Group Title: Panama Canal spillway : el Canal de Panamá spillway
Title: The Panama Canal spillway =
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094771/00285
 Material Information
Title: The Panama Canal spillway = el Canal de Panamá spillway
Alternate Title: Spillway
Canal de Panamá Spillway
Spillway del Canal de Panamá
Physical Description: 37 v. : ill. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone
Canal Zone
Panama Canal Company
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
United States
Publisher: Panama Canal
Place of Publication: Balboa Hights C.Z
Balboa Hights C.Z
Publication Date: October 6, 1995
Copyright Date: 1986
Frequency: biweekly[jan. 6, 1984-1999]
weekly[ former -dec. 23, 1983]
Subject: Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Republic of Panama -- Canal Zone -- Balboa -- Balboa Heights
Coordinates: 8.95 x -79.566667 ( Place of Publication )
Language: Text in English and Spanish; Spanish text inverted.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 33 (Feb. 1, 1963)-Vol. 37, no. 26 (Dec. 30, 1999).
Issuing Body: Issued by: Government of the Canal Zone <June 24, 1966-June 13 1969>; by the Panama Canal Company, <Aug. 13, 1976>-Sept. 14, 1979; by the Panama Canal Commission, Sept. 20, 1979-Dec. 1999.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication."
General Note: Imprint varies: Balboa Hights, <1966-1978>; Miami, Fla., <1979-1982>; Balboa Heights, Pan. <1983>-1999.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 5, no. 1 (June 24, 1966); title from caption.
General Note: Vols. for 1994-1995 distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Special "80th anniversary supplement" issue published on Aug. 12, 1994.
General Note: Special ed. for 65th anniversary of the Panama Canal issued at end of Oct. 1979, is also a joint issue with: The News: authorized unofficial publication of the U.S. Armed Forces, Quarry Heights, Panama, and includes the text of the Panama Canal Act.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094771
Volume ID: VID00285
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02582102
lccn - 83642750
issn - 0364-8044
 Related Items
Preceded by: Spillway
Succeeded by: Faro (Balboa, Panama)

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Full Text

Marine Bureau reports record-breaking day for wide-beam transits

September 16 was a record-
breaking day for the Panama Canal
Commission Marine Bureau, with
20 wide-beam vessel transits, 17 of
which were made by Panamax ves-
sels, or ships with beams of more
than 34.4 meters.
Traffic Management Division
Chief Sam H. Mann notes that wide-

beam vessels, defined as those with
beams of 27.74 meters or more, are
of special significance within the
Commission Marine Bureau. Ships
in this category must transit the
Gaillard Cut with no opposing traf-
fic, usually during daylight. They
also have special transit require-
ments with respect to such things

as towboat and line-handling sup-
Marine Director George T. Hull
points out that large numbers of
wide-beam transits have been seen
on a number of days in recent
months. There have been four days
with 17 wide-beam transits since
July and two days since July 30 in

which the previous record of 18
was tied. On September 17, there
were 19 such transits.
"The new record may not last
too long," says Mann, who at-
tributes the impressive number of
wide-beam transits both to the high
level of arrivals since December
and to the combined efforts of tran-




Vol. XXXIII, No. 20

Friday, October 6,

sit personnel from all operating
Administrator Gilberto Guardia
F. also recognized these efforts,
saying, "Canal employees have
responded admirably to meet the
challenge of higher-than-expected
traffic levels this fiscal year. We
are expecting fiscal year 1995 to
establish all-time records in tolls
revenue and most major elements
Canal traffic. Employees can
S should take great pride in this
g plishment."
.Cis issue of the Panama Canal
pi ay contains a special supple-
en closing out fiscal year 1995,
w h includes a report on the ex-
lPted record-breaking perfor-

Commission holds flood-control exercise

Practice makes perfect, andper-
fection has to be the goal when it
comes to protecting human life,
Panama Canal installations and
private property. With this in mind,
the Meteorological and Hydro-
graphic Branch holds an annual
flood-control exercise to prepare
those who would be involved to
respond quickly and effectively in
the event of a flood emergency in
the Canal area. The drill also helps
upgrade communications between
responding units and identify emer-
gency procedures that need im-
provement. This year's exercise
was held yesterday.
Under the scenario, high lake
levels and heavy rainfall required
the Panama Canal Commission to
discharge water through spillways
and lock culverts and to delay tran-
sit operations. The exercise alert
was released at 7 a.m., when the
script had lake levels forecast to
reach threatening levels. Canal
hydrologists prepared for the open-
ing of all 14 gates at Gatun Dam
and for the release of a large vol-
ume of water from Madden Dam.
Commission participants re-
ported to the Flood Control Center

