Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 36, Lot 13 - Horruytiner
Title: Report and Recommendations
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Report and Recommendations Tabby/Coquina Wall
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 36, Lot 13 - Horruytiner
Physical Description: Report
Language: English
Creator: Steinbach, Robert H.
Publication Date: 2001
Physical Location:
Box: 7
Divider: Block 36
Folder: Block 36 Lot 13 - Horruytiner
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
214 Saint George Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Horruytiner House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Lindsley House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 214 Saint George Street
Coordinates: 29.891647 x -81.312828
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094864
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: B36-L13

Full Text



214 St. George St.
St. Augustine, Florida

Donald L. Bessey and Conale J. Bessey

Prepared by:
Robert H. Steinbach
Historic Preservation Consultant
1 November 2001


1 November 2001

DESCRIPTION: The wall, located along the south line of the property, begins at the
southeast corner, and extends in a westerly direction for a distance of 22'-3". It is 11"
thick and 6'-0" 2" in height from the asphalt paving on the south side to the bottom of
a concrete beam. This beam, 1'-4" 3" in height, is supported on the north side by four
16" X 16" concrete columns. These columns taper to approximately 22" at the top in
the N/S dimension. The beam and it's associated columns act to stabilize and
consolidate the wall, preventing it's collapse.
The top of the wall leans to the south and is approximately 5 2" (4 %2o 1 ) out of
The lower portion of the wall on the south side exhibits severe erosion, particularly at
ground level. This erosion may have be aggravated by vehicular traffic in the parking
Remnants of a lime stucco or render are still visible on the upper sections of the south
side of the wall.(Color Photo # 1). This material has lost most of it's bonding to the
The render on the north side is in better condition, although far from pristine. There is a
considerable amount of mold and mildew on the lower portions.

The tabby portion of the wall begins at the SE corner and extends westward 14'-10".
The center of vertical concrete patches, varying in width from 4" to 12" are located at 5'-
6", 12'-0" and 14'-10" from the east end. The first two of these locate the remains of
wooden posts that were intrigal with the wall. A portion of one is still visible at the
bottom of the 12' patch.(Color Photo # 6) The third patch locates the transition of
building material from tabby to coquina.

The coquina portion of the wall can be described as "rubble work" masonry, as it is not
laid in regular courses. At least two of the stones are laid with the bedding plane in a
vertical position, not the normal horizontal aspect. A section of the wall on the north
side, at the west end near the top, appears to have been re-laid.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The tabby portion of this wall is the only known example
of an above grade tabby construction within the colonial city. At the end of the First
Spanish Period, there were 132 (39%) tabby houses in St. Augustine. By 1788 the
number had been reduced to 13 (5%) and by the end of the 20th century to 0.

TABBY CONSTRUCTION: The presence of wood posts within the waljs raises some

interesting questions. Manucy postulates that wood posts or poles were inserted into
the walls to carry the load of the roof until the tabby had time to harden. This type of
construction requires the use of forms approximately 12" high. When a wall is built
using this technique, it usually produces distinctive horizontal lines between each lift, as
each must harden sufficiently to carry the weight of the form before the next one is
poured. Holes from the form pins are also generated from this process. Neither of these
characteristics is present in the wall.
A second method, documented through archaeological excavations, involves raising a
post and beam structure and in-filling between the posts with tabby. Forms would have
been clamped to the frame, allowing the work to progress quickly and allowing each lift
to bond with the previous one. No form pins would have been required because of the
relatively short distance between posts.
Roque's house #129 describes a "House of thin wall of tabby and posts......" which
may well have been this type of construction.
It would appear that this wall may well be representative of the second method of
construction. Removal of the concrete patches to verify the dimensions of the posts
could well resolve the issue.

COQUINA CONSTRUCTION: The coquina portion of the wall follows traditional colonial
construction practices and needs no further discussion.

