for the year 1975 indicated a
population gain in the Orlando area from 247,000 to 850,775 people in the
next 15 years This urbanization impact would result in a loss of 25,000
acres (a 36% decrease) of the county's citrus acreage; 44,000 acres of
pasture land (a 23% decrease) and a decrease of 66,000 acres of woodland
(a 30% decrease).

Since these population pressures will result in new problems in the
fields of taxes, zoning, condemnation suits, water regulations, labor and
public relations, a series of 80 Kodachrome slides was developed along the
lines of these impact areas. Dr. Jim Childs, Plant Pathologist, USDA Station
took the pictures and Al Swartz, Conservationist, U. S. Soil Conservation
Service prepared some special charts for these slide series. Marion McDonald,
flying farmer of Plymouth, flew the plane for aerial shots of highways and
local flooding conditions.


- 54 -





Several urbanization impact slides were developed around the problems
that have resulted in California so that we in Florida might avoid these
mistakes by a good land use approach in our urban expansion.

Hundreds of individuals have been shown these slides in a special 25
minute commentary. Some of the major groups were:

Kiwanis Clubs Winter Park, Mt. Dora, Bradenton, Oroveland, North,
South, and Downtown Orlando Clubs. Rotary Clubs Dade City, Lake Wales,
Winter Garden and Apopka. Lions Clubs Lockhart and Orlando. Optimist
Clubs North Orlando and ando. Sertma Club, and the Orange County Bar
Association, Citrus Institute.

Many special groups and individuals such as local legislators, tax
assessor, zoning board, Directors of the Farm Bureau, Area Poultry Associ-
ation, USDA Crop Reporting Service personnel, Vocational Agriculture
teachers, Research workers local USDA Station, Soil Conservation County
and District officials plus State Conservationist, Extension workers, Orange
County Artificial Breeding Association, several garden club circles, many
key individuals as well as the annual meeting of the Central Florida Pro-
duction Association.

This slide series was to be shown to the Governor-Elect Farris Bryant
on August 2nd but since the electricity was off the time of the appointment,
a verbal report was given.

Several duplicate slide series have been prepared to be used by other
individuals to help tell the Good Land Use Approach to future zoning in more
urban areas.

3. FARM-CITY WEEK ACTIVITIES (NOVEMBER 18 24th)

All agricultural commodity groups in the county were encouraged to tell
their story in an agricultural display. Also all groups that service, sell,
supply, regulate or process agricultural products in the county were en.
courage to put in a display in the agricultural exhibit building.

Over 50 agricultural groups, concerns, and organizations responded by
placing in an agricultural display. Several thousand people visited the
exhibits to see Orange County's agricultural industries.

Special opening ceremonies were centered around the presence of the
CITRUS QUEEN Miss Florence Cloud, Cypress Gardens; DAIRY PRINCESS Miss
Oail Gustafson, Green Cove Springs; MISS FLRIIDA EOG Miss Diane Hedges,
Winter Park; HONEY QUEEN Miss Patty McGinnis, Edgewater, Florida; MISS
FLORIDA VEGETABLES Miss Pegi Mitchell, Orlando; and the FOLIAGE QUEEN.
These young ladies appeared on TV programs to plug Farm-City Week activities.
The Orange County Farm Bureau had a special luncheon for these "Queens", the
County Commissioners, the local legislators, and Mayor Robert S. Carr, who
formally opened the Exhibit Building.

On Saturday, November 19th, a special Meats and Insect Identification
Contests were held for I-H'ers and FFA members.

All three Orlando Kiwanis Clubs and the Winter Park Club held their
noon luncheon meeting at the Ag Center on Monday, November 21st.


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A Fair Managers and Directors one-day conference was held at the Ag
Center on Tuesday, November 22nd. This group of about 65 folks from Central
and South Florida toured the exhibits. They were treated to a special lunch-
eon by the Central Florida Fair.

Wednesday, November 23rd, the Orlando Rotary Club had their noon lunch-
eon meeting at the Ag Center and visited the exhibits.

I. FQOEIGN AGRICULTURAL VISITORS

During the past year several foreign visitors paid us a call to get
familiar with our agricultural programs. Some spent only a day while several
spent several days. There were visitors from Zanzibar, Yugoslavia, Vietnam,
and two from Indionesia.

5. WEEKLY RADIO PROGRAM

The County Agent's office puts on a weekly S-minute radio program over
station WDBO at 6:05 A. M. This weekly Farm Forum program is rotated
between the agents. Agent Swanson has the first and fifth Saturdays, Agent
Cribbett the second Saturdays, Agent Colburn the third Saturdays, and Agent
Christmas the fourth Saturdays.

