I 4 -jI I
To The People of Dade County ............................................................ 1
Reaching People ...................................................................... 2
Price It R ight .......................................................................... 4
Money -- Clothes -- Teens ............................................................ 6
The President Speaks .................................................................... 8
Dade County 4-H Youth Foundation ........................................................ 9
Food For Fun and Fitness .............................................................. 10
7,000 C choices .......................................................................... 12
Dade County's Cornucopia ............................................................... 14
Soil Testing Saves Dollars ............................................................... 16
Focus On Special Problems ............................................................. 18
A Better V variety ....................................................................... 20
W ho Know s? .......................................................................... 22
Tiny Cause -- Large Effect ............................................................. 24
Eggs -- America's Economy Meal ....................................................... 26
V isits To Learn ....................................................................... 28
Where Has The Time Gone? .............................................................. 30
Personnel C hart ....................................................................... 31
V r I --.
B ARD OF
C .UNTY COMMISSIONERS
, ..inTY MANAGER
ALEX S. GORDON
R. HARDY MATHESON
EARL M. STARNES
JOSEPH A. BOYD, JR.
THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
LEWIS WHITWORTH, JR.
nAFKULU A. UtCCPI
ARTHUR PATTEN, JR.
PORTER W. HOMER
nIRST OF FLORI INSTITUTE OF FOOD & AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UI SIiY Of fLD FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
DR. J. WAYNE REITZ DR. E. T. YORK, JR.
President, University of Florida Provost for Agriculture
Institute of Food & Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida
DR. MARSHALL O. WATKINS
Agricultural Extension Service
DR. BETTY JEAN BRANNAN
Home Economics Programs
Agricultural Extension Service
MR. FRANKLIN S. PERRY
Agricultural Extension Service
MISS HELEN D. HOLSTEIN
District Extension Home Economics
Agent, Agricultural Extension Service
S1 HE PEOPLE OF DADE COUNTY
"EXTENSION EDUCATION -- AGRICUL-
TURE AND HOME ECONOMICS" brings together
articles, photographs and other information as
typical examples of Extension work being carried
on in Dade County by the staff members of the
Agricultural and Home Economics Agents' offi-
This is the 1966 Annual Report of the Dade
County Agricultural Department. In Dade County
its offices represent the Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service of the Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences, University of Florida and the
Federal Extension Service, U. S. Department of
Agriculture. The Extension Service agents, who
are faculty members of the University of Florida,
are employed under a cooperative program with
the county, state and federal governments joining
together to provide a broad program of education
to help people in the many fields relatingto agri-
culture and home economics.
With increasing population, the growth of
urban areas and the decrease in tillable land, the
emphasis on increased and more efficient agri-
cultural production and marketing becomes more
important. Consumer education in home economics
and subjects related to agriculture also require
more attention of Extension Service personnel.
Dade County's annual farm production is valued
at approximately sixty million dollars. The actual
wholesale value exceeds one hundred million
dollars after products are processed, packaged
It would be impossible to give examples of
all phases of Extension work in Dade County in
this brief report. However, it will give you a
glimpse of some of the significant projects and
accomplishments during 1966.
John D. Campbell
County Agricultural Agent.
You may enter most, but not all, of the 300,
000 homes in Dade County through the media of
newspaper, radio or television. The news media
people are selective; so are their listeners.
There are six television channels to view, fifteen
radio stations to listen to, two city-county news-
papers, plus numerous smaller ones, to read.
You can reach many with exhibits. Miami is
a convention city with large auditoriums for ex-
hibits. One part of the county is sufficiently dif-
ferent from another part so that tours within the
county are always popular. Still many people who
live in the northern part of the county never see
the southern part. Some who live in the western
part have never seen Biscayne Bay.
All the family problems are here -- those of
the rich, the poor, and the average work-a-day
person; those of the elderly, the tourist, the mi-
grant, the student, and the community leader try-
ing to cope with the problems of a population ex-
pansion greater than the growth of transportation
means, educational facilities, housing, sewage
systems, and hospitals.
Mass media time or space isn't easy to
come by. But when it does, many hundred times
as many people get the word than are reached
through small organized groups. The Extension
Home Economics Office took advantage of sever-
al mass media channels in 1966 to reach people
with Home Economics information for better
First of all, in January, a Youth Fair at-
tracted 135,000. The 4-H story of a program to
develop youth was told through exhibits of project
work, demonstrations, fashion shows, contests,
movies, and programs.
In February, 4-H Members made and entered
the prize winning float in the City of North
Miami's 40th Anniversary Parade.
March was full. The County Extension Home-
makers' Council, in cooperation with the County
and Home Agents, conducted a tour of the agri-
cultural areas of the county. The purpose of the
tour was to get first-hand information about agri-
cultural production in Dade County including
harvesting, packaging, marketing, and other
points of interest to the consumer.
--Another agricultural tour covered produc-
tion and research going on in Dade County.
--A "Consumers Corner" Exhibit at the
March Home Show featured educational displays
in five home economics areas: housing, home
safety, men's clothing, home arts, and foods.
350,000 attended the Home Show in 1966.
--A County 4-H Dress Revue, open to the
public, reviewed accomplishments of 4-H Club
members in the 4-H Clothing Program.
April saw Extension Home Economics Agents
assisting with a Farm Festival for 1,000, the
proceeds of which provided scholarship for boys
and girls training for agricultural or home eco-
--The public was invited to the end-of-the-
club-year County 4-H Achievement Day, where
recognition was given to outstanding achievers
in the 4-H Club program.
Members and guests were invited in May to
the Extension Homemakers' Annual Achievement
Day, when leaders and homemakers were recog-
nized for accomplishments in the field of Home
In June, the home economics agents, assisted
by 4-H Club members, demonstrated and dis-
played mango products at the Annual Mango
Forum, open to the public.
During September, the 1966 Homemakers'
Seminar for members and the public was held at
the three locations in the county. Sessions cov-
ered demonstrations on the use of Florida fish
by a home economist of the Florida Conservation
Department, and a family life program on "Live
Everyday of Your Life" by Extension's family
Pre-holiday Exhibits sponsored by local
Homemakers' Clubs, showing home arts and hand
made holiday gifts and decorations, took the
spotlight in October in 25 communities throughout
In November, two County Pre-holiday Ex-
hibits attracted 2,000 to 3,000 visitors who
wanted ideas for creative work in the home and
for holiday gifts and decorations.
The 4-H Float in the Junior Orange Bowl
Parade in December was distinctive in that it
was the only one made by the young people them-
selves at a minimum cost, rather than by a pro-
fessional and under sponsorship. Rather than the
usual fairyland scene, the real objectives of the
4-H program were publicized by the float.
Newspaper, radio, and T. V. open thousands
of doors everyday. Radio, second only to news-
papers in effectiveness, has been used to reach
many of the 300,000 homes in Dade County as
well as neighboring counties. Fifteen to twenty
home economics spots are provided weekly to
fourteen Miami radio and four T. V. stations.
Five feature articles go to twenty newspapers as
well as radio and T.V. People report hearing the
radio broadcasts while in their autos as well as
at home or at business. An assistant home eco-
nomics agent tapes 5 to 10 minute daily broad-
casts for the Homestead radio station, and has
many regular listeners.
"Action Line" (daily) and "Questions and
Answers" (weekly), the two most popular features
in the Miami Herald with state-wide circulation,
often get answers to questions from the Home
Economics Office. If a bulletin is offered, sever-
al hundred requests may be received.