in the Meteorological and Hydro-
graphic Branch, where satellite
images help with the preparation
of weather forecasts and informa-
tion about rainfall and river and
lake levels arrives every 15 min-
utes from stations in the Canal
watershed. After issuing flood-
warning bulletins to alert Commis-
sion officials and representatives
of the U.S. Southern Command
and Panama National Civil De-
fense System, participants then had
to solve a wide array of flood-
related emergencies created by sce-
nario directors.
The problems and proposed
solutions were recordedso that any
appropriate recommendations can
be made when the exercise is re-
"These comments, critiques and
recommendations have helped us
to improve flood control proce-
dures," says flood control coordi-
nator Carlos Vargas. "Participants
have identified weaknesses, and
we have corrected them."
Vargas notes that last month's
flooding in Panama City gave a
real-life atmosphere to this year's
exercise, but adds that the heaviest

St. Lawrence Seaway visitors Photo by Armando De Gracia
Panama Canal Conimission Engineering and Construction Director
Numan H. Vdsquez, left, explains Gaillard Cut widening and bank
stabilization projects to members of a delegation that is visiting various
maritime countries to promote the St. Lawrence Seaway. Opened in
1959, the seaway links the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean along the
U.S. and Canadian border. It is operated by government corporations
from both nations and spans 2,342 miles, raising and lowering vessels
587feet through a system of 16 locks in a voyage that takes 82 days.
During their three days in Panama, seaway officials also visited other
Panama Canal operating areas, including Miraflores Locks and the
maritime training and marine traffic control centers.

rains fell only in the city and along
the Pacific coast and did not affect
the Canal watershed. Lake levels
at this time are, in fact, lower than
in some previous years.
The intense rains, however, did
point out a potential problem. "City
flooding can prevent key Commis-
sion employees from reaching their
job sites," Vargas explains. "This
is one of the many problems that
may arise during a major flood in
the Canal area."

Programs help get
injured employees
back to work again
This article was submitted by
the Panama Canal Commission
Occupational Health Division.

Individuals who are healthy and
physically fit are more likely to be
productive and enjoy their work
than those suffering from aches or
pains brought on by injuries, inac-
tivity or excess weight. Increased
mobility, flexibility and higher self-
esteem also enhance an individual's
personal life.
The Occupational Health Divi-
sion encourages employees who
have been injured to do all they can
within the limits prescribed by their
physicians to get well and return to
work as soon as possible. This
encouragement is provided through
two specific programs. The first is
designed to strengthen the muscu-
loskeletal system of injured em-
ployees; the second requires su-
pervisors to provide light or lim-
ited duty for employees who have
sustained job-related injuries and
illnesses and to provide reasonable
assistance in accommodating em-
ployees with permanent, partialjob-
related disabilities in permanent
The purpose of these programs
is to keep the employee feeling
productive, useful and independent.
After all, it is recognized that con-
tinued participation in the work
environment helps to improve an
employee's psychological and
physical condition. This makes for
a happier, less-stressed, more fit
and more optimistic individual. For
more information, contact the Oc-
cupational Health Division (272-
7968 or 443-7336) or any occupa-
tional health nurse.

Turbine inspection Photo by Armando De Gracia
Machinists Reynaldo Tuhidn, left, and Jose Fonguer and welder Carlos
Abrego inspect and clean components of the 22-megawatt Miraflores
Generating Station gas turbine as part of its rehabilitation.

Power Branch rehabilitates turbine

The Power Branch is rehabili-
tating a 22-megawatt gas turbine
under the supervision of personnel
from the Itochu Corporation of Ja-
pan, which is supplying and moni-
toring the installation of parts un-
der a contract worth more than $1
The rehabilitation consists of
inspecting all the components and
replacing damaged parts, chang-
ing the first- and second-stage tur-
bine blades and replacing compo-
nents in both the exhaust gas path
and the combustion and auxiliary
systems. It also includes cleaning
other parts and inspecting the elec-
trical power and control systems.
The 12-ton generator rotor was re-
habilitated at the end of last year.
The only unit at the Miraflores
Generating Station that is capable
of being started and placed into
service on its own power, the tur-
bine is normally used as a backup
in the event of an emergency or
failure in any other unit. Power
Branch machinist leader Arqui-

medes Gonzdlez, who is in charge
of the rehabilitation, says it can
start generating power in only seven
minutes, while other units in the
plant can take from 45 minutes to
four hours. "It's a fast and effec-
tive emergency unit," he states.
Gonzalez says the turbine is sched-
uled for overhaul every five years,
noting that this helps extend its
useful life.
In addition to the gas turbine, a
steam turbine is also being reha-
bilitated. The unit lost part of its
shroud band last year, forcing the
unscheduled repairs. All the blades
in its 11th row were removed, and
unit capacity was reduced from 22
to 20 megawatts. Ongoing work
includes the replacement of the disc
for the 11 th-row blades to bring the
unit up to its normal operating con-
dition and to make it run efficiently.
The overhaul is scheduled for
completion by the middle of No-
vember, while the gas turbine re-
habilitation is expected to be com-
pleted by the beginning of March.

