Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 16
Title: First Draft for Comments and Additions, Archeological Investigations in St. Agustine: The Background of an Urban Ethnic Group
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 Material Information
Title: First Draft for Comments and Additions, Archeological Investigations in St. Agustine: The Background of an Urban Ethnic Group
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Block 16
Physical Description: Report
Language: English
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: Public Domain
Physical Location:
Box: 6
Divider: Block 16
Folder: Block 16
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine
Coordinates: 29.896803 x -81.314374
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094814
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: B16

Full Text

First Draft for Comments and Additions

Archeological Investigations in St. Augustine: The

Background of an Urban Ethnic Group

Proposal to

The National Endowment for the Humanities

Jointly By

The Department of Anthropology, University
of Florida

The St. Augustine Historical Preservation Board


The Bureau of Urban Research, University
of Florida

Archeological Investigations in St. Augustine: The Background of An Urban Ethnic Group


Under multi-discipline sponsorship, the project proposes an intensive and

extensive excavation of selected lots within Block 16 of the St. Augustine Historic

Area. Lying near the northwestern corner of the colonial fortified town, this

area was not heavily occupied during the First Spanish Dominion. During the

American Revolution it was heavily settled by the Minorcans from Dr. Andrew

Turnbull's unsuccessful settlement at New Smyrna and became known as the "Greek

Settlement". The descendents of these Minorcans remain today an identifiable

ethnic element in St. Augustine.

The work will be carried out using standard historical archeological

techniques. Historic summaries have already been completed on land ownership,

house types, and some cultural characterization of such details as occupation,

family style, etc. The specific objectives are to define land use, including housing

details and, especially, the recreation of the life style of the inhabitants.

Special attention will be given to the garden areas because of lack of informa-

tion on the living facilities located there. Cultural remains will be analyzed

intensively and attention will be given to domestic evidences.

The work will be conducted by advanced undergraduate and graduate students

under the direction of Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks. Assistance will be given in

2 -

direction by Dr. John W. Griffin and Robert Steinbach. The laboratory facilities

of the St. Augustine Historical Preservation Board will be used for continuing

analysis of the remains.


The Department of Anthropology at the University of Florida and the St.

Augustine Historical Restoration Commission are beginning a program of excavation

in selected areas of Block 16 of the St. Augustine Historic Area. While the

major expenses of the investigation will be borne by the two agencies, supplemental

funds are requested from the National Foundation for the Humanities. The

objectives are twofold: 1. To determine the historical evidences which remain

on the site, and 2. to investigate the life-style and cultural uniqueness of

the Minorcan group who lived there during the American Revolution.

Block 16 lies in the northwest corner of the colonial fortified city

(Chatelain, 1941). It seems to have been rather thinly occupied during the First

Spanish Dominion (Manucy & Griffin 1962). Historical research indicates that

some tabby or coquina houses existed there during the middle years of.the 18th

century. During the English Dominion and the American Revolution it became

the home of a number of Minorcans from the Turnbull settlement at New Smyrna.

These people razed unserviceable earlier buildings and erected frame dwellings.

While it is unknown what outbuildings were present, the frame construction is

felt to reflect distinctive Minorcan building styles. We believe that we will

discover substantial evidence of the culturally distinct group. Excavation

rn,, ,


will clear house remains, search back garden areas, and attempt, by flotation

of proper soil samples, to define dietary patterns.

As the latest British colony in North America, Florida was still experiencing

initial growth at the outbreak of the American Revolution. Because of its

special geographic and cultural position it served as a refuge for many Loyalists

during the Revolution. The unrest of the Revolution may partly account for

the factionalism that beset the New Smyrna settlement.

Dr. Andrew Turnbull had planned to bring a large number of Greek settlers

to a large grant of land that he had secured some distance south of St. Augustine.

