BIANNUAL VEGETABLE GROWERS' FIELD DAY
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
June 1, 1972 Gainesville, Florida
DEPARTMENTS AND STAFF PARTICIPATING
G. A. Marlowe, Jr., Chairman
M. J. Bassett, Assistant Horticulturist
D. D. Gull, Associate Horticulturist
C. B. Hall, Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, Associate Horticulturist
J. R. Hicks, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
S. R. Kostewicz, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
S. J. Locascio, Horticulturist
A. P. Lorz, Horticulturist
James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist
V. F. Nettles, Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, Horticulturist
J. M. Stephens, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
B. D. Thompson, Horticulturist
Brown, Graduate Assistant
Eiker, Jr., Graduate Assistant
Navarro, Graduate Assistant
Ramirez, Graduate Assistant
Stall, Graduate Assistant
E. T. Smerdon, Chairman
J. M. Myers, Agricultural Engineer
L. N. Shaw, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Habeck, Associate Entomologist
Smart, Associate Nematologist
Lewis Mac Carter, Graduate Assistant
L. H. Purdy, Chairman
A. A. Cook, Pathologist
C. F. Eno, Chairman
J. G. A. Fiskell, Biochemist
AUG 2 9 1972
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
Carrot and Snap Bean Breeding 3
Bitterness in Eggplant 4
Effect of Handling Practices on Quality on Fresh Vegetables 5
Factors Affecting Postharvest Quality of Processed Potatoes 6
Variety Development, Cultural Practices and Mechanical 7
Harvesting Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes
Physiology and Biochemistry of Tomato Ripening 8
Physiological Disorders of Vegetables Grown on Organic Soils 9
Vegetable Nutrition on Organic Soils 10
Breeding Cantaloupe, Honeydew and Other Cucumis Melons in 11
Variety Development, Cultural Practices and Mechanical 12
Harvesting Systems for Fresh Market Tomatoes
Vegetable Variety Trials 13
Shredded Lettuce Discoloration 15
Sweet Corn Consumer Evaluation 16
Taste Evaluation of Tomatoes 17
Terminal Market Evaluation of Machine Harvested Tomatoes 18
Population, Row Arrangement and Fertilizer Study on Tomatoes 19
Strawberry Nursery Herbicides 20
Time of Planting and Chilling of Strawberry Plants 21
Watermelon Herbicide 22
Herbicide and Vegetable Crop System for Nutsedge Control 23
Nutsedge Screening Trial 24
Strawberry Varieties and Seedings 25
Vegetable Breeding 26
Vegetable Variety Trials Watermelons 27
Pepper Population and Fertility Study 28
Growth Regulators and Cultural Studies with Peppers 29
Snap Bean Varieties for Mechanical Harvest 30
Field Chilling of Vegetables 31
Packinghouse Treatments Affecting Vegetable Quality 32
Persistence of Some Vegetable Herbicides 33
Phosphorus and Copper Interactions on Cucumber 34
A Study of Fruit Detachment Characters for Mechanical 35
Harvesting of Peppers
Irrigation Methods for Strawberries 36
1971-72 Pepper Harvest Mechanization Research 37
Resistance of Peppers to Green Peach Aphids 38
Strawberry Nursery Nematocides 39
Resistance of Cucurbits to Melon Aphis 40
Breeding Pepper for Virus Disease Resistance 41
Sulfur-Coated Urea Mulch Study 42
M. J. BASSETT
CARROT AND SNAP BEAN BREEDING
The primary objectives of the carrot breeding program are to combine
superior flavor, resistance to Alternaria and good yield characteristics.
During the winter season of 1971-72 the entire carrot P. I. collection
maintained at Ames, Iowa was screened for Alternaria resistance. Several
lines, primarily of Japanese origin, showed outstanding resistance.
Efforts are in progress to cross these lines to roots selected from several
cultivars for high soluble solids and good color.
The principal objectives of the snap bean breeding program are:
1. Development of a winter season bean with improved mechanical
2. Combine Florida pole bean flavor with a bush habit.
3. Locate new sources of resistance to cold and resistance to root
4. Develop a new plant habit in which the racemes extend outside the
foliage to expose the pods more easily for mechanical harvest.
The production of the first F2 seed lines and selection of parental
material are in progress pursuant to the above goals.
D. D. GULL
BITTERNESS IN EGGPLANT
There have been frequent reports and complaints that eggplant are bitter
but no causal factor has been isolated. Bitterness in potatoes is due to the
alkaloid solanine and in that potato and eggplant are of the same family,
eggplants were analyzed for solanine content.
Florida Market eggplants were harvested periodically throughout the grow-
ing season and analyzed for solanine content. Normal tasting fruit gave a
negative test for solanine but "bitter" fruit tested positive. Solanine was
not extracted and purified from any of the fruits.
Cultivars of eggplant will be grown and analyzed for bitterness and solanine
content. The compound will be extracted and purified for identification.
Studies will be initiated to correlate bitterness with such factors as cultivar,
plant, cultural practice, and growing season.
