Group Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: An IFAS-VAX computer program for calculating plant rooting hormone preparations
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094901/00001
 Material Information
Title: An IFAS-VAX computer program for calculating plant rooting hormone preparations
Series Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 659
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ingram, Dewayne L ( Dewayne Lebron ), 1952-
Yeager, Thomas H ( Thomas Henry ), 1952-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1985
 Subjects
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094901
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001745141
notis - AJF7915

Full Text
Circular 659


An IFAS-VAX Computer Program for
Calculating Plant Rooting
Hormone Preparations

'" : ; "' o .: ...
COMPUTER SERIES

Dewayne L Ingram and Thomas H.- Yeager


Florida Coopative ExtUnln ServEi / Intitua of Food and Agrimultui l Sdn / UniArity of Florid I/ Jan lT. Wme, Don


April 1985




















An IFAS-VAX Computer Program for Calculating

Plant Rooting Hormone Preparations




Dewayne L. Ingram and Thomas H. Yeager

Associate Professor and Assistant Professor

Ornamental Horticulture Department

IFAS, University of Florida




Copyright, 1984 by IFAS, UF












The authors gratefully acknowledge Jason Goldman, student

programmer, for his assistance In writing ROOTHORM in

BASIC computer language.








Many difficult-to-propagate plants require specific concentrations

of rooting hormones for optimum rooting, and formulating these

concentrations involves cumbersome calculations and conversions.

ROOTHORM, Rooting Hormone Preparation, is an interactive computer program

written in BASIC that allows the user to input the desired hormone

concentration and final volume, calculates the ingredients needed and

recommends procedures for liquid or talc formulation preparation.

ROOTHORM resides on the IFAS-VAX and the formating of the screen displays

of ROOTHORM will be best if a DEC VT100 terminal (Digital Equipment

Corporation, Merrimack, N.H.) is used. The IFAS-VAX may also be accessed

by a microcomputer with the appropriate communication package and VT100

terminal emulation software.


ROOTING HORMONES



Auxins are hormones produced in plant shoot meristems that stimulate

root initiation and development. Auxins are transported down the stems

to the other plant parts. The concentration of auxins in plant tissue at

any one time differs from plant to plant, and with tissue maturity, time

of year, and the growing environment. The primary auxin produced in the

plant is indoleacetic acid (IAA), but there are synthetic auxin-type

compounds that stimulate rooting. Synthetic auxins can be added to the

base of cuttings to elevate the auxin concentration above some threshold

level for optimum rooting.

The two most common synthetic auxins are indolebutyric acid (IBA)

and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). These materials can be obtained from

nursery supply companies, chemical supply companies or through







advertisements in nursery trade magazines. Prepared formulations are

also available if the propagator does not wish to make his/her own

rooting preparation, but the concentrations available will not be the

optimum for many plants.

IBA and NAA are marketed as reagent grade white powders or as

potassium or sodium salts of these chemicals. The pure grade of these

chemicals is relatively insoluble in water and must be dissolved in

alcohol before adding water. The lower concentrations of these compounds

(100 to 8,000 ppm) will remain in solution at room temperature if the

solution is only 25 percent alcohol. With concentrations greater than

this, the solution must contain approximately 50 percent alcohol. This

is important because alcohol concentrations in liquid formulations

greater than 50 percent have been reported to injure the basal end of

some cuttings. NAA dissolves best in a few drops of ammonium hydroxide

and may be considered if preparing a concentrated solution of NAA.

Salts of IBA and NAA are soluble in water and little or no alcohol

is required. The salts are more expensive than pure compounds and are

less effective on a weight basis. The potassium salt of IBA (K-IBA) is

only 75 percent as active as the pure compound, and the sodium salt of

NAA (Na-NAA) is 90 percent as effective as pure NAA. This means that

1.33 times as much of the IBA potassium salt is required to do the same

job as pure IBA, and 1.12 times more sodium salt of NAA is required than

pure NAA. These factors have been taken into consideration in the

options and calculations provided in ROOTHORM.

Auxin solutions can be stored for relatively long periods of time if

kept in a refrigerator at 40 to 7C (400 to 450F) and not exposed to

light. The activity of auxins and auxin-like compounds is reduced by








prolonged exposure to light. Amber bottles or clear bottles wrapped

completely with aluminum foil are suitable containers. Solutions should

be at near room temperature before being used. This is necessary because

the rooting compounds may not be completely dissolved at lower

temperatures and the solution would be less effective. Propagators may

consider mixing the quantity of solution needed for a day to eliminate

refrigeration or the time necessary for the solution to warm to room

temperature before use.


EXAMPLE RUN #1


Once ROOTHORM has been accessed from the IFAS-VAX MENU system, the

user is given a choice of viewing the credits and a brief abstract or

initiating the execution of the program immediately. The following

statement will appear on the screen:


If you wish to view the credits and a brief description

of this program, simply type in the letter C and press .

If you want to start the program, just press .


