Group Title: South Florida Field Laboratory mimeo report
Title: South Florida Field Laboratory of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, fifth annual field day
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 Material Information
Title: South Florida Field Laboratory of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, fifth annual field day Thursday, April 23, 1964, Immokalee
Alternate Title: South Florida Field Laboratory mimeo report ; SFL64-2
Fifth annual field day, Thursday, April 23, 1964, Immokalee
Physical Description: 26 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Everett, P. H. (Paul Harrison) ( Paul Harrison ), 1927-
South Florida Field Laboratory
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: South Florida Field Laboratory
Place of Publication: Immokalee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
Statement of Responsibility: staff participating, Paul H. Everett ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094990
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436869927

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South Florida Field Laboratory Mimeo Report SFL64-2

SOUTH FLORIDA FIELD LABORATORY
of the 1 \ /
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION /

FIFTH ANNUAL FIELD DAY

Thursday, April 23, 1964, Immokalee



STAFF PARTICIPATING

Paul H. Everett, Assistant Soils Chemist
Donald S. Burgis, Assistant Horticulturist (Gulf Coast Station)
John Paul Jones, Assistant Plant Pathologist (Gulf Coast Station)
Norman C. Schenck, Associate Plant Pathologist (Watermelon and
Grape Investigations Lab.)
Warren C. Adlerz, Assistant Entomologist (Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Lab.)
John E, McCaleb, Associate Agronomist (Range Cattle Station)



PROGRAM

D. W. Lander, Collier County Agricultural Agent, Presiding


1:00 P.M Assembly and Registration
Page
1:30 P.M. Reports on Research

Chemical Weed Control Mr. Burgis 3

Disease Control of Pepper and Cucumber Dr. Jones 4

Disease Control of Watermelon Dr. Schenck 5

Insect Control of Watermelon Dr. Adlerz 6

Forage and Pasture Grasses Dr. McCaleb 7

Tomato Variety Trial Dr. Everett 9

Cantaloupe Variety Trial Dr. Everett 13

Variety Trial, Plastic Mulch and Water Dr. Everett 14

Watermelon Nutrition Dr. Everett i















3:00 P.M. Tour of Research Plots


lield I Pa2Se

Block
1 Bush bean Fertilizer test (Dr. Everett) 19
2 Tomatoes Variety Trial, staked (Dr. Everett) 20
3 Tomatoes Variety Trial, unstaked (Dr. Everett) 21
5 Cucumbers Disease Control (Dr. Jones) 21
6 Tomatoes and Cucumbers Plastic Mulch (Dr. Everett) 22
7 Tomatoes and watermelons Time interval between lim- 23
ing and planting (Dr. Everett)

Field XI

Block
1 Cantaloupes Southern Variety Trial (Dr. Everett) 24
2 Watermelons Disease Control (Dr. Schenck) 25
and Insect Control (Dr. Adlerz) 25
3 Watermelons Nitrogen Sources (Dr. Everett) 25
4 Watermelons Phosphorus Rates (Dr. Everett) 26
5-7 Watermelons Nitrogen Source and Minor Elements 26
(Dr. Everett)


Soft drinks Courtesy Royal's Farm Supply, Inc.













CHEMICAL HERBICIDES

Donald S. Burgis


all 1963.


A preemergence herbicide test with seeded tomatoes and
peppers was initiated in August. Of the chemicals tes-
ted diphenamid was outstanding and no phytotoxicity was
observed at rates of 9 lbs./A. which is almost twice the
recommended amount.


Spring 1964. Preemergence herbcides were tested on cucumbers and
watermelons. The 4 chemicals tested were all experi-
mental materials. One of these chemicals looked good
at Immokalee and has been outstanding on squash and cu-
cumbers at Bradenton this spring.

These Immokalee spring plots were abandoned because ber-
mudagrass was not controlled by any of the treatments.

Present Recommendations for principal vegetable crops grown on sand
land:


Crop
Tomato





Peppers

Broccoli
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Collards
Kale


Chemical
Solan
diphenamid
Solan
diphenamid
Vegiben

diphenamid


DCPA
CDAACDEC


xU
x


post


x
x
Layby

x or x


x
posttrans


rate
Ibs./A.
4
4
4
4
3

4


10.5
4 to 6


EPTC preplant


Beans











1963 Fall Cucumber Anthracnose Test

Dr. P. H. Everett and Dr. J. P. Jones


During the fall season 8 chemicals were evaluated for control of
cucumber anthracnose. All materials were applied weekly with Knapsack
sprayers on paired rows and were replicated 4 times; .Dideaselratings
were made December 6, 13 and 20 and were based on a disease index where
1 = no lesions on any leaf examined and 12 = 100% disease on each leaf
examined. Because of cool weather very few fruit were harvested. None
were diseased.


Materials
Control
Nia. 3514
TCNA
0M-1763
Difolatan
TPTH
Dithane M-22
nating with
Phaltan
Dithane M-45


Rate/
100 gal.