- -

The Panama Canal Spillway

Friday, October 6, 1995

SFirefighters help save life of Albrook youth

Lifesaving team Photo by Jaime Yau
Brian Jacques visits with the Panama Canal Commission firefighters who came to the
rescue when he was caught in a drainage ditch during a rainstorm. From left are Sgt. Julian
Bishop, driver-operatorArmando Samuels, Sgt. Martin Salamanca, Jacques andfirefighter
Edwin Lennan.

Advice offered on handling toxic substances

Exposure to toxic substances such as
arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium,
nickel, cadmium, beryllium, pesticides, poly-
chlorinated biphenyls and solvents usually
comes about as the result of carelessness. To
protect Panama Canal Commission employ-
ees from contamination, the Safety Division
recommends the following precautions:

Use personal protective equipment
when working with hazardous substances.
Do not eat in areas that could be
contaminated, such as places where toxic
substances are stored or used, and do not
enter designated eating areas with contami-
nated clothing or equipment.
Do not eat or smoke after working with
toxic substances until you have washed your
Bathe before dressing in street clothes
and leaving work following any exposure to
contaminants. Never wear your work clothes
or protective equipment home.
Do not let work clothes contaminate
street clothes. Make sure to change out of
and store contaminated work clothes only in
designated locations that are removed from
areas where street clothes are stored and
changed into.

Do not take contaminated work clothes
home to be washed. Disposable coveralls
should be destroyed in accordance with the
procedures for the contaminant in question,
while washable work clothes should be laun-
dered either by a contractor or in designated
unit-owned washers and dryers.
Do not take materials containing haz-
ardous substances home for personal use.
This is not only illegal, it could contaminate
your home and family.
S* Assume that all lumber used by the
Commission has been treated with toxic
substances. Never take scrap lumber home
- it must be discarded in accordance with
applicable procedures.
Do not use compressed air to clean
clothing, equipment or the work area.
Contact your industrial hygienist in the
event of exposure to loose fibers of asbestos
that may have been released into the air.
Asbestos has been largely eliminated from
Commission work sites, but must be re-
spected as a hazardous material in a class of
its own where it still does exist.
Follow the precautions that you would
use at work if you should ever come into
contact with a hazardous substance outside
your job.

Quick action by neighbors and a team of
Panama Canal Commission firefighters and
emergency medical technicians helped save
the life of a 12-year-old boy who was trapped
in a gutter during a torrential rainstorm.
On July 19, Brian Jacques was racing
boats with neighborhood friends in a drain-
age ditch behind his house at Albrook Air
Force Station. It was raining hard, and the
water that was running downhill into the
ditch carried the boat away. When Brian
tried to retrieve it, the strong current knocked
him off balance, and he ended up trapped
from the hip down in a 12-inch-wide culvert.
Neighbors called the 1-1-9 emergency
number, and fire-engine and ambulance
crews were sent to the site. The emergency
personnel arrived at approximately 1:09 p.m.
and found an unidentified woman in the
water with Brian, cradling his head to help
keep his airway open. By this time, thewater
was up to his chin, explains Sgt. Martin
Salamanca, the duty officer.
The firefighters proceeded to get a pump
operating to bring down the level of the
water in the ditch. Neighbors placed gar-
bage cans uphill to serve as barriers and
helped firefighters remove the earth around
the ditch to divert the flow of the water. One
of the neighbors also brought a snorkel to
help Brian breathe in the rising water. De-
spite these efforts, however, Salamanca, who
had taken over the job of supporting Brian

from the back, was unable to pull him out of
the culvert. "He was like the cork in a
champagne bottle," Salamanca says.
Luckily, however, Brian did all of a sud-
den feel the pressure loosen and told
Salamanca, who tried again, this time pull-
ing him up safely. The ambulance crew
examined Brian, who was complaining of
pain in both hips and had redness and bruis-
ing in the area. The crew then transported
him and his mother, Zaide Jacques, an Army
and Air Force Exchange Service safety and
security manager, to Gorgas Army Hospital,
where he was treated and released.
His mother, who had been working at the
time of the accident, said that when she
arrived at the scene, she thought Brian was
dead because everyone was trying to calm
her down and keep her from running to his
side. "Sgt. Julian Bishop told me to try to
calm down because they didn't need another
patient," she says, noting that her 19-year-
old son, Jason, was also there to support her.
The Jacques family thanked the Com-
mission firefighters who saved Brian's life
by inviting them all over to dinner, including
Salamanca, Bishop, Luis Velasquez, Fermin
Machore, Virgilio Lee and Rodolfo Duncan.
"They deserve outstanding recognition, not
only because of the way they went about
doing their job, but also the way they gave
warmth and comfort in such a bad experi-
ence," says the grateful mother.