Special T.V. Programs during the spring of
1966 included a 14-week Consumer Education
Series, covering household, textiles and clothing,
housing, foods, appliances, furnishings, money
management, the family car, insurance, and use
of leisure time. Requests for bulletins offered
during the series numbered over 5,000. During
Consumer Education month, an assistant home
economics agent appeared on a T.V. panel to
discuss food marketing, prices and consumer in-
terests. Others spoke to clubs and civic groups.
Several special radio programs on W K A T
have been about an hour long of the interview
type, with listeners' questions accepted by tele-
phone and answers aired in reply.
Agents appeared on several panels or spoke
before large audiences, covering the areas of
food buying, nutrition, and the packed lunch.
Several feature news articles about accom-
plishments resulting from the Extension Home
Economics Program have appeared throughout the
year in the largest newspaper with state-wide
"Sound Off", one of the educational news-
letters of the Home Economics Staff and published
bi-monthly, has a distribution of 2,000 to 20,000.
"Clothesline to You" is another printed publica-
tion which goes out quarterly.
150 posters, "Calling Consumers", were
distributed to businesses and other public places
in November. Addresses and telephone numbers
of the two Home Economics Offices the County
Consumer Education Centers were on the
Assistance was given the Commodity Food
Program by providing pamphlets (in picture and
simple language form), at the distribution center,
to show good ways to use the food.
"Greetings" is a small brochure explaining
Extension Home Economics. Thousands of copies
are distributed by the Welcome Wagon, through
stores, and at public events.
Service through telephone calls reaches
many over 26,670 calls in 1966. However, of-
fice callers are not encouraged when they cannot
find a parking place after locating the office.
Thousands of bulletins are mailed each year
in answer to requests for information.
Personnel of other county departments and
community organizations receive training and in-
formation from the Home Economics Office and
in turn work directly with many people who do
not know about or take the initiative to seek help
from the Extension Home Economics Offices.
Open House was held for three days at the
Home Economics Office in November in observ-
ance of Consumer Education Week. It was well
attended by personnel from other cooperating
agencies. However, the average Mrs. Consumer
can't come to the office to see and hear -- we
must go to her community to show and tell. Some-
how, the program must be communicated through
all forms of mass media to reach the people.
NEWSPAPERS.. .T. V . .RADIO ....
EXHIBITS .... NEWSLETTERS .... BULLE-
TINS .... CLUB PROGRAMS . TOURS ....
SEMINARS. . FAIRS. . PARADES ....
PANELS. . POSTERS. . FESTIVALS ....
WORKSHOPS. .. LEADER TRAINING ....
DEMONSTRATIONS ....TELEPHONE CALLS ....
OFFICE VISITS. . OPEN HOUSE. . all
these magic carpets bring Extension's Home Eco-
nomics message for better living to people in
r .a o
* p R1 (., i: 19 '1 5,1 i r I
* PRkI J IGI HT
Drive by Two Brothers Nursery and you'd
think, "My, what a profitable enterprise on two
and half acres of land!" The same is true of
many nurseries throughout the state. It is also
true that nurseries go out of business each year
because the operation was not managed properly.
In recent years the Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service has been aware of this need for
training in business practices and has acted to
satisfy this need.
Many county agents have received recent
training from agricultural economists of the Uni-
versity of Florida. Dr. Edwin Cake and others
have developed a series of work sheets that are
used by the nurseryman, assisted by the county
agent. Much detailed information is gathered and
entered on these sheets.
The starting point is to measure buildings
and production areas. Beginning and closing in-
ventories are taken to determine average square
feet of space used and average value per plant
for the tax year. The sale of plants and other
items by variety, size, and price is summarized
for the entire year of operation.
Depreciation on buildings, land improve-
ments, machinery and equipment is evaluated.
Inventory of supplies and materials is entered
at the start and end of the tax year to determine
these items of cost.
Mr. Earnest Rhoermoser, who has been in the
nursery business in Dade County for 13 years,
cooperated fully. However, many details of his
operation revealed that changes could be made
that would result in more profit. This study
showed that his urgent need was to change his
price structure. He was reluctant to make this
change because he thought it would drastically
reduce sales. Four months later he found that
sales are steady and the increase in price, on a
per plant basis, has strengthened his entire oper-
ation. He increased the price of egg-can stock
from $1.25 to $1.75 per plant.
His early training and experience began in
Germany, where he learned to propagate and grow
quality nursery plants. Realizing now his need
for further training in nursery management, he is
currently enrolled in a course in marketing at the
Dade Junior College.
Rising labor costs are a major concern. The
study of other nurseries shows that the average
amount assessed to maintenance is 12 percent.
Production costs are 70 percent, and sales and
overhead are 18 percent.
By comparing his figures with those of simi-
lar nurseries throughout the state, he can see
where other changes will mean more profit for his
nursery business. The Extension Service will
offer this same assistance to other nurserymen in
Dade County in the near future.
Read the Label ... know what you're buying.
Find the right size and color ... coordinating
fashions makes your dollar stretch further.
Check construction a poorly made garment
isn't worth any price.
Leaders learn to read newspaper advertising
with help of home economist and department
buyer Mr. John Wiles.
* MONEV--' I`4THES--TEENS
Consumer education concerns everyone. It is
a vital concern of the Extension Home Economics
Office, the leaders of youth, and to the many
merchants of Dade County.
Webster defines a consumer as one who uses
goods or services. Through the 4-H Clothing
Buying Project, we have had to change the defi-
nition to one who is discriminating in his use of
goods and services - one who recognizes qual-
ity, design, and function.
In 1963, twenty-two million five thousand
teenagers spent a total of eleven million dollars
- an average of nearly five hundred dollars
each for goods and services, not including the
necessities normally supplied by their families.
Today's teen group, totaling twenty-five mil-
lion, represents the largest purchasers of used
cars and clothing in the United States. To in-
crease their sales, many manufacturers, adver-
tisers and retailers are beaming their printed
ads and radio and TV commercials to teenagers.
There are three important reasons for includ-
ing consumer education in 4-H programs:
1. Teenagers as active consumers have
money to spend and are using it to buy a
wide variety of products.
2. Advertising and other sales appeals and
claims are all designed to influence their
choices of products and brands.
3. Teenagers are relatively uninformed about
different products, comparative retail
prices, consumer credit, etc.
In 1965, when the 4-H Clothing Buying Pro-
ject was introduced, local Penney Stores spon-
sored and presented a Buying Sweater program at
a county council meeting.
This year, the program went into full swing.
Leader and junior leader meetings were held in
September. The adult leader meetings taught
leaders how to teach young people good buyman-
ship, how to use informative advertising, and how
to understand label and hangtag information.
The junior leader meetings were held at two
Penney's Department stores, North Miami Beach
and Hialeah. The young people were trained in
recognizing quality workmanship, understanding
the Federal Labeling Act for fibers, and doing
comparative shopping. After the introductory in-
formation was given to the boys and girls, they
were divided into groups of four and sent into the
store to select garments with the guidance of the
home economics agent, store buyer and under-
standing salespeople. Then they returned to the
meeting room to give reasons for their selection.
