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Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: (Block 15, Lot 7) Joaneda House
Title: Landscape Restoration of the Joaneda House Tracing the Origin of the Spanish Courtyard Garden
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094802/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape Restoration of the Joaneda House Tracing the Origin of the Spanish Courtyard Garden
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: (Block 15, Lot 7) Joaneda House
Physical Description: Report
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Craven
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: Public Domain
Physical Location:
Box: 6
Divider: B15 L7 Joaneda - Architecture, History, Archaeology
Folder: (B15 L7) Joaneda House
 Subjects
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
57 Treasury Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Joaneda House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 57 Treasury Street
Coordinates: 29.893459 x -81.313492
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094802
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: B15-L7

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Bibliography
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Footnotes
        Page 26
    Figures
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text












LANDSCAPE RESTORATION OF THE JOANEDA HOUSE
TRACING THE ORIGIN OF THE SPANISH
COURTYARD GARDEN










SENIOR THESIS PROJECT

DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

SPRING 1975


CRAVEN SMITH















INTRODUCTION


My thesis project began with the idea of producing a

restoration landscape plan for the Historic St. Augustine

preservation Board to be implemented at the Joaneda House in

St. Augustine. Beginning research on the gardens and culture

of St. Augustine in the early 1800's, it became apparent that

it would be impossible to take the gardens out of the Spanish

contex.

To recreate a design, whether it be Architecture or Land-

scape Architecture, the most valid approach is a wholistic

view of the traditions and backgrounds of the designer. Most

of St. Augustine was settled by the Spanish so it became necessary

to begin to research the Spanish Courtyard garden.

The courtyard garden represents a tradition that can be

traced through many cultures back almost to the beginning of

garden design.

I felt that a valid approach to tracing the origin of

the enclosed garden tradition would be to research back

through the history of garden design.

In this paper I have attempted to trace what I felt was


1










a valid hypothesis as to the origin of this garden form and

to bring it through history showing the experiences on it in

the creation of a true art form, the Spanish courtyard garden.

This garden form came to St. Augustine with its first

settlers and can be seen today in restorations of the homes

of many of St. Augustine's past aristocracy.

Unfortunately, only the wealthy could afford, at this

time, to dedicate their precious land to an ormanital garden.

So here the courtyard garden emerged into a combination of

an outdoor room and a sustenance garden.

Through research I soon discovered that the occupant of

the Joaneda house was of the less fortunate class and it

seemed apparent that the garden design of this time was greatly

influenced by Juan Joaneda's economic situation.

I then began to research the traditions of St. Augustine

in the early 1800's trying to discover references to agriculture

or horticulture. I was fortunate to find some information

as to crops and ornamentals growing here at that time but as I

will espouse on later the information was very general.

I also researched the Indian tribes of Florida at this

period and discovered some of the crops they were growing but

only established a thin thread between Indian agriculture and

that of-St. Augustine.










From the information I had gathered I designed a

restoration landscape plan for the Joaneda House taking into

c nsideration my research on Spanish gardens coupled with

the research on St. Augustine at that time.

I feel that my proposal is a fairly valid representation

of what actually was located in the yard at that time but as

I will mention later in the report there are several areas

that may require more indepth research.










To begin recreating landscapes of past eras it becomes

necessary to take a wholistic view of the evolution of man

dealing with his surrounding landscape. Since the beginning

of man's existence on earth he has been involved with altering

his surroundings. At first his attempts were purely motivated

by survival instincts--food, clothing and shelter. Clearing

of a small area for a camp may have been the extent of the

physical molding of his surrounding landscape.

As the evolution of man progressed so did his methods

of survival. He discovered that building more permanent struc-

tures were to his advantage. He began to learn how to cultivate

food that had previously been searched for. These advances

led him to become more and more involved with his surroundings.

He became the master of his surroundings rather than a slave.

