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Title: Report of a farm management survey, 38 farms, St Johns - Putnam Counties, 1935 /
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 Material Information
Title: Report of a farm management survey, 38 farms, St Johns - Putnam Counties, 1935 /
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brumley, Frank Warner
Reitz, J. Wayne ( Julius Wayne )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Economics Dept
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1936
Copyright Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subject: Farm management -- Florida -- Saint Johns County   ( lcsh )
Agricultural surveys -- Florida -- Saint Johns County   ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Agricultural surveys -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank W. Brumley and J. Wayne Reitz.
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
General Note: "July, 1936."
General Note: "Agricultural Economics Department, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida cooperating with the Extension Service and Agricultural Adjustment Administration, U.S.D. A."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094998
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 434493665

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text






juiy,;.- 936,


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK DIT
AGRICULTURE AiTD HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)




AGRICULTURAL EXTETISION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR '-D .ET
AND UNITED STATES DEP-'RTMLENT OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERAPTITNG
WIL1M01 N1E'EELL, Director.











i.EPORT OF f F-RM ". ..; 7,':TT SUiTTEY
38 FAR iS, ST JOiTS PUTNILiM CO'1r.1 1935.




by

FR/IK V. ER. ,LEY

and
J. .AYNIE REITZ









AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS DE'jPRT IE1TT
AGRICULTURAL EXT'TSIOI SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
COOPERPATITG ITT THE EXTENSION SERVICE 'TD
AGRICULTUR-L ADJU.:'-T' ;iT ANDiINISTA~LTION, U. S. D, A.


JWR/d Ext.
8/24/36 100


Gainesville, Fla.








REPORT OF FARMI, MtAAGEiENT SURVEY
38 FARMS, ST. JOHNS PUTNAM' COUMTIES,1935.


In order to have up to date information concerning the agriculture in St.Johns
and Putnam Counties a farm management survey was made of 38 farms during December,
1935. These farms were principally potato farms and were located near Hastings and
Federal Point.

This is one of the oldest potato growing areas in the State. Due to the poor
yield and the high percentage of small potatoes in 1935 the area experienced a rather
unsuccessful season, although there wore some farms with good incomes.

The records which wore obtained by trained enumerators contained a classific-
ation of all receipts and expenses, farm inventories, crop and livestock production
records and other information pertinent to the study of a farm business. In obtain-
ing the data each farm was visited and the fanmer provided the information either
from available records or by a careful classification of the various items from
memory.

The object of this work is to obtain facts on the business organization and
operation of the farm and to dotormino some of the factors related to farm profits.
This report contains a brief summary of the study.


USE OF LAND


Records woro occurred from threo types of farm operators, first, those owning
all land, second, those renting additional land, and third, those renting the ontir.;
faar. The average number of acros per farm was 67 with the largest farms operated
by the part owners (Table 1). The part ownor farmers rutoed 29 of the 88 acres
operated.

TABLE 1. USE OF !LAND ON 38 FARTiS, ST. JOHTS PUTITIAM COUNTJTIES,1935.
Average Acres Per i'arm Percent of Total
30 Own'r 6 Part '2 Renter 30 Ownor 6 Part 2 Ro'tcr
Farms Ownor Farms Farms Owner Farms
Farms Farms

Total Acres of Crops 84 133 78 129.1 152.:i 200.0
Acres double cropped 38 55 40 58.8 63.1 103.8
Acres Land Cropped 46 78 38 70.3 89.2 96.2
Rested & Idle Land 4 1 6.2 1.0 -
Pasture not Tillable 1 .7 1.3
'Woods Fenced for Pasture 6 9.6 -
Woods not Fenced 3 4 4.4 4.0 -
Farmstead, Roads & Waste 6 4 1 8.8 4.5 3.8

Total Acres Operated 65 88 39 100.0 100.0 100.0

7 Loss than 1 acre.


J' R/d Ext.
8/24/36 100











There was a considerable amount of double cropping. Particularly was this
true on the two renter farms whore not only was all lund double cropped but appar-
ently abut two acres were tripled cropped. On these same farms 96 percent of the
land was in crops, while on the part owner farms and owner farms the percentage of
total crop land was 89 and 70 respectively. On the land double cropped the prin-
cipal second crops were corn, crabgrass hay and cowpeas. A large percentage of the
cowpoas were plowed under.