2.0 lbs/A at seeding
2.0
1.5
3.0
1.0
Llter- 2.0
Z-78 1.5
3.0
2.0


Ave. anthracnose ratings
Dec. 13. Dec. 20
11.81 12
11.9 12
4.3 12
3.4 8.9
3,8 3.4
2.5 2.4
2.0 2.0


2.0
1.3


1.7
1.4


1964 Spring Cucumber Scab Test (incomplete)

P. H. Everett and J. P. Jones


Because of the severe outbreak of scab during the 1963 spring season
this test was initiated to evaluate several materials for scab control.
The results are incomplete with no fruit information but counts of fo-
liage scab lesions were made April 8.


Results:


Material
Control
Dowco 184
DuPont 328
Polyram
Phaltan
Manzate D
Dithane M-45
Dithane M-22 Special
DAC 2787


Rate/ Number of scab
100 gal. lesions/40 leaves
-- 221
200 ppm 239
2.0 122
2.0 97
2.0 75
2.0 41
2.0 39
2.0 17
2.0 14


2











-5-


Fungicide Control of Foliar Watermelon Diseases

Dr. N. C. Schenck


Foliar diseases of importance in South Florida:

A. Gummy stem blight
B. Downy mildew
C. Bacterial leaf spot
D. Watermelon mosaic

Current recommendations:

A. For all fungus diseases of watermelon:
Maneb (3/4 lb.) plus Zineb (1 lb.)
B. For bacterial leafspot:
Copper 50% (3 lbs.) or Maneb (1 1/2 lb.) plus Copper (3 lb.)

New Fungicide Materials:

Manzate D, Dithane M-45, Difolatan, Dithane M-22 Special;

These materials looked very promising in control of downy
mildew of watermelon in 1963 at Leesburg; none are present-
ly recommended on watermelon currently, but will be tested
further.

Compatibility of Fungicides with Other Spray Materials:

a) At Leesburg, several combinations of insecticides and foliar
fertilizers reduced the effectiveness of maneb and zineb.
b) There were no visible signs of phytotoxicity indicating this
effect.
c) If disease control is the most serious problem, avoid adding
any unnecessary materials to the recommended fungicide in
the spray tank.













Insect Control of Watermelons

Dr. W. C. Adlerz


Leafminer Control: The purpose was to evaluate the effect of various inter-
vals of application on leafminer control by several materials.

Date of planting: December 27, 1964

Variety: Charleston Gray


Treatments: Applications were
Control was evaluated by


made between February 10 and March
samples taken between March 10 and


30.
April 8.


Material moun& r, N Z.9


Cygon
Cygon
Guthion
Guthion
Phosphamidon
Phosphamidon
Bidrin
Bidrin
No treatment


0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5


pint
pint
quart
quart
pint
pint
pint
pint


" 7 days
14 days
7 days
3-4 days
7 days
14 days
7 days
14 days


The following results are based on emergence of pupae from leaf samples
taken on 3/10/64 and 3/25/64. Best results followed the use of Cygon,
Guthion and Bidrin. Phosphamidon was less effective. The infestation
of leafminers was low, and under these conditions there was no advan-
tage to the greater frequency of application.


A t/100 al


Fre uenc


UA.-.__J -1











Evaluation of Introduced and Native Species for Pasture,
Range and Forage Use, and When Applicable
for Other Uses

Dr. J. E. McCaleb

The introduction and testing of introduced and native grasses and le-

gumes has always been a part of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-

tion's program. The first Florida Agricultural Experiment Station bulle-

tin was on an introduced grass -- Red Top or Natal. Increased emphasis

was put on this work at RCS (Range Cattle Station) in 1954 and a cooper-

ative program with SFFL (South Florida Field Laboratory) was started in

1957 with the planting of 14 grasses and 15 legumes in replicated plots.

Legumes have not been planted at SFFL after 1957. The grass variety trial

plot area at SFFL was moved to its present location in fall 1962 with chan-

ges in varieties and initiating a split-plot fertilizer program of 450 and

900 pounds of 10-10-10 (or equivalent) in spring and fall. Plots are cut

as required. Varieties in replicated plots may be selected from introduc-

tions at RCS or SFFL; all to date have come from Ona. Suwannee and Coast-

al bermuda were removed from trials at SFFL in 1962 add RCS in 1963.

The Bermudagrass has continued to be of especial interest because of

its widespread adaptability in south Florida. Four Coastal X Starr bermu-

dagrass hybrids from Tifton, Georgia, made excellent growth at Range Cattle

Station in 1963. One of these is a cross between coastal and the Ethiopia

bermuda in the summary table. Limited amounts of these hybrids have been

given to interested county agents. They have been placed in variety plots

for harvest etc., at RCS in 1964 and will be included at SFFL as soon as

plots are available.

The table shows the tons of air dry material per acre harvested for

several grasses under two fertilizer levels.
***********




Summary of Tons of Air Dry Forage Per Acre of
Grasses in Replicated Plots


Fertilizer (10-10-10)1


Bahiagrass:
Tifhi-1
Paraguay 22
Pensacola
Argentine
Wilmington

Digitaria*:
Pangola
D. decumbens
D. pentzii
Slender stem


co
!