Because the physical landscape is constantly in a state

of change, it is more difficult to document and research the

extent of man's involvement in his landscape of these early

times. "The earliest accounts we have of gardens are those

recorded in the holy writ. Their antiquity, therefore, appears

coeval with that of the earliest tradition. The Garden of

Eden had every tree good for food or pleasant to the sight,

and Noah planted a vineyard. Solomon with a true spirit of

horticultural zeal says "I planted the vineyards: I made the







5


gardens and orchards and I planted trees in them of all kinds

of fruit." Only through the Bible and other ancient manu-

scripts do we have any documental evidence to the extent man

was involved with his landscape. What these early gardens

may have looked like we can only piece together a vague idea.

One of the most advanced civilizations of antiquity found

is that of the Egyptians. They became involved with advanced methods

of architecture as early as 1500 B.C. Many of these temples

have been restored and are living testimony to their advanced

techniques. The gardens that accompanied these magnificent

works disappeared long ago. Fortunately, the Egyptians believed

in graphically documenting their surroundings. Through wall

paintings in tombs and other artistic works we are able to

visualize some of the landscape architectural works as well.

Their architecture was very rigid and straight forward.

A basic geometry played a major role in their architectural

as well as garden design. Through excavations this garden

geometry was revealed. "There is documentary and site evidence

of such earth work operations as systems of channels for

drainage and irrigation in early Egypt. These elementary

methods like the ones used in the same regions today were

presumably combinations of straight flawlines and thus were an

ancient form of geometry on the land."2










Both the garden and'the architecture developed into a

bilateral symmetry, the right hand side reflecting the left

hand part. "Such an arrangement of elements developed,

unimaginative perhaps, but logical enough, and easy,

apparently became fairly economic in the layout of grounds

around Egyptian buildings public and private."3

In some of the Egyptian murals and wall paintings .it is

evident that even in -these early times we have the beginning

of walled courtyard gardens.

"For a period of seven centuries from the time of Homer's

epics, onward Greek literature abounds with poetic athesion

to trees and flowers, to sapred groves, to areas variously called

parks and gardens. Plato's academy and the academies of other

scholars through the fars are in effect described as gardens."4

The Greek gardens again have a very symmetrical layout,

this can be attributed to irrigation methods again. "The

gardens of Epicurus and Plato appear to have been symmetrical

groves of olive, plane and elm."5 Besides the symmetry of the

Greeks, one of the most significant developments of this time

was the concept of public gardens. This central public open

space was found in most Greek towns and became known as the

agora. The gradual improvement on the concept was the conscious

planning of the agora as a space framed by buildings. The agora










thus becomes another step in the development of merging

interior and exterior space, a major concept of the Spanish

garden.

"What once may have been the agora of the Greeks became

in Roman times a forum for generally similar purposes. Perhaps

it had undergone reorganization at any rate, whereas the very

earliest Greek agora often had about it a haphazard, negative

air, almost as if the space had been left over from something

else. The forum of Pompeii seems to assert itself as a con-

scious entity of space. It looks intended and purposefully

positive." 6

Although the Roman forum was another step in the develop-

ment of organized exterior space, another Roman contribution

really belongs in the thread of courtyard garden evolution.

Both the Atrium and Peristyle of the Pompeiian house belongs

in this cateogry. "The developed Pompeiian house apparently

presented a more organized aspect than the earliest Greek

prototypes. In the process of becoming perceptively more

ordered it had developed an excellent interlocking of indoor

and outdoor space. In the simpliest case this was effected by

a sequence of spaces threaded on a single line of sight from

the doorway in the street face of the house through the first

room or atrium then through a constricting doorway or passage










to a larger, garden-like peristyle surrounded by a columned

and covered walkway but otherwise open to the sky. The

Atrium, too, was partly open above and was covered by a roof

that often sloped inward to a central rectangular opening

directly over a pool of like dimensions in the floor."7

Both the atrium garden and the larger peristyle garden are of

the scale and are well enough defined entities of a household

to be definite links to the Spanish courtyard gardens.

Around 476 A.D. after the collapse of the Roman Empire,

most of Europe fell into a new era--the Middle or Dark Ages.

The outward free thinking era had suddenly began to fade.