D. D. GULL
EFFECT OF HANDLING PRACTICES ON QUALITY OF FRESH VEGETABLES
To determine optimum ethylene and CO2 treatment for ripening Florida tomatoes,
study the effect of CO2 enrichment of freshly harvested corn and subsequent
respiratory patterns and quality retention, and storability of onions treated
with a chemical desiccant to dehydrate tops.
Studies have been initiated to determine optimum ethylene concentration
and treatment duration for ripening Florida tomatoes at the maximum rate.
Preliminary data show that "flow through" systems are superior to commercially
"closed" systems currently being used in Florida. Accumulation of carbon diox-
ide and its resulting effect upon ripening tomatoes in a closed system is being
investigated. High levels of carbon dioxide in an ethylene enriched atmosphere
caused a cessation of the ripening process.
During experimental mechanical harvesting of green tomatoes it has been
observed that most mechanical damage occurs during the early morning hours and
particularly during cool weather. Fruit cuticle resistance to abraision, as
measured by force of a 3 mm rod to penetrate cuticle, was determined for tomatoes
of size 7x7, 6x7, and 6x6 having a pulp temperature of 45, 65, 85, and 1050F
respectively. A linear increase in force was required to penetrate cuticle as
pulp temperature increased. A linear decrease in force was required as size of
Wiltz-65 and Agway Booster Plus E applied to onion tops at 15 gal./A was
effective in initiating moisture loss and breakdown of chlorophyll. The material
appeared to work on contact rather than being translocated so complete coverage
Studies will be expanded and continued on ethylene ripening systems, quality
retention of corn by employing respiratory and enzyme suppressants, and onion
curing studies with chemical desiccants.
D. D. GULL
FACTORS AFFECTING POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PROCESSED POTATOES
This is a regional project with leaders from 16 States cooperating.
The purpose of our phase of study was to evaluate Florida potatoes for
alkaloid (solanine) content. Peels, whole tubers, and peeled tubers, of
12 cultivars or breeding lines grown at Hastings, were analyzed for solanine
Lanape and PA-6-HS-9 contained the highest concentration of solanine
of the cultivars and lines tested. In general, solanine content was higher
than the previous year tested. Sebago and LaChipper had the least amount
and other cultivars were intermediate.
Tubers will be obtained and will be analyzed for solanine content in
the fresh, baked, and chipped form to determine degradation during the cook-
ing process. Only the leading cultivars and advanced breeding lines that
are intended for release will be analyzed.
D. D. GULL
VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL
HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR FRESH MARKET TOMATOES
To determine harvesting systems that adversely affect tomato quality so
that necessary design and handling changes can be made.
Ripening behavior and cuticle damage of tomatoes harvested by a modified
Hart-Carter tomato harvester were not adversely different from those picked by
commercial crews. Sand damage was more apparent on mechanically harvested
fruit but upon ripening was not objectionable, Respiration rate of mechanically
harvested fruit was slightly higher than those picked by crews, but shelf life
and decay were not affected by the two methods of harvest. Color and quality
characteristics of Fla. MH-I were comparable to Walter and Homestead 24.
Evaluations will continue as machine modifications are made. Mechanically
harvested fruit will be processed through commercial channels and shipped to
terminal markets. These fruits will be closely evaluated as to spoilage,
shelf-life, appearance and acceptance by receivers and consumers.
C. B. HALL
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOMATO RIPENING
To study physiological and biochemical changes occurring in the
tomato fruit during maturation with special emphasis on the changes from
the mature green to the red stage.
Work in progress:
Studies are being made on lines of tomatoes called 'Never-ripe' which
produce normal appearing green fruit that does not ripen. These fruit
present the possibility of studying the biochemical systems involved in
ethylene and pigment production and fruit softening.
The effect on fruit quality of several chemicals being tested for blossom
removal is being evaluated.
A study is in progress to determine changes in ribonucleic acids during
Tomato skin (mature green stage) appears to be impermeable to ethylene.
Fruit which turned color a few days after harvest had thicker walls than
fruit which turned color a week or more after harvest. Size of fruit did not
seem to be a factor.
C. B. HALL, M. J. BASSETT AND H. W. BURDINE.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF VEGETABLES GROWN ON ORGANIC SOILS
To determine environmental, nutritional and genetic factors and
their interactions which result in physiological and morphological aberr-
ations found in vegetable crops on the organic soils of Florida and to
select strains resistant to these disorders.
Work in progress:
Manganese deficiency levels are being determined for radishes as the
first step in testing selected lines for efficiency in uptake or utilization
Studies have been started on factors contributing to "stick" formation
The cause of rib necrosis of lettuce is being studied.
The pink-rib disorder of lettuce was found to be associated with the
bacterium, Pseudomonas marginalis.
C. B. HALL AND H. W. BURDINE
VEGETABLE NUTRITION ON ORGANIC SOILS
1. To determine effects of rates, timing, materials and methods of
application of macro- and micro-nutrients on vegetable crop yields and
2. To determine levels of nutrients in the soil and in the plant
tissue at varying stages of growth associated with optimum yield and
Work in progress:
Samples have been taken from nutrition experiments with lettuce and
carrots. All analyses have not been completed as yet.