Others:
Ethiopia bermuda 9.11
Signal grass 7.04
Chlor4s ventricosa 9.11
Brunswick 12.10
1. Applied in April and September
* Planted into plots at Range Cattle


Florida
#cuts


South
450


8.38
6.73
5.98
6.34
--


11.47
7.66
9.61
4.49


Field Laboratory
900 #cuts


9.90
11.18
7.74
9.43



17.71
9.72
8.11
6.98


12.94
9.34
12.02
9.91


5
5
5
5



5
4**
4**
4


5
4**
4**
5


Range Cattle Station
#cuts 900


Station in fall 1962. Difficulty in est. stand.


** Planted into plots at South Florida Field Laboratory in fall 1962.

Grasses planted in rod rows numbered from North to South:


Paspalum notatum
it It









Festuca spp.
Phalaris arundinaae


Bahia 241877
241781
231141
237172
158822
158817
162902
209393
Tifhi-2
204247
51079
Reeds Canary grass


Brazil

Costa Rica

Paraguay

It
S. Africa
Tifton, Ga.
Uraguay
Florida
Wisconsin


#cuts


450


7.63
6.04
7.05
6.89
3.94


1.96*
1.59*
1.12*
1.15*


10.25
9.09
8.48
9.89
6.86


3.62
2.08
3.06
3.49


13.04
4.12
4.24
5.69


I [ I l i


7.37
3.56
2.23
2.46









REPORTS ON RESEARCH: South Florida Field Laboratory

Tomato Variety Trials

I. Tomatoes with determinate vine-type (unstaked): Spring and Fall 1963.

A. Culture

Beds were prepared and fertilized with 1000 lbs. 4-8-8 per acre.

Tomato plants were set 30 inches apart in the beds which were 6 feet apart.

This row and plant spacing is equivalent to approximately 2900 plants per

acre. The plots received two additional fertilizer applications of 1000 Ibs.

4-8-8 per acre. The Spring crop was side dressed twice with 22 pounds per

acre each of N and K20. In the Fall one sidedressing of 22 pounds N and 22

pounds K20 per acre was applied 25 days before first harvest.

The plants were not pruned or staked. The fruits were harvested

twice as mature-green.

B. Brief description of some tomato stocks entered in these trials

1. Homestead 24 Standard for mature-green harvest.

2. STEP 410 Leafy determinate with concentrated yield potential.

3, 656-5-Bk-Bk-Bk-CAStW Tall determinate with good crown set, size and

smoothness of fruit.

4. 407-D3-3-Bk Verticillium wilt resistant determinate with very attrac-

tive internal features of the fruits.

5. 307-FPl-FP-Bk-CAStW.


C. Results:

Table 1. Yield (60 lb. bx./A.) and average weight (oz.)
of marketable fruit for Spring 1963

Harvest
Variety First Second Total
or Line Yield Av.Wt Yield Av.Wt. Yield Av.Wt.
Homestead 24 221 6.3 285 4.8 506 5.6
STEP 410 267 7.2 263 5.4 530 6.3
656-5-Bk-Bk-Bk CAStW 252 7.1 206 5.2 458 6.2
STEP 435 188 6.3 29M 4.8 484 5.6
STEP 436 257 6.4 279 4.9 536 5.6











-10-
Table 2. Yield (60 Ib.bx./A,) and average weight (oz.)
of marketable fruit for Fall 1963


Variety First Second Total
or Line Yield Av.Wt. Yield Av.Wt. Yield Av. Wt.
Homestead 24 216 4.8 220 4.6 436 4.7
STEP 410 204 5.0 300 4.5 504 4.8
656-5-Bk-Bk-Bk-CAStW 256 5.3 250 4.3 506 4.8
407-D3-3-Bk 193 4.8 295 4.4 488 4.6
307-FPI-FP-Bk-CAStW 300 6.1 296 5.0 596 5.6


II. Tomatoes with indeterminate vine-type (staked); ?:rint.and Fall 1963.

A. Culture:

A planting application of fertilizer equivalent to 1000 Ibs. 4-8-8 per

acre was made. Plants were set 16 inches apart in beds 5 feet apart. This

spacing is equivalent to about 6550 plants per acre. Just before the plants

were staked the plots received one additional application of fertilizer

(1000 Ibs. 4-8-8/acre). After staking the plants were side dressed weekly

with 400 Ibs. 4-8-8 per acre.

The plants were staked and pruned to two main stems (fork). Tomatoes

were harvested vine-ripe 13 times during the spring crop and 18 times for

the fall crop.










-11-


I, Bltief cotmenets on items entered in these trials.

1. Manalucie )
)
2, Indian River) Standards for comparison.
)
3. Manapal )

4. STEP 430. High yields of excellent size fruits that are firm and smooth

with good shape, coloring and crack-resistant.

5. 574-5-2-1-Bk-CAStW. Large vine with good size and quality of fruits.

Masalucie type.

6. STEP 431, Similar to STEP 430 but susceptible to gray wall phase of

blotchy ripening, resistant to tobacco mosaic virus.

7, STEP 434. Verticillium wilt resistant. May prove highly productive

over a broad range of conditions.

8, 479-6-Bk-l-Bk. Same family as STEP 431. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus.

Fruits slightly smaller than those of STEP 431.