"The major orientation in the Middle Ages was manifestly inward

and introspective. Circumstances of daily living in the Middle

Ages were conducive neither to broad affection nor to appre-

ciative use of the wide outdoors." .Many towns began to huddle

behind the safety of castle walls. Venturing out only during

the day to tend meager garden plots meant only for sustenance.

The greatest contributions in any sense during the Middle

Ages was from the church. They began constructing magnificent

Romanesque and Gothic Cathedrals. "It would be difficult to

overestimate what Medieval growth of monasticism has meant to

the continuance of civilization during this time."9 The church

seemed to keep alive interest in literature and other










accomplishments of a more enlightened time.

"The very nature of the monastic community with its

insistence on withdrawal from the secular world and on living

under the rule in prayer, silence, discipline and manual work,

gave rise not only to the isolated placement of the monastery

itself but also to the creation of the Cloister, originally a

grouping of the monk's separate cubicle's with a covered

walkway joining them around a central, common open space."10

In the center of the garden was usually a well. The remaining

often was cultivated with fruits and vegetables.. It was not

uncommon to find a few shrubs and flowers being nurtured.

This cloister garden strongly resembles the peristyle gar-

dens of Pompeii. The Pompeiian garden tradition probably had

a strong tie to the Middle Age cloister gardens. This was

perhaps the thread that keep the tradition alive to later be

found in the Spanish courtyard gardens.

In another part of the world a militant religion sprang

up. By 722 Islam had spread from Persia to the Pyrenos. This

new religion began to show a profound appreciation for the

outdoors.

TheIslambic people had not felt the repression of the

dark ages and with the coming of this new religion the stage

was set for man to really become involved with his surroundings










to a degree never equalled before.

The Moors had a long history of experience at garden

culture in arid lands. With this new awakening, coupled with

the strong moral emphasis on family privacy it became most

usual for even the simpliest house to have at least one

enclosed but unroofed court where a considerable part of the

daily living took place."11

"The Muslim mathematical genius and the Koranix prohibi-

tion against physical representation of humans and animals made

virtually inevitable the distinctive fanciful geometric surface

pattern found throughout Islam."12 The distinct law of order

and geometry found, manifested itself on the ground plane.

In their garden design it is evident that the emphasis is on

man's not nature's contributions.

Often a courtyard would be entirely paved in intricate

designs carried out with tiles. Greenery was only found to

accent the strong geometry. Usually recrangular the garden

almost invariably centered around a well.

Other gardens would be entirely of horticulture with the

exception of the well and small paved parkways. The idea of

the formal garden with equally spaced plants in rows developed

into a real system. These Islambic peoples considered horti-

culture to be a-royal occupation.










No other European country has undergone such constant

change as Spain. In no other has there been so many conflicting

civilizations. This constant influx of other culture has

brought many different traditions to Spanish Garden design.

As we have attempted to establish previously, the Spanish

garden has elements of several different cultures.

"The Roman contribution to Spanish domestic architecture

as might be expected was something concrete. The patio, the

internal courtyard, is still the most distinctive feature of

the Spanish home. It forms a delightful open air sitting room

kept cool in the intense summer heat by its fountain and vine

trellis awning and by solid shade of its high enclosing arcades.

These courtyard gardens of Andalucia, directly descended from
13
the Atrium of Roman days."

Another strong contribution to Spanish garden design was the

Moslems. The escambic tradition spread quickly into Spain.

The Moors occupied the country for eight centuries and left

quite an impact on Spanish design. These people brought to

Spain a profound love of gardening.

Gradually with bits and pieces of the different cultures

coupled with the strong culture and spirit of Spain, a truly

Spanish garden typed emerged.

Influenced by both climate and culture, Spanish -










architecture was inward turning. Facing the street was'a very

bleak, unimaginative facade while the house was completely

or partly surrounded by a beautiful courtyard garden. The

whole spirit of the house seemed to revolve around the patio.

The Spanish women spent much time here because they cus-

tomarily weren't seen outside the house.

In this arid climate the dark green vegetation, tradi-

tional of the patio gardens, offered a refreshing contrast

to the arid climate and stucco architecture. A few flowering

shrubs offered spots. of color.