L. H. HALSEY
BREEDING CANTALOUPE, HONEYDEW AND OTHER CUCUMIS MELONS FOR FLORIDA
To develop varieties of Cucumis Spp. which are culturally and climati-
cally adapted to Florida conditions and to develop parental material con-
taining genetic properties suitable for hybrid development.
Outline of Experiment:
F3 and more Advanced Lines:
Field Numbers 1 41.
Field Numbers 42 115.
Results in 1971:
Eighty cantaloup crosses from 1970 Fall trial were selfed to obtain
F21s. From 58 F2 lines 44 selections exhibited high levels of resistance
to both mildews and to Alternaria. With soluble solids higher than standard
cultivars. Improvement in resistance to foliar diseases and increase in
soluble solids was made in several lines of limited growth habit and dwarf
character. An advanced line (G-129-O1-1-2-1-Bk) submitted for observation
in 1971 regional trials, will be included in 1972 replicated test in South-
ern Cooperative Cantaloupe Variety Trials.
L. H. HALSEY
VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS
FOR FRESH MARKET TOMATOES
Evaluate tomato varieties suitable for mechanical harvest.
Outline of experiment:
1. Fla. MH-1
3. Homestead 24
B. Seed size
1. Direct seeded
Test II .
B. Seed size
B. Seed size
1. Thin to 1 plant
2. No thinning clump
1. Machine seeding
2. Hand seeding
Results in 1971:
Fruit yields were significantly influenced by sizing tomato seed
into heavy, light and unsized fractions. A consistently higher yield was
produced by heavy over light or unsized seed for mature-green and total
marketable size 6x7 tomatoes. Cultivars varied widely for all yield
categories, but best yeilds were produced by Fla. MH-I, Fla. MH-2, Pakmor
and Fla. CAVStW 2153. Seed size effects were similar with all cultivars.
L. H. HALSEY
VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
To evaluate new strains and varieties of vegetables as to their suita-
bility for commercial and home garden production in Florida.
9 Edisto 47
14 Early Market Hybrid
15 241 Star Headliner Hybrid
16 270 Harper Hybrid
6 Fla. G129-Bk-Bk
J. C. Hoffman, Veg.
J. D. Norton, Auburn University
Otis S. Twilley Seed Co.,Salisbury, MD.
R. L. Holmes Seed Co.
i I II
Otis S. Twilley Seed Co.
II II II
J. C. Hoffman, Veg. Breeding Lab.
II II II
II II II
J. D. Norton, Auburn, AL
II II II
L. H. Halsey, University of Florida
Variety Plot Outline
corner of field)
Replicate A (N.E.
VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS Cont.
Results in 1971:
Ten cantaloup cultivars and breeding lines in Southern Cooperative
Trials were compared in a replicated test. Highest yields of marketable
melons were from VBL-C880-M3, VBL-67-2-M2, AC-67-17 and AC-67-59. Best
early yields were obtained from VBL-67-1-M4 and VBL-67-2-M2. Percent
soluble solids was below acceptable (10 percent) level for all entries
except Del. 24-5954-1. Melons of VBL-67-1-M4, VBL-67-2-M2 and Edisto 47
averaged 3.8 pounds.
JAMES R. HICKS and C. B. HALL
SHREDDED LETTUCE DISCOLORATION
To determine effectiveness of some antioxidants in preventing the
browning of shredded lettuce.
Shredded lettuce was dipped in Vege-fresh (V), Potassium sorbate (S),
DHA-S (D), or water (W) and stored at 380 F. in sealed polyethylene bags.
Four replications of each treatment were examined 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days
following treatment and rated for discoloration. A score of 1 indicated no
detectable browning, 2 = slight, 3 = unsalable, and 5 very severe.
Time After Treatment V S D W
3 days 1.0 1.8 1.2 3.0
6 days 1.2 3.5 3.0 3.8
9 days 1.5 4.5 2.5 4.7
12 days 1.5 5.0 2.0 4.7
15 days 1.8 4.7 1.8 5.0
a/ All values are averages of 4 replications.
Vege-fresh, although effective in preventing discoloration, did cause
"leaking" of the lettuce. DHA-S treated lettuce had a "soapy" feel, probably
due to the wetting agent.
An additional experiment was set up using DHA-S which did not contain
the wetting agent and sodium bisulfite. A factorial design was used with 4
levels of each chemical.
The results indicated that although either chemical was effective in
preventing discoloration, the concentration of bisulfite which was effective
in preventing discoloration also induced "leaking" of the lettuce.
JAMES R. HICKS, R. K. SHOWALTER, and E. A. WOLF
SWEET CORN CONSUMER EVALUATION
To obtain a consumer evaluation or opinion on a new hybrid sweet corn
prior to release.
A taste panel consisting of
days. They were asked to evaluate
consisted of sections from the tip
or EES 279. A numerical value of
the highest score, 5 average and 1
due to position on the ear.