Friendly visit Photo by Armando De (Jracia
Gatun power plant operator Isaac Piedra, seated, is visited by some of the co-workers who
donated leave hours to help him when he was unable to work. Standing from left are Jaime
Vald6s, Ricardo Duque, Julian Sinclair, Oscar Fontalvo, Melendez Turnbull, Cecilio Davis
and Getulio Vargas.

Employee thanks co-workers for their support

Shrine Bowl tickets Photo by Kevin Jenkins
A delegation from the Abou Saad Temple poses with Panama Canal Commission Admin-
istrator Gilberto Guardia F. and Deputy Administrator Joseph W. Cornelison after giving
them tickets to this year's Shrine Bowl, which will be held October 21 at the Balboa Stadium.
The event is organized by Abou Saad to raise funds for burned and crippled children.
Pictured from left are Dr. Federico Herrera; Hudson Dalton of the Rams Blue football
team; Kristi May, a cheerleader for Rams White; Abou Saad Divan Stevin C. Helin; Abou
Saad Potentate Dean Homa; Past Potentate Julio Aquin; Javier Herrera, a beneficiary of
the Abou Saad program; Guardia; and Cornelison.

The responsibilities of Isaac Piedra
Medina include operating the generators and
spillway gates at Gatun Hydroelectric Sta-
tion to keep the power system running nor-
mally. He is also responsible for restarting
the generators in the event of a failure in the
system. This year, however, when Piedra
faced another kind of failure one involv-
ing his health it was his co-workers who
gave him the help he needed.
After both of Piedra's kidneys were af-
fected by a stone in the left kidney, the stone
was removed by surgery. Piedra needed
several months to recover, more time than he
had in his leave balance. When co-workers
learned of his predicament, they decided to
help him. In addition to delivering his pay-
checks, they began donating their leave to
him. Contributions from employees at the
Madden, Miraflores and Gatun power plants,
as well as from Pedro Miguel Locks and the
Canal Protection Division, ranged from eight
to 100 hours, and soon Piedra had 794 hours,
more than enough to sustain him. In fact,
394 hours were returned to donors.

Piedra has worked as a power plant
operator with the Panama Canal Commis-
sion since he graduated from the Apprentice
School in 1984. He was first appointed to
the Miraflores power plant, where he worked
three years before being assigned to Gatun,
a transfer the Colon resident welcomed.
Piedra's job is to ensure the normal op-
eration of the hydroelectric turbines and
generators that supply power to Gatun Locks
and nearby townsites and installations. He
supervises access to the plant and checks
voltage, pressure and other meters every
hour to ensure that the system is working
As for his own return to good working
order, Piedra is grateful that the Panama
Canal Commission expanded the leave do-
nation program to include employees cov-
ered under the Panama social security sys-
tem. But he is even more appreciative of all
the employees who donated their time to
help him and his family during a time of
crisis. 'They were all very kind," he says. "I
will always thank them for their act of love."

Page 2

Friday, October 6, 1995

The Panama Canal Spillway

Industrial Division upgrades salvage barge

The Industrial Division is upgrading sal-
vage barge 3 as a diving-platform support
barge for the spillway gate overhauls that are
scheduled at Gatun Dam. After the upgrad-
ing is completed, the barge will serve as the
on-site headquarters and work platform for
personnel and equipment assigned to the
overhauls. It will also support Atlantic-side
salvage and diving operations.
The recent transfer of the barge to the
Industrial Division represents a homecom-
ing of sorts. Purchased in 1970 from
Avondale Shipyard in New Orleans, the
barge began its Panama Canal service as an
Industrial Division emergency-response plat-
form. It later contributed to Dredging Divi-
sion operations for several years and, since
then, has belonged to the Canal Services

The barge is currently in drydock for the
initial $42,000 phase of the upgrading to
prepare it for Industrial Division use. The
work includes making deck modifications
for a new engine room and installing new
bulkheads on the port and starboard sides.
"The project is going very well," says coor-
dinator Rafael SAenz.
The engine-room installation will involve
temporarily removing the deckhouse and
cutting out bulkheads. An office, bathroom
and storage area will also be added, and the
generators, air compressors and salvage
pumps will be overhauled. The hull will be
repaired, and the main deck and hull will be
painted. In addition, a small crane will be
installed on deck to support the spillway
overhauls and salvage and diving opera-