9. 601-5-3-Bk-CAStW. Selected for combination of size, smoothness, and

quality of fruits. Same family as STEP 430.

C, Results:

Table 3. Yield and average weight of marketable fruit (1963)

Variety 60 Ib,bsxes/acre Av.Wt./fruit ounces
or Line Spring Fall Spring aFall
Manalucie 935 965 8.6 5.8
Indian River 1035 1089 6.5 4.8
Manapal 1145 1263 6.9 5.8
STEP 430 1210 1307 8.5 5.9
STEP 431 860 1222 8.4 5.8
STEP 434 866 1261 7.5 5.5
574-5-2-1-Bk-CAStW 1038 -- 9.9
479-6-Bk-l-Bk -- 1268 -- 5.8
601-5-3-Bk-CAStW 1110 9.1 --
532-3-Bk-CAStMW 1320 -- 5.5
***********.











-12-


The spring trial in 1963 afforded an excellent opportunity to eval-

uate the susceptibility of the various tomato stocks to the physiologi-

cal disorders known as blossom-end-scar and catface. Although vine

growth was good during the early part of the season, it was apparent

that factors involved in the occurrence of these disorders were severe.

This was also true for most of the commercial fields in this area. The

factor or combination of factors causing these disorders is not at pres-

ent clearly understood, but is believed to be associated with poor pol-

lination. Table 4 shows the severity of blossom-end-scar and catface

during the spring of 1963.


Table 4. Blossom-end-scar and catface (Spring 1963)

Variety % of Total % of Total
or Line Number of fruit Number of Culls
Manalucie 9.5 54.2
IndianRiver 5.9 49.1
Manapal 2.2 25.7
STEP 430 4.3 42.7
STEP 431 19.3 71.8
STEP 434 21.6 80.2
574-5-2-1-Bk-CAStW 9.5 54.7
601-5-3-Bk-CAStW 7.7 49.3


D. Recommended varieties

For mature-green harvest For vine-ripe harvest

Homestead Manapal

Manapal Indian River

Indian River Manalucie

Marion


***** ** ***










-13-


Cantaloupe Variety Trials

Spring 1963


This project is concerned mainly with testing and evaluating cantaloupe

varieties and breeding lines entered in the Southern Cooperative Cantaloupe Trials.

The trial plots were fertilized with three 1000 Ibs./A applications of a

4-8-8 fertilizer. Beds were 5 feet apart with 3 feet between hills in the row.

Plants were thinned to two per hill.


Table 4. Marketable yield, average weight,
and per cent solids of cantaloupes Spring 1963.

Variety No. of Tons of Av. Wt. % Over-all
or line Fruit/A Fruit/A Ibs/fruit Solids Score*
S.C. 180 15,000 20.3 2.7 12A3 15
Va 814 19,667 22.5 2,3 11.9 14
Va 435 15,667 15.3 2.0 11.6 14
L-30-R 12,000 15.3 2.6 10.5 12
L-15-22 13,333 14.5 2.2 9.4 12
63-22 14,333 17.0 2.4 10.7 11
L-30-C-58 8,333 12.0 2.9 11.0 11
Hale's Jumbo 18,333 23.0 2.5 8.2 10
Fla. # 1 15,000 15.3 2.0 8.8 10
Florisun 14,000 16.7 2.4 7.8 10
62-35 15,333 12.3 1.6 8.5 10
61-33 15,667 11.5 1.5 7.6 9
62-19 12,333 10.0 1.6 7.5 8
62-12 11,333 9.2 1.6 7.7 8


*Score is based on 8 different


factors. 15 = best
8 = poorest





-14-


Fertilizer trials using plastic mulch with tomatoes
and cucumbers as test crops

Purpose: To study the movement, with and without plastic mulch, of fertilizer salts

in the soil and to evaluate the effect on tomato and cucumber yields of the

following:

1. Four levels of a complete fertilizer with and without plastic mulch.

2. Two placements of fertilizer with and without plastic mulch.

This represents a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment.

Experimental

The four fertilizer levels tested were 1, 2, 4 and 5 tons of a 4-8-8, 30%

organic fertilizer per acre.

Fertilizer placement was considered either surface applied or applied and

covered with soil. The different placements were accomplished as follows:

Rows with plastic surface placement.

All fertilizer applied on surface of bed before laying plastic. This
was done by applying a light application (about 400#/A) in 2 bands
4" on either side of the plant row. The remaining fertilizer was
applied in two bands 20"-24" on either side at the plant row.

Rows with plastic covered placement.

All fertilizer applied and bedded over before laying plastic. Three
fertilizer bands on each side of the plant row as follows:
Band # 1 400#/A applied 4" either side of plant row on false bed -
then bedded-over (covered with soil using bedding disk).
Band # 2 1/2 of remaining fertilizer applied 10" either side of
plant row along shoulder of the first bed this was bedded-over.
Band # 3 the remaining fertilizer applied 16" each side of plant
row along shoulder of the second bed this was bedded-over to
complete the bedding operation.

Rows without plastic surface placement.

