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Group Title: Computer series
Title: The integrated pest management decision key for selected pines
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094887/00001
 Material Information
Title: The integrated pest management decision key for selected pines
Alternate Title: Computer series - Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 578
Physical Description: 31 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Webb, Roger Stuart, 1950-
United States -- Forest Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1983
Copyright Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Pine -- Diseases and pests -- Computer programs   ( lcsh )
Longleaf pine -- Diseases and pests -- Computer programs   ( lcsh )
Forest management -- Computer programs   ( lcsh )
Pests -- Integrated control -- Computer programs   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "A computer user's manual for forest pest management recommendations developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and adapted to the University of Florida's IFAS Computer Network."
General Note: Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility: Roger S. Webb.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094887
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10705439

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Appendices
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
Full Text


Circular 578


November 1983


Integrated


Pest


Management


Decision


Key for


Selected


Pines


iJ


COMPUTER SERIES I


Roger S. Webb


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean


- i~ida


..-1 ,J-


: ; :














THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION KEY
FOR SELECTED PINES








A Computer User's Manual for Forest Pest Management Recommendations
Developed by
The United States Department of Agriculture
Forest Service


The University of


and
Adapted to
Florida's IFAS


Computer Network


Roger S. Webb
Assistant Professor and Extension Forest Pathologist
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gainesville, Florida 32611








Introduction

The Integrated Pest Management Decision Key for Selected Pines was
developed by the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, State and Private Forestry for
use as a dial-up service to the pest management computer in Atlanta, GA.
Those people responsible for the development of the key are listed
below:

Robert L. Anderson
Supervisory Pathologist
USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry
Asheville, N.C.


Roger P. Belanger
Principal Silviculturist
USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station
Athens, GA


William H. Hoffard
Entomologist
USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry
Asheville, N.C.


Paul Mistretta
Supervisory Pathologist
USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry
Pineville, LA


Robert J. Uhler
Computer Specialist
USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry
Atlanta, GA



Much of the southern pine beetle information in this decision key is
based on research supported through the Expanded Southern Pine Beetle
Research and Applications Program (ESPBRAP).

The key has been adapted to the University of Florida's Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) statewide computer network.
This manual has been adapted from the IPM Decision Key User's Manual
developed by the U.S. Forest Service and is designed to augment the
telephone hookup with Atlanta with a hookup to the IFAS computer in
Gainesville.

The decision key is designed to provide integrated management
recommendations for the forest manager, concerning four major pests of
southern pine in the southeastern U.S.:







1. Southern pine beetle a small beetle which feeds within the
inner bark of southern pines and may develop into periodic
epidemic infestations causing mortality and degrade;

2. Fusiform rust a stem and branch disease of southern pines
resulting in growth loss, stem degrade and possible premature
mortality;

3. Annosus root rot a root- and butt-rot of southern pines
caused by the fungus Heterobasidion annosum which is a major
management constraint to thinning in the Southeast;

4. Littleaf disease a root disease of primarily shortleaf pine,
caused by the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi on sites
characterized by fine-textured soils;


This program is written for persons having little or no computer
experience but who may obtain pertinent pest management advice with the
aid of the local county extension staff. Additional copies of this
circular are available through the University of Florida Cooperative
Extension Service. Questions or problems with the program should be
referred to the author at the School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, 32611 or call (904)392-4826.

Signing on to the Computer

The program is designed for the VAX computing system manufactured by
the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) but is not limited to DEC
equipment. A computer terminal with telephone hookup (acoustic coupler) is
required. If peripheral equipment such as hard copy printers are used,
then the signal transmission type between terminal and printer must be
compatible (serial or parallel).

Before using the terminal, an account must first be established with
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension
Computer Network in Gainesville. This usually is done through the local
county extension office.

Use the following procedure to access the VAX computer:

1. Set the terminal to FULL DUPLEX

2. Set the acoustic coupler to FULL DUPLEX

3. Dial (904)392-5750 (for high-speed or 1200 baud terminals) or
392-5760 (for low-speed or 300 baud terminals) to access the IFAS
VAX computer








4. When the "READY" light comes on the coupler, press the
terminal's carriage return (CR). The computer will respond
"USERNAME" to which you will type your user's name (usually 3
letters) and press (CR).

5. The computer will respond "PASSWORD" to which you will type
your password and press (CR).

6. When you see the message "WELCOME to VAX/VMS..." you are signed
on to the IFAS VAX system successfully.

7. You should now see a "$" at the left margin of the bottom line
on your terminal's screen or printer. To the right of the "$"
is a blinking cursor character. You now type "MENU" to call up
the IFAS Computer Network Menu System.


IFAS Computer Network Menu System

Enter program you would like to run.

MAIN MENU

The programs you can run are:


EXIT
HELP
MAIL
PHONE
FAIR
FAIR 125
MORTGAGE
SOYGAME
NEWSLETTER
FORINSY


Exit Menu System
Prints this message
Sends messages to users
Sends messages to users who are logged in the VAX
Florida Agricultural Information System Retrieval System
Graphic version of the FAIR program
Calculates mortgage table
Simulation
Copies of the computer network's newsletters
Forest Management Information System


The Submenus are:


A) HOME ECONOMICS MENU
B) Computer Assisted Instruction MENU
C) Game MENU

Enter a CTRL/Y to go back to main menu

Program number:


8. The Forestry Information System (FORINSY) is listed as program
#9 on the main IFAS menu. After the instruction "PROGRAM
NUMBER:" appears on your terminal type in "9". The Integrated
Pest Management Decision Key is one aspect of this management
information system.