6. CENTRAL FLORIDA FAIR

The County Agent is charged with the responsibility of being Superin-
tendent of the community exhibits at the Central Florida Fair. This job
requires the selection of judges to judge the various exhibits in these
departments and to help tally the results and pass out the awards and score
sheets to the chairman of these exhibits. Agents Swanson and Colburn
collaborated in this responsibility during the week of February 21st 27th.

Agent Swanson went to Gainesville May 15th and 16th with H. H. Parrish,
Secretary-Manager of Central Florida Fair to attend the state meeting of
the Florida Federation of Fair and Livestock Shows.

Arrangements were made for a District one-day meeting of Fair Directors
and Managers of the Federation to meet at the Orange County Agricultural
Center, November 22nd. In so doing this group was able to view the agri-
cultural displays in connection with National Farm-City Week activities.

7. STATE FAIR DAIRY SHOW MEETING

Assistant Agent Cribbett attended the 1960 State Fair Dairy Show meeting
in Tampa. The meeting is held to set regulations and policies for the State
Fair Youth and Open Dairy Shows.

8. RURAL YOUTH CONFERENCE AND PROGRAMS

All FFA advisors and supervisor of Vocational Agricultural education,
J. B. Johnson, were invited to an evening meeting at the Orange County
Agricultural Center on March 28th. The purpose of this meeting was to dis-
cuss the possibility of an Orange County Agricultural Youth Fair and to
notify the advisors of the forthcoming agricultural scholarship examination.
All Extension agents attended this conference.

On September 19th FFA advisors met again to discuss participation in


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Farm-City Week activities. They agreed to put in an FFA display and to
train FFA boys to participate in a special meat and insect contest.

Various FFA Chapters in the county high schools have been assisted with
programs during the year. The Lakeview High School Chapter was presented
information in January on "Your Future and Agriculture" a career infor-
mational program.

During March the Colonial High School Chapter was assisted with rec-
anendations on fertilizing and planting their garden areas. The Chapter
had no Chapter advisor at the time. Soil smaples were taken and specific
muck and sand planting recommendations were made.

During May, the District FFA quartet, string band, harmonica and queen
contests were judged at Boone High School.

All Vo-Ag instructors have been invited to participate in county live-
stock management and quality control schools. Several instructors and
Chapters did participate. One instructor, Sheldon Hawsey, Apopka High
School, was very helpful in conducting a County Poultry Management School
in Apopka.

9. ARTIFICIAL BREEDING PROGRAM ROTARY CLUB

On May 11th, Wilbur Aikens, fieldman for ABS, talked to the Orlando
Rotary Club on the artificial insemenation program for dairy cattle in
Orange County.

After the program, the entire Rotary Club went outside where dairyman,
Jack Dodd had brought a Guernsey cow to town in a special trailer. Tech-
nician, John OtSteen explained the procedure of artificial insemenation and
then actually demonstrated this technique for the group.

Also in connection with this special agricultural program, two Orange
County 4-H Club boys Ronald Stephens and Loy Caldwell gave the Club in-
teresting talks.

10. JOB DESCRIPTION

A two-day conference was held at the Orange County Agricultural Center
for Extension agents to learn the procedures for writing a complete job
description.

After this course of instruction all agents spent several days writing
up the completed form on each Extension position in the county. Copies will
be turned over to the County Commissioners. Other copies are now on file
in the Gainesville office.

11. COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIP
-- :- [ J J

With the June graduation of Fred Kost, Union Park, recipient of the
County Agricultural Scholarship, this 4-year ($600 a year) scholarship
became available for competitive examination. News of this scholarship
examination was sent to all Vo-Ag teachers and principals of high schools
in the county. A special news release was prepared for the paper concerning
this examination.


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Ten boys took this competitive examination.


J. B. Johnson of the county school office secured the examination
booklets and helped score these tests.

Joe Lord, Orlando, was high point contestant and received this 4-year
agricultural scholarship to the University of Florida.

12. EXTENSION WORKERS CONFERENCE

All four agents attended the annual Extension workers conference held
at the University of Florida the week of August 22 26th.

13. NATIONAL COUNTY AGENTS CONVENTION

Since the National County Agricultural Agent's convention was slated
for Miami Beach the week of October 20 November 3rd, all Florida agents
were directly involved in many ways.

Agent Swanson was appointed chairman of the exhibits and Agent Cribbett
was appointed member of the Registration Committee.