CAPITAL


The average capital per fanm was 413,825 for the 38 farms included in this
survey (Table 7). The part owner farms had a slightly larger average investment than
did the owner farms even though the value of the rented land was not included.
(Table 2) The difference in investment between the ronter farms and the other two
groups is largely accounted for by the fact that land and buildings wore not inven-
toriod, since cash rent was charged as an expense. All land rented was leased for
cash.


TABLE 2. AVERAGE CAPITAL


PER FAR"I, 38 ST. JOHNS PUTI'~1' COUNTY FARS,1935.


Average Capital ?or Farm
30 Owncr 6 Part 2 Rentor
Farms Owner Farms
Farms


Percent of Total
35 Owner "6 Part T Ron0r
Farms Owner Farms
Farms


Land & Buildings


612,399 $12,678 $ -


Livestock


565


Machinery C Equipment

Food & Supplies


Total


721 419


1,131 1,856 311

232 353 218

014,527 ;15,608 $ 948


4.0

7.9


4.6 44.2

11.9 32,8


1.6 2.3 23.0

100.0 100.0 100.0


Land and buildings on beth the owner and part owner farms represented over
80 percent of the total investment. The investment in livestock, machinery and
equipment, and food and supplies was $1928 for owners, &2930 for part owners and
0948 for rented farms.



JR/d Ext,
J/24/36 100


86.5


81.2


_ __ __


___ __I_ __


_ ____I












ACRES AND YIELDS OF CROPS


There was an average of 91.5 acres of crops grown per farm, potatoes repre-
senting over 50 percent of the total (Table 3). Since there was an average of only
50.6 acres of crop land per farm it is quite apparent that there was much double
cropping. During the potato season over 90 percent of the actual crop land was
devoted to potatoes*

All farms grew potatoes averaging 46.5 acres per farm and yielding 33 barrels
per acre. There was a large acreage of corn following potatoes which yielded 25
bushels per acre. Most of the cowpea crop was turned under.


TABTL 3.


ACRES AND YIELDS OF PRINCIPAL. CRO:-S, 38 FARMS,
ST. JC'"'S PUTN1T COUmTIES, 1935.


Total .icres No.of Acres Average Percent
Crops All Farms Farms Per Farm Yield of Total
Growing Growing Per Acre Acres
Harvested



Irish potatoes 1766 38 46.5 33,0 bbl. 50.8
Solid corn 1119 36 31.1 25.0 bu. 32.2
Cowpoas 214 1/ 14 15.3 6.1
Crabgrass hay 165 19 8.7 1.5 tons 4.7
Cabbage 38 4 9.6 7.7 tons 1.1
Other 176 5.1

Total or average 3479 38 91.5 100.0


1/ Planted mostly for a cover crop and turned under.


During the 1935 season an average of 9.6 acres of
farms yielding 7.7 tons per acre.


cabbage was grown on four


RECEIPTS


Cash receipts for the 38 farms averaged $5036 (Table 4). Over 97 percent
this entire amount consisted of crop sales, while potatoes alone accounted for
percent of the total. Receipts from cabbage amounted to 6 percent; however,
those farms which produced cabbage the percentage was much more significant.


JWR/d Ext.
8/24/36 100












SUMMARY OF CASH RECEIPTS ON 38 ST. JOHNS PUTNAM- COUiTTY FPRP!S.


Average Per Farm Poroont of Total


Crops:
Corn
Irish potatoes
Sweet potatoes
Cabbage
Mixed fruit
Bulbs
Other


Total


Livestock:
Hogs
Cattle
Other

Total

Livestock Products:
Eggs
Other


Total


Other Income:
AAA Payments
Corn

Total


S137
4,365
4
304
9
66
18


2.7
86.7
.1
6.0
.2
1.3
.3


$4903


.$ 2
5
31


97.3


.1
.1
.6


j 38


, 23
12


j 33


3 33


.5
.2


$ 35


.7


Miscellaneous


Total Cash Receipts


$ 27


.5


$5036


100.0


Potato sales on the 38 farms averaged $4365 per farm (Table 5), while cabbage
averaged $2884 on the four farms selling. This return from cabbage was greater thar-
could normally be expected due to the above average prices received in 1934-35
season. Corn was sold on 24 farms averaging $217 per farm. There wore only a fuw
farmers who produced fruit and truck crops for sale.