1000#/A of fertilizer applied on the soil surface in 2 bands 4" on
either side of the plant row. The remaining fertilizer was applied
in bands to the soil surface as follows:

Fert. No. of #/A. each
Level Applications* Application
IT 4 250
2T 4 750
4T 4 1750
5A 4 2250

*applications made at about 12 day intervals between Feb. 25 and Apr. 2.





-15-


Rows without plastic covered Tl.cercnt.

1000#/A of fertilizer applied on false bed in 2 bands 4" on either
side of plant row this was bedded over. The remaining fertilizer
applied as above. Therefore the placement of fertilizer in this
treatment was partly covered and partly on the surface.

On Jan. 25, beds were prepared, fertilizer treatments applied and plastic laid

on appropriate plots. The black plastic film was 1 1/2 mil in thickness and 6' wide.

Slits about 5" long were cut through the plastic to accommodate planting. On Jan. 29

cucumber seed (variety Ashley) were planted in hills 18" apart and tomato plants

(STEP 410) were set 24" apart with 5' between rows. The tomatoes were not staked.

The plots were arranged in randomized blocks -nd consisted of single rows 10' long,

with 4 replications.

The cucumbers were harvested 9 times between April 4 and taey 6. The tomatoes

were harvested 3 times, in the mature-green stage, between Apr. 29 and May 20.

Results and Discussion Spring 1963

Cucumbers:

Observations revealed that the cucumbers under the plastic mulch germinated and

emerged about 4 days before those without plastic mulch. During and shortly after

the cucumber seedlings emerged through the slits in the plastic a few days of strong

and cold winds occurred. The winds caused the stems of the tender seedlings to rub

against the plastic thus causing the stems to be injured, some so severely that the

seedlings died. A few seedlings in the no plastic plots were exposed to the cold

winds but did not receive the stem damage as did those in the plastic plots. The

stem damage caused by rubbing against the plastic along the edge of the slit could

have been reduced had a round hole 3"-4" in diameter been used instead of the slit.

Following this injury the plants in the plastic plots "rew more slowly and came into

peak production later than the plants in the no plastic plots. It is believed that

this early damage to the cucumbers under plastic accounts in a large measure for the

lack of significance in yield between the plastic and no plastic plots. Other

factors which tended to equalize marketable yields between plastic plots and no

plastic plots were (1) very little belly-rot had this been severe the marketable







-16-


yield without plastic would have probably been lower and (2) only one leaching rain

occurred between planting and the last harvest, thus leaching of nutrients in the

no plastic plots was of little consequence.

Higher yields were associated with the covered placement of fertilizers than

with the surface placement. There were no significant differences in yield among

the 4 levels of fertilizer used in this test. However, there seemed to be a trend

toward slightly lower yields at the lowest and highest levels.

Tomatoes ground culture.

The young tomato plants were exposed to the same weather conditions as the

cucumbers. There was some stem injury caused by rubbing against the plastic along

the slit. This injury, while not severe enough to kill the plants, did retard early

growth and probably delayed early maturity, This damage, as with cucumbers, could

have been reduced by cutting a round hole instead of a slit through the plastic.

The early growth of the plants in the no plastic plots was slightly better than

that of the plants under plastic, probably due to the stem injury discussed above.

However, after approximately 4 weeks there was little visual difference between

plants in the plastic and no plastic plots. After about 6-7 weeks the growth was

slightly better in the plots with plastic.

For the first harvest there was no significant difference in yield due to any

treatment, probably due to the same reasons as discussed under cucumbers. On May 3,

an intense rain of 2.25" occurred. The detrimental effects of this rain from the

standpoints of nutrient leaching and increased fruit rot were not reflected by the

yields from the second harvest (May 8) but by the third harvest (May 20) the bene-

fit of plastic became more apparent when the marketable yield from plastic plots was

about twice that from no plastic plots. Reduction by the plastic in the amount of

fruit rot accounted for some of but not all of this increase. Some of the increase

could have been due to less leaching of nutrients under plastic.

The marketable yield from the three harvests (Table 5) was significantly

higher at the 1% level with plastic than without plastic. Fertilizer level was







-17-


significant at the 5% level. This significance occurred only between the 1 ton

level and the other three levels of fertilizer. There were no significant differ-

ences among the 2, 4 or 5 tons levels. Fertilizer placement was not significant.

The interaction level x placement x plastic was significant at the 5% level

for the sum of the marketable yields of the three harvests.


Table 5. Effects of the different variables
on tomato yields (60 Ibs. boxes/acre)

Effect of Plastic mulch


Harvest Total for
Treatment 1st' 3rd 3 harvests
with plastic 533 586 1353
without plastic 566 311 1077
L.S.D. @ 5% N.S. 76 92
@ 1% 100 122

Effect of fertilizer level


Tons/A 4-8-8


Harvest


Total for


fertilizer Ist 3rd 3 harvests
1 506 387 1089
2 603 421 1243
3 517 475 1236
5 572 410 1293


L.S.D. @ 5% NS NS 130
@ 1% NS

Fertilizer placement, whether in the beds or on the surface of the beds, had no

significant effect on yield. However, there was a trend toward slightly higher

tomato yields with the surface palcement, particularly under plastic mulch.