In a special preliminary planning in Miami Beach January hth and 5th,
Agent Swanson was delegated the responsibilities for exhibits.

Both Agents Swanson and Cribbett attended the National Convention in
Miami Beach the week of October 30th through November 3rd. This proved to
be the largest attendance to a National County Agent's convention in its
45-year history. This was also the first time this group ever met in Florida.

14. ORANGE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

A special meeting was called during National Farm-City Week on Monday
night, November 21st of all agricultural groups in the county.

The purpose of this meeting was twofold (1) see the Orange County
Agricultural Trade Show and (2) discuss the possibility of organizing a
county agricultural "watch dog" committee to look after the agricultural
affairs of all groups in this fast developing urban area. All agri-business
concerns as well as agricultural segments were encouraged to discuss pro-
grams needed to strengthen agriculture in Orange County.

15. CRAME COUNTY DISASTER COMMITTEE

The County Disaster Committee was assisted in March to determine the
damage to pastures and forage crops due to water. State Disaster Committee
Chairman, O. P. McArthur, was conducted on a tour of the county's water
damaged area.

16. JAYCEE oUTSTANDIIw YOUaN FARMER

The Orlando Jaycee's were assisted in conducting their search for the
outstanding young farmer in Orange County. Applications were completed on
twelve nominees during December. In early January a 4 man committee com-
posed of Dave Starr, Sheriff; Dr. G. 0. Hall, retired professor; David
Ventulet, District SCS Agent; and Barney Fisher, Jaycee Vice-President,
selected Hilton Teal, dairyman, Winter Garden as the winner. A trophy


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sponsored by the County Fuel Oil Distributors Association was presented Mr.
Teal during the Jaycee Awards night, January 16th. Mr. Teal was judged
second in the State contest.

17. PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT

Dow Study Tour

In May Agent Cribbett was notified that he had been selected the
recipient of the Dow Chemical Compary, County Agricultural Agents Study
Tour, June llth to July lst.

The Southern Tour group met in Memphis, Tennessee, June 12th. After
an indoctrination program, the group left Memphis June 13th by bus making
various stops in Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky. Outstanding and new Extension,
farming, research and agri-business programs were seen in action. Rice pro-
duction to nitrogen manufacturing was seen. Some 3,079 miles were covered
in the nine state area.

The tour was a highlight of this agent's Extension career and proved
to be a real eye opener. A most valuable educational opportunity and ex-
perience packed full of ideas and fellowship.

A report of the tour was given to the County Agents during Annual
Agents Conference August 23rd. Several agents and groups have been shown
color slides of the tour and its many stops. A copy of the report presented
at Agents Conference quoted below to express some of the observations made
by this agent.

Agri-business development is definitely in high gear throughout the
South. We actually visited all types of agri-business ranging from machinery
manufacturing to peanut-butter making. New agri-industries are springing up
all across the cotton belt. For example, we visited a new fish tankage and
oil plant in South Louisiana. Tons of menhaden fish, netted by a large
fleet of boats, are processed daily. In georgia a new plant was producing
a Coastal Bermudagrass pellet, 18% protein content, to replace Alfalfa in
poultry feeds. The Chamber of Commerce, County Agent and farmer groups at
Memphis, Tennessee, were laying final plans for a sweet corn cannery. These
are just a sample of the new developments taking place.

Integration, both horizontal and vertical, has spread through all facets
of agriculture and agri-business in the south. In practically every area
we visited, farmers were producing a special commodity on contract for a
particular processor. For example, a sweet potato canner in Louisiana was
buying all graded sweet potatoes on contract from local producers. The pro-
ducers' price was set several months in advance of the crop planting date.
It is an education in itself to visit an integrated enterprise like the
Paradise Valley Poultry Company, Athens, Georgia. Broilers are bred, hatched,
fed from the company's feed mill, grown by contract growers, processed and
sold direct to the wholesale or retail outlet by the company's processing
plant.

Generally, agri-business across the south is interested in community
welfare and pride and in helping to develop and serve the communities in
which they are established. Agri-business is vitally interested in research,


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development and education. It is working on numerous programs and approaches
in cooperation with research stations, Universities and Extension. Agri-
business is interested in utilization. In every plant, mill or factory we
visited, total utilization of the basic commodity and its by-products was
the by-word. Agri-business is interested in all these things, because they
realize agriculture must meet the mounting surplus problems, reduce produc-
tion costs and meet new market competition.