9. The computer responds by listing five options involved in running
the program. You should type in "102" after the response
"PROGRAM OPTION" to execute the Forestry Information System.
You will be requested now to supply certain data which help
determine who the users are.


The programs you can run are:


DONE
HELP
EXECUTE
ABSTRACT
INSTRUCTIONS


Goes back to program name
Prints this message
Run the program
A short abstract of the program will be typed
How to run the program


Enter a CTRL/Y to go back to the main menu

Program option:

User Information

This option defines who the users are and helps us become aware of
a program's popularity.

Forestry Information System V1.LI
(FORINSY)

Have you used FORINSY before?

1-- First-time FORINSY user.
2-- Used FORINSY before.

Enter choice =

If you have not used FORINSY before, type "1" after the prompt
"ENTER CHOICE =."

Forestry Information System (FORINSY)

Please introduce yourself by typing in the following information:

LAST NAME:

FIRST NAME (Or INITIALS):

STREET (OR MAILING) ADDRESS:

CITY:

STATE:

ZIP CODE:


100)
101)
102)
103)
104)








The user should supply the requested information on each line and
by pressing (CR), the computer moves to the next line and so on until
the "ZIP CODE" is supplied. The computer then provides the current date
and asks if your input is correct.


Is all information correct?


(1 = Yes 2 = No


3 = Exit):


The user types in the desired number and after the input is
correct, an explanation of why this data is being collected is given.

Thank you.

Your federal taxes helped pay for the development and use of Florida's
Forestry Information System (FORINSY). In an effort to encourage
continued wise use of your tax dollars, we must periodically assess the
value of this system in terms of its benefit to you. Within the next
year, our computer may select you as one of the people who could tell us
if the service has been helpful. If so, we hope you will respond
promptly. If the computer does not select your name and you have
suggestions or criticisms, please send your comments to:

Forestry Information System (FORINSY)
118 Newins-Ziegler Hall
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Please press RETURN to continue:

By pressing (CR) the main menu of the Forestry Information System is
"called up":

Forestry Information System V1.LI
(FORINSY)

Choose:
1--Exit.
2--Forestry Investment.
3--Volumes and Yields.
4--Products, Markets and Prices.
5--Forestry Management Assistance.
6--Silvicultural Practices.
7--Wildlife Management.
8--Range Management.
9--Forest Pest Management.
10--Forest Water Management.
11--Identification of Pines.
12--Wood for Energy.

\Enter Choice =








Beginning the Decision Key


To begin the Forest Pest Management Decision Key enter the number
"9" followed by (CR) since the decision key is the ninth choice on the
menu. The user will have "called up" the decision key and will be
presented with an inquiry for an introduction to the program:


The user should become familiar with how to use the key and enter a "Y"
after the prompt "DO YOU WANT INTRODUCTION?":



The IPM decision key is an interactive program which lists management
options for southern pine beetle, fusiform rust, annosus root rot, and
littleleaf disease. (See appendices for additional information
concerning pest management.) The program considers a variety of
environmental, geographic, economic, and management factors. Pest and
pest management interaction is also considered. The user should have
the IMP-DK User's Manual (Version draft) which clarifies and elaborates
on the output. Copies are available from

IPM-DK Coordinator
USDA, Forest Service
S&PF, Forest Pest Management
1720 Peachtree Road, N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30367

Telephone:

(404)881-2961
FTS 257-2961

All questions are answered with a one character response such as

1. Y Yes
2. N No
3. B B(backup) allows the user to have the last question asked again.
4. E E(Exit) allows the user to start over or to terminate the
session.
5. R Allows the user to print a complete recommendation.
6. D Allows the user to print a list of all recommendations.









An answer consists of the correct response followed by a carriage
return.

^----~---------~--~-----------------
Do you want to consider southern pine beetle?
Do you want to consider fusiform rust?
Do you want to consider annosus root rot?
Do you want to consider littleleaf?


The user enters a "Y" if the particular pest is to be considered and an
"N" if it is not. At least one of the four questions must be answered
,,y1:


management
management
management
management
management


unit
unit
unit
unit
unit


a forest stand?
a seed orchard?
a shade tree?
a nursery?
another type of area?


Only one of the above five questions may be answered "Y".
keep asking each question until it receives a "Y":


IPM-DK will


Is the site to be regenerated within 10 years?
Is the D.B.H. in this stand less than 2 inches?
Is the D.B.H. in this stand greater than 2 inches but not
overmature?
Is the stand overmature?


If you want more information about a recommendation, type in the two
digit code preceding the recommendation; e.g., 12 for R12: "Use
protective chemical treatments when economical." You can also hit an
"E" to exit the session or a "B" to backup to the last question. A "D"
will enable you to print a list of all recommendations.



Enter a one character pest code; that is, S = SPB, F = fusiform, A =
annosus, or L = littleleaf
Is the area in the piedmont or mountains?


If the site is in the coastal plain, then the user should respond with
an "N." However, if the site is either in the piedmont or in the
mountains, then the answer should be a "Y."


this
this
this
this
this










(Is the area to be naturally regenerated as opposed to planted?


If the area is to be regenerated by planting, then the question should
be answered "N." However, if a natural regeneration is planned, then
should be answered "Y."