Their reasons showed they had been good listen-
ers and, with the actual experience of shopping,
were on the road to being discriminating con-
sumers who could recognize quality, design and
The second training meeting was held on
Buying Fabrics for Home Sewing. The home eco-
nomics agent showed with basic information of
fibers, fabric construction, and fabric finishing
the home sewer could purchase fabrics appro-
priate for the occasion, garment figure type, and
the level of skill she had reached. The leaders
and girls learned how to understand and use the
advances made in modern textile technology to
create fashions of their own.
The 4-H Foundation, formed and chartered
in 1966, is a vision realized by far-sighted indi-
viduals in Dade County. The Foundation will
strengthen the continued promotion of 4-H and
its educational objectives for development of
character, leadership, and citizenship among our
This is the first time in Florida that a foun-
dation has ever been formed at the county level
to carry out the purposes of 4-H. The Charter
Board of Directors is ready to spread the word on
the effectiveness of the 4-H program for the
youth of our community.
Many may think that 4-H is a rural program.
This is just one of many phases. The learning
experiences of over 2,000 youth in Dade County
4-H clubs attest to its effectiveness in theurban
and suburban areas.
Both tangible and intangible results of the
4-H program can be attributed in large degree to
volunteer adult leadership. These individuals
are making tremendous contributions. The 4-H
leaders receive the rewards of seeing their as-
sistance, their encouragements, and their chal-
lenges take seed and grow. They see these 4-H'
ers motivated to strive and achieve. They are
shaping lives of young people, and they receive
personal satisfaction along with a sense of ac-
Others in the community are asked to step
forward and acept this same responsibility of
leadership and support 4-H'ers in establishing
personal goals, to help them acquire skills and
knowledge, and to challenge each one to achieve
his potentialities. The community, its business
leaders and others can accept this new opportun-
ity and receive the satisfaction of contributing to
the training of tomorrow's citizens.
The Foundation can fulfill its objectives and
give our youth the opportunity to experience new
horizons, learn to plan and carry out group acti-
tivities, learn to take responsibility and be of
service to others, learn to select their own goals,
and learn to select standards that are best for
themselves. All of these are long-range benefits
to our total community.
This can only be accomplished through "The
Strength of Many".
A. F. Dickey, President
Z.-r 7 j~g J~
DADE COUNTY 4-H YOUTH FOUNDATION .INC.
2690 N.W. 7TH AVENUE, MIAMI, FLORIDA 33127
Your Dade County 4-H Youth Foundation was incor-
porated for the purpose of promoting educational
objectives inherent in 4-H and to develop character,
leadership, and citizenship among the youth of Dade
All agree that good citizens are vital to our
democracy. Practical activities In 4-H Club work can
help to instill qualities of good citizenship in youth.
While all who belong to the 4-H Clubs benefit, our country
benefits most. More than 2 1/4 million 4-H members
annually learn citizenship qualities that guide them as
shareholders in democracy. Annually about 2,000 Dade
County 4-H Club members share in these learning experi-
Through the cooperation of business and industry,
funds are invested annually in the Foundation's program
of educational service. Through this diversified program,
... Educational materials are supplied to members,
leaders, and Extension agents;
... 4-H members receive encouragement and recognition
from scholarships, trips, medals, and other awards;
... Adult leaders are given valuable training in specific
areas of 4-H Club work;
... Business leaders and other friends of 4-H are given
the opportunity and satisfaction of contributing to
the training of tomorrow's citizens;
... The Foundation is made up of honorary members, a
board of directors, donor members, and sustaining
To accomplish the Foundation program, support is
enlisted from business organizations, foundations, civic
groups, and individuals who believe in 4-H as a valuable
training ground for tomorrow's citizens. The Foundation
receives, maintains, and expends funds for the advance-
ment of 4-H Club work throughout Dade County.
Extension's project aimed at improving teen-
age nutrition is called "Food for Fun and Fit-
ness". Through a coordinated community effort,
using existing Extension programs, a special ef-
fort was made this year to reach not only 4-H
members but all teenagers as well.
Americans like to think all their countrymen
are well-fed. Compared with many countries, this
is certainly true. However, although abundant
good food is available, research reveals that
many teenagers need improved diets. Many such
young people live in Dade County.
So there was a definite need to build a coun-
tywide program to upgrade teenage nutrition. With
the help of the State Extension nutritionists, Dade
County Extension home economists went to work
to adapt possibilities into priorities and motiva-
tion to fit the nutritional needs of 400,000 Dade
Countians under twenty years of age.
400,000 Dade Countians? That's right, and
the job of educating this many proves to be a big
Extension's responsibility was clear: to con-
vince the young people that food is an indispen-
sable key to attaining what they want and be-
coming what they want to be. The Extension
home economists felt that only then would they
take this key and unlock the doors of opportunity
available to them.
They felt that, once inside this door, the
average youth is also open to meaningful nutri-
tion presented in a provocative way.
Realizing that the teenager -- the nation's
most valuable resource -- is curious and eager
to have the chance to make his own decisions
and to be a part of the group, to be with the "IN",
Extension home economists worked to provide
learning experiences to show them that good nu-
trition makes a difference here and now.
It makes a difference in physical appearance,
in performance at school, in sports and social
situations. It makes a difference in developing
such personality assets as enthusiasm, vivacity,
creativity, and leadership ability.
Extension home economists sought out
leaders and won their cooperation. Extension
tried to continually present its teenage nutrition
material in such a way that it would be "cool"
and sharp to practice sensible eating habits.
Two such youth-to-youth leaders are typified
by 4-H members Mary Ann Fischer and Boyd
Reeder, who brought the message from the State
Youth Nutrition Workshop to the Dade County
Food and Agricultural Science Careers Workshop.
Associate food technologist Dr. Richard
Matthews, of the University of Florida, told the
more than 200 young people who participated in
the Workshop in Dade County that the many facets
of food production -- marketing, processing, pre-
servation, and consumer education -- offer one
of the most rewarding futures available to man.
"Help us to receive our daily bread," he chal-
lenged the youngsters. (Bottom photos)
In recent years, and especially during the
past year, the food industry and the increasing
cost of food have attracted much attention. As a
result of this concentrated interest in rising food
prices, the Dade County Extension office has
been called upon by radio, television, newspa-
pers, organizations and personal contacts to an-
swer such questions as: Why are food prices in-
creasing? How can the housewife improve her
buying habits? What can be done to help lower
Today's consumer is buying higher priced
and better quality foods, receiving better packag-
ing, additional services and demanding a wider
variety of foods. With these changing develop-
ments and wants, the housewife must share in the
blame for increasing food prices.
The average supermarket today contains
some 7,000 choices of food. Twenty years ago
there were less than half that number. Where
meals once took hours to prepare, they can be
purchased frozen and ready to pop in and out of
the oven on a moment's notice.
Consumers are constantly demanding higher
quality products. Many of the lower grades of
farm products which could be found on the gro-
cery shelves 20 years ago are now discarded.
All of these factors, along with the rising cost
of labor, have contributed to a substantial ih-
crease in food costs. Despite all this, the aver-
age American family spends a smaller portion of
its income for food than it did 20 years ago.
In the United States, about 19 percent of
disposable income (income after taxes) is spent
for food, as compared to 29 percent 20 years ago.