Perhaps the most rewarding moments of the Study Tour is visiting var-
ious County Extension Agents and reviewing their programs. Agents like
Bill Schroeder, Gould County, Arkansas Agent, who was filled with enthusiasm,
because the county farmers had adopted and were successful with the newest
cotton production practices. Or Harold Brown, Colquitt County, Georgia
Agent, where the total county agricultural income had been increased by
several million dollars in three years. Mainly through an all out soil
fertility, corn and livestock promotion program participated in by all in-
terested groups in the county. And many, many more agents.

I think, though, the smoothest functioning County Extension program we
saw in action was at Henderson County, North Carolina. Here the county
people were looking to Agent Dwight Bennett and his large staff for leader-
ship in many facets of agriculture, home and community life. Cammnities
had been solidified; commodity associations organized; and business, civic,
service and governmental groups were actively interested in the growth of
agriculture and the county communities.

Their County 4-H Motto was "Youth Is Our Greatest Crop". Their commun-
ity development objective was helping man to learn to live, love and work
and play with his neighbors. Their marketing program emphasis was promotion
of commodities and efficiency of operation. And their production objective
was raising the agricultural income of the county. The county people, both
rural and urban, were working together to make Henderson County a happier,
healthier, more prosperous county to live in.


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XI. A SIGNIFICANT STORY OF EXTENSION ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Henry F. Swanson, County Agent


ORNAMENTAL L HORTICULTURE NOW A FULL EXTENSION PROGRAM"


Ornamental horticulture became a full time agricultural Extension

activity in Orange County on November 1, 1959. On this day, William E.

Colburn was appointed Assistant County Agent in charge of Extension programs

in the field of Ornamental Horticulture. Prior to this date the industry

had already reached an economic status whereby it was the number two agri-

cultural activity in the county. Besides much needed assistance at the

commercial level, there also developed a critical need for assistance at

the home owner level. The yearly addition of thousands of new home owners

to the county and their requests for assistance in home gardening problems

had reached a point of diminishing returns. These individual requests for

assistance were getting so great, that agents' assistance required to meet

them necessitated curtailment of some Extension activities in other subject

matter fields.


Recognizing this problem, special funds were made available at the

county and state level to create this much needed agricultural Extension

position in Orange County.


In one short year many educational programs have been developed to meet

the needs of this segment of the industry.


To meet the needs of the greatest number of home owners, five mass

media educational programs were developed by the agent (1) weekly news-

paper column, (2) weekly garden clinic, (3) a six weeks gardening school,

(4) lawn grass demonstration plots, (5) special talks to garden groups.


During the year 52 gardening columns were written for the Florida


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Magazine section of the Sunday edition of the local paper. Timely gardening

topics were covered in a question and answer type column.


On Monday morning, (9:30 12:00) throughout the year, home owners were

encouraged to bring in plant specimens for diagnosis and gardening rec-

ommendations. Also a timely gardening topic was discussed and questions

answered for the group in attendance.


Sixteen different lawn grasses were established in a special planting

area at the Agricultural Center to enable home owners to compare them as to

texture, growth habits, color, etc. These were labeled and special mimeo-

graphed sheets prepared to cover their maintenance and care. When a visitor

indicated which one he preferred, he was given a sheet of instructions for

the care and maintenance of that grass. This result demonstration proved

to be most popular with home owners seeking advice concerning lawns.


During the year this agent gave over 80 talks to various gardening

groups. Many topics were discussed to satisfy the wants of these groups.


In the commercial field many Extension programs were instigated to give

assistance to this segment of the industry.

This agent, besides getting familiar with the industry and its problems,

has been able to assist in sponsoring a one-day foliage growers short course,

set up a complete spray and fertilizer schedule for several nurserymen,

organize local horticultural spraymen into a professional organization,

assisted Orange County garden supply dealers in organizing themselves into

a trade organization. This agent and the Extension Plant Pathologist have

established several disease investigation plots in various foliage nurseries

in the county.


Assistance has been given many golf course greenskeepers and cemetery
62 -





custodians with various turf problems during the year.


The Orange County Agricultural Center is over three-fourths landscaped

because of his efforts.


In addition to these contributions, other Extension activities in the

fields of 4-H Club work, citrus, animal husbandry, etc., have been strength-

ened because these agents could redouble their efforts in these fields in

that they no longer had to spend one-fourth of their time with home owners'

requests.


Yes, Ornamental Horticulture has truly reached a full time Extension

activity in Orange County. As more and more Extension programs and activi-

ties are developed in this field, this financial investment in manpower and

ability will be returned to the taxpayers many times.


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