Do you want to process another area?


If the answer is "N", then the user exits the IPM-DK program. The user
can have the menu of programs displayed or can sign off. However, if
the answer is "Y", the IPM-DK program starts over in order to analyze
another management unit.

Sample Run

Do you want to consider southern pine beetle? Y
Do you want to consider fusiform rust? N
Do you want to consider annosus root rot? Y
Do you want to consider littleleaf? N
Is this management unit a forest stand? Y
Is this area to be regenerated within the next 10 years? Y
Is the area to be naturally regenerated as opposed to planted? N
Are conditions high hazards for southern pine beetle? Y
Are conditions high hazard for annosus root rot? Y
Is this management unit in the coastal plain? Y

Site = 1

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

R18 Consider altering planting density.
R30 Manage species composition.
R31 Regulate age classes.
R32 Drain wet sites.
R33 Avoid damage to low lying areas.
R34 Intensify management on good sites.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

R18 Consider altering planting density.

Do you want more information on a particular recommendation? Y

One moment please ...

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 18








Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R18 Consider altering planting density.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

The likelihood of SPB problems increase as stand vigor
decreases. Wide initial spacings are recommended on good sites to
reduce decline in growth at an early age and delay the need for
thinning.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 18

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R18 Consider altering planting density.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Increased planting spacing will reduce the age at which thinning is
required. Delayed thinnings will reduce the amount of time a stand is
exposed to annosus root rot. This should only be practical on
high-hazard annosus sites, since the losses caused by annosus root rot
on low-hazard sites are minimal. Previously infected stands can be
replanted immediately since total seedling loss should not exceed 5
percent.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. Enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 30

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R30 Manage species composition.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Favoring beetle-resistant species of pine and removing high-risk trees
lowers the susceptibility of stands. A mixed stand composed of pines
and hardwoods also promotes resistance to attack and discourages the
spread of beetle populations. The SPB prefers host types that are
uniform and continuous. Spread of infestations is greatest in dense
pine stands. Hardwoods limit these conditions by providing a physical
separation between host trees. Intermediate cuttings should favor
hardwoods that are suited to the site and are compatible with long-term
management objectives. Basal area of the pine component should be
maintained at less than 100 square feet/acre. Table 5 lists relative
susceptibility of southern pines to southern pine beetle.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 30








Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R30 Manage species composition.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

All pine species are susceptible to annosus root rot. Longleaf pine
seems to be somewhat resistant, but not immune. Therefore, increasing
the occurrence of longleaf or hardwoods on high-hazard sites will reduce
the occurrence of annosus root rot.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 31

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e., S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R31 Regulate age classes.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Susceptibility of trees to SPB attack increase with age. Mature and
overmature trees usually have slower radial growth, flat-topped crowns,
and sparse foliage. These trees seldom respond to intermediate cuttings
and should be replaced with the most resistant host species or a species
mix suited to the area.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 31

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R31 Regulate age classes.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Not applicable

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 32

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R32 drain wet sites.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Infestations in the coastal plain are more frequent on wet and
water-logged sites than well-drained soils. Drainage systems designed
to remove surplus water from low-lying areas will curtail damage from
rootlet pathogens and slow the decline of host pines.








Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 32

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R32 drain wet sites.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Draining wet, sandy sites may increase annosus root rot hazard.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 33

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R33 avoid damage to low lying areas.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

In the coastal plain, logging damage on low-lying areas of fine-textured
soils can be avoided by diverting operations to sandy soils during wet
periods and using harvesting equipment of low-bearing pressure.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e., enter a 23 for R23, or
an E, B, or D? 33

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R33 avoid damage to low lying areas.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Not applicable

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 34

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? S

R34 Intensify management on good sites.

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Potential for growth and yield in the southern coastal plain appears
directly related to potential for beetle problems. Infestations occur
more frequently on high-quality sites than on poor sites. Consequently,
a greater amount of silvicultural attention can justifiably be directed
toward stands growing on good sites. In intermediate and harvest
cuttings are required sooner and more frequently on quality sites than
12








poor sites, to maintain rapid growth, and develop a species composition
unfavorable to beetle attack.

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? 34

Enter a 1 character pest code, i.e. S = SPB, F = Fusiform, A = Annosus
or L = Littleleaf? A

R34 Intensify management on good sites.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT-LOBLOLLY, SLASH, SHORTLEAF ONLY

Not applicable

Enter a two digit recommendation number, i.e. enter a 23 for R23, or an
E, B, or D? E

Do you want to process another area? N
Do you want to sign off? Y

Exiting the IPM Decision Key

At the end of each pest analysis, the user will be asked if another
analysis is desired. If the user types "Y" after the prompt "DO YOU
WANT TO PROCESS ANOTHER AREA", then the user is returned to the
beginning of the key. If the user types "N", then the user is asked if
the session has ended by the prompt "DO YOU WANT TO SIGN OFF?", to which
the user responds by typing "Y." The user is returned to the Forestry
Information System menu and reponds by entering a "1" after the prompt
"ENTER CHOICE." After the prompt "PROGRAM NUMBER" the user responds
with a zero (0) which returns the user to the general VAX environment as
denoted by the "$" and the blinking cursor. The user then types
"LOGOFF" to terminate the session.


