This 19 percent is also a smaller percent than
any other country in the world. For example, En-
gland spends 29 percent, France, 31 percent,
Italy, 45 percent, Japan, 47 percent, and Russia,
If food costs had increased at the same rate
as other costs of living items since 1947-49, the
American consumer would be spending many mil-
lions of dollars more for food annually than is
the case today. According to the "cost-of-living
index," medical care has risen 67 percent, tran-
sportation 51 percent, rent 45 percent, housing
34 percent, while food has only risen 22 percent.
Food costs have risen less since 1947-49
than most items in the government's "cost-of-
Consumer education for both the youth and
the adult has always been a part of the Dade
County Extension staff work. The Extension
worker is an excellent consultant on objective
consumer information covering a wide range of
goods and services.
Both the County Agents and the County Ex-
tension Home Economists work together and indi-
vidually in their efforts to relay to the residents
of Dade County the latest educational information
in all areas of agriculture,agribusiness and home
economics. A metropolitan area, Dade County
requires that agents rely heavily on the mass
communications, schools, speaking engagements,
meetings and personal contacts to get their mes-
"Produce More With Less"
Many of the County Agents were called upon
by producers to help further increase efficiency
within their operation, enabling them to produce
food at the cheapest possible cost to keep con-
sumer prices as low as possible. Actually, the
farmer has been able to hold prices down through
some fantastic increases in efficiency. This ef-
ficiency has grown largely from research and edu-
cational programs in agricultural production.
Supermarkets and food distributors alike
have called upon Extension to help increase the
efficiency of getting their foods to the consumer.
Extension was asked to work out programs with
consumers so that the retailer can better attempt
to give the housewife what she wants. The con-
sumers requested information concerning food
buying, food supply, trends and information as to
why food prices have been increasing, and who
is responsible for these higher food costs. In
response to these requests, the Extension office
set up programs that would attempt to answer all
"Stretch Your Dollar"
To begin, the County Extension Home Eco-
nomists held a series of one hour television pro-
grams entitled, "Stretch Your Dollar." Two of
these programs dealt specifically with foods.
One program featured Richard Hunt, Assistant
Marketing Agent, and Betty Clark, Assistant
County Extension Home Economist, giving re-
sponses to many of the above questions. On the
second program, Betty Clark, with an industry
meat specialist, gave the housewife tips on meat
buying, using actual demonstrations of meat cuts.
Many programs on a local weekly television
show during the noon news programs were di-
rected at all areas of the food system -- from
production all the way to the consumer.
Some agents participated in a weekly radio
phone-in question and answer show, dealing with
consumer questions on food buying and reasons
for price hikes of specific commodities.
Constantly, agents are writing articles for
the local newspapers. These articles present the
latest educational information on foods, food pre-
paration, quality of foods, selection of foods, and
efficient buying and storing of foods.
Throughout the year many of the agents
spoke before different organizations including
women's and civic groups. They served on
panels, with the principle topics being food
prices and what makes up the food dollar.
These are just some of the avenues used in
educating and informing Dade County residents,
as to some of the reasons why food costs have
had to increase.
It should be remembered that today's family
is eating better and has available better quality
foods than 20 years ago. At the same time, they
are paying less for food in relation to their in-
come now as compared to 20 years ago.
* DADE COUNTY'S CORNUCOPIA
The Extension Home Economics Office ---
Dade County's Consumer Education Center -
helps you get the most for your food dollar.
Topics such as "Eat To Keep Young" ---
"The Packed Lunch" ---"Dade County Foods"
-- "Spice the Season" --- "Food Storage"
--- "Freezing Foods" --- "Know Your Small
Appliances" represent some of the educational
programs on which training was given to leaders
of Dade County's Extension Homemakers' clubs
and other groups this year.
Since conservative estimates show that each
person eats more than a ton of food in a year,
naturally, food interests everyone. If you're an
average consumer, you'll eat about 252 pounds
of fresh vegetables while you'll nibble away only
four pounds of peanuts.
Some of every major food group --- milk and
milk products; meat, poultry, fish, and eggs;
fruits and vegetables; breads, cereals, and other
enriched or whole grain products --- is grown
in Dade County. January through March is the
peak season for most of the county's fresh vege-
tables. The Home Economics Office has arranged
tours to farms, warehouses, and markets to help
food buyers recognize top quality.
The peak production periods are not the only
times that Dade County's fine agricultural prod-
ucts may be enjoyed. Preservation of surpluses
by freezing or canning is taught in the Extension
Home Economics Program.
Frozen vegetables insure a year-round source
of Vitamins C and A, and provide several valua-
ble minerals, particularly calcium and iron. In-
formed homemakers understand that in preserv-
ing, the aim is to stop as soon as possible the
enzymatic action and bacterial growth. Direc-
tions for freezing vegetables, fruits, and meats
are available from the Home Economics Office.
The family that uses the freezer extensively is
the one that gains the highest financial return on
this investment. The best practice, as the cost
figures indicate, is for a rapid turn-over of food
in the freezer.
While food prices have gone up, the per-
centage of the consumer's disposable income
spent for food has gone down. Too, the increase
in price has not been just for the food itself, but
for a higher quality, wider variety, better packag-
ing, and additional services. Many helps on ways
to stretch the food dollar are given by the Home
Economics Agents. The office has available for
the asking recipes for preparing low-cost dishes,
for using dried milk, for making the ready-mixes
at home, and for preparing economical cuts of
meat. Suggestions are made for variations in
seasoning vegetables, such as a pinch of herbs.
In the Extension office patio is an herb garden,
Lucky is the person who lives in Dade
County and has a yen for growing and using trop-
ical fruits. Many interesting edible tropical fruits
are well worth cultivating as door-yard fruits.
The Extension Home Economics Office has
available over ninety different recipes, using
over fifteen different tropical and sub-tropical
fruits. To mention a few, there are recipes for
frozen avocado puree, surinam cherry sauce,
mango chutney, loquat preserves, seagrape jelly,
spiced mango, carissa jelly, guava nectar shells,
mango nut bread, green dragon dip, carambola
punch, guacamole, lime pudding, buttermilk guava
sherbert, papaya delight and other exotic tropical
dishes. Many of the recipes are now available
from the Extension Home Economics Office.
S WES DOLLARS
Many aspects of soil testing do not stop in
the chemical laboratory with the completion and
reporting of a soil test. Soil testing plays the
role of a guiding aid prior to planting, of a diag-
nostic aid, of a reporting aid and of a teaching
As a guiding aid prior to planting and during
crop growth, soil samples in Dade County are
S analyzed. The information acquired serves to
determine the amount and kind of fertilizer to be
added. Advice also can be given to the fertilizer
supplier concerning the proper ingredients to use
in the fertilizer formulation in order to give the
most efficient crop production. Fertilizer defi-
ciencies and excesses are detected during crop
growth by soil testing.
Figure 1. Prior to building this golf course, soil
tests showed the nutrient levels of the soil build-
ing materials. It also showed that the materials
ft did not contain high salt levels.
S Figure 2. Soil testing prior to and during crop
growth helped to guide the grower to a very ex-
cellent crop of strawberries.
Figure 3. Foliage growers also take advantage
of soil testing and technical advice to assure
good plant growth.
Figure 4. Growers are advised how to make a
proper nutritional spray for application to crops
after rains and during cold weather.
Figure 5. The tomatoes in this hydroponic oper-
ation are kept in good growing condition by hav-
ing the hydroponic solutions tested. Fertilizer
nutrients are then added to keepthe proper levels
and proper nutrient balance.
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"Will we sew again next year?" Alexandria
Melendez asked hopefully.