After the credits and abstract have been viewed or skipped, the user

must respond to several questions. For this example run, we wish to

determine the ingredients for preparing 2 liters of a 10,000 ppm IBA

solution to be used for "liquid" treatment of cuttings. The first

question appears as follows:









Do you wish to calculate a liquid formulation or a talc

formulation (Enter L for liquid formulation or T for talc

formulation)?


Enter the letter L and then press the key to indicate a

liquid preparation is desired.

The user must then respond to the next question presented on the

screen relative to the specific rooting hormone to be used.


Select the rooting hormone you wish to use

Rooting Hormones

A: IBA (indolebutyric acid)

B: Potassium salt of IBA (K-IBA)

C: NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid)

D: Sodium salt of NAA (Na-NAA)

E: A combination of IBA and NAA

Input a letter from A to E?


For this example enter the letter A to indicate IBA and press the

key. The user must next specify the concentration of the

rooting hormone selected in parts per million (ppm). The following

question will appear on the screen:


Enter 10000 and press the key in this example.


What concentration of IBA in ppm do you desire?








ROOTHORM allows for selection of various units of measure for the

components of the rooting hormone preparation to correspond to the type

of available measuring equipment. The options are presented as follows:



Units for Final Volume

A: milliliters

B: liters

C: quarts

D: pints

E: fluid ounces

Input a letter from A-E?



For this example, enter the letter B and press the key to

indicate the final volume will be measured in liters.

The following question will appear on the next screen display:


Enter 2 and press the key in this example to indicate the final

volume desired is 2 liters.

ROOTHORM now has all the information necessary to calculate the

amounts of individual components in the rooting hormone preparation and

the following response will be displayed on the screen for the example

run:









To prepare 2 liters of a 10000 ppm solution of IBA, add

20 grams (or 0.0706 dry ounces) of reagent grade IBA to .1

liters of ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol and add

deionized water up to a final volume of 2 liters.

Press to continue.


If the user is accessing the IFAS-VAX from a microcomputer with a

printer, the terminal emulation software being used should allow the

printing of this screen so a permanent copy of the calculations can be

filed and/or given to the propagator.

The user will be given the option at this point of terminating

ROOTHORM or asking for another set of calculations. The question will'

be displayed as follows:


Would you like to run another set of calculations (Y for

yes or N for no) ?


For this example, enter the letter N and press the key.

ROOTHORM will be terminated and the last screen display will appear.


This concludes your session with ROOTHORM
Have a nice day!

$


The VAX prompt $ indicates the user has terminated ROOTHORM and has

been returned to the VAX system.







EXAMPLE RUN #2


When a formulation with a mixture of IBA and NAA is desired,
slightly different questions must be answered. In this example the user
wishes to prepare 2 quarts of a liquid formulation of 6000 ppm K-IBA and
4000 ppm Na-NAA.

The user would first be presented with the question of type of
formulation desired.


Do you wish to calculate a liquid or talc formulation
(Enter L for liquid and T for talc formulation)?


The user would enter the letter L in this example and press the

key.
The next screen would display the choices of hormones that could be
used in the calculations.


Select the rooting hormone you wish to use.
Rooting Hormones
A: IBA (indolebutyric acid)
B: Potassium salt of IBA (K-IBA)
C: NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid)
D: Sodium salt of NAA (Na-NAA)
E: A combination of IBA and NAA

Input a letter from A to E?


Press E and the key to indicate that a combination of IBA and







NAA is desired.

The user must then respond to questions concerning the form of IBA

and NAA to be used.


Select which form of IBA to use

(1) K-IBA

(2) IBA

Enter either 1 or 2 as your choice?



The user would enter the number 1 and press the key to indicate

the potassium salt of IBA would be used. The next screen would then

present:



Select which form of NAA to use

(1) Na-NAA

(2) NAA

Enter either 1 or 2 as your choice?



The user would press the number 1 and the key to denote the

sodium salt of NAA should be used in the calculations.

The concentration of IBA and NAA desired must be entered in response

to the next two screen displays.


What concentration of IBA in ppm do you desire?


The user would enter 6000 and press the key to denote 6000 ppm

of IBA is desired. The display would then present:








What concentration of NAA in ppm is desired?


and the user would enter 4000 and press the key in this example

to indicate the need for 4000 ppm of NAA in the final solution.

The user can ask for the calculations to be made and results

presented in a variety of units of measurement to comply with the

measuring equipment available. The following choices are provided:


Units for Final Volume

A: milliliters

B: liters

C: quarts

D: pints

E: fluid ounces

Input a letter from A-E?



The user would press C and the key in this example to denote the

final volume would be measured in quarts.

The next question presented would be as follows:


The user would press 2 and the key to indicate 2 quarts of the

liquid formulation is desired.

ROOTHORM now has all the information necessary to perform the

calculations and the results of this example will be presented.