APPENDICES

















Known Distribution of Littleleaf Disease






















al








APPENDIX A: LITTLELEAF DISEASE

Table 1: Low-hazard site A site with no previous history of
littleleaf disease
High-hazard site A site with a history of littleleaf disease

A more detailed site hazard-rating method based on soil
characteristics is presented by Campbell and Copeland (1954). This
method is designed for field use and is useful when there is not a stand
of shortleaf pine on site to evaluate. High-hazard soils score 0-50
points, moderate-hazard 51-74 points, and low-hazard 75-100 points.


ro nts


Soil Character and Class


Erosion:


Slight



Moderate


Severe


Rough gullied --


-- "A" horizon not seriously changed,
more than 25 percent of "A" horizon
removed. .

25-75 percent of "A" horizon lost,
shallow gullies may be present .

-- All of "A" horizon lost, often some of
"B" gone, shallow gullies common


40


. 30


. 20


Soil profile has been destroyed, except
in small land areas between gullies. 10


Subsoil Consistence (when moist):


Very friable


Friable


Firm


Very Firm


-- Crushes under gentle pressure, coheres
when pressed. .

-- Crushes under gentle to moderate pressure,
coheres when pressed. .

-- Crushes with moderate pressure, but
resists .

-- Crushes under strong pressure; barely
crushes between thumb and finger.


32


8


Extremely firm-- Cannot be crushed between thumb and
forefinger .


Depth of zone of greatly
24-36 inches (61-90
18-23 inches (46-60
12-17 inches (30-45
6-11 inches 915-29


reduced permeability:
cm)
cm) .
cm) .
cm)


S 15
12
9
3
. 3








APPENDIX A: LITTLELEAF DISEASE, continued.


Subsoil mottling greys and browns):
None 13
Slight .. 9
Moderate .. ... 5
Strong. .. .. 1

NOTE: For more information see illustration, page .












































17








APPENDIX B: ANNOSUS ROOT ROT


Definition for High-Hazard Annosus Root Rot: Sites having soils with
sandy loam textures to a depth of 12 inches or more without poor
internal drainage or high seasonal water table.






APPENDIX C: FUSIFORM RUST


Managers are encouraged to use their own system for fusiform rust hazard
rating, but generally 50% or higher is considered high hazard.

Fusiform Rust Infection Zones

SiInfection zones for loblolly pine plantations


RUST INFECTION LOBLOLLY PINE
10 TO 30 PERCENT
30 TO 50 PERCENT
50 TO 70 PERCENT
70 TO 100 PERCENT
NOT SURVEYED








APPENDIX C: FUSIFORM RUST, continued


Table 2. Adequate, marginal, and inadequate stocking for loblolly, 1,2
slash, and shortleaf pine saplings and merchantable stands .

Sapling stands
Degree of stocking (Number of rust-free stems per acre)


Adequate 300+

Marginal 151-299

Inadequate 151


1Consideration of the number of rust-free stems and stocking level and
the average height and diameter of the plantation are essential in
making management decisions. This table should be of assistance when
deciding when fusiform rust, coupled with other factors, has reduced
stocking to an unacceptable level.
Plantations should be surveyed at age 3-5.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE

Table 3. Definitions of high-hazard sites for southern pine beetle.


Coastal Plain


Piedmont


Mountains


General Information Based on Research in the East


Poorly drained soils; low-lying landforms (wetlands,
flood plain, steam terraces)

Deep, sandy high-hazard annosus sites are also
high-hazard

Shallow "A" horizons; red clay throughout the soil
profile; evidence of erosion


Dry, south-facing slopes


East Texas
and Louisiana


Mississippi
and Alabama




Georgia, South
Carolina, North
Carolina, and
Virginia


Specific information for Geographic Areas as
Indicated


Loblolly or shortleaf pine stand (pine basal area
100 ft2/A); average total tree height > 75 feet;
evidence of SPB and/or annosus root'rot; stand
topographic position on low-lying landforms

Loblolly or shortleaf pine stands ( > 80% total
pine); stand of large poletimber to sawtimber size
(averaged d.b.h. > 9.6 in.); dense stocking (basal
area, pine and hardwood, > 120 ft2/A); evidence of
SPB and/or annosus root rot; topographic position of
stand on ridge or upper slope.

Dense stocking (basal area, pine and hardwood, > 120
ft2/A); predominantly (> 70% pine); slow radial
growth (< 1-inch last 5-years); evidence of SPB
and/or annosus root rot. High hazard for littleleaf
disease; poor site conditions (clay soils, wet
sites,low-lying landforms)


1Other risk rating systems may be available for specific states or areas
of the South. Use the system with which you are comfortable.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued

Table 4. Susceptibility of pines to SPB attack for major geographic
regions of the South.


Levels of
susceptibility


Most resistant


Most susceptible


Geographic region

Southern
Coastal plains Piedmont appalachian


Slash longleaf Virginia Virginia Eastern
loblolly white

Shortleaf Shortleaf Shortleaf pitch
loblolly


-----








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Setting Control Priorities for the Southern Pine Beetle*

All southern pine beetle spots (groups of infested trees) do not have
the same control priority. The following guidelines should help you set
priorities for controlling individual spots.


A. Classify
below.


the infested trees according to the stage of attack shown


Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Symptom Fresh attacks Developing broods Vacated trees


Foliage Green Green, trees with Red, needles
larvae; fade to falling.
yellow before new
generation.