40 people was conducted on 5 successive
4 samples of sweet corn. The samples
or butt end of the ear from either lobelle
1 to 9 was assigned the rating with 9 being
very poor. There was little actual difference
Sweetness Flavor Juiciness General Acceptance
Days After Harvest 279 lobelle 279 lobelle 279 lobelle 279 lobelle
3 7.6 3.1 6.9 4.5 6.9 5.0 7.0 4.4
4 7.6 2.9 7.3 3.8 7.0 5.0 7.2 4.1
5 6.6 3.7 6.7 4.5 6.9 5.2 6.8 4.7
6 7.3 3.0 7.1 3.7 7.1 4.6 7.2 3.9
7 7.4 3.0 6.9 3.8 7.0 4.8 6.9 3.8
Average 7.3 3.1 7.0 4.0 7.0 4.9 7.0 4.2
The new hybrid rated substantially higher in all categories measured.
On the other hand, lobelle was below average in sweetness, flavor, and general
Tests are now being conducted using supermarket customers to determine
preference for lobelle or 279. Although this phase has just been initiated,
the preliminary results (@ 700 people) show 85% prefer EES 279.
JAMES R. HICKS and RICHARD H. DOUGHERTY
TASTE EVALUATION OF TOMATOES
To compare the "eating quality" of Florida MH-1 tomatoes with the
commercially accepted Walter variety.
A taste panel consisting of 20 people was requested to evaluate 4
samples of tomatoes on 7 separate occasions. In each case, 2 of the samples
were of the Florida MH-l variety with the remaining 2 being the Walter
variety. The panel was instructed to evaluate each sample according to
flavor, appearance, texture, and general acceptance.
The results were tabulated as numerical scores with 9 rated as very
excellent, 5 average, and 1 very poor.
Flavor Appearance Texture General Acceptance
Florida MH-I 5.8 6.5 6.1 6.0
Walter 5.8 6.2 6.1 6.0
There was no real difference between the two varieties in any of the
four characteristics evaluated. Both varieties rated slightly above average.
JAMES R. HICKS
TERMINAL MARKET EVALUATION OF MACHINE HARVESTED TOMATOES
To evaluate mechanically harvested tomatoes at the terminal market with
regards to damage and consumer acceptance.
Florida MH-I tomatoes were harvested either by hand or with the Hart
Carter tomato harvester. The tomatoes went through the standard commercial
handling procedures. Upon arrival at Washington D. C., five 30-pound boxes
of each size from each harvesting method were evaluated for damage.
Size 7 x 7 6 x 7 6 x 6 5 x 6
Bruised Bruised Bruised Bruised
Good Cuts or Rots Good Cuts or Rots Good Cuts or Rots Good Cuts or Rots
t 17 88 12 89 9 2 74 23 3 77 21 2
t 19 81 19 78 20 2 76 22 2 61 36 3
It should be noted that the cuts were minor and did not constitute a
source of loss. During three days when tomatoes from each type harvest were
made available at retail level, it was apparent that degree of color had much
more influence on sales than did the type of harvest.
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total
Hand 50/ 37-/ 91 178
Machine 50 63 55 168
a/ Sold all available.
b/ Due to limited supply, it was impossible
to have both equal ripeness and an adequate supply
of fruit. Consequently, the machine harvested
fruit showed better color on day 2 but supply was
limited and color was not as good on the third day.
A preliminary test was conducted on vine ripe (and red ripe) tomatoes
which were machine harvested and placed in a retail outlet. The results were
S. J. LOCASCIO
POPULATION, ROW ARRANGEMENT AND FERTILIZER STUDY ON TOMATOES
To determine optimum plant densities and fertilizer rates of
tomatoes for machine harvest.
.An experiment was set up to evaluate the following:
(1) Fertilizer rates
a 1800 Ib/A 6-8-8
b 3600 Ib/A 6-8-8
(2) Plant population plants/A
(3) Row arrangement
a 2 rows/6' bed
b 3 rows/6' bed
MHI seeded were direct seeded into the field using a Stanhay
seeded on March 13. Tomatoes will be harvested when 25% of the fruit
are mature in the 14,520 population plots.
A similar experiment is being conducted at Homestead by H. H. Bryan.
On beds spaced 4-foot apart, maximum yields were produced with
maximum population studied. These were 21,780 plants/A for Walter and
43,560 plants/A for the dwarf breeding Fla. 68-165. Row arrangement
and fertilizer rate had little effect on yield or quality.
S. J. LOCASCIO
STRAWBERRY NURSERY HERBICIDES
Tr. No. Herbicide Rate ai/a
1 Cultivated check
2 Uncultivated check
3 Diphenamid 6
4 Dacthal 9
5 Tenoran 4+4
6 Nia 20439 3
7 Nia 20439 6
8 Bolero (IMC 3950) 3
9 Bolero (IMC 3950) 6
10 Kerb 1.5
11 Kerb 3.0
12 A-820 inc 2
13 A-820 inc 4
14 Dervinal inc 2
15 Dervinal inc 4
16 CGA 10832 .75
17 CGA 10832 1.5
18 KN3 10G 2.5
19 KN3 10G 5.0
20 KN3 10G 10.0
KN3 was applied on April 19, 1972. Strawberry plants were set on May 3,
and herbicides were applied on May 9.