J,,R-d Ext.
e/24/36 100


TABLE 4.











The horse and mule sales on five farms averaging `209 per farm wore more
than offset by purchases or decreases in the workstock inventory.

Two-thirds of the farms sold eggs averaging $25 per farm. Livestock and
livestock products occupied a very unimportant position among receipts on the
farms included in this survey.

TABLE 5. NUMBER OF FARMS ANDT AVERAGE VA-LUE PER FARM
SELLING EACH PRODUCT, 38 FRS, ST. JOHNS PUTNAI_ COUNTIES,1935.


No.of Ave rage
PRODUTS Farms Value
Selling Per Farm


Crops:
Irish potatoes 38 $4365
Corn 24 217
Garden 6 49
Cabbage 4 2884
Oranges 4 23
Sweet potatoes 3 57
Mixed fruit 1 340
Lettuce 1 89
Boots 1 75
Carrots 1 75
Syrup 1 40
Strawberries 1 15
Grapefruit 1 3

Livestock:
Horses & Mules 5 209
Cattle 5 37
Chickens 5 32
Hogs 2 32

Livestock Products:
Eggs 25 35
Butter 4 25
Milk 3 100
Breeding fees 1 50

Other Sources of Income
AAA Corn Payment 12 105
Man Labor 6 113
Building rent 1 200
Cash rent 1 100
Seed corn 1 58



JWR/d Ext,
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The horse and mule salos on five farms averaging ;'209 per farm were more
than offset by purchases or decreases in the workstock inventory.

Two-thirds of the farms sold eggs averaging 25 per farm. Livestock and
livestock products occupied a very unimportant position among receipts on the
farms included in this survey.

TABLE 5. i UMLBER OF F.IKIS .'TnD E;VER.GE V.LUE ?E_ FARM1
SELLING EACH PRODUCT, 38 F..RIS, ST. JOHNS PUTT-I COUNTIES,1935.


No.of Avorage
PRODUCTS Farms Value
Selling Per Farm


Crops:
Irish potatoes 38 54365
Corn 24 217
Garden 6 49
Cabbage 4 2884
Oranges 4 23
Sweet potatoes 3 57
Mixed fruit 1 340
Lettuce 1 89
Boots 1 75
Carrots 1 75
Syrup 1 40
Strawberries 1 15
Grapefruit 1 3

Livestock:
Horses & Mules 5 209
Cattle 5 37
Chickens 5 32
Hogs 2 32

Livestock Products:
Eggs 25 35
Butter 4 25
Milk 3 100
Brooding fees 1 50

Other Sources of Income
IAA Corn Payment 12 105
Man Labor 6 113
Building rent 1 200
Cash rent 1 100
Seed corn 1 58



JWR/d Ext.
3/24/36 100










In ordor to rako comparisons between farms it is necessary to consider more
than cash receipts and expenses. Credits should be given for increases in the
value of food and livestock during the year as well as for now buildings and equip-
ment added. Likewise charges should be made for the value of unpaid labor and
decrease in capital. The credits and charges wore taken into consideration in
calculating the average farm income of $594. This $594 is, therefore, the amount
the operator receives for his ovm labor and capital invested,

TABLE 7. SUVMMRY OF FARM BUSINESS ON 38 ST. JOHNIS PUTITAM COUNTY FRMS,1935.


Average Per Farm Your Farm


Total Farm Capital 313,325

Cash Receipts 5,036

Cash Farm Expenses:
Current $4,318
Livestock purchased 37
Total $ 4,355

Cash Farm Income i 681
Less decrease in capital Q 44
Plus increase in capital -
Loss unpaid family labor 43

Income for Capital & Operator's Labor $ 594
Less 7% interest on capital $ 968

Operator's Labor Income $ -374

Value of Food Products Furnished Homoe 221

Operator's Labor Income Plus Food
Products Furnished Homo $ -153



Deducting $968, which is the interest at 7 percent on an average capital
of $13,825, the average return for the operator's labor is minus $374. From the
standpoint of real income this discouragingly low figure is in part offset by
products furnished the home amounting to $221. In addition, all but three farmers
had dwellings on the farm in which to live.