Commission apprentices graduate

Thirty-one men and one woman, all Pana-
manians, graduated from the Panama Canal
Commission apprentice program in a cer-
emony held September 22 at the Panama
Canal College auditorium.
Having maintained the highest average
in both academic and on-the-job training,
electrician Rosa Espino delivered the gradu-
ation address. Noting that she and her class-
mates will stay with the Panama Canal into
the next century after it transfers to Panama-
nian control, she said, "Like earlier appren-
tices, we have learned an art... the art of safe
and expeditious passage through the Panama
Canal. We only hope that those who will
direct the destiny of the Canal will let us
show the world that the Canal will never be
in better hands."
Commenting that each apprentice class
has a personality all its own, acting Indus-
trial Training Branch Chief Pamela Garcia
predicted that this class will be remembered
for participating in the Industrial Division
project to completely remodel the push boat
Ulua, "their legacy for years to come."

The guest speaker, Maintenance Divi-
sion Chief Enrique Sanchez, praised the
class saying, "The initiative and the effort
shown by all graduates of the Panama Canal
apprentice program are essential for its suc-
cess, because it is only through the efforts of
every individual that an enterprise such as
the Canal can succeed."
The graduates received certificates at-
testing to their qualifications in 16 different
crafts. Among those represented were elec-
tricians, mechanics, crane operators, pipe
fitters, structural iron workers, metal forg-
ers, painters, welders, marine machinists
and timber workers.
The five honor graduates Espino,
Bolivar A. Fung, Omar O. Ortega, Inocencio
Aranis and Carlos P. Vargas received
their certificates from Deputy Administrator
Joseph W. Cornelison, with Marine Director
Capt. George T. Hull, General Services Di-
rector Ren6 Van Hoorde and Engineering
and Construction Director Numan H.
Visquez presenting certificates to the other
graduates from their respective bureaus.

Placing reinforcement Photo by Jaime Yau
Daniel Avila, at the controls of the backhoe, awaits instructions from Marcial Rodriguez on
where to place one of the boulders being used in a Maintenance Division erosion-control
project. Juan Reluz stands by to offer additional assistance.

Erosion-control project under way

Five-ton chunks of basalt may seem un-
likely material for a construction project, but
to Maintenance Division employees work-
ing on erosion control, they are ideal. Work-
ers are using the rock to reinforce a section
of bank near the north end of Pedro Miguel
Locks. Wave action from tugboats has slowly
eroded the east bank, where Panama Canal
Commission boat landings and offices are
located. To protect these installations and
prevent future erosion, crews are laying a
rock and concrete retaining wall, or riprap.
The 240-meter strip begins at the Meteo-
rological and Hydrographic Branch field
office and runs to the Las Cruces landing.
Mobile equipment operator foreman Luis
Oakley explains that the technique for mak-
ing the barrier is similar to that used for
building a giant block tower. First, the
largest chunks of cube-shaped rock are placed

7.5 meters deep in the water along the bank,
with layers of progressively smaller rock set
on top. A quick-drying concrete mixture is
then applied to bond the layers together.
A contractor, Constructora Urbana, has
been trucking in some 1,368 cubic meters of
rock per week for Maintenance Division
employees to place with a front-end loader.
When the project is finished in about 10
weeks, workers will have laid enough mate-
rial to completely fill a soccer field more
than a story high.
Exterior Maintenance Branch Chief
George Berman reports that equipment op-
erators, foremen and engineers collaborated
to develop this construction technique be-
cause previous erosion-control efforts were
ineffective. "It's the best solution we've
found for erosion problems along the Panama
Canal," he says.

US, RP presidents discuss

upcoming transfer of Canal

Apprentice graduates Photo by Jaime Yau
Displaying certificates attesting to their qualifications as journeymen, members ofthe 1995
apprentice graduating class gather for a group photo following commencement ceremonies
at the Panama Canal College auditorium.



Administrator, Panama Canal Commission

Director of Public Affairs

Associate Director

Deputy Administrator

Associate Director

The Panama Canal Spillway is an official biweekly publication of the Panama Canal Commission. Articles may be reprinted without further
permission by crediting the source. All material should be submitted by 11:45 a.m. Thursday of the week before publication or by 11:45 a.m.
Wednesday if there is a holiday during the week of publication. Subscriptions for 52 issues are $6 by regular mail, $4 by regular mail for
students and $19 by airmail. Checks or money orders should be payable to the Panama Canal Commission. Call 272-3202 for further
information or write the Office of Public Affairs, Panama Canal Commission, Unit 2300, APO AA 34011-2300 or Balboa Heights, Panama.