HISTORICAL ASSOCIATIONS: The Puente map of 1764 gives lot dimensions as well
as a brief description of the houses. By plotting the distance from the SW corner of
King and St. George Streets, southward, we get a distance of 205.8' to the south line of
the Horruytiner property. The present distance is 208.4', an error of only 3.4'. It would
seem logical to assume that the wall is a remnant of the north wall of a house on the
property to the south (Puente # 216), since the Spanish usually built their houses along
the north line to take advantage of the southern exposure. Several problems arise with
this assumption. One, the house to the south is described by Puente as a stone house,
not a tabby one .Two, the Roque map indicates that the house to the south has
disappeared and that the Horruytiner house lot has expanded to the south. Further,
there is no fence or wall shown in this location. The Clements map of 1834 shows the
Horruytiner lot returning to it's original N-S dimension.
There would seem to be several possibilities to explain the existence of the wall.
1. Puente was mistaken about the wall material in #216. It is also possible that the wall
is a remnant of an earlier structure, and was incorporated into the stone one. This
would seem to be the most plausible explanation.
2. Roque's map in error. It must be remembered that this map was copied a number of
times, and a fence or wall line could have been left out.
3. The wall is post-colonial. This is, of course conceivable although highly unlikely as
there is no documented tabby construction in St. Augustine after 1763.

Page 2 of 5


South Face -

1. Remove all loose stucco or render. Save representative samples for later
2. Remove portions of the concrete patches that cover the wood posts. Document
the posts original sizes and association with the wall.
3. Wash entire wall with a mild detergent and water. Rinse with generous amounts
of clean water.
4. In-fill the eroded sections of the tabby wall with a mixture of one part St. Astier
HL5 (natural hydraulic cement) and 1 /2 to 2 parts course sand (At mason's
discretion) Add oyster shell to provide a workable consistency. Patch all other
voids with the same material, less the oyster shell.
5. In-fill the eroded sections of the coquina wall with the same mixture as above,
but substituting small pieces of coquina for the oyster shell.
6. Scratch in-fills after 6 8 hours and allow to cure for 2 5 days. Shade from sun
with burlap drapes and mist occasionally.
7. Dampen wall to provide adequate suction and apply a first coat of HL5 in the
proportions of 1:1.5 or 1:2 using a course sand. Thickness can be up to 3/8" if
applied in two lifts. It is preferable to cast on the material to provide a better
bond with the substrate. Scour back and key (crisscross patterns are preferred
to combing) after initial set.
8. Check for initial shrinkage. If found, dampen surface lightly with water and
tighten back and re-key. Repeated shrinkage is usually a function of poor quality
sands, poor suction control or rapid drying. Shade from sun with burlap drapes
and mist as necessary. Allow to cure for 2 5 days.
9. Dampen wall and apply a finish coat of HL 3.5 and a finer well graded sand in
the proportions of 1:2. Add just enough water to obtain workability. The more
water is added the higher the risk of shrinkage. When the mortar is firm enough,
proceed to float up with a cross-grained wood float. This is the most important
phase of the finishing work and should be done diligently. Together with good
curing and protection it is vital in obtaining a good finish.
10. The upper 2/3's of the east end of the wall could be left open Consolidate the
substrate with a polymer such as Acryl 60. Completely saturate the substrate by
applying with a garden sprayer. A mix of 3:1 is the normal ratio. As this material
will not re-emulsify when exposed to water, application should be done at one
time because of the real possibility that additional coats applied after
polymerization will not adhere to the previous one.
11. Allow finish to completely dry, and then apply a coat of Keim Granital (silicate
paint) diluted by 30% with Keim Granital Dilution by brush or roller, working well
into all surfaces. Allow a minimum of 24 hours before applying the final coat

Page 3 of 5

North Face -

1. Remove mold and mildew with a solution in the proportions of one (1) pint of
sodium hypochlorite (household bleach), one (1) cup of trisodium phosphate (
such as Spic & Span), and one (1) gallon of clean water. Apply with soft bristle
brushes. Flush with copious amounts of clean water.
2. Repair coquina at the top of the wall near the west end using the same material
as specified in #5 above.
3. Sound the existing render. Remove any loose material and replace with the
material specified for the south face..
4. Apply two coats of Kiem Granital as specified in #11 above.

The Virginia Lime Works
166 Green Hill Road
Monroe, VA 24574
Phone 804/929-8113

Fax (804)929-6859
E-mail jprice@,
Jeffery B. Price or Jimmy Price (Jeffery's father).
Both are most helpful.


KEIM Mineral Systems
c/o The Cohalan Company
53 Cape Henlopen Drive, #62
Port Lewes
Lewes, Delaware 19958
Phone (302) 644-1007
Fax (302) 644- 0866
Contact Mame Cohalan
Cell Phone (302) 34-9094


Page 4 of 5

Charger Corporation
299 Welton Street
Hamden, CT 06517
Phone (800)922-4623
Fax (203) 562-2053


1. 13 Color photographs w/ negatives.
2. 16 Black/white photographs w/ negatives.
3. Keim technical data sheets.
4. St. Astier technical data.

Page 5 of 5

*J' J ____J ( _- 8" C.B. WALL uI


-----COQUINA -- TABBY ---

8" C.B. WALL --

.-S" d.'-,o ,'- 5'd- ^g'^ S



SCALE 1/4" 1'


'- r -- -- ,' :',,,- SIDEWALK
.o { 1 -


SCALE 14" 1'

Technical DATA
KEIM Granital

I Product Information:
Mineral silicate paint system for use on mineral surfaces Offers water repellency, carbonation protection, vapor permeability and
forms a chemical crystalline bond with the substrate KEIM Granital is made using pure inorganic mineral fillers, earth oxide color
mentsandoassum late binder KEIM Grantal ma also be used internally for fire protection onto mineral surfaces

2 Field of Application:
For all mineral absorbent surfaces, in particular for restoration coatings on repaired and stripped surfaces

3 Product Characteristics
Water vapor permeable
Tested to Class 0 and Class 1
Color fast
Resistant to mould and fungal growth
Easily Cleaned
Free from solvents
Free from biocides
Easy to over paint

Material Data:
Resistance to vapor diffusion Sd = 001 m
O=0 20Kg/m2n0 5 1 42- 1 51 colors
Water Absorption Co-efficient
Thermal Expansion
Comparable to the mineral substrate to which it is applied onto
Flasn point Non-Flammable

Color Shades:
350 standard colors according to the KEIM palette with specials available

4. Application
Substrate Preparation:
When all surfaces are clean, sound wind dry, dust free from all surface contaminants, decoration using KEIM Mineral Paint may
Onto a unpainted surface KEEIM Granital should be applied as a two coat system, the first coat should be diluted with 30% by
weight KEIM Granital Dilution and applied by brush or roller, working well into all surfaces After a minimum period of 12 hours a
final coat of KEIM Granital may be applied undiluted For previously painted surfaces KEIM Granital Grob should be used as a first
Air ana surface temperature >5'C
For two coats onto a smooth surface approx 0 4 kg/m2 KEIM Granital and 0.06 It/m2 KEIM Granital Dilution
Clean immediately after use with water
5. Packaging
5 & 25kgs containers
Approx 12 months if kept cool. but frost free in tightly closed containers
7 Identification Ref Ordinance Of Dangerous Materials:
Not Applicable
8. Danger of Class in Goodstraffic:
Not Applicable
9. Safety Instructions:
Cover surfaces which are not to be painted, in particular glass, natural stone, ceramics etc Protect the eyes and skin from
splashes Keep oul of reach of children

Technical DATA
S KEIM Granital Dilution

1 Product Information:
Dilution for KEIM Granital. KEIM Contact Plus. KEIM Granital Grob and KEIM Biosil Reacts chemically with the surface The
* product comprses, of lquld special potassium silicate, pure acrylate stabilizers.

2 Field of Application:
Used to consolidate frable surfaces as a binder coat for the KEIM Mineral systems

3 Product Characteristics
* Water vapor permeable
* Consolidates the surface
* Oaoress
* Non-toxic

Material Data:
Q=1 17g/cm3

4. Application
Substrate Preparation:
All loose flaking paint should be removed using wire brushes and broad bladed scrapers to get back to a sound edge When all
surfaces are clean, sound, wind dry. dust free from all surface contaminants, decoration using KEIM Mineral Paint may proceed
KEIM Granital onto unpainted surfaces should be diluted with 30% by weight in the first coat. KEIM Contact. Contact Grob and
Contact Plus should be diluted with 5-10% by weight and KEIM Biosil Grund should be diluted with 10% by weight, For exact
specifications please contact KEIM direct
Air ano surface temperature >5"C
According to absorbency of the surface as primer approx 0 21t/m2 For use with other products please refer to product data sheets.
Clean immediately after use with water
5. Packaging
5 & 201trs containers
Approx 12 months if kept cool. but frost free in tightly closed containers
7 Identification Ref Ordinance Of Dangerous Materials:
Not Applicable
8 Danger of Class in Goodstraffic:
Not Applicable
9. Safety Instructions:
Cover surfaces, which are not to be painted in particular glass, natural stone, ceramics etc Protect the eyes and skin from
splashes Keep out of reach of children

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