It was April and a group of women was get-
ting ready to pack up and move on with their mi-
grant families to the next harvest area. But they
would be back in Dade County for the next sea-
son ready to sew again.
During their stay here, "Sewing" was a
weekly activity for Alexandria and seven of her
friends in workshop-type sessions. While making
their garments, these women learned how to use
the sewing machine, take measurements for sew-
ing, select and use patterns. They were delight-
ed with their progress in making aprons, skirts,
blouses and dresses for themselves. They also
made garments for their teen-agers and other
On the eve of their departure, a "Get To-
gether" for those who move with the seasons and
those who only work the seasons was a real
highlight of the sewing sessions. An exhibit of
their garments was the high point of the evening,
shared with their families and friends. If you
saw them, no one could wonder that a real sense
of pride and accomplishment prompted the ques-
tion "Will we sew again next year?"
The scene shifts to Forty Mile Bend on U S
41 where the Miccosukee Indians live. Here, the
Home Economics Agents helped Indian families
learn about living in a house instead of in the
traditional "Indian Chickee".
Their home living problems were inherent
with the big move from the "Chickee" to a house
designed to combine the comforts and conven-
ience of today's modern home with the light and
airiness of the great out of doors.
The training courses for these new home
owners were scheduled for three days at the In-
dian Reservation. The first day was spent on
"Food for the Family." Demonstrations were
held on cookery and storage using the modern
kitchen equipment like that found in their homes.
The next two days were spent on "the Clean-up"
and "the Fix-up". "Clean-up" was the time to
learn the "how-tos" on house cleaning, cleaning
supplies, pest control, home safety and equip-
The women appeared most interested and
fascinated as they became involved in making
articles for the home and "dressing up the de-
monstration house" during the "Fix-up" ses-
sions. They also "dressed up" the outside with
A new way of life was opening for the In-
dian Homemaker -- from the complete out-of-
door adventures to ventures for satisfactory
family living within the wall of a house--where
for the youngster it is no longer just a peek in
the pot to say "What's cooking?" but a glance
at a sleek shiny stove in the kitchen and then
"What's for dinner?"
Personal development was another popular
project with Indian youth. The focus was on per-
sonal grooming and looking your best. Their pro-
ject sessions were keyed to "Colors to Wear",
"Fabric Selection", "Buying Adventures", in-
cluding a tour to a modern Shopping Center, "Us-
ing the Sewing Machine" and "Making Skirts and
Blouses". "Style Show Time" was their big day
when the group of girls shared their achievements
with parents, teachers and friends.
Special Family Fare with Commodity Foods
was the adventure for county recipients,"VISTA"
workers and other food program leaders in method
demonstrations, leader training sessions and
The training involved methods and ideas to
promote greater use of these donated foods in a
variety of ways. Basic helps on food cookery,
family food needs and meal planning were pro-
vided to guide home use of the various com-
A new organization the Community Home-
maker Service in its efforts to establish itself
as a practical and worthwhile resource, voiced
its need of Extension Home Economics in its
initial training courses for women who would be
employed to help maintain and preserve family
life that is threatened with disruptions through
furnishing "home help services." Extension was
represented on the Board of Directors, and Ex-
tension Home Economics has provided training
for 90 women in the areas of foods, home manage-
ment and safety.
Two training courses were conducted during
this year. Their activities and experiences re-
lated to planning for the job, understanding their
responsibilities and skills which would promote
This is a continuous project in cooperation
with Homemakers Service, Inc., and other public
These are a few of the services offered by
Extension Home Economics as a community re-
source. The calls of other agencies and organi-
zations for assistance with family and community
living projects cover the broad scope of "pro-
grams" with "variety special emphasis" and re-
presents a broad clientele-the senior citizen, the
young homemaker, and teenager and the school
In this area of "variety special interest"
such programs as are listed below are examples
of helps planned with the interests of the special
groups in focus:
"WICS" Proper dress for the young women en
route to Job Corps.
"ENABLE" Consumer Education: How to
Buy Getting the Most for Your
"Young Homemakers" Nutrition for the Young
"P T A" The Packed Lunch.
"Senior Citizens" Food Buying.
"School Teens" Personal development and
Left to right: Scott Clarkson, Charles E. Wry, Nolan Durre, G.M.
Barclay examine top growth of potato varieties for desirable
Field view of New Brunswick potato plots showing variations
and growth habits between varieties.
Left to right: Scott Clarkson, Charles E. Wry, G. M. Barclay and
Nolan Durre discuss horticultural characteristics of individual
seedlings in the New Brunswick potato plots.
One of the little-known facts about Dade
County is that potatoes are produced during the
winter months. Last year Dade County produced
$4,755,000 worth of potatoes. More than 6,000
acres of Dade's marl soil is devoted to potato
growing. The favorable climatic conditions and
market make potato growing a challenging enter-
The average per capital consumption of pota-
toes in the United States is 108 pounds. This
average has remained approximately the same for
quite a number of years. It is expected that the
consumption will continue at approximately the
same rate for the next five to ten years.
The trend has been to eat less potatoes with
meals because there is a false idea that potatoes
are fattening. Whole potatoes contain several
vitamins and minerals that are essential for prop-
er body development and function. A half cup of
boiled potatoes contains only 45 calories or the
equivalent to three teaspoons of sugar. A medium-
sized baked potato contains only 90 calories --
less than the number of calories in two slices of
bread and only half the number of calories in
three pancakes, four inches in diameter, or a slice
of pizza pie.
Even though the consumption of potatoes
with meals has been reduced, the overall con-
sumption of potatoes has remained approximately
the same because the younger generation is eat-
ing large quantities of potatoes as potato chips
and French fries. When potatoes are chipped they
lose some of their vitamins, and the calorie con-
tent is increased by the fat taken up in the chip.
The production of chipping quality potatoes
here in Dade County is rather small, since only
about ten percent of the 6,000 acres devoted to
potatoes is in the white-skinned varieties. The
white-skinned varieties are not grown on more
acres here in Dade County, because the yield of
the presently available white-skinned varieties
is less than 50 percent that of the red-skinned
The Dade County Potato Growers Associa-
tion is aware of the change in demand for pota-
toes, and last year the directors requested that
an investigation be made in an effort to find a
higher yielding white-skinned potato for Dade
Dr. M. O. Thomas, of the Sub-Tropical Ex-
periment Station, was asked to do this work, and
the Dade County Extension Agent, in cooperation
with Dr. Thomas, secured samples, locally grown,
of three numbered seedlings and the Pungo va-
riety from the New Brunswick Province of Canada.
The seedlings were produced on the farm of Frank
Shepard as a routine seed-borne disease index
operation. The potato samples were dug from the
plots on the Shepard farm and were treated in the
same manner as potatoes that were going to be
chipped commercially. The yields of two of the
seedlings averaged about 300 fifty-pound bags
With the yield of this quantity of potatoes,
our farmers could satisfactorily grow white-
skinned potatoes for the chippers. The best chips
were obtained from two varieties that had a spe-
cific gravity of 1.06. The quality of the chip was
light color, good texture and good flavor. The
highest yielding variety had a specific gravity
of 1.08 and was slightly less desirable in color,
but the texture of all four samples tested was
about equal. The overall rating for all four vari-
eties using the named variety Pungo as a stand-
ard was excellent to good in quality.