The White House press secretary issued
a September 6 release on the welcome ex-
tended by U.S. President William J. Clinton
to Panama President Ernesto P6rez Balla-
dares, who made an official working visit to
the White House.
According to the release, the two leaders
emphasized the unique, historic relationship
between their two countries and applauded
the close bilateral cooperation on a number
of important matters. They also restated
their commitment to the implementation of
the letter and spirit of the 1977 Panama
Canal treaties.
"President Clinton expressed firm confi-
dence in the Canal transition process, prais-
ing progress made toward a seamless shift in
operations and management in December
1999," the release says. The presidents
reportedly discussed ways to ensure that the
transfer of U.S. military properties to Pana-
manian control proceeds smoothly and reit-
erated their full commitment to maintaining
the Canal's neutrality beyond the year 2000,
as agreed to in the Treaty Concerning the
Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the
Panama Canal.
In addition, both presidents stressed the
importance of ongoing bilateral cooperation
to protect the environment, especially the
Canal watershed.

The release reports that other matters
discussed included the fight against drug
trafficking and money laundering and the
importance of ongoing hemispheric counter-
narcotics operations conducted out of
Panama. The presidents reportedly agreed
to launch exploratory talks to determine
whether their national and joint interests in
and potential benefits from a reduced post-
1999 U.S. military presence in Panama war-
rant the initiation of formal conversations.
They also discussed ways of strengthening
Panama's trade relations with the United

Take note

"lmagenes de Marti," an exhibit
honoring Jose Marti, is on display
through October 20 at the Museum
of Contemporary Art in Ancon. Works
by more than 20 different artists from
Cuba, Mexico, Nicaragua and
Panama can be seen from 9 a.m. to
4 p.m. weekdays, from 9 a.m. to
12:30 p.m. Saturdays and from 11
a.m. to 3 p.m. Sundays. For addi-
tional infomation, call 262-3376,262-
8012 or 262-3380.

Page 3

__ _

The Panama Canal Spillway

Friday, October 6, 1995

Position vacancy list
Applicants must have career or career-conditional status. Applications must be submitted to the Employ-
ment and Placement Branch (Building 366, Ancon) on Form 443, Application For Transfer, no later than seven
calendar days from the date of this publication.
Persons selected for appointment to a permanent position and those selected for testing-designated positions
(TDPs) will be subject to urinalysis to screen for illegal drug use prior to appointment or permanent position
change. Persons already serving in a TDP will not be subject to urinalysis prior to a permanent position change.
For certain positions in one-grade interval series where there is no position in the normal line of promotion,
in-service employees may qualify with at least one year of specialized experience at the next-lower or second-
lower level of the position.
Qualifications standards may be reviewed at the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center
(Building 38, Balboa). For in-service actions other than a promotion, modified qualifications will be used to
qualify applicants when their backgrounds include closely related experience that provides the skills necessary
for successful performance.
The rates of pay reflect the minimum and maximum hourly base for the grades of positions advertised.
Employees selected will be placed in the appropriate grade, step and wage base in accordance with regulations.
Further information may be obtained from the Employment and Placement Branch (telephone 272-3583).
Permanent positions Salaries Unit Location Vacancies
Personnel clerk (office automation), NM-5 2 $6.85/$8.64 Ind. Rel. P 1
Panama Canal guide, NM-6/8 2 (Bilingual) $10.20/$16.32 Public Aff. P 2
(Swimming ability and working rotating weekends
Safety and occupational health specialist, NM-11 12 $16.78/$21.81 Safety P 1
(Swimming ability and driver's license required.)
Civil engineer (specifications)/architect $20.11/$26.14 Engineering P 1
(specifications), NM-12 '3
Temporary promotion (not-to-exceed one year) that may become permanent
Maintenance scheduler (general), FN-7 2 $17.05/$19.89 Canal Svcs. A 1
(Knowledge of English, swimming ability and
driver's license required.)
Temporary promotion (not-to-exceed six months)
Computer assistant, NM-7 14 (Knowledge of Spanish $11.34/$14.74 Log. Support P 1
SOnly PCC employees will be considered.
2 Documentation that applicant meets special requirements must be filed in Official Personnel Folder or
attached to the application; otherwise, applicant will not be considered for the vacancy.
3 This is an interdisciplinary position classifiable as either of the following: civil engineer (specifications)
or architect (specifications).
Knowledge of microcomputer programming in database-management systems, for example, FoxPro,
dBase, Clipper or Foxbase, is required. Knowledge of network-control software, such as Novell, is also required.
The Panama Canal Commission is an equal opportunity employer.

Employees reminded of representation rights

The Office of Industrial Relations in-
forms employees in bargaining units of the
right under the federal labor-management
relations statute to request representation
by the appropriate exclusive representative.