From past studies the most effective herbicides were Diphenmid and
S. J. LOCASCIO
TIME OF PLANTING AND CHILLING OF STRAWBERRY PLANTS
Planting Preplant treatment
date Chilled Not chilled Mean
Oct. 14 976 976
Oct. 22 995 1109 1052
Nov. 6 1046 869 957
Mean* 1021 989
Oct. 14 12.8 12.8
Oct. 22 12.1 12.7 12.4
Nov. 6 13.0 11.7 12.4
Mean* 12.6 12.2
*Not chilled means do not include 10/14 data.
Previous results 1971 study:
Fruit yields were highest from plantings made on
on plantings made on Nov. 6. Two weeks storage at 38
yields if plants were small but in general had little
Oct. 14 and lower
to 400 reduced
effect on larger
S. J. LOCASCIO
Charleston Gray watermelons were seeded on March 7, 1972 and the
herbicides listed below were applied on March 9th. Preplant incorporated
treatments were seeded on March 9th.
Treatment April 17 May 12
Crop Broadleaf Grass Crop Broadleaf Grass
I Uncultivated check 7.0 0 0 2.8 0 0
2 One cultivation 10.0 10.0 10.0 7.5 9.8 6.5
3 Two cultivations 8.8 10.0 10.0 9.3 9.5 9.5
4 Three cultivations 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
5 Four cultivations 9.8 10.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0
6 Bensulide 6 ppi 8.8 7.3 9.0 7.3 3.5 3.0
7 Nia 20436 3 surface 8.0 8.3 9.3 6.0 6.8 5.3
8 Nia 20436 6 surface 6.8 10.0 10.0 7.0 9.3 9.3
9 A 820 4E 2 ppi 9.5 9.5 9.3 6.5 7.3 5.8
10 A 820 4E 2 ppi 9.0 8.8 8.3 7.3 7.0 4.5
11 A 820 4E 4 ppi 7.8 10.0 10.0 7.5 8.5 8.0
12 A 820 4E 2 ppi 8.8 9.3 9.0 7.8 7.3 5.8
13 Bensulide 4E 4 ppi 9.0 6.8 8.3 6.8 7.0 5.8
14 Bensulide 4 ppi 9.0 6.0 7.5 7.3 4.3 5.3
15 USB 3584 1/3 ppi 8.8 9.8 9.8 7.0 7.5 6.5
16 USB 3584 2/3 ppi 6.8 10.0 10.0 6.8 8.3 8.0
17 CGA 10832 3/4 ppi 8.8 9.0 9.3 5.8 7.0 5.0
18 CGA 10832 1 1/2 ppi 6.5 10.0 10.0 6.0 9.0 7.8
19 Terbacil 3/4 surface 8.3 10.0 10.0 7.5 10.0 10.0
20 Terbacil 1 1/2 surface 4.8 10.0 10.0 6.5 10.0 9.8
21 Waylay 4 ppi 9.3 10.0 10.0 8.0 9.8 10.0
22 Waylay 8 ppi 4.5 10.0 10.0 6.3 9.5 9.5
23 MBR 8251 2# surface 4.0 9.5 9.5 5.0 4.8 6.3
24 MBR 8251 4 surface 3.5 9.5 10.0 5.0 5.0 9.5
25 Paraquat 1/2 depayed pre 7.8 6.5 4.3 5.8 4.0 1.0
26 Bensulide 4# and Naptalam 2# 9.8 5.5 5.3 6.3 4.3 1.5
27 Mon 2139 .1 at layby 9.5 10.0 10.0 9.3 10.0 10.0
28 Mon 2139 .01 at layby 9.0 10.0 10.0 8.3 10.0 10.0
10 = no injury or complete weed control.
S. J. LOCASCIO AND W. L. CURRY (Agronomy)
HERBICIDE AND VEGETABLE CROP SYSTEM
FOR NUTSEDGE CONTROL
Fallow treatments will be followed by various crops and herbicides
to evaluate their combined effect on nutsedge control.
A. Fallow treatments
1 2,4D 4 Ib/A
2 EPTC 4 Ib/A
B. Crop Herbicide Sequence
Tomatoes Tillam 4 lb
Irish potatoes EPTC 4 lb
Beans EPTC 4 lb
Sweet corn Sutan 4 lb
Beans EPTC 4 lb
Sweet potatoes Vernam 4 lb
Sweet potatoes EPTC 4 lb
Beans EPTC 4 Ib
Applications of both 2,4D and EPTC during fall reduced nutsedge
populations. After disking in the spring, however, no difference in
nutsedge population was noted.
S. J. LOCASCIO AND W. L. CURREY
NUTSEDGE SCREENING TRIAL
To evaluate various herbicides
and mulches for control of nutsedge.