One of the reasons advanced for the white-
skinned varieties of potatoes not yielding a high
return in bushels of potatoes per acre is that the
varieties presently available were developed un-
der northern climatic conditions, where a long
dormant period was possible between harvest and
replanting of the seed pieces. The seedlings that
were investigated do not yield well in the north.
This could be desirable following the reasoning
that potatoes yielding well in the north require
long dormancy or resting periods. These potatoes
could become outstanding varieties under South
If the production of potato chips continues
to expand, there is going to be a greater need for
a high quality chip potato produced some place
during the winter months. There is no reason why
Dade County cannot increase the acreage of
chipping potatoes if these varieties continue to
yield satisfactorily tonnage per acre and the
quality of the chips produced from them remains
at the high quality level found this year.
I viu U
Figure 11. The dead vegetation showed the de-
structive evidence of salt water carried into this
field by the high tides and winds of Hurricane
Betsy. Soil testing and reporting were done to
inform growers of the amount of salt left in the
soil after the rains came and also when a safe
salt level was reached for crop planting.
Fig. 12. Salt concentrations in canals are re-
ported to let growers know when water is not
safe for spray purposes.
As an aid for teaching young and old, soil
testing methods are impressive. Test results,
correlated with visual observations, show which
fertilizer nutrient is deficient in certain plants.
A correlation shows why plants do not emerge
uniformly if at all.
Fig. 13. As a teaching aid, soil tests allow this
group to see the appearance of trees and leaves
at known fertility levels.
Fig. 14. These nitrogen-deficient plants as indi-
cated by yellow leaves were shown to be growing
in soil of adequate fertility content. Damaged
roots caused the plants to take up no soil ferti-
lizers. Nutritional sprays keep the plants from
regressing until they develop new roots that were
able to feed from the soil.
* WHO '
Who knows all the problems in 300,000 homes
in Dade County?
Answer: No one person or a dozen! But the
Extension Service has a cooperative and good
working relationship with other county and state
departments, community organizations, lay groups,
business, and schools, as well as individual
homemakers. Representatives from many of these
areas serve on the DADE COUNTY EXTEN-
SION HOME ECONOMICS ADVISORY COMMIT-
The President, a young father, is interested
in the best living possible for his family. As a
school counselor, he can interpret for us the need
for a good home to support good school work.
Another committee member, the judge of Juvenile
Court said, "If all young people could be in a
4-H Club, we would have no tenants at Youth
The Committee's secretary works with low
income groups and can see problems and needs
that cannot be realized by those who are not
close to the situation. Another homemaker mem-
ber speaks for the average consumer and can
make known to the home economics agents the
educational needs of to-day's consumers.
Now what does an Advisory Committee do?
It helps us realize the needs, the objectives or
goals, and what's the best way Extension can
help people to help themselves to reach these
The Committee's biggest problem has been
to end its planning sessions on time! Much can
be revealed through the eyes of a visiting nurse,
a public health worker, a service company super-
visor, a social worker, a Youth Corps administra-
tor, a nutritionist, a utility company Home Econ-
omist, a state representative, and a lawyer. A
day care nursery teacher, a community service di-
rector, a home economics teacher, a dental as-
sistant, a recreation director, a grandmother, a
Y.W.C.A. coordinator, and a vocational training
teacher have a lot to offer.
And a doctor, a church councilman, a 4-H
club leader, a president of an Extension Home-
makers' Council, a community school director, a
social security representative, a leader of a pro-
gram with Indians or the Migrants all contribute
their ideas and interest.
Time and effort have been given by all these
people to help Extension do the best planning for
a program which grows and grows because it
meets many needs.
K .' K
Container grown citrus nursery with gravel beds
separated by concrete walks. The same nursery
complying with current citrus nursery regulations
is shown in photograph below.
Container grown citrus nursery on black plastic
with weed-free gravel walks. The same nursery
in complicane with nursery regulations is shown
in photograph below.
Container grown citrus on concrete beds. Beds
are four inches above grade and separated by
gravel walks which must be maintained weed-free.
V% Fr isi:
A small worm with a big name, Burrowing
nematode (Radopholus similis), causes millions
of dollars worth of damage to the citrus industry
in Florida. The nematode is responsible for one
of the industry's big headaches, spreading de-
cline, a disease ultimately resulting in the death
of citrus trees.
The control of the burrowing nematode prob-
lem in the grove is expensive and involves con-
siderable loss of production during control pro-
In order to help to prevent the spread of this
eel worm through the citrus areas, the citrus in-
dustry, in another step of self-policing, requested
assistance from the Florida State Department of
Agriculture to establish a burrowing nematode
control program in citrus nurseries.
A control program was established by the
Division of Plant Industry of the State Depart-
ment of Agriculture, with the assistance of the
Plant Pest Control Division of the United States
Department of Agriculture. The Plant Pest Con-
trol Division is responsible for sampling of citrus
nurseries for the detection of the burrowing
nematode. The Division of Plant Industry is re-
sponsible for the regulatory program involved in
the movement of citrus nursery stock. Through
this combined effort it is possible to determine
quickly the presence or absence of burrowing
nematodes in a citrus nursery.
In addition to the program carried out in
existing nurseries beginning with the Division of
Plant Industry's burrowing nematode regulations,
the two agencies, in cooperation with each other
and citrus nurserymen, must inspect and sample
any proposed new nursery site for citrus.
Every existing citrus nursery is re-evaluated
annually by the Plant Pest Control Division.
This agency samples each lot of nursery trees
immediately prior to movement from the nursery
to the field.
Treatment in event that a burrowing nema-
tode is detected is a ten minute 1220 Fahrenheit
hot water root bath of bare-rooted trees with a
trunk caliper not greater than 1% inches and a
tap root not longer than 20 inches. This system
does not create too great a problem for the field
grown nurseries of the citrus production areas of
In addition, provisions had to be made for
the establishment of new nurseries. This re-
quired inspection of a proposed nursery site for
the presence of native burrowing nematode host
plants. If native hosts are found growing on the
proposed nursery site, or if native or exotic hosts
are found growing within 400 feet of periphery of
the proposed site, soil and root samples are taken
in the site area before site approval may be
These regulations for existing nurseries or
for site approval for proposed nurseries were ap-
plicable and workable in the field-grown nurs-
In Dade County, where the greatest percent-
age of nursery stocks is container-grown andnot
field-grown because of the county's soil condi-
tions, the burrowing nematode regulations created
an unanticipated problem. Citrus nursery oper-
ators of Dade County buy potting soil from sever-
al soil pits in the northern end of the county and
use this soil in various types of containers set
on top of the ground for the production of nursery
trees. This potting soil is not the loose sand of
the citrus production area of the state. Even if it
were, bare-rooting these citrus trees and moving
them into the rocky production areas of Dade
County have not proved very successful in the
establishment of new groves.
The citrus nurseries of Dade County and the
Division of Plant Industry suddenly found them-
selves confronted with a unique situation under
the burrowing nematode regulations which legally
prohibited the sale of any citrus nursery stock
within or from the Dade County area.
Although in comparison with the citrus
giants of the north, the Dade County nurseries are
extremely small and not a major portion of the
overall citrus industry of the state, the Division
of Plant Industry immediately attempted to modify
the burrowing nematode regulations to give the
Dade County citrus nurserymen some relief. The
nurserymen, in turn, requested help from the
County Agricultural Agent's Office.