A duplication of the above described experiment was conducted in the Fall of

1963. When the plots were seeded (August) the soil temperature under the black

plastic was excessive, resulting in poor germination and stand of tomatoes. Cucumb-

ers were affected similarly, but not as severely. Black plastic, because of the

increased soil temperature, may have limitations in south Florida for crops seeded

during July, August or September. White plastic mulch which would reflect certain

rays of the sun, was not used in this experiment. Had it been used a better plant

stand probably would have been obtained. Yield data from this experiment have not

yet been compiled.









-18-


Fertilizer Requirements of Watermelons

Work in the spring of 1963 was severely hampered by an outbreak of Fusarium

wilt, which was first observed in the plots much earlier in the season than is

typical for this disease. The severity of the wilt progressed as the season pro-

gressed. By the first week in may there was a 100% loss of plants in many of the

plots and the plant stand in all plots was drastically reduced. The plots were

located on newly cleared land where very little damage is usually experienced from

this disease. However, it is believed that contamination of the plots by the Fusar-

ium fungus could have occurred from surrounding areas that had been previously

planted to watermelons. It was apparent from observations made in commercial fields,

on new land in rather isolated locations where contamination would probably be at a

minimum, that other factors were very favorable for the development of this dis-

ease. Damage to commercial fields by Fusarium wilt was more severe in the Spring

of 1963 than in any season since the Charleston Gray variety has been grown in this

area.

Several experiments concerning watermelon nutrition were started in the spring

of 1963, but because of the lack of uniformity among plots no yield data were taken.

The current fertilizer recommendation for watermelons grown on irrigated

mineral soils in southwest Florida is:

Basic Fertilizer application

120 to 150 lbs. N, 240 lbs. P205 and 240 lbs. K20 per acre. This is equivalent
to 3000 lbs. of a 4-8-8 or 5-8-8 and should be split into three applications
at 1000 Ibs. each at (1) planting (2) vining and (3) lay-by.

Supplemental fertilizer application

Top dress 2 to 4 times with approximately 15 lbs. N and 15 lbs. K20 per acre.
The number of top dress applications will depend on the frequency of leaching
rains and the length of the harvest season. During the early growth stage
when the plants have been exposed to a period of cold weather, it is often
beneficial to side dress with approximately 15 lbs. of nitrogen per acre. The
same holds true if leaching rains occur except that potassium (K20) should also
be applied at about 15 lbs. K20 per acre.











TOUR OF RESEARCH PLOTS


Field I

Block 1. Fertilizer trial with bush snap beans.

Purpose: A factorial experiment to test the effect on yield of 3 levels N, 3 levels
K20, 2 N-sources (30% org. vs. all-mineral) and 2 methods of applying
fertilizer (all at planting vs. split).

Plot N K20
Number* lbs./A Ibs./A
1 & 10 60 100
2 & 11 60 150
3 & 12 60 250
4 & 13 1" 100
5 & 14 100 150
6 & 15 100 250
7 & 16 150 100
8 & 17 150 150
9 & 18 150 250

*Plot numbers followed by "a" indicate all-mineral N derived equally
from ammonium nitrate and ammcnium sulfate. Plot numbers without
the "a" indicate 30% organic N derived equally from sludge, castor
pomace and Peruvian guano plus 70% all-mineral N derived equally from
ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate.
Plots numbered 1 through 9 all fertilizer at planting.
Plots numbered 10 through 13 half fertilizer at planting and
half as sidedress.
All plots received phosphorus equivalent to 100 lbs. P205 per acre.

Field plots consisted of paired rows 10' long and 2' apart on beds which
have center to center spacing of 5'. Each plot is equivalent to 20
linear feet.

On February 25, 1964, fertilizer treatments were applied and seed (var.
Blue Lake) were planted, 9 seed per linear foot and 1 1/2" deep. The
second fertilizer application on the split-application plots was made
March 18. Rain totaling 1.5" fell on March 20 and 21. Some fertilizer-
burn was observed March 23 on plants in t!:' split fertilizer application
plots. This burn was more severe on the all-mineral plots.


The plots have not, at this writing, been harvested.










-20-


Block 2. Tomato variety trial (staked)

Purpose: To compare several advanced breeding lines, which are considered potential
new varieties, with Manalucie and Manapal, for yield, fruit size, quality,
and other horticultural characteristics.

Planting data: Transplanted to field plots January 27, 1964.
5' between rows; 16" between plants.
Pruned to a "fork".
1000 Ibs. 4-8-8/A at planting.
1000 Ibs. 4-8-8/A before staking.
Sidedressed weekly beginning March 17, alternating with 400 Ibs.
4-8-8/A. and 100 Ibs. 13-0-44/A. To date the plots have received
170 Ibs. N, 256 Ibs. P204 and 388 lbs. K20 acre.