Pitch Soft white, White, hardened. Hard, yellow,
tubes light pink crumbles easily.


Checkered Adults crawl Larvae in SPB Larvae and pupae
beetles on the bark. galleries; pink are purple; occur
or red; I inch in pockets in the
long. outer bark.


Bark Tight, hard Loose, peels Very loose,
to remove. easily. easily removed.


Color of White, except Light brown with Dark brown to
wood close to new blue or black black, may have
surface, adult galleries. sections. sawyer galleries.


Exit holes -- May appear where Numerous
parent beetles
left the tree.


Ambrosia -- White, begins to Abundant at the
beetle dust appear around the base of trees.
base of trees.


*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 3.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


B. Collect spot expansion data:

1. Walk completely around the spot and look for stage 1 trees,
which indicate the area of most recent beetle activity. Areas
with stage 1 pines are called "active heads." Check to see if
the spot is expanding in more than one direction. Large spots
can have more than one active head.

2. Determine the number of stage 1 and 2 trees. For large spots
that have more than 50 trees, it is not necessary to examine
each tree. Just walk the boundaries and estimate the number of
these trees in the spot.

3. From a location about 20 feet (6 m) in front of the active
head(s), determine the pine basal area (a measure of stand
density) in square feet per acre. A 10-factor prism is useful
for this purpose.

4. Note whether most trees in the spot are pulpwood (less than 9
inches in diameter) (23 cm) or sawtimber size (more than 9
inches in diameter).

5. If only stage 3 trees are present, control is not necessary.

6. Determine the control priority for the spot, using the guide on
the next page (item C).








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued

C. Guide to southern pine beetle control priorities
October):


(May through


Your spot's Risk-rating
Key to spot growth classification points


A. Stage 1 trees absent 0
present 30


B. Stage 1 and 2 1 to 10 0
trees 11 to 20 10
21 to 50 20
more than 50 40


C. Pine basal area less than 80 0
(ft2/a) or stand (low density)
or stand density
at active head 80 to 120 10
or heads (medium density)

more than 120
(high density) 20


D. Stand class pulpwood 0
by average (9 inches
d.b.h. (in or less)
inches)
sawtimber 10
(more than
9 inches)


Buffer strip
width (feet)

If total is: 70 to 100 ......... control priority is: High 40 to 100
If total is: 40 to 60 ......... control priority is: Medium 10 to 40
If total is: 0 to 30 ......... control priority is: Low 10 to 40








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued

Insecticides for the Southern Pine Beetle*


The best way to protect
your pine trees is to make
sure they are not attacked in
the first place. Keep them
healthy. A wounded, sick, or
weakened pine is an invitation
to dinner for southern pine
beetles.

But what if it is already
too late for an ounce of
protection? By the time you
spot telltale symptoms of beetle
attack--pitch tubes, feeding
galleries in the inner bark, and
fading needles--it is too late
to save the tree.

Your only alternative is to
stop beetle spread to nearby
pines. You can do this in two
ways. First, if the beetles are
still under or in the bark of
the attacked pines, cut the
trees down and haul them away or
burn them. This should break up
the center of beetle emergence
and stop them from attacking
other trees.
Second, spray the attacked
pines with an approved
insecticide which will kill
eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults
still under the bark. Or, you
may choose to spray uninfested
trees next to the ones under
attack to protect them during
the period of beetle emergence.

Whichever method of control
you choose, act quickly or the
beetles will spread to other
pines. Check all pines
carefully, as successful
remedial control depends on
treating all infested trees.


Only two insecticides are
approved for use against the
southern pine beetle: lindane
and Dursban (chlorpyrifos).
Lindane is available as a
liquid (emulsifiable)
concentrate that is diluted
with water and applied as a
0.5 percent solution. Lindane
concentrates are sold in
various strengths, so follow
the mixing directions on the
container label. This
insecticide has a proven track
record against the southern
pine beetle.

Dursban was registered
for SPB control in February
1979. It is sold as a liquid
concentrate containing 4
pounds of insecticide per
gallon of concentrate. The
spray is prepared by mixing 2
2/3 fluid ounces of
concentrate with water to make
1 gallon (20.8 ml in 1 liter)
(equivalent to 2.1 gallons in
100 gallons of water. Dursban
is to be applied only by or
under the supervision of pest
control operators or other
trained personnel responsible
for insect control programs.

Apply lindane or Dursban
by hand--or power-operated
ground spray equipment. When
protecting uninfested pines,
spray only the main trunk up
to the upper 1/3 of the crown
needles. Do not spray the
limbs.

However, when treating
attacked pines, cut, limb and


*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 5.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


buck the infested trees into
workable lengths. Spray the
entire infested bark surface to
the point of runoff to ensure
adequate control.

Recommendations for the use
of Dursban and its approval by
the Environmental Protection
Agency for use against the
southern pine beetle are based
on research conducted through
the USDA Expanded Southern Pine
Beetle Research and Applications
Program.


CAUTION: Pesticides can be
injurious to humans, domestic
animals, desirable plants, fish,
and other wildlife--if not
handled or applied properly.
Use all pesticides selectively
and carefully. Follow
recommended practices for the
disposal of surplus pesticides
and pesticide containers.









APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Rating the Susceptibility of Pine Stands to Southern Pine Beetle Attack*


The southern pine beetle
(SPB) occurs in all geographic
regions of the South. Studies
have shown that high-hazard
stands are commonly associated
with slow radial growth.
Conditions that cause poor
growth differ greatly in the
Southern Coastal Plain, The
Piedmont, and the Southern
Appalachian Mountains. Several
rating systems have been
developed to identify
high-hazard stands within these
areas. Testing and
implementation of the ranking
systems have been limited to
stand, site, and insect
conditions associated with
selected areas in the geographic
subregions.

The Southern Coastal Plain

Natural stands susceptible
to SPB attack in the Coastal
Plain are characterized by high
stand densities, a large
portion of pine sawtimber, and
declining radial growth.
Outbreaks occur most frequently
in these stands located on
poorly drained soils and low-
lying areas; trees on dry or
drought soils are less often
attacked. Rating systems have
been developed for east Texas,
the Kisatchie National Forest in
Louisiana, corporate timberland
in Louisiana, Mississippi and
Texas, and forests in southern
Arkansas. Details are
summarized in the following
publications:


Hicks, R. R., Jr.
1980. A simple stand hazard
rating system for east
Texas. In How to rate
susceptibility of pine
stands to southern pine
beetle. Workshop sponsored
by Stephen F. Austin Univ.,
USDA ESPBRAP, and the Texas
For. Serv., Nacogdoches,
Tex., March 27, 1980.

Hicks, R. R., Jr., J. L. Howard,
K. G. Watterston, and J. E.
Coster.
1980. Rating forest stand
susceptibility to southern
pine beetle in east Texas.
For. Ecol. Manage. 2:(in
press).

Ku, T. T., V. B. Shelburne, and
J. M. Sweeney.
1979. Preventing damage from
the southern pine beetle
through better forest
management. Pest leaflet of
Univ. of Ark., Monticello,
Ark., Ark. For. Comm., and
USDA For. Serv., Southeast.
Area. Published by Dep.
For., Univ. of Ark.,
Monticello.

Ku, T. T., J. M. Sweeney, and V.
B. Shelburne.
1980. Site and stand
conditions associated with
southern pine beetle
outbreaks in Arkansas--a
hazard rating ssytem.
South. J. Appl. For.
4:125-132.


*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 10.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Kushmaul, R. J., M. D. Calin, C.
E. Rowell, and R. L.
Porterfield.
1979. Stand and site
conditions related to
southern pine beetle
susceptibility. For. Sci.
25:656-664.

Lorio, P. L., Jr.
1978. Developing stand risk
classes for the southern
pine beetle. Res. Pap.
SO-144, 9 p. USDA For.
Serv., South. For. Exp.
Stn., New Orleans, La.

Mason, G. N.
1980. Hazard verification and
implementation through aerial
photo stand mapping. In How to
rate susceptibility of pine
stands to southern pine beetle.
Workshop sponsored by Stephen F.
Austin State Univ., USDA
ESPBRAP, and Tex. For. Serv.,
Nacogdoches, Tex., March 27,
1980.

The Piedmont

Natural stands susceptible
to endemic SPB attack in the
Piedmont are characterized by
well-stocked pine stands with a
large percentage in shortleaf
pine, slow radial growth during
the most recent 10 years, and a
high clay content in the surface
and subsurface horizons. Two
systems have been developed for
ranking the susceptibility of
natural stands to SPB attack in
the upper Piedmont of Georgia.
The first is a predictive
equation that includes variables
easily measured or often
contained in existing
inventories; the second is
designed for use in the field by
service foresters. Piedmont
conditions are described in the
following pest leaflet.


Belanger, R. P., and T. S.
Price.
1979. The susceptible forest
in the upper Piedmont. Pest
leaflet of Ga. For. Comm.,
Macon, Ga., and USDA For.
Serv., Southeast. For Exp.
Stn., Asheville, NC.

The Southern Appalachians

Studies of stands in the
mountains of Georgia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and
Tennessee have shown that those
severely attacked by the
southern pine beetle were
densely stocked, slow growing,
and had a large proportion of
overmature pine sawtimber.
Shortleaf pine and pitch pine
were more susceptible to beetle
attack than Virginia pine and
eastern white pine. Systems are
being developed to rank the
susceptibility of natural stands
in the mountains. See the
following publication for
additional details.

Belanger, R. P., E. A. Osgood,
and G. E. Hatchell
1979. Stand soil, and site
characteristics associated in
the southern Appalachians.
Res. Pap. SE-198. & p. USDA
For. Serv., Southeast. For.
Exp. Stn. Asheville, N.C.

For further information,
contact your State Forestry
Agency or:

USDA Forest Service,
Southeastern Area
Forest Pest Management Staff
2500 Shreveport Highway
Pineville, LA 71360
Telephone (318)473-7280
OR
P. 0. Box 5895
Asheville, NC 28803
Telephone (704)258-2850
Extension 625









APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Salvage Removal'
Managers and owners usually
prefer salvage removal over the
other control options because
infested trees are removed from
the forest and used, giving the
landowner some financial return.
However, salvage of individual
spots is not always possible
because of inaccessibility,
insufficient volume, poor lumber
of pulpwood market, and
sensitive environmental
constraints. Additionally,
salvage removal often takes
longer to implement than
alternative tactics.

For effective salvage,
material infested by the
southern pine beetle (SPB) must
be removed on a timely basis.
An adequate buffer strip of
uninfested green trees must also
be cut around the spreading
edges of the spot. Doing this
ensures the removal of freshly
attacked pines that were
overlooked or became infested
after the spot was first
ground-checked and marked.