As was a Moslem tradition, the Spanish had little or no

statuary in their gardens more emphasis was put on water and

colored tiles. Often a fountain and an irrigation system would

form the basic geometry of the garden. Water played a sutle

but essential role in the Spanish garden providing a

phycological refreshing atmosphere in combination with the

dark green foliage.

Tiled or earthern parks often lead one through the garden.

Earthen pots of colored flowers became another Spanish garden

tradition.

These Spanish gardens were in many ways similar to the

Moorish gardens but became more subtle, a more delicate art

form.










Minedez landed in Florida in 1565 at the site of an Indian

village, and as was customary, the name given to the site was

the name of the Saint for that particular day, St. Augustine.

This was the beginning of the major Spanish influence the

United States would ever be subject to. The history of St.

Augustine is one of much turmoil and violence. The city was

burned several times during its early existence. Florida was

annexed into the U. S. in 1821 under Spanish rule.

Several tribes of fierce Indians constantly harassed

the new settlers. To survive these attacks and those of other

European enemies, the city was walled in. One entered and

left the city by a carefully guarded gateway.

The Spanish had come,to St. Augustine with hopes of not

only establishing a strong military hold, but of establishing

a self sufficient colony as well. "Ponce de Leon came with

the purpose of establishing an agriculture and stockraisers colony.

He arrived with horses, cattle, sheep, goats, hogs and all kinds

of domestic animals as well as an abundant supply of seeds of

all kinds for cultivation of the land. Pot herbs, maize, mill

and grapes were among these first beginnings of agriculture."14

They found that the soil of St. Augustine was light and

sandy. The palmetto made it very difficult to clear the

land. "Good agricultural land-was found in scattered places










at some distance from St. Augustine outside the defense

essential for protection."15 Many of these early settlers

lost their lives venturing beyond the walls to attempt culti-

vating the land. Agriculture quickly became restricted on

the whole to vegetable gardens either in town or immediately ad-

jacent to it.

When Spanish settlers and clergy began to flock to St.

Augustine they naturally used the type of architecture and

gardens they were familiar with. It began to take on the

character of any thriving Spanish city. The narrow streets

with projecting balconies, high stone walls and wrought iron

grille work really gave it a distinct Spanish character.

The architecture developed into what is called today

the St. Augustine house. This was characterized by a loggia or

porch shelter. The main entrance to the house was through

the loggia. Entrance into the yard was by way of a gate in

a high wall. "The loggis admitted winter sun while excluding

cold wind and admitted summer breezes while tempering the

hot sun."16

The climate of St. Augustine was so similar to that of

Spain both the architecture and garden design seemed completely

in centex there.

As was Spanish tradition the loggis and garden area










became an outdoor room. The women spent much time here going

about their daily chores of cooking, washing and soap making.

The gardens of St. Augustine customarily had a well, fruit

trees, kitchen garden and a chicken yard. The citrus trees

were usually grouped in small groves and were primarily sour

oranges, lemons or limes. Other fruit trees such as bananas,

figs, apples and peaches were also found in these gardens.

Because most families were forced to produce the majority

of their food on their property, the kitchen garden often took

up a large area of the yard. The primary crops found in these

gardens were corn, squash, pumpkins, peas, beans and sugar

cane. The Spanish brought some varieties of vegetables with

them but it is thought that both the corn and pumpkins grown

could have been Indian varieties.

In many gardens a small grape arbor was not uncommon.

The Spanish had brought with them several varieties of grapes

that did well in St. Augustine.

The chicken yard was usually fenced in with wooden seats

and located on the perifery of the garden.

Not even the poorest families dedicated their entire yard

to sustenance. Often placed close to the house were shrubs provid-.'

ing color along with potted plants to add accents to the garden.

Accounts of roses, jasmine, geraniums and other ornamentals










have been found.

We have a good idea what St. Augustine looked like from

William Cullen Bryan's 1829 literal sketch of the city. "I

have called the streets narrow. In few places are they wide

enough to allow two carriages to pass abreast. I was told

that they were not originally intended for carriages and in the time

when the town belonged to Spain, many of them were floored with

an artificial stone, composed of shells and mortor, which in

this climate takes and keeps the hardness of rock, and that no

other vehicle than a hand barrow was allowed to pass over them.