Herbicide Ib/ai Nutsedge count
1 EPTC ppi 4 2.8
2 Lasso ppi 4 6.6
3 Lasso ppi 8 2.0
4 Waylay ppi 4 11.9
5 Waylay ppi 8 10.7
6 San. 9789 ppi 2 1.9
7 San. 9789 ppi 4 2.3
8 Bay. 94337 ppi 1 13.6
9 Bay. 94337 ppi 2 2.8
10 CGA 17482 ppi 2 2.3
11 CGA 17482 ppi 4 0.1
12 CGA 17482 ppi 8 3.4
13 MBR 8251 ppi 4 2.6
14 MBR 8251 pre 2 11.1
15 MBR 8251 pre 4 1.9
16 MBR 8251 pre 8 0
17 Paper Mulch 0
18 Paper Mulch 0
19 Plastic (1.5 mil) 3.8
20 Mon 2139 post 11.6
21 Mon 2139 post 10.0
22 Mon 2139 post 7.2
23 Check 11.8
Herbicides were applied on April 19.
2139 was applied on May 25, 1972.
In past work Lasso and San. 9789 each at 4 lb/A effectively control
yellow nutsedge for several months.
S. J. LOCASCIO AND C. M. HOWARD (Plant City)
STRAWBERRY VARIETIES AND SEEDINGS
Selection Early Total
flats/A g/fruit flats/A g/fruit
1 Tioga 294 16.2 870 12.1
2 Sequoia 316 18.8 1081 14.3
3 69-183 152 15.6 561 11.4
4 69-253 149 14.0 433 11.0
5 69-263 62 14.3 347 11.7
6 69-266 251 21.8 890 16.7
7 69-287 173 13.9 446 11.0
8 69-639 139 14.5 434 11.0
9 69-653 106 12.1 519 10.1
10 69-712 171 14.8 651 11.1
11 69-736 236 19.3 662 13.7
12 69-857 46 16.0 93 9.5
In this trial, spider mites and possibly nematodes reduced yields.
Seedling 69-266 (Dabreak X Sequoia) was the only seedling that produced
commercially acceptable yields.
A. P. LORZ
Breeding activities with this crop are being phased out but a few
advanced lines with possibilities for variety release will be maintained
as well as basic seed stocks of varieties already released.
Bean species hybridization:
Material derived from bean species hybrids is still being investigated
to determine to what extent such species as Phaseolus coccineus, P.
polyanthus can contribute characteristics which may improve the common
snap bean P. vulgaris. Similarly material derived from the lima bean
P. lunatus crossed with the wild thicket bean, P. polystachyus is being
Dwarf tomatoes for mechanical harvest:
Dwarf and extreme dwarfs are in advanced stages of backcrossing to
various standard varieties recurrent. Last year Walter, Ace and Floradel
were used while this year MHI has been the principal backcross parent
selected primarily because of its combined resistance to several serious
tomato diseases (including both races of Fuasrium wilt) its firm
fruit and jointless pedicels.
Our attention is being focused on three principal considerations in
the breeding of tomatoes for mechanical harvest:
1. Highest possible space utilization efficiency which we think will
be achieved with small plants having a high ratio of fruit load to plant
2. Highest possible concentration of utilizable fruit from a single
once-over destructive harvest. Our concern here will be with not only
concentrated ripening but also with long retention of fruit in useable
condition so that a narrow range of difference in the tine of ripening can
3. Detachment of the fruit from the plant without any retention of
a pedicle spur which might injure other fruits or need to be removed
to enhance marketability.
Our emphasis on these three facets of the program will not however, be
allowed to obscure consideration of other traits affecting fruit marketability
and overall disease resistance. We expect however through the use of
commercially acceptable cultivars as recurrent backcross parents to be able
to arrive at types closely approximating the desirable characters already
established in these cultivars. But we hope to have in addition those
characters for which we have exerted selection pressure, characters which
have to do with specific adaptation to mechanized bulk harvesting and
V. F. NETTLES
VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS WATERMELONS
Southern Cooperative Watermelon Trials (SCWT) 1972.
- Replicated Trial
12 W 1ll
13 Okl 12-1-2-014M
The table below presents the yields
trials conducted in 1970 and 1971. The
V. B. L. Charleston, S. C.
V. B. L. Charleston, S. C.
V. B. L. Charleston, S. C.
obtained from the watermelon
1971 SCWT was not offered as a
V. F. NETTLES AND R. BROWN
PEPPER POPULATION AND FERTILITY STUDY
To observe the effect of several plant populations on yield and quality
of peppers using varying number of rows and spacings within the row on each
bed. Experiment planted using two fertilizer levels. The yield from the
treatments will be correlated with both once-over and multiple methods of
I Basic fertilizer application 750 # 6-8-8
II Basic fertilizer application 1,500 # 6-8-8
No of rows/bed
V. F. NETTLES AND DENIS RAMIREZ
GROWTH REGULATORS AND CULTURAL STUDIES WITH PEPPERS
'To observe the effect of several growth regulators and bud pinching
on the modification of the growth habit of sweet peppers for possible
employment in mechanical harvesting.