FOOD PRODUCTS FOR HOME USE


The value of food products furnished the home averaged $221 per farm
(Table 8). Chickens, milk, eggs, Irish potatoes and garden produce wore furnished


JWVR/d Ext,
6/24/36 100









-8-


on more farms than any other products. Of those, dairy products averaging ,163
per farm furnishing was by far the most important.

TABLE 8. FOOD PRODUCTS FOR FAMILY USE, 38 FWRHS, ST. JOHNS PUrT'.: COUNTIES,1935.


No.of Average Per Farm Furnishing
Farms
Furnishing Amount Value


Hogs 1 533 lbs. $ 40
Chickens 30 32 head 18
Turkeys 1 1 head 1
Milk 29 520 gals. 163
Butter 3 104 lbs. 31
Eggs 31 147 doz. 36
Beef 1 35

Sweet Potatoes 6 47 bu. 28
Irish Potatoes 28 1/ 23
Grapefruit 3 6
Oranges 6 18
Tangerines 4 6
Misc. Fruits 4 30
Garden 30 25

Average Per Farm $ 221


l/ Although only 28 growers reported potatoes used, it is quite probable that this
product was furnished on all farms with families, but not reported on some be-
cause cull potatoes having but little, if any, value wore used.



VARIaTION IN LABOR INCOME


Of the farms studied, a wide variation in labor income -tws found. Thero
were seven farms with labor incomes below -01500 while there wore seven other
farms with labor incomes above 11500. Twenty-six of the 38 farms showed a minur
labor income while the other 12 gave a return for the operator's labor after
making a charge of 7 percent for the use of capital. Why this largo difference
in farm earnings? The following tables and accompanying discussion will in part
explain.



JWR/d Ext.
8/24/36 100






-9-


RELATION OF .CRES OF POTATOES TO L..BOR INCOME


In order to observe the relation of acres of potatoes to labor income the 38
records wore sorted into two size groups (Table 9). For both groups the labor income
was a minus quantity although for the larger farms the loss as measured by labor
income is smaller. If, in a given area and year, farmers lose money it is often the
larger farms that arc the most unprofitable as measured by labor income since losses
increase with the volume of business. It is apparent, however, that in this instance
some of these larger farms were fairly successful and on the average were slightly
more successful than the smaller ones. In fact, if just one largo farm is eliminated
from among the larger group in table 9 the average labor income for the 12 remaining
farms would be $647 instead of $-348 as shown.

Considering farm income, which is the return to both capital and the operator's
labor, the smaller farms had $242 as compared with an average of $1270 for the farms
with above average potato acreages. Here again if the one largo farm which suffered
a major loss is eliminated the farm income for the larger sized group would average
$2019 for the 12 remaining farms.

TABLE 9. RELATION OF ACRES OF POTATOES TO RECEIPTS, EXPENSES /iTD LABOR INCOME
ST. JOHNS PUTNAM COUNTIES,1935.
Acres of No.of Acres of Receipts Total Farm Labor
Potatoes Farms Potatoes Crops Sold Livestock& Othor Total Exponso Income Incomn
Range Livestock
Potatoes Other Products
Sold

Below Average 25 30.3 $2660 $ 258 Q 56 $104 $3078 $2836 $ 242 $-387

Above Average 13 77.6 7643 1077 106 422 9248 7978 1270 -348

Average 38 46.5 .'4365 $ 538 ) 73 213 $5189 $4595 $ 594 $-374


The total receipts for your farm wore $ expenses $ potatoes sold

$ other crops sold $ livestock sold $ livestock products

sold $ Compare those figures with the group of farms nearest your potato

ucreago in table 9,

1/
RELATION OF PRODUCTIVE MAN WORK UNITS TO LABOR INCOME


For farms with crops other than potatoes or having more than the normal amount
of livestock, the measure of total productive man work units per farm is considoroa1
a more reliable indicator of size of business than acres in potatoes. The farms
were grouped according to productive man work units in table 10. The results shovn
in this table are similar to the table just discussed on acres of potatoes, since
acres of potatoes are of major influence in determining the number of man work unit.
required to operate the farms.