The history of British Colonies on the Atlantic seaboard is repleat with many other

examples in which philanthropic Englishment encouraged European ethnic groups to

settle in the New World. Dr. Turnbull's New Smyrna is typical of these

agrarian experiments in many respects. Having been unsuccessful in recruiting

Greek settlers, he heard that crop failures on Minorcan had entailed wide-

spread hardship. His recruiting was successful and he arrived in June 1768

at New Smyrna with eight ships bearing some 1500 Minorcans and 100 Greeks. While

the great bulk of these immigrants were of the Catholic faith, and thus forbidden

to settle in the British Colony, he secured permission for them to enter and even

brought priests to minister to them. The settlement was beset with many problems

and never achieved stability. Attempts to open communication with the Spanish

population of Peba were regarded as treasonous and harshly suppressed by the

English authorities. Governor Tonyn after his arrival in 1774 seems to have

been sympathetic to their problem, releasing them from their indentures. He

also admitted, and probably encouraged, them to leave New Smyrna for settlement

in St. Augustine. The section now called Block 16 became known as the "Greek

Cl ir i lT.



Settlement" (Doggett, 1919).

While historical research has revealed the change to frame dwellings during

the American Revolutionary period, we need to know considerably more about the

houses and the domestic appointments. Excavation of one or more house sites

should give a considerably expanded view of architectural features. Excavation

of trash pits and other features will reveal a great deal about the cultural

pattern. We have here an excellent opportunity to study the background of a

definite ethnic minority and to guage their adaptation to and acculturation to

American culture of the Hispavir and British traditions (Deeta, 1968).

The Minorcans remained in St. Augustine and its vicinity. Census data

indicate that they were often farmers, fisherman, and craftsmen. With the return

of the Spanish to Dominion in Florida they became a more fully participating

part of the community. Some of them, at least, rose to positions of affluence

and prominence. With the purchase of Florida by the United States in 1819, they

again largely remained in and around St. Augustine. Today they may still be

identified in the community, largely through-the surnames which they still bear.

In language, dress, occupation, religion, and other cultural indices they

conform to the community as a whole. What remains is the awareness of their ancestry

and an identification with their past. This project will throw some specific

light on the early years of this ethnic group, their cultural pattern before

acculturation had begun, and the process by which they have acquired a uniform

Anglo-Floridian culture, while still maintaining an awareness of their origins.

The project presents an unusual opportunity to trace the acculturation from

the time of the American Revolution of this little known cultural enclave.





Requested from
National Endowment for
The Humanities

Contributed by
University of Floridi
or St. Augustine

Supervision by Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks
Project Director
Administration, payrolls, etc.
15 students @ $1.60/hour
40 hours/week, 10 weeks
Graduate assistant 1/3 time 2 1/2 months
Student housing, 10 weeks
Field archeologist
Laboratory supervisor
Laboratory equipment and supplies
Miscellaneous small tools
Truck mileage, gas, oil
Typing reports, ect.
Rental of front end louder
1 month
Total Direct Costs







. ^ l. )^l,

1 AItJ

OAX ..i

6 -


Beeson, Kenneth Henry
1960 Fromajadas and Indigo; the Minorcan Colony in Florida.
Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Florida.

Camps, Pedro
Register of births (of Minorcans). MS. in Cathedral Archives,
St. Augustine, Florida, Microfilm in Yonge Library of Florida History.

Chatelain, Verne E.
1941 The Defenses of Spanish Florida 1565-1763. Carnegie Institute
of Washington Publication 511. Washington, D.C.

Deetz, James
1968 "Late Man in North America: Archeology of European Americans" in
Betty Meggers (ed.), Anthropological Archeology in the Americas,
Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C. pp. 121-130.

Doggett, Carita
1919 Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony of Florida. Jacksonville.

Fairbanks, George R.
1881 History and Antiquities of St. Augustine, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.


>. ,I0 -.


Born: June 3, 1913

Education: A.B. University of Chicago, 1939
M.A. University of Michigan, 1950
Ph.D. University of Michigan, 1954

Professional Societies: American Anthropological Association, Fellow;
Society for American Archaeology; Sigma Xi; Southern Anthro-
pological Society; Society for Historical Archaeology, President
1971; Southeastern Archaeological Conference; local southeastern
regional societies.