Varieties and breeding lines in Spring 1964 trial

Plot No. Designation
1. Manalucie)
2. Manapal) Standards for vine-ripe harvest.
3. STEP 430: High yields of excellent size and quality fruits.
Ranked very high in both spring and fall (1963)
trials at South Florida Field Laboratory (SFFL)
4. STEP 431: Similar to STEP 430, but is susceptible to gray-
wall phase of blotchy ripening, resistant to to-
bacco mosaic virus (MW). This line catfaced se-
verely in Spring 1963, at SFFL.
5. STEP 434: Resistant to Verticillium wilt and graywall phase
of blotchy ripening. Catfaced severely in Spring
1963 at SFFL.
6. STEP 463: Same family as STEP 431. Fruits may be slightly
smaller than STEP 431.
7. 601-5-1-BK CAStW: Same family as STEP 430. Fruits have large
size and stylar end smoothness. Resistance to
growth cracks may be slightly less than STEP 430.
8. 601-FP2-FPl-F-F-FP-Bk CAStW.
9. 601-10-Bk-Bk CAStW.
10. STEP 397 (Dr. C. F. Andrus, Vegetable Breeding Laboratory,
USDA, Charleston, S. C.) Small-vined, large-
fruited. Ranked second in over-all performance,
in 1963 STEP trials. Fruits were rated good for
earliness, general appearance and rated best for
internal features.


** ** ** ****** *









-21-


Field I

Block 3. Tomato variety trial determinate vine-type (unstaked)

Purpose: To compare 6 breeding lines and one commercial variety with Homestead
24 for quality, fruit size and yield. Objective is to obtain a
satisfactory yield with only two harvests.

Planting data: Transplanted to field plots January 27, 1964, 6' between beds;
24" between plants. To date plots have received 140 Ibs. N, 212 Ibs.
P20,5, 316 Ibs. K20 per acre.

Plot No. Designation
1. Homestead 24. Standard for mature-green harvest.
2. Supermarket (Asgrow Seed Co.). Similar to Homestead 24, but resistant
to gray leaf spot.
3. 782-1-Bk-Bk CAStW: New entry. Tall, leaf determinate with medium-size,


4. STEP 410:

5. STEP 458:

6. STEP 460:
7. STEP 461:

8. STEP 462:


thick-wall smooth fruits. Does not have concentrated-
setting habit.
Has performed very well in many tests over a period of 3
years. Good concentrated-selfing habit.
New entry. Leaf determinate. Resistant to Verticillium
wilt.
New entry. Determinate with large fruits.
New entry. Determinate with large fruits. Early flowering
and setting, fall and spring.
New entry. Tall determinate fromisame family as STEP 435,
with fruits slightly smaller, but smoother.


Block 5. Fungicides for disease control on cucumbers

Purpose: To compare several fungicides for their effectiveness on controlling
diseases of cucumbers, with particular emphasis on cucumber scab
(Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis and Arthur)


Material
Check unsprayedd)
Dithane M-22 special
Dithane M-45
Manzate-D
Phaltan
Polyram
DAC 2787
DuPont 328
Dowco 184


Amount of technical/100 gals.


2 lbs.
2 Ibs.
2 Ibs.
2 Ibs.
2 Ibs.
2 lbs.
2 Ibs.
200 parts per million


The 2 center rows have not been sprayed with any fungicide.


Plot No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.












-22-


Field I

Block 6. Fertilizer trials using plastic mulch with tomatoes and cucumbers as
test crops.

Purpose: This is a duplication of an experiment conducted in the Spring of 1963
and again in the Fall 1963. The objective is set forth elsewhere in
this program.


Planting data:


Plot No.


Tomatoes (STEP 410) transplanted to field plots
Cucumbers (Ashley) seeded March 9, 1964.


Fertilizer
Ibs. 4-8-8/A
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
8,000
8,000
8,000
8,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000


Fertilizer
Placement*
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered
Surface
Covered


March 9, 1964.


Crop
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber
Tomato
Cucumber


*for explanation of method of fertilizer
of this program.


placement see pages 14 & 15


i












-23-


Field 1

Block 7. Study on time interval between applying lime and planting on
growth and yield of tomatoes and watermelons.

Planting data: Tomatoes (STEP 410) and watermelons (Charleston Gray) seeded
December 17, 1963


Treatment
Plot limed*
Plot limed
Plot limed
Plot limed


- 1 day before seeding
- 1 week before seeding
- 4 weeks before seeding
- 8 weeks before seeding


*New land limed at a rate equivalent to 2 tons
high calcium limestone plus 2 tons dolomite per acre.


Results to date:


Treatment
No.
1
2
3
4


Soil pH of plot area before liming averaged 4.3.
Soil pH, calcium (CaO) and magnesium (MgO) in the
different treatments on March 3, 1964 are shown
below (average of 4 replications).


PH
5.8
6.0
5.8
6.0


CaO
lbs./A
2336
2341
2229
2799


MgO
lbs./A.
284
305
295
322


Early growth was equivalent in all treatments.


Plot
No.
1
2
3
4












-24-


Field II

Block 1. Southern cantaloupe variety trial.

Purpose: To compare yield, maturity, quality and disease resistance of
18 cantaloupe varieties or breeding lines.