When to Act

Suppression should be a
year-round effort made from late
spring through fall to control
actively spreading infestations.
Winter and early spring
treatment is also important
because it will reduce the
potential for spot growth or new
spot development later in the
spring and summer. Although
infestations are concentrated in


few trees for longer periods
of time during the colder
months, the spots are harder
to detect from the air.

Procedures for Salvage Removal

1. Identify the spreading
head(s) of the spot. The
head(s) contain the trees that
have been recently attacked.
They may have green or fading
foliage, fresh pitch tubes,
boring dust in bark crevices
or on the foliage of the
understory vegetation, tight
bark, and adult checkered
beetles on the bark.

2. Mark all SPB-infested
trees or a boundary around
them if there are many trees.

3. If recently attacked trees
are present, mark a horseshoe-
shaped buffer strip of green
uninfected trees around the
head(s). The buffer should
surround the recently attacked
ones. A strip 40 to 70 feet
wide (12.1 to 21.3 m) will be
needed for the most active
spots, while a 100-foot (30.4
m) strip (and occasionally
larger) may be needed for
large, rapidly expanding
spots. As a rule, the width
of the buffer should not
exceed the average height of
the trees in the spot. When a
spot has 10 or fewer infested
trees, none of which are
freshly attacked, it usually
should not be treated.


1See Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet No. 3 Setting control priorities
for the southern pine beetle.
*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 15.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


4. Salvage removal of infested
and bufferstrip trees should
begin as soon as possible after
ground checking and marking the
spot. Vacated trees (without
beetles) can be left standing
because their removal will not
contribute to beetle control.
But they can be salvaged if they
have not deteriorated and the
additional volume is needed to
make the salvage removal
economically feasible.
Choosing which trees to
salvage first depends on the
season. The following
priorities, in order of
importance, should be followed
in salvage removal:

May-October

a) Trees in the buffer-zone
b) Trees with fresh attacks
c) Remaining trees with living
brood
d) Vacated trees

November-April

a) Remaining trees with living
brood
b) Trees with fresh attacks
c) Trees in the buffer zone
d) Vacated trees


5. Infested trees should not
be decked next to green timber
because emerging beetles may
attack adjacent green trees.

6. Check salvaged spot for
breakouts during the next aerial
survey. Treat breakouts as
needed (when SPB emerging from a
treated spot attack neighboring
trees, this new infestation is
known as a breakout).

Other Options

The landowner's management
objectives affect the choice of
one or several treatment
methods. Recommended treatment
methods not discussed in this
fact sheet include cut-and-
leave, chemical control, and
pile-and-burn. SPB Fact
Sheets 16, 17, and 18 discuss
these three methods,
respectively.

REFERENCES

Agricultural Handbook
Number 575, Direct Control
Methods for the Southern Pine
Beetle. Kenneth Swain, Sr.
(USDA Forest Service) and
Michael Remion (South Carolina
State Commission of Forestry).








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Cut-and-Leave *
The cut-and leave method
was first recommended by the
Texas Forest Service for
controlling small spots (10 to
50 infested trees) that could
not be salvaged. This technique
involves felling infested trees
and a buffer of uninfested trees
and leaving them in the woods.
The treatment disrupts spot
growth and causes emerging adult
southern pine beetles (SPB) to
disperse into the surrounding
forest. Spots should be treated
only if they contain trees with
fresh attacks. The method has
been primarily used in the gulf
coast States.

Cut-and-leave is practical,
relatively inexpensive, and
requires a minimum of manpower,
equipment, and training. The
procedure can be applied soon
after spots are detected. The
major disadvantage is that a
buffer strip of green uninfested
trees must be felled around each
spot to assure that newly
attacked trees, which favor spot
growth, are included in the
treatment. If salvage becomes
feasible at a later date, the
felled trees can be removed.
Larger spots (51 to 150 trees)
can be treated using the
cut-and-leave method if the
spots will eventually be
salvaged.


Procedures for Cut-and-Leave

1. Select spots with 10 to 50
infested trees. Some may have
fresh attacks. Higher
priority spots, those with a
high proportion of newly
attacked trees, should be
treated first. Spots with
more than 50 infested trees
can be treated if they are to
be salvaged later.

2. Mark and fell SPB-infested
trees toward the center of the
spot.

3. Mark and fell a horse-
shaped buffer strip of green
uninfested trees around those
with fresh attacks. Fell them
toward the center of the spot.
In small spots, the buffer may
encircle the spot. However,
the buffer should be no wider
than the average height of the
trees in the spot.

4. Dead trees from which all
SPB have emerged need not be
felled. Leaving these trees
will allow the beetle's
natural enemies to complete
their development and emerge.
Such trees also provide den
sites for certain woodpecker
species.

5. Check cut-and-leave spots
for breakout2 during the next
aerial survey. Treat
breakouts as needed.


See Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet No. 3 Setting control priorities
for the southern pine beetle. 2When SPB emerging from a treated spot
attack neighboring trees, this new infestation is known as a breakout.
*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 16.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


When to Act

Cut-and-leave should be
used during the period when SPB
spots are expanding
(approximately May to October).

Other Options

The landowner's management
objectives affect the choice of
one or several treatment
methods. Recommended treatment
methods not discussed in this
fact sheet include salvage
removal, chemical.