An employee in a bargaining unit has the
right to request union representation at an
investigatory interview conducted by a rep-
resentative of the Panama Canal Commis-
sion when the employee reasonably believes
that the interview may result in a disciplin-
ary action against him or her. When a
bargaining-unit employee exercises this right
and requests union representation, the Com-

mission official conducting the interview
must permit the exclusive representative to
be present.
The right of the employee to union repre-
sentation and the right of the union to be
present are interrelated. It is the employee's
request that triggers the exclusive repre-
sentative's right to be present. However, it
should be noted that the investigatory inter-
view may be continued without the union
representative if he or she does not attend.
Employees who have questions regard-
ing this right should contact their exclusive
representative or the Office of Industrial
Relations at 272-3186.

Parents thank Commission for students' unforgettable visit

The Panama Canal Commission recently received a letter signed by a Peace Corps
worker, a teacher, a school principal and 33 parents of students attending the Macano
community school in Anton, Panama. The children had the opportunity of visiting the
Panama Canal, and, in the letter, the parents thanked the Commission for making the
excursion a success and an "unforgettable experience" for the children.
The Macano group was just one of many represented through visits by more than 25,000
students to the Miraflores Locks visitors center during fiscal year 1995. Such visits allow
students to see the Canal, its locks and employees at work; hear lectures about Canal history
and operations from Orientation Service personnel; and view special exhibits. All of this
helps the students, during this critical treaty transition period, to gain knowledge of and
appreciation for the renowned "engineering wonder of the world," which will come under
the complete control of the Republic of Panama at noon December 31, 1999.
Visiting hours at Miraflores Locks are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, including holidays.

Charitable donations Photo by Jaime Femrndez
Representatives of Club El Pacifico present checks for $1,500 and $1,000 to the British Aid
Society and Salvation Army, respectively, to honor the memory of recently deceased club
member Irene Campbell McFarlane. From left are Club El Pacifico public relations
representative Pablo E. Kirven, Salvation Army Lt. Clifford A. Scott, British Aid Society
President Elizabeth Borer, Maj. Felicia Rapley, club member Vivienne J. Headley, Lt.
Marco Ramos and Maj. Alberto Rapley.

Student assistant jobs announced

The Panama Canal Commission is ac-
cepting applications for the student assistant
program during the 1996 Panama school
vacation period. Students will work for a
maximum of 13 weeks, between January 2
and March 30, and will be paid $3.25 an
hour, with most appointments made for a40-
hour week.
Applications will be accepted from de-
pendents of Commission employees. Appli-
cants must be full-time (at least 12 semester
hours) undergraduate university students
who are not graduating at the end of the
current school year. Additionally, they must

have a cumulative grade-point average of at
least a "C" (two on a four-point scale or one
on a three-point scale). They will be re-
quired to provide university certification and
a copy of their latest transcripts.
Application forms are available during
working hours at the Personnel Operations
Division in Building 366, Ancon, and from
8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. Fridays in Room 3 of
Building 1105, Cristobal. They must be
returned by Tuesday, November 7. Failure
to fully and accurately complete the form
could result in the loss of an employment

Atlantic softball champs Photo by Octavio Rodrfguez
Members and fans of the Industrial Division team celebrate after winning the 1995 Atlantic
Divisional Softball League. With a 14-2 record, the Industrial Division put an end to the
14-year winning streak enjoyed by the Northern District firefighters' team.

What's happening

Employee Fitness Branch activities
The Employee Fitness Branch has an-
nounced a wide range of activities for Panama
Canal Commission employees and depen-
The Gamboa Playshelter will hold a bil-
liards tournament for a maximum of 20
dependents on October 12. Information is
available by calling Elmodio Singh at 276-
6274 between 11 a.m. and 7 p.m.
Gatun Youth Center is offering classes in
first aid from 4 to 8 p.m. October 12 and 13.
A Columbus Day pool tournament is planned
from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. October 9. Alberto
Humberto Aguilar (443-5353) can be reached
for additional information between 1 and
8:45 p.m. Tuesdays and Fridays and 8 a.m.
and'4 p.m. Saturdays.
Among-the activities planned at Gatun
pool are a community cardiopulmonary re-
suscitation (CPR) class from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m.
October 7 and 8, a community first aid and
safety course during the same hours on Oc-
tober 14 and 15, a training session in skin-
diving skills from 10 a.m. to noon October
21, a water-polo clinic at the same time the
following day and a biathlon featuring a
300-yard swim and bicycle race around Gatun
on October 28. The person to call for com-
plete information is Julio Ferrara (443-5233).
Margarita pool is offering classes in ba-
sic water safety from 1 to 5 p.m. October 7
and 8, CPR for professional rescuers from 9
a.m. to 5 p.m. October 15 and infant and
child CPR from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. October
21. Jos6 Navarro (443-7229) may be con-
tacted for further information.
Classes to be offered at Gamboa Pool
include adult CPR from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m.
October 16 and 30, principles of CPR from
8 a.m. to 2 p.m. October 7, first aid from 7
a.m. to 3 p.m. October 13 and community
CPR from 1 to 6 p.m. October 19 and 20.
Call Eduardo Morrell at 276-6425 for infor-