Planting data:
Seeds planted February 18, 1964. 5' between beds;
2' between hills.
Thinned to 2 plants/hill.
Fertilizer three applications of 1000 Ibs. 4-8-8/A
One sidedress of 14 Ibs. N and 44 Ibs. K20/A.
4 replications


Variety
or Line
L-30-C-58
L-15-22
L-39
Md.63-53
Va. 814
63-57
64-28
63-4
62-27
C-496-A
67
134 Fl
Seminole
8X4
Hale's Best Jumbo
Edisto
#45 SJ
Smith's Perfect


Breeder or
Seed Source
R. T. Brown
R. T. Brown
R. T. Brown
F. C. Stark
T. J. Nugent
C. F. Andrus
C. F. Andrus
C. F. Andrus
C. F. Andrus
C, F. Andrus
B. F. Whitner
B. F. Whitner
B. F. Whitner
B. F. Whitner
Wilhite Seed Co.
Kilgore Seed Co.
Kilgore Seed Co.
Kilgore Seed Co.


Location


La. Exp. Sta., Port Sulfur
La. Exp. Sta., Port Sulfur
La. Exp. Sta., Port Sulfur
Md. Exp. Sta., College Park
Va. Exp. Sta., Norfolk
USDA, Charleston, S. C.
USDA, Charleston, S. C.
USDA, Charleston, S. C.
USDA, Charleston, S. C.
USDA, Charleston, S. C.
Fla. Exp. Sta., Sanford
Fla. Exp. Sta., Sanford
Fla. Exp. Sta., Sanford
Fla. Exp. Sta., Sanford
Poolville, Texas
Plant City, Fla.
Plant City, Fla.
Plant City, Fla.


*Va.814 tied for second place in overall performance in 1963 trial.


Plot

1
2
3
4
5*
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18









-25-


Field II

Block 2. Watermelons Fungicide and/or bactericide test.

Purpose: To evaluate several chemicals for the control of bacterial leaf
spot of watermelons.

Planting Date: Seeds (Charleston Gray) planted December 27, 1963
Bactericide and/or fungicide treatments
First application applied April 4, 1964
Prior to this time the plots were sprayed twice weekly
with maneb or zineb.


Treatment*
Tribasic copper sulfate
DuPont 328 + TC-90
TC-90
Dithane 17-45
Dithane M-22 + Tribasic
copper sulfate
Check unsprayedd)
Dithane M-22 Special +
Tribasic copper
Miller 658
Sun Oil 11E


Amount/100 gals.
3 lbs.
1 lb. + 2 qts.
2 qts.
1 1/2 lbs.

1 1/2 Ibs. + 3 Ibs.


1/2 Ibs.
Ibs.
qts.


+ 3 1bs.


*At present Tribasic copper sulfate of 3 lbs./100 gals.
is recommended.



Block 3. Nitrogen sources on watermelons

Planting Date: January 13, 1964
Plots are 3 rows wide.


Nitrogen Source
Mag Amp (8-40-0) at 7 lbs./100 linear ft. )
Mag Amp (8-40-0) at 14 lbs./100 linear ft.)
Ammonium sulfate + 1% N-serve
Ammonium sulfate
Potassium nitrate (13-0-44)
30% organic N


Potash erroneously omitted
from these two treatments.


The above nitrogen materials in Treatments 3, 4, 5 and 6 were used in mixing
a 4-8-13 fertilizer. The plots have received three 1000 Ibs./A. applications
of this fertilizer.

Because of the omission of potash in Treatments 1 and 2, these treatments will
be eliminated from this experiment.


~* ****** ***


Plot
No.
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9


Plot
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6







Field II -26-

Block 4. Phosphorus on watermelons.

Purpose: To compare 5 levels of phosphorus on yield and quality of water-
melons. Also to compare the effect of applying all phosphorus
at planting vs. applying it in 3 applications.

Planting data: New land.
Seeds (Charleston Gray) planted January 8, 1964.
10' between beds; 3' between hills
Plots are 3 rows wide.


Plot
No.
1
2
3
4
5


P205 Ibs./A.
0
120
240
360
480


The north rows of each plot received all phosphorus at planting.

All plots have received 120 Ibs. N and 240 Ibs. K20 per acre.



Blocks 5. 6 and 7. Nitrogen source and minor elements (cooperative with
Dr. J. G. A. Fiskell, Soils Dept., Univ. of Fla.)

Purpose: To compare yields from watermelons fertilized with all-mineral
fertilizers containing different rates of minor elements with
yields obtained with fertilizers containing 15% or 30% organic-N
derived from natural organic.

Planting data: Seeds planted December 27, 1963
10' between beds, 3' between hills.
Pruned to 1 plant per hill
Plots are 3 rows wide


-P.etilizer
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8 all-mineral
4-8-8, 15% org. N
4-8-8, 30% org. N


lbs. of minor element (Me)
material/ton of fertilizer
No minor elements added
20 lbs. FTE-503
40 Ibs. FTE-503
60 Ibs. FTE-503
20 Ibs. Es-Min-El
40 lbs. Es-Min-El
60 Ibs. Es-Min-El
no minor elements added
no minor elements added


Molybdenum added to Es-Min-El equivalent to Mo in FTE-503.
4-8-8 applied at 1 1/2 tons/acre in 3 applications of 1000 Ibs./A. each.
Natural organic Activated sludge, castor pomace and Peruvian
guano.


* *** *******


4/23/64
175 copies


II t.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


Ibs.A.me
material

30
60
90
30
60
90




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