One half of peppers had terminal buds removed
after transplanting. Growth regulator treatments
bud'removal and consisted of the following:
approximately 21 days
were begun 3 days after
Plots were further sub-divided to permit
the materials in contrast to 4 applications.
the study of 2 applications of
Applications were made at
Some differences in plant growth have been observed. Ethrel treated
plants have been slow to bloom. Plants treated with 500 ppm or more of
TIBA have exhibited leaf injury and malformed growth.
R, K. SHOWALTER AND H. Y. OZAKI
SNAP BEAN VARIETIES FOR MECHANICAL HARVEST
To compare snap bean varieties for yield and adaptability to single
harvest by machine.
Eight varieties were grown commercially at Delray Beach in a random-
ized block design with four replications.
Varieties differed significantly in total yields on the plants and
in the yields harvested by machine. They also differed in separation of
pods from their stems and in susceptibility to pod breakage. Complete
results are presented in Vegetable Crops Department Report VC 72-1.
B. D. THOMPSON
FIELD CHILLING OF VEGETABLES
To determine the extent and characteristics of injury associated
with field temperatures within the chilling range.
Work in Progress:
Peppers are being subjected to night temperatures of 40F and
the effects determined on fruits removed from the plant and remaining
on the plants.
B. D. THOMPSON
PACKINGHOUSE TREATMENTS AFFECTING VEGETABLE QUALITY
To determine the effects of current and anticipated packinghouse
treatments on vegetable quality.
Work in Progress:
Four waxes are being evaluated for their effects on weight loss,
color, respiration, resistance to injury and other quality characteristics
of cucumbers, peppers and tomatoes.
W. M. EIKER, JR., S. J. LOCASCIO AND D. S. BURGIS
PERSISTENCE OF SOME VEGETABLE HERBICIDES
To monitor the potential accumulation, persistence and degradation
of several vegetable herbicides in Florida soils as affected by season
and rate of application.
Herbicides and rates investigated.
Bensulide (Prefar) 5.0 and 10.0 ai/A
Nitralin (Planavin) 1.0 and 2.0 ai/A
Trifluralin (Treflan) 1.0 and 2.0 ai/A
Sequence of application over three seasons
Time of application
Sequence Spring 1970 Fall 1970 Spring 1971
2 x x
3 x x x
4 x x
Loss of herbicidal activity was measured by growth reduction of
indicator plants grown in soil sampled at two-month intervals.
1. Herbicides did not accumulate following three seasonal
applications as measured by bioassay.
2. Degradation rate was similar for high and low application
rates of each herbicide.
3. Season of application had little effect on the degradation
4. Times required for degradation of the herbicides at the
lower rates were as follows:
trlfluralin 6 months
nitralin 8 months
bensulide 10 months
Note: Growth reduction with all herbicide was slight after
approximately 4 months. Times required for complete loss of activity
are listed above.
A. NAVARRO AND S. J. LOCASCIO
PHOSPHORUS AND COPPER INTERACTIONS ON CUCUMBER
To determine the effects of fertilizer placements, rates and
sources of phosphorus and copper rates on the growth and yield of cucumber.
Factorial combinations of 3P sources (ordinary superphosphate,
diammonium phosphate and concentrated superphosphate), and 4 rates of
P (0, 25, 50 and 100# P/A), 4 rates of Cu (0, 2, 4, and 8# Cu/A) and 2
methods of fertilizer placement (band and broadcast). The experimental
design is randomized complete blocks with 3 replications.
Results of a similar experiment conducted last year showed that
at high Proter (50 to 100 # P/A) and low copper rate (0.2 # Cu/A)
yield was reduced. Highest yields were obtained at high rate- of
Cu (3 to 4# Cu/A) at high P rates. Results also indicated that source
of P is another factor affecting P-Cu interactions.
Broadcast method of application was superior to band placements.
There is a good indication that the results of the present
experiments will confirm the results of last year's experiment.
W. M. STALL AND A. P. LORZ
A STUDY OF FRUIT DETACHMENT CHARACTERS FOR MECHANICAL HARVESTING
Seventy-four pepper varieties obtained from eight seed companies
and thirty-one breeding lines and wild type peppers are being evaluated
for fruit removal characters with reference to mechanical harvesting.
Special attention is being given to incorporate the "deciduous
character" of certain small hot types into sweet bell types.
The different detachment types will be compared for fruit
marketability with reference to fruit injury in transport, soft rot
infection, and storage quality.
J. M. MYERS AND S. J. LOCASCIO
IRRIGATION METHODS FOR STRAWBERRIES
To compare two new irrigation systems, drip and trickle, with
two conventional methods sprinkler and furrow.
1 Furrow 1230 12.4
2 Overhead sprinkler 1355 12.7
3 Double wall drip system 1182 12.0
4 Dupont trickle system 1218 12.0
5 Check 1172 12.5
Due to an extremely wet winter and spring, differential
irrigation was not applied until mid-season.