Archeology talk
Dr. Richard Cooke will discuss archeol-
ogy in Panama at a meeting of the Isthmian
College Club from 4:30 to 6:30 p.m. No-
vember 1 at the Smithsonian Tropical Re-
search Institute's Tupper Center in Ancon.

Adult musical hits local stage
"Ruthless: The Musical" opens at the
Pacific Theatre Arts Center in Building 2060,
Curundu, at 8 p.m. October 20, with shows
at the same time on Thursdays, Fridays and
Saturdays through November 11. JoAnne
Mitchell is co-directing the production with
Jerry Brees and is co-starring with Barbara
A. Klein and Brooke Stringfellow. For res-
ervations, call 286-3152 or 286-3814.

Panama Canal Society of Florida
The Panama Canal Society of Florida
welcomes membership applications from
anyone over age 18 who has worked on or
been associated with the operation, mainte-
nance, construction, support (through con-
tract activity) or (military) protection of the
Panama Canal. Current or former depen-
dents of such individuals and those who
have resided with their descendants are also
The society provides members the op-
portunity to keep in touch and maintain
friendships established in the Canal area by
sponsoring an annual five-day reunion fea-
turing a wide range of activities; holding
monthly meetings and frequent luncheons;
printing a directory of names and addresses;
and publishing the Canal Record, which
runs member-related news, announcements,
advertisements and nostalgic features.
The society has more than 4,500 mem-
bers from all 50 states, as well as Panama
and several other foreign countries. Mem-
bers are eligible to vote each year for society
officers and on other issues. The fee is $30
for the first year and $20 for subsequent
Applications are available by writing the
Panama Canal Society of Florida, Inc., Semi-
nole Mall, Suite 334, Seminole, FL 34642-
4712 or calling 813-391-4359.

Page 4


Direcci6n de Marina establece record por transito de naves anchas

El 16 de septiembre, la Direc-
ci6n de Marina de la Comisi6n del
Canal de Panama rompi6 un record
cuando transitaron 20 naves de
manga ancha, 17 de las cuales eran
buques Panamax o barcos con
mangas de mis de 34.4 metros.
El Jefe de la Divisi6n de
Administraci6n de Trifico, Sam
H. Mann, sefiala que las naves de

manga ancha, aquellas con niangas
de 27.74 metros o mds, son de
especial importancia para la
Direcci6n de Marina. Los barcos
en esta categoria deben transitar el
Corte Gaillard sin trafico opuesto,
generalmente en horas diurnas.
Tambi6n tienen que cumplir
requisitos especiales de transito en
cuanto al apoyo de remolcadores y

Vol. XXXIII, No 20

cuadrillas de pasacables.
El Director de Marina, Cap.
George T. Hull, sefiala que en los
iltimos meses se ha incrementado
el trAnsito de naves de manga ancha.
A partir dejulio, el Canal ha tenido
cuatro dias en que han transitado
17 naves de manga ancha, y dos
dias en que se empat6 el record
anterior de 18 naves. Diecinueve

de estas naves transitaron el 17 de
"Puede que el nuevo record no
dure mucho tiempo", dice Mann,
quien atribuye el impresionante
ndmero de trinsitos de naves de
manga ancha al alto nivel de
llegadas desde diciembre y a los
esfuerzos combinados del personal
de trinsito en todas las unidades de

Viernes 6 de octubre de 1995

operaci6n en la via acuatica.
El Administrador Gilberto
Guardia F. tambi6n reconoci6 estos
"Los empleados del Canal han
respondido admirablemente al reto
de enfrentar niveles de trafico
inesperadamente altos este aiio"
dice. "Esperamos que el afio fiscal
1995 establezca nuevas marcas en
peajes y en la mayoria de los
elementos principales del trafico
del Canal. Los empleados pueden
y deben sentirse orgullosos de este
Esta edici6n del Spillway
contiene un suplemento especial
de cierre del afio fiscal 1995, que
incluye un informe del desempenio
record obtenido este afio.

Realizan ejercicio de control de inundaciones

La practice hace la perfecci6n,
y perfecto debe ser la meta cuando
se trata de proteger vidas huma-
nas, instalaciones del Canal de Pa-
nami y propiedades privadas. Con
esto en mente, el Ramo de Meteoro-