In some places you see remnants of this ancient pavement but

for the most part it has been ground into dust under the wheels

of the carts and carriages, introduced by the new inhabitants.

The old houses built of a kind of stone which is seemingly a pure

concretion of small shells overhang the streets with their

wooden balconies, and the gardens between the houses are

fenced on the side of the street with high walls of stone.

peeping over these walls you see branches of the pomegranate

and of the orange trees now fragrant with flowers, and rising

yet higher, the waning boughs of the fig with its broad luxuriant

leaves.,,17

By the early 1800's St. Augustine had become a beautiful

city though much of the original paving and-other early Spanish

contribution had gradually disappeared.










Historians are not sure of the influence the North Florida

Indian tribes had on the agriculture of St. Augustine. We

know of trade and commerce between the Spanish and the Indians

but are unsure of the tie between their agriculture.

When the Spanish first arrived in Florida they were astounded

at the advanced agriculture of these Indian tribes. Both the

Timucua and the Apalache of North Florida were cultivating a

wide variety of crops.

The principal crops discovered by De Soto and other early

explorers among the Florida Indians were maize, beans, millet,

fruits of numerous kinds including plums, persimmon, black

cherries, mulberries, both white and red, blueberries, raspberries,

grapes, nuts, walnuts, chestnuts, dward chinquapin.

They used the Cassave and the Manioc roots to make bread.










Joaneda House


This first record of the Juan Joaneda house was found in

a letter, seeking permit to sell date January 27, 1807. The

sale was to satisfy creditors one of whom was a Coquina

Mason. It is thought that the mason accepted the house in

payment for his work on it. It is assumed that the house was

built in 1806.

In doing research for a landscape plan to be implemented

at the Joaneda House it was necessary to take into consideration

the economic and ethnic background of Juan Joaneda. He was of

a Majorean decent and thought to have been rather poor. It

would have been necessary for someone of his economic status

to dedicate much of the property to a large kitchen garden.

As I have previously stated, St. Augustine was primarily

of a Spanish background. Juan Joaneda, being of Majorean descent

came to St. Augustine fresh from the Spanish tradition of design.

Although his economic status would have prohibited him from

creating an elaborate Spanish garden, he most certainly was

influenced by this tradition and his garden would reflect

this.

The restoration architects have determined that the house

was of the typical St. Augustine architecture with no entrance

to the house on the street but had to be entered through the










garden and loggia by a south door.

The assymetry of the roof line along with excavations

are evidence that the loggia was included in the original

construction. It is indicated that the construction of this

loggia was probably wooden rather than dobby.

The typical Spanish loggia served as an outdoor room to this

family. Much of the women's work would have taken place on the

loggia or in the yard area adjacent to it. As was customary

at this time yards were of swept dirt, sod didn't come into

existence until much later here.

The Lobby well presently located in the yard was probably

original but research and excavation will be conducted on

this. A simple wooden or wrought iron.well head would have most

likely adorned it. It is my feeling that the well served as the

center of a simple geometric garden layout.

Aside from a large kitchen garden, it would have been

quite likely that a small citrus grove of perhaps six trees

would have been part of the garden. As I mentioned earlier,

these most always were sour oranges, lemmons or. limes.

Also, I found evidence that in some gardens in St. Augustine

there were small grape arbors. I am suggesting that one be

located in this restoration but some further study should be

made.










Most houses in St. Augustine of Juan Joaneda's status had

chicken yards located on its perifry of the garden and that

customarily these were fenced with cypress slates. This also

needs further investigation but my belief is that evidence

is valid enough to suggest a chicken yard in this landscape

restoration.

As was customarily in kitchen gardens of this time stalk

crops such as corn and sugar cane were located furtherest from

the house, next were the vining crops such as pumpkin, squash, then

peas and beans and the closest point in the kitchen garden

probably was dedicated to herbs and other small crops.

In doing research on historic agriculture, I found a void

of information as to any specific botanical names of any crops.

All references were to general names and categories only.