L. N. SHAW
1971-72 PEPPER HARVEST MECHANIZATION RESEARCH
Research has been initiated in the development of concepts of
mechanisms for the selective removal of green bell peppers. One
concept that is being tested is a mechanism with rubber covered
spring fingers that passes the fingers up through the plants
removing the larger fruit and leaving the smaller fruit for later
Tests have been conducted at Delray Beach and Immokalee and
the mechanism looks to have some promise.
D. H. HABECK
RESISTANCE OF PEPPERS TO GREEN PEACH APHIDS
To identify and study cultivars
Cultivars and breeding lines of
and breeding lines for resistant
peppers are being tested for
the green peach aphid in the laboratory and the
This work is just beginning.
G. C. SMART AND S. J. LOCASCIO
STRAWBERRY NURSERY NEMATOCIDES
To evaluate non-fumigant type nematocides applied post-transplanting
on strawberry plant production.
Treatments 10/22 11/27 Plant production
#/100 g roots #/4 sq. ft.
1 Check 32 143 21
2 Nemacur G 15 0 0 45
3 Dasanit G 20 7 1 42
4 Dasanit-Dyston G 7.5 + 7.5 2 2 58
5 Furadan G 15 5 8 46
6 Lannate G 15 12 9 41
7 Vidate G 10 4 2 52
8 Vidate EC 10 2 0 52
9 Nemacur EC 10 3 0 34
10 Mocap G 20 3 9 57
String nematodes were effectively controlled by a number of post-transplant
nematocides. This study is being repeated this season.
LEWIS MAC CARTER AND DALE HABECK
RESISTANCE OF CUCURBITS TO MELON APHID
To identify and study cultivars and breeding lines for resistant
Plants are being grown in the field to verify that varieties
found resistant in the laboratory are resistant in the field. When
each plant is large enough, one runner will be covered with a cloth
bag with a counted number of adult female aphids. One week later the
number of aphids in the bags will be counted. Known susceptable
varieties are included in the test for comparison. Genetic studies
are also underway, but progeny tests won't begin until late summer.
Cantaloupes are being studies in detail, but cucumbers, gerkins,
squashes and watermelon varieties are also receiving some attention.
A. A; COOK
BREEDING PEPPER FOR VIRUS DISEASE RESISTANCE
Virus disease continue to be a major problem in pepper production
especially in the Delray lower East Coast area. Breeding is in progress
to incorporate resistance to all forms of the virus that affect pepper
in Florida into Horticultural fruit type. Attention is also being
given to a wide range of other problems that pertain to pepper production.
This includes fertility, population, pest control, and harvesting.
The entire statewide program for pepper improvement is being
directed by Dr. T. A. Zitter (Belle Glade).
J. G. A. FISKELL AND S. J. LOCASCIO
SULFUR-COATED UREA MULCH STUDY
This study was designed to study the response of bell pepper and
watermelons (at Live Oak) to sulphur coated urea, plastic and paper
mulch, fertilizer placement and N rate.
Live Oak with H. W. Lundy
12 nitrogen sources and mulches time 3 nitrogen rates.
A. Nitrogen source, placement and mulch
1. Urea Broadcast (B. C.)
2. Urea S-coated only 30% dis. rate. B.C.
3. Urea S-coated, wax & conditioner 20% B.C.
4. Urea S-coated, wax cond, and coal tar 35.3% dis. rate. B.C.
5. Urea S-coated only 43.5% dis. rate. B.C.
6. Urea Banded
7. Urea Banded 80% 20% B.C. Strip mulch.
8. Urea B.C. paper mulch. Brown 2 P.E.
9. Urea B.C. Top bed covered with Dupont asphalt foam & PVA spray.
10. Urea B.C. Black polyethylene mulch
11. Urea B.C. 3 applications
12. O Urea, P & K applied
Note: All fertilizer was applied in one application except
in treatment 11.
B. Nitrogen rates Ib/A
Since transplanting on March 23, rainfall and irrigation have totaled
over 12 inches. Nitrogen deficiency symptoms are evident at low and
intermediate N rates with the non-sulfur coated urea sources. High rates
on non-coated urea resulted in some plant injury especially on the South
side of the row probably due to the higher row temperature.
Sulphur Coated Urea Studies:
Soil samples taken at monthly intervals in watermelons indicated that
fertilizers containing sulfur coated urea and S-coated KCl maintained higher
levels of NO and K with the respective material than with uncoated fertilizers.
This was sometimes reflected in increased watermelon yields.
Fertilizer Placement, Micronutrient Rate and Placement:
Plant growth and fruit yield were enhanced by broadcast as compared
with band applications of either N-P-K fertilizer or micronutrients. Plant
dry wt were similar with applications of either CuSO4.5H 0 at 4 and 8
Ib/acre Cu or complete micronutrient frit (FTE 503) at 30 and 60 Ib/acre
in 2 seasons. In 1 season, fruit yields were significantly higher where
CuSO4 was used. Increases in rate of either micronutrient source resulted
in increased fruit yields where applications were broadcast but a decrease
where banded. These responses to increased micronutrient rates were
related to an increase in micronutrient efficiency with the broadcast
placement and to a toxicity with the band placement.