To prepare a 2 quart solution of 6000 ppm IBA and 4000 ppm

NAA, take 15.0982 grams (or 0.5330 dry ounces) of potassium

salt of IBA and 8.4762 grams (or 0.2990 dry ounces) of sodium sal

of NAA and add deionized water up to a final volume of

2 quarts.

Press to continue?


After pressing , the user is given the option of performing

another calculation or exiting ROOTHORM.


EXAMPLE RUN #3


When a talc formulation is desired, the user must provide slightly

different information for ROOTHORM to make the calculations. In this

example, 2000 grams of a 10,000 ppm IBA talc preparation is required.

The first question is displayed on the screen as follows:


Do you wish to calculate a liquid formulation or a talc

formulation (Enter L for liquid formulation or T for talc

formulation)?


Enter the letter T and press the key.

The user must choose the hormone desired as in the other examples by

responding to the following question:










Select the rooting hormone you wish to use.
Rooting Hormones

A: IBA (indolebutyric acid)

B: Potassium salt of IBA (K-IBA)

C: NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid)

D: Sodium salt of NAA (Na-NAA)

E: A combination of IBA and NAA

Input a letter from A to E?


In this example the user would press A and then the key.

The desired concentration of the hormone in a talc formulation must

be given next.


The user in this example would enter 10000 and press the key.

The type of available measuring equipment differs among propagators,

therefore the user is given an option of using grams or dry ounces. The

question is displayed as follows:


Select the units for the final weight

G: grams

0: ounces

Enter your selection?


Enter the letter G in this example to indicate measurement of the talc in







grams and press the key.

The final weight must be provided next and the screen; display will

present the question:


Enter 2000 and press the
is desired.

ROOTHORM now has all the information necessary to calculate the

ingredients for the specified talc formulation of IBA. The display will

present the result as follows:


20 gram IBA (0.7 dry ounces) + 1980 grams talc (69.79 dry

ounces) = 2000 grams of 1% (10000 ppm) IBA

a) Dissolve IBA in rubbing alcohol (70% isopropyl).

b) Place talc in blender and pour in IBA alcohol mixture.

c) Rinse the IBA container with alcohol, pour in blender.

d) Add more alcohol if needed to make a thin, creamy mixture.

e) Blend on high speed for 4-5 minutes.

Press to continue?


The second screen of instructions will be displayed after pressing the

key.









f) Pour the mixture into a flat pan and rinse blender bowl with

alcohol.

g) Place the mixture in a warm place so the alcohol evaporates.

h) Once dry, place in a mortar and grind with a pestle.

i) Place the mixture in a can twice the mixture volume and

shake for 10 to 20 minutes. (A paint can shaker works well.)

Press to continue?


After the user presses the key, the option to continue with

another calculation will be presented as with the previous examples.


CALCULATION METHODS

The potassium salt of IBA is 75 percent by weight IBA and the sodium

salt of NAA is 90 percent NAA. When the user selects the salt of the

hormone, the amount of chemical (GMH) to be added is multiplied by 1.33

and 1.12 for IBA and NAA, respectively. The calculated values are

presented in the units selected by the user, but the units are converted

to metric units before being calculated. The program uses standard unit

conversion calculations. A flow chart for the program is presented in

the appendix.

Liquid formulations

The user inputs the desired concentration in parts per million (ppm)

of the rooting compound (DPPM) and the final volume (FV), and the

computer program calculates the grams of hormone (GMH) to be added as

follows:

GMH=(DPPM/1000) (FV/1000).







When the salt of IBA or NAA are used, alcohol solutions are not

required. However, a 25 percent alcohol solution is required to keep

IBA or NAA concentrations of less than 8,000 ppm in solution at room

temperature. Therefore, the amount of ethyl or isopropyl alcohol (EOH)

in which to dissolve the hormone can be calculated as follows:
EOH = 0.25 x FV.

When hormone concentrations greater than 8,000 ppm are being

prepared using the pure chemicals, a 50 percent alcohol solution is

required to keep the chemical in solution. In such cases the amount of

alcohol (EOH) in which to dissolve the chemical is calculated as follows:
EOH = 0.5 x FV.

Talc formulations

The user inputs the desired concentration (DPPM) and the final

weight (FW), and the computer program calculates the grams of hormone

(GMH) to be added as follows:
GMH = (DPPM/1000)*(FW/1000).

The amount of talc to be used is calculated by subtracting the

weight of the hormone to be added from the desired final weight. The

rooting compound should be dissolved in ethyl or isopropyl alcohol even

if the salt of the rooting compound is used. Alcohol is used in the

mixing process and will evaporate much faster than water.







ROOTHORM flow chart

INTRO TO
ROOTHORM


0lo



















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertile r, idtor, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes th Is Infor-
matlon to further the purpose etie MayA and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tlonal Informatlon and other siftM only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national orgn. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
resident from County Extensiv Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hilten, Publications Dislllonon Canter, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainewlle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publcation, editors should count this address to determine availability.




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