Further research in the historical agriculture of Florida could

probably be of some benefit in this area.

There are references to ornamental plants found in St.

Augustine. Roses, jasmine, geraniums, are the major varieties.

These seem to adorn gardens of even the poorest inhabitant.

Potted plants, a Spanish tradition, were also frequently spoken

of. Once again there is a distinct void as far as any

botanical information.

I am suggesting both the ornamentals and potted plants










As a valid consideration of the restoration and as a considera-

tion for adaptive purposes.

John Steinbuck of the Historic St. Augustine Preservation

board felt evidence was strong enough to suggest the yard had

been fenced with wooden slip board 5' to 6' high. I felt this

suggestion was valid from the research I have done.

The property that accompanies the house, as far as can

be determined, is of the same dimensions as was originally.

In designing a landscape restoration plan for the Joaneda

house, it was necessary to deal with several unfortunate

20th Century encroachments.

The west side of the yard is completely paralleled by an

18 foot high block wall of the McCrory's dime store. McCory's

is a fairly new building and the other three sides have been

stuccoed to give the building a Spanish character. The

restoration of the Joaneda house is of benefit to them and

perhaps they would be willing to stucco the east side as well.

This would help give a more authentic feeling to the house

and garden and would solve the problem of screening that monu-

mental wall.

A parking lot has just been installed directly across

Treasury Street from the Joaneda house. This desperately needs

screening as it detracts from the front view of the house.










A 2 foot strip which is presently filled with coquina rubble coulc

be dug out andfplanted with a barrier hedge.

The adaptive use of the house will be residential. The

previous owner of the property will be the occupant. This neces-

sitates further 20th century design considerations for the yard

area. It is necessary to have parking inside the fenced area

for one car and room to negotiate. The entrance must be from

Treasury Street through the front fence.

There are three sobal palmetto's presently in the yard.

In the restoration plan I am suggesting that these be removed

as they were not in the original garden. Fruit trees would

provide the needed canopy. However, if the Historical Society

is not willing to purchase trees of the size to provide this

needed canopy, the sabal should be. left in place until such

time as the fruit trees are large enough to provide shade.










As in all projects treading on a new subject and methods

of discovery, it probably would be done differently could it

start again.

I would have liked to have concentrated more on researching

St. Augustine and its agricultural and horticultural aspects.

More research needs to be done on the history of Florida

agriculture and more information needs to be found concerning

botanical specifics.

As I can see now, too much time and effort went to researching

the origin of courtyard gardens. This would have been better

spent digging for more specifics in St. Augustine. The origins

of different aspects of landscape architecture is terrifically

interesting and could make an excellent thesis topic itself.

In conclusion, I thoroughly enjoyed this thesis topic and

feel that this experience will be of great value to me in my

future endeavors.

I would like to see someone pick-up where I have left off

and continue research on the History of Florida Gardens in

St. Augustine.














BIBLIOGRAPHY


Albertype Company, St. Augustine Views of the Old Florida
City, A. Witteman Company, New York, New York, 1902.

Bloomfield, Max. Bloomfield's Illustrated Historical Guide.
Max Bloomfield publishers, St. Augustine, Florida, 1884.

Brown, George M. Ponce de Leon Land. C. W. Dacosta, Inc.,
Jacksonville, Florida, 1892.

Byne, Mildred Stapley. Spanish Gardens and patios. J. B.
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, pa., 1924.

Department of State. Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board
Guidebook. Tallahassee, Florida, 1971.

Fox, Helen Morgenthaw. Patio Gardens. McMillam Company,
New York, New York, 1929.

Gallotti, Jean. Moorish Houses and Gardens of Morrocco.
William Helburn, Inc., New York, New York.

Lockwood, Alice B. Gardens of Colony and State. Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York, New York, 1934.

McCormick, Harriett H. Landscape Architecture Past and
present. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, New York,
1923.

Newcomb, Rexford. The Spanish House for America. J. B.
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1927.

Newton, Norman J. Design on the Land. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971.

Shambaugh, Marion Frances. The Dev1lopment of Aqriculture in
Florida During the Second SpanAsh period. University of
Florida Press, Gainesville, Fla., 1953.