Professional Experience:
1937-38 Archeologist, TVA, University of Tennessee
1938-43 Archeologist, Ocmulgee National Monument
1946-48 Superintendent, Ft. Frederica National Monument
1950-54 Archeologist, National Park Service, Ocmulgee
National Monument and Washington, D. C.
1954-63 Florida State University, Assistant Professor,
Associate Professor (1959-1963).
1963-70 University of Florida, Professor and Chairman
1970-present University of Florida, Professor

Military Service: Army United States 1943-1946

Selected Publications:

"The Occurrence of Coiled Pottery in New York State,"
Amer.Antiq., Vol. 2, No. 3, Jan. 1937, pp. 178-179.

"Classification Problems of Southeastern Archaeology in Relation
to Work in the Tennessee Valley," Readings of the Society for Georgia
Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 1, unpaged, (4) mimeographed, 1940.

"The Taxonomic Position of Stalling's Island, Georgia," Amer. Antig.,
Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 223-231, 1942.

"The Macon Earthlodge," Amer. Antiq., Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 94-108,

"Fort Frederica National Monument," Emory University Quarterly,
Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 8-14, Emory, 1948.

"A General Survey of Southeastern Prehistory," Florida Indian
and His Neighbors, pp. 55-76, Winter Park, Fla., 1949.

S"A Preliminary Segregation of Etowah, Savannah, and Lamar,"
Amer. Antig., Vol. XVI, No. 2, 1950, pp. 142-151.

"Creek and Pre-Creek," Archaeology of Eastern United States, James
B. Griffin, ed., pp. 285-300, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952.

"1953 Excavations at Site 9 HL 64, Buford Reservoir, Georgia,"
Fla. State Univ. Studies, No. 16, pp. 1-26, 1954.

"The Excavation of the Hawkins-Davision Houses, Frederica
National Monument, St. Simons Island, Georgia," Georgia Historical
Quarterly, 40:3 (Sept.), 1956, pp. 213-29, Athens.

"Archeology of the Funeral Mound Ocmulgee National Monument,
Georgia," National Park Service, Archeological Research Series Number
Three, Washington, 1956, vi, 95, 28 plates, 6 figs, VI tables,

"Ethnological Report, Florida Seminole," 300 pp, Mineographed, 1957.

"Ethnological Report on Royce Area 79, (Cherokee, Creek,
Chickasaw)," 250 pp., Mimeographed, 1958.

"Some Problems of the Origin of Creek Pottery, The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. XI, No. 2, pp. 53-64, Tallahassee, Florida, 1958,

"Anthropology and the Segregation Problem," in The Negro in
American Society, Florida State University Studies, No. 28, pp. 1-18,
Tallahassee, 1958.

"European Ceramics from the Cherokee Capitol of New Echota,"
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, News Letter, Vol. 9, No. 1,
June 1962, pp. 10-16.

"Excavations at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama," Florida Anthropologist,
15:2 (June), pp. 41-56, 1962.

Ethnohistoric Report on the Biloxi, Pascagoula and Adjacent
Tribes, Prepared for U. S. Department of Justice, 1964, 247 pp.

"Indian and Spaniard. Selected writings of John M. Goggin," Ed.
with Irving Rouse and William C. Sturtevant, University of Miami Press,

"Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound," Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. 18, No. 4, (December), pp 239-264, 1965.

"The Archeological Contribution to Urban Studies," in Urban
Anthropology, Research Perspectives and Strategies, Elizabeth M. Eddy, Ed,
Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings, No. 2, Athens, pp. 16-23.

"Early Spanish Colonial Beads' The Conference on Historic Site
Archaeology, Papers,1967, Vol. 2, Part 1, pp. 3-22.


September 2, 1971

Dr. John W. Griffin
St. Augustine Preservation Board
Box 1987
St. Augustine, Florida 32084

Dear John:

Attached is the first draft of the grant proposal. It is being reviewed
here while you also review it and clear it with the Division of Cultural
Affairs. Please feel free to suggest any changes that occur to you.
You should perhaps extend the bibliography and attach curricula vitae
for yourself and Bob. Mine is already attached.

I'd like to get this off to Washington early in October, if possible.


S/aZ L-
rles H. Fairbanks


:tAC ST. R,,N


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