APPENDIX D: Southern Pine Beetle, continued

Chemical Control *


Insecticides effectively
control the southern pine beetle
(SPB) in individual trees or
small groups of trees.
Registered insecticides are
available for killing beetles in
trees that have been attacked
and for preventing attacks on
green trees. Although chemical
control is costly and subject to
environmental constraints, it
may be the best alternative in
urban forests or high-value
recreational areas, and even in
limited areas of commercial
forests when other methods
cannot be used.

The landowner may choose to
protect selected high-value
trees from attack by applying a
preventative spray.
Technically, this is not a
direct control tactic, but it
does prevent attacks and reduce
tree mortality in special-use or
high-value situations. For
short trees, field crews can
apply insecticidal sprays with a
hydraulic sprayer. Treatment of
taller trees usually requires
special equipment.

People considering chemical
control should contact a local
State forestry office, county
extension agent, or USDA Forest
Service, Forest Pest Management
office for the latest
information on registered
insecticides and their use.
Always follow label instructions
on the insecticide container.


Procedures
Control


for Chemical


The following procedures
are recommended whenever
insecticides are used:

1. Identify and mark all
infested trees. Do not mark a
buffer strip of vacated trees.

2. Trees containing advanced
broods (late larvae, pupae,
adults) should be treated
first.

3. Infested trees should be
felled, limbed, and cut into
workable lengths. In large
spots, infested trees should
be cut into workable lengths
and sprayed as they are felled
to ensure complete treatment.

4. Use low-pressure sprayers-
--hydraulic for large,
accessible spots, garden or
backpack type for small or
inaccessible spots.

5. Spray the entire infested
bark surface to the point of
runoff. To accomplish this,
adjust nozzles so the spray
stream is about equal to the
tree diameter when the nozzle
is held about 1 foot (30.5 cm)
from the bark surface. It may
be necessary to turn large
logs several times to get
complete coverage.

6. Trees should not be
sprayed when the bark is wet.


1See Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet NO. 3. Setting control priorities
for the southern pine beetle.
*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 17.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


7. Do not spray vacated trees.
Spraying such trees serves no
useful purpose and, in fact, may
kill some of the beetle's
natural enemies that are
completing their development in
these trees. Also, do not spray
stumps of infested trees that
have been felled.
8. After completing treatment,
field crews should check around
the spot to see that no infested
trees have been overlooked.

9. Check for breakouts during
the next aerial survey. Treat
breakouts as needed.

When to Act

Suppression should be a
year-round effort made from
late spring through fall to
control actively spreading
infestations. Winter and
early spring treatment is also
important because it will
reduce the potential for spot
growth or new spot development
later in the spring and


summer. Although infestations
are concentrated in fewer
trees for longer periods of
time during the colder months,
the spots are harder to detect
from the air.

Other Options

The landowner's management
objectives will affect the
choice of one or several
treatment methods. Recommended
treatment methods not discussed
in this fact sheet include
salvage removal, cut-and-leave,
and pile-and burn. SPB Fact
Sheets 15, 16 and 18 discuss
these three methods,
respectively.
References

Agricultural Handbook
Number 575, Direct control
Methods for the Southern Pine
Beetle, Kenneth Swain, Sr.,
(USDA Forest Service) and
Michael Remion, (South
Carolina State Commission of
Forestry).


2When SPB emerging from a treated spot attack neighboring trees, this
new infestation is known as a breakout.








APPENDIX D: SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, continued


Pile-and-Burn


Felling, piling, and
burning infested trees is one of
the oldest control methods for
the southern pine beetle (SPB)
and is effective when properly
done. But because of high costs
and environmental constraints,
the practice has been used
sparingly in recent years. All
the bark must be completely
burned to achieve control. It
is not necessary to cut, pile,
and burn vacated trees. For
practical reasons, infested and
vacated trees are usually piled
and burned to clear the site for
regeneration. Burning can cause
wildfires, so it should be
restricted to periods of low
fire danger. Also, Federal and
State air pollution laws must be
taken into consideration.


Procedures
Burning


for Piling-and-


1. Identify and mark all
SPB-infested trees.

2. Fell all infested trees and
pile them in the center of the
infested area.


3. Burn
infested
thoroughly


the pile until
bark has
charred.


all
been


4. Do not burn if it cannot be
done safely or if it will
promote significant soil
erosion.


6. Check for breakouts during
the next aerial survey. Treat
breakouts as needed (when SPB
emerging from a treated spot
attack neighboring trees, this
new infestation is known as a
breakout).

When to Act

Suppression should be a
year-round effort made from
late spring through fall to
control actively spreading
infestations. Winter and
early spring treatment is also
important because it will
reduce the potential for spot
growth or new spot development
later in the spring and
summer. Although infestations
are concentrated in fewer
trees for longer periods of
time during the colder months,
the spots are harder to detect
from the air.

Other Options

The landowner's
management objectives will
affect the choice of one or
several treatment methods.
Recommended treatment methods
not discussed in this fact
sheet include salvage removal,
cut-and-leave, and chemical
control. SPB Fact Sheets 15,
16, and 17 discuss these three
methods, respectively.


5. Check carefully around the
spot to ensure that no green
infested trees have been
overlooked.


1See Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet No. 3 Setting control priorities
for the southern pine beetle.
*Reprinted from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service, Southern Pine Beetle Fact Sheet Number 16.
36
























































































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