25


Spellman, Charles. W. The Agriculture of the Early North,
Florida Indians. University of Florida press,
Gainesville, Fla., 1948.

Villiers, Stuart. Spanish Gardens. Batsford, Ltd.,
London, England, 1936.

Whitmore, Frederic. A Florida Farm. The Ridgewood Press,
Springfield, Mass., 1903.








Footnotes


McCormick, Harriett H. 1923 page 7

Newton, Norman t. 1974 page 1

Newton, Norman T. 1974 page 3

McCormick, Harriett H, 1973 page 8

Mo Cormick, Harriett H. 1973 page 8


6. Newton, Norman H.

7. Newton, Norman H.

o. Jiewton, norman H.

0o loWboli, 6 uisua.dii no
v, ii;-Pwt, morman H*

1I. Gaiiotti, Jean

12. Newton, Norman H.

13. Fox,Helen Morganaw

14. Brown, George M.

15. Brown, George M.

16. Mauncy, Albert

17. Bloomfield, Max


1974 page 9

1974 page 6

1974 page 21


19t4 page 23

195Y page 34

1974 page 31
1929 page 64

1892 page 23

1892 page 30

1974 page 20
1884 page 5




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EXISTING BLOCK
WALL -DATES
BACK TO EARLY
1900'8

EXISTING 8ABAL
LUIETTO


RIGINALi TABBY
WELL



EXIST M 8ABAIA
PALMETTO


ORIGINAL ROOF
LINE


TREASURY STREET
EXISTING ONE WAY
TRAFFIC.


EXCAVATION OF LOGGIA WAS
DONE BY THOMAS G. LEDFORD
IN 1973. THIS EXCAVATION
COMBINED WITH ROOF LINE
EXPLORATIONS LEAD THE
RESTORATION ARCHITECT TO
BELIEVE THE LOGGIA WAS PART
OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION.
THIS PORCH STRUCTURE WAS
CONSTRUCTED OF WOOD RATHER
THAN TABBY OR STONE.


COQUINA BLOCK


BRICK


CRAVEN SMITH
UNIVERSE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT ifNDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
* _^ $ 1975


JOANEDA HOUSE RESTORATION
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE W ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


EXISTING
PARKING
LOT.


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ENTRANCE GATE


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JOANEDA HOUSE RESTORATION
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE A ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


LANDSCAPE


PLAN


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CONFLICTING ADJACENT LAND


I CRAVEN SMITH
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF PE ARCHITECTURE
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CRAVEN SMITH JOANEDA HOUSE RESTORATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA ST.
OE,.*MMT O SCP .TECHRE HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA






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HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


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EXISTING BLOCK
WALL -DATES
BACK TO EARLY
900oo's

EXl8TII


ORIGINALI TABBY
WELL



EXISTING 8ABAL
PALMETTO


ORIGINAL ROOF
LINE


TREASURY STREET
EXISTING ONE WAY
TRAFFIC.


EXCAVATION OF LOGGIA WAS
DONE BY THOMAS 0. LEDFORD
IN 1973, THFS EXCAVATION
COMBINED WITH ROOF LINE
EXPLORATIONS LEAD THE
RESTORATION ARCHITECS TO
BELIEVE THE LOGGIA WAS PART
OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION.
THIS PORCH STRUCTURE WAS
CONSTRUCTED OF WOOD RATHER
THAN TABBY OR STONE.


COQUINA BLOCK


BRICK


JOANEDA HOUP RESTORATION
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE ST. AUGUSTINE. FLORIDA


SPRING 1975


EXISTING
PARKING
LOT.


4A^A
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ENTRANCE GATE


CONFLICTING ADJACENT LAND USE


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FACADE ON TREASURY STREET
SHOWING PROPOSED O0CEN SLIP BOARD
FENCE. l NIGH


DEPARTMENT


SPRNNO 19T?


JOANEDA HOUSj RESTORATION
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


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w.~I il 4.- caNeveeI W-i4k -0 Joy-e .


JOANEDA HOUSL RESTORATION
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE W, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA


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