Accompanied by the Division of Plant In-
dustry personnel, the associate County agent re-
sponsible for work with fruit growers and fruit
tree nurserymen called on the citrus nurserymen.
As a result of these visits and discussions a de-
cision was made to request assistance and ad-
vice from the Extension Fruit Crops Department
at the University of Florida. The Extension citri-
culturist arranged a meeting with the head of the
Division of Plant Industry and his staff. The
fruit crops agent from Dade County traveled to
Gainesville and explained the problem facing
container-grown citrus nurseries in Dade County.
At the conclusion of this meeting a date was
set on which the representative of the Division
of Plant Industry from Gainesville would visit
the nurseries, along with other Division of Plant
Industry personnel and the Extension Fruit Crops
Agent of Dade County.
These special regulations for citrus nurs-
eries in Dade County resulted from the visits and
inspections of citrus nurseries in this area:
1. Where drainage or flooding constitutes a prob-
lem, a grower will be required to elevate his
storage area at least 18 inches from soil
2. Where flooding is not a problem, a grower will
be allowed to store his stock on 4 6 inch
slabs or equally substantial material, pro-
vided the walkways are treated with diesel
fuel or other soil sterilizing chemical.
3. An alternative would be to select a site (at
least 200 feet from ornamentals) that could be
approved by the Division.
4. All potting soil must be sterilized or come
from an approved source and must be stored
off the ground in an acceptable manner.
5. If seedlings are utilized, they must be burrow-
The cooperative effort of the aforementioned
agencies and the cooperation and willingness of
citrus nurseryment to change their practices,
although initially expensive, have resulted in im-
proving the fruit tree nursery industry in the
County. The raised beds for container-grown
plants, the weed-free aisles between the beds,
and the sterile potting soil required provide for
reduction in labor costs, greater efficiency in
operation, and greater and considerably more at-
tractive nurseries for better merchandising.
Extension agent discusses poultry expansion
with E. G. Budde of Dade's Poultry Association.
Modern Foods Inc. will house 250,000 laying hens.
Florida Hatchery and Breeders Association's ed-
ucational posters are now posted at local airline
terminals and throughout the world.
Commissioner Doyle Conner and Latin American
Agricultural Leaders tour Dade County's poultry
industry pasteurization plant.
Left to right Bobby R. Bennett, Director, Farm
Records Service and Fred Lyons, Data Process-
ing Supervisor of the Fla. Farm Bureau in front
of IBM Machine studying the print out of a farm-
Computers, automation and technology have
revolutionized the poultry industry in Dade Coun-
ty as well as the nation, reducing the cost of
poultry and eggs. Many foreign visitors come to
the United States and are amazed to find that
poultry products are budget foods. In the cities
of their countries these foods are luxury items,
available only to the wealthy.
Experienced cooks can remember when poul-
try products were expensive food items here in
our country. This change on the American table
is largely due to changing methods in the poultry
industry. The United States Department of Agri-
culture reports that eggs in 1966 were selling for
27% less than ten years ago, while per capital
disposable income rose 53% during the same pe-
riod, and retail food prices in general rose 12%.
Farms that grow chickens exclusively appeared
in the early 1900's, beginning the transformation
of poultry foods from luxury to budget items. This
transition toward economy in the poultry industry
is mirrored in some of the changing developments
in the industry in Dade County.
DARE (Developing Agricultural Resources
Effectively) goals for 1970 are 1,000,000 laying
hens, and by 1975, 1,250,000 layers, 3,000,000
broilers and 35,000,000 chicks. Poultry farms
around Miami are using modern methods, includ-
ing new feed formulas in order to produce a better
product for less.
In Dade, Modern Foods, Incorporated, a large
egg production complex, began expansion of a
$1,000,000 poultry operation. When completed
this complex will be one of the most efficient
units ever to be established in Florida, based on
feed mixing and their egg packaging machinery.
This modern machinery will process eggs from
250,000 laying hens, from the nest to the carton,
eliminating the manual hours heretofore spent
doing the same job. This automation helps to
guarantee a better, fresher product to the consu-
mer at the reasonable price that he is willing to
Hart's Poultry Farm added a computerized
record system in 1966 to keep instant records of
its 100,000 laying hens. Such a system cuts out
inefficient or useless spending and allows man-
agement to produce at lower unit costs. This is a
quick way of spotting the need for change, since
monthly operating statements are available rather
than only year-end reports. Again, such automa-
tion contributes to the reasonable price of the
eggs and chickens for the consumer. The Florida
Farm Bureau and the Extension Service have
been initiating this important step of cost reduc-
tion and increased records accuracy.
Another contributing cause to the economy
of eggs is the improvements in breaking out and
pasteurization of eggs. One of the largest egg
distributors in Dade County and in Florida is Sun
City Dairy Farms, Incorporated. To protect the
consumer and to better store their eggs during
periods of excess production, this company added
an $80,000 automatic egg breakage and pasteuri-
zation plant in Hialeah during 1966.
Last year also saw the first production of
hatching eggs in Dade County, by Willson Inter-
national Farms. Over 35 foreign countries re-
ceive chicks and eggs from hatcheries located
within the county. The Extension Office has met
with airline personnel in the proper handling of
eggs and chicks. Educational posters in Spanish
and English have been distributed to both the air-
lines and the hatcheries.
Many Latin Americans have toured the poul-
try industry in Dade County to study methods of
production in order to battle hunger in these
countries. It is necessary to allow poultry busi-
nessmen to export the products of the industry
such as eggs, chicks, machinery and feeds.
While the chicken is the most efficient pro-
ducer of all domestic animals, it is the modern
technology developed by man which can produce
the chicken and the egg in such quantity and
quality that it becomes reasonably priced to all.
Last year hens in the United States played over
65 billion eggs, and the average American ate
over 35 pounds of chicken and 301 eggs. It is
the purpose of the Extension Service to lend it-
self to further expansion and improvement of the
poultry industry in all of its phases.
A DARE Poultry Program was devised by
local poultry people in order to continue the em-
phasis on poultry as the best and soundest inten-
sified producer of food. The change toward mod-
ern practices has moved our country closer to
The photo above shows former Agricultural Extension Service employees, Extension workers or County Agents, who have
volunteered for agricultural educational work in Viet Name, checking tomato seedlings to use for tomato variety research
at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station.
A group of 39 agricultural officials from five countries-India, Kenya, Turkey, Venezuela and United Arab Republic, toured
South Dade farmlands in June. The group was making a four month tour of U. S. Installations under the sponsorship of the
Agency for International Development, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and land-grant colleges and
universities. Florida visitations were arranged through the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, at Gainesville. Squatting (with suit and tie) to explain squash crop is William D. Lee, Professor of soils, North
Carolina State University, who accompanied the group.
MIAMI-METRO NEWS BUREAU PHOTOS
* VISIT T TO LEARN
Miami is an international crossroads. Visi-
tors come here from all over the world -- from
Australia to Venezuela; from East Africa to Viet-
nam. They are of many nationalities, creeds, dif-
ferent races, and cultures.
Why do they come? Because for years a new
war has been developing on many fronts through-
out the world. It is a result of the growing con-
cern for the inadequate food supply of many coun-
tries and the increasing instances of starvation
of peoples throughout various parts of the world.
The American people are now involved, di-
rectly and indirectly, in this war against hunger.