J/R/d Ext.
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-10-


Had one large farm, which was the most unprofitable, been eliminated from
the group with the larger number of man work units per farm the labor income for
the 12 remaining farms would have been $684 instead of $-314 and the farm income
would have been $2427 in place of $1295 as shown.

That man labor is used to better advantage on the larger farms is indicated
in that the man work units per man were 250 as compared to 176 on the smaller sized
businesses.

TABLE 10. RELATION OF PRODUCTIVE MAN WORK UNITS/TO VARIOUS FACTORS AND LABOR INCOME,
ST. JOIHNS PUTNAM COUNTIES, 1935.
Productive No.of M.W.U. Man M.WU. No.of Receipts Farm Labor
M. W. U. Farms Per Equiv- Per Work- Crops Livestock Income Income
Farm alent Man stock & Livestock
Products

Below Average 25 507.2 2.9 175.9 2.3 $2896 Q 61 $ 229 3-405

Above Average 13 1257.4 5.0 249.6 3.3 8762 97 1295 -314

Average 38 763.8 3.6 210.9 2,6 04903 $ 73 4 594 1-374


1/ A productive man
other productive


work unit is 10 hours of labor spent on crops and livestock or
work.


1/
RELATION OF PRICE INDEX TO LABOR INCOME


When 38 farms wore grouped according to price index (Table 11), the relation-
ship to labor income is pronounced. Those 21 farms which received below average
prices for products sold had labor incomes averaging J-1084 while those with above
average prices show labor incomes averaging Q504 per farm. Even if the farm suf-
fering the greatest loss is eliminated from the low price group the average labbr
income is 1-524. The farms with the highest prices had below average yields as
shown by the crop index. Had their yields been better they would have shown still
greater incomes.


TABLE 11,


1/
RELATIONSHIP OF PRICE INDEX TO VARIOUS FACTORS AND LABOR INCOME,
ST. JOHNS PUTN COUNTIES,1935,


Price No.of Price Crop Total Farm Labce
Index Farms Index Index M.W.U. Income Inco-er
Pange


Below Average

Above Average


69,5

137.7


Average


113,2

83.8


100.0 100.0


846

662

764


$-114

1469

$ 594


8- 37.1


1/ The price index is a means of measuring the prices an individual farmer receiver
in comparison with other farmers in the area. If a farmer's price index is 100
that means, on the average for all products sold, that he received average price ,
If below or above 100 he received below or above average prices.
J /d Ext.
0'/36 100








-11-


1/
RELATION OF CROP INDEX TO LABOR INCOME


On the average for the year 1935 the farms with the best yields received
below average labor incomes (Table 12). From this, one should not conclude that
lower yields return more income, but it so happens that the farms with the best
yields received, on the average, the lowest prices. Since price played such an
important part in determining farm earnings (Table 11) it outwebighed the influence
of good yields. If the farm suffering the greatest loss is eliminated from the
average of those with above average yields the labor income for the 18 remaining
farms was $98 which is considerably above the average of ';-374 for all farms.


TABLE 12.


1/
RELATIONSHIP OF CROP IITDEL TO VARIOUS FACTORS ANID LABOR INCOME,
ST. JOHNS PUTNAIM COUNTIES,1935.


Crop No.of Crop Price Total Farm Labor
Index Farms Index Index M.W.U. Income Income
Range

Below Average 19 75.6 119.5 667.3 $ 648 $-193

Above Average 19 124.5 80.6 860.3 539 -

Average 38 100.0 100.0 764.0 Q 594 $-374


1/ The crop index is a means of measuring the yields of an individual farmer in
comparison rith yields of other farmers in the area. If a farmer's crop index
is 100 that moans, on the average for all crops, that he received average yields,
If below or above 100 he received below or above average yields.


















JWR/d Ext.
8/24/36 100




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