Visitors, agriculturists from foreign lands,
have been coming to Dade County in increasing
numbers to study the agricultural production,
harvesting and marketing process. American citi-
zens on special foreign assignments have been
sent to Dade County to be trained and to become
more capable in food production techniques. Most
of these individuals have one primary mission --
to learn more about fruits, vegetables, poultry and
livestock production that will enable them to as-
sist their people or the people with whom they
will be working in improving their production
methods and increasing their food supply. Dade
County's sub-tropical climate and growing condi-
tions are similar in many ways to some of the
most heavily populated areas of the world.
A Hungry World
With 1/3 of the world's people going to sleep
hungry and with the world's population threaten-
ing to double by year 2000, agriculture on this
earth faces a serious challenge.
Twelve thousand people in the world die
every day of starvation or malnutrition. Will this
figure increase? With world population growing
at the rate of 7,000 people per hour, the figure
well may increase. The population trend is indi-
cated by the following chart:
W D PutJi
Hunger is already a steady and grim com-
panion of many nations and especially the new
or developing nations. These do not have the
modern agricultural technology that so often is
taken for granted in America. Agriculture the
world over faces a great challenge.
Many programs, some under the United Na-
tions, others supported by individual nations or
by cooperative or exchange programs or private
foundations, are at work on the world's food and
hunger problems. These programs include those
of the Agency for International Development
(AID), the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford
Foundation, the Peace Corps and many regional
agricultural research institute and educational
programs, as well as student exchange programs.
The Food for Peace Act of 1966, recently
passed by Congress, sets forth a policy of en-
couraging self-help agricultural programs in
underdeveloped nations. The programs will make
use of American technical know-how to assist in
the self-help efforts.
Dade Farmers Helping
During 1966 the County Agent's staff has
been called on in over thirty instances to help
provide information and direct training to approx-
imately 200 foreign students, professionals and
others involved in the total effort of improving
food production throughout the world.
Dade County farmers, farm equipment and
supply firms, marketing organizations and agri-
culturalresearch and regulatory agencies assisted
and cooperated in the training activities for these
people wishing to study Dade County agricultural
programs and production and marketing tech-
Mr. Jaime Velez of Colombia was very inter-
Sested in vegetable and subtropical fruit produc-
tion methods. Mr. Mukige, Kenya, East Africa,
? picked up some ideas to improve fruit production
J and marketing back in Kenya. Mr. A. J. Chaudhri
of Pakistan also learned about fruit production.
Several visitors from the Caribbean area, Central
and South America visited here to study poultry
and livestock production techniques.
Many Dade County agriculturists have taken
time from busy work schedules to help with these
S international training programs and will without
doubt continue to do so in the future.
MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY
WHERE HAS THE TIME ONE
i WHERE HAS THE TIME GONE ?
Days Devoted to:
Adult Work ................. .................................. 2,623.75
Youth Work ........................... ....................... 418.5
In-Service Training (Staff) ............................ 146
DAYS DEVOTED TO HELPING PEOPLE MAKE
Agricultural Production, Management, and
Natural Resource Development
Farm Business, Organization Development
and Management .......................................
Prevention and Control of Plant and
Animal Diseases, Insects, Weeds,
and Other Pests ..... .................................
Soil and Water Management, Conservation,
Natural Disasters and Civil Defense ....
Management of Crops, Livestock, Poultry,
Equipment and other capital items ........
Agricultural and Horticultural Problems of
home owners and part-time farmers ........
Other activities concerning production,
management and resource development..
Marketing and Utilization of Farm Products
Marketing principles and methods ..............
Grading, packing, storing and quality
maintenance of agricultural products ....
Development and improvement of marketing
organizations, firms and facilities ........
Consumer information on agricultural
Other activities concerning marketing
and utilization ........................ ............
Foods and nutrition ................................
Clothing and textiles .................................
Housing, household equipment and
Human relations and child development......
Home management and home industry..........
Health, safety and civil defense ........_.....
Other family living and home economics
subjects ......... ........ ....... ....._. ....._ ...
Resource Development and Public
Organizing and working with resource
development organizations, agencies
and other groups ................... ............._......
Work with State, county and local
government groups on resource
development and public affairs ................
Planning and preparation of resource
development and public affairs material
and supervising and administering public
affairs programs ........._...............__.._. ..
TOTAL DAYS WORKED ..........-...-..............
Studies of Problems and Opportunities .......... 683
247 Field Trials, Tests and Demonstrations........ 1,123
Consultations Providing Information to
60.5 Individuals and Families ..................._....... 54,396
231.75 Consultations providing information to
Organizations and Agencies ...-........ ....... 26,943
News Articles ........................ .. ......... ....... 1,233
Radio Programs ............- ...-............-............ 2,617
Television Programs .--...-........-...............-..... 485
68.5 Publications Distributed -...... ...._... ............. 521,685
Direct Mail Distributed .._........_...... ...199,902
69 Meetings to plan and develop programs ....... 291
Attendance ................................................. 5,257
89.5 Training Meetings for Leaders ................... 171
Leaders trained .................................... 4,216
31 Other meetings and activities at which
County Extension information was
72- presented 31.............. ................. .. 3,120
330 Attendance ..................... ..................... 278,255
4-H Club members .................... ........_........ 1,063
Other Youth involved in Direct extension
training Programs ............................ ...... 3,600
4-H Club Project Work:
294.5 Individuals with agricultural projects ...... 340
186 Individuals with other 4-H projects ...... 2,003
Youth reached through special
128.5 teen-age nutrition programs ....._......... 42,070
97 Adult Leaders working with youth
223.5 programs .......................... ......... ....... 207
iTV AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT
Florida Agricultural Extension Service
JOHN D. CAMPBELL
Department Chairman, and
County Agricultural Agent
COUNTY AGENT'S STAFF AND SECRETARIES
Nolan L. Durre
*Asso. County Agricultural Agent
*Asso. County Agricultural Agent
Roy J. Champagne
Asst. County Agricultural Agent
Louis J. Daigle
Asst. County Agricultural Agent
Joseph D. Dalton
*Asst. County Agricultural Agent
Richard M. Hunt
*Asst. Marketing Agent
Ralph W. Moore
Asst. County Agricultural Agent
MRS. HELEN 8. MACTAVISH
Extension Vice Chairman, and
Home Economics Agent
HOME ECONOMICS STAFF AND SECRETARIES
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette
Asst. Extension Home Ec. Agent
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Clark
Asst. Extension Home Ec. Agent
Miss Patricia A. Helms
*Asst. Extension Home Ec. Agent
Miss Mary Alyce Holmes
Asst. Extension Home Ec. Agent
Miss Victoria M. Simpson
Asst. Extension Home Ec. Agent
SECRETARIES AND TECHNICAL AIDES
Miss Margaret M. Hutton
Dept. Administrative Secretary
Mrs. Lena Cowart
Mrs. Lenda H. Lowry
Mrs. Bettie A. Gay
Mrs. T. Edith Owens
Mrs. O. Marie Gibson
Mrs. Rebecca C. Murray
William C. Mattila
Mrs. Dorothy T. Martin
Mrs. Terry R. Snyder
Mrs. Mary Jane Trent
Mrs. Agatha B. Kirkpatrick
Miami Office 2690 N. W. 7th Avenue
Homestead Office (Agriculture)
1102 N. Krome Avenue
Homestead Office (Home Economics)
1116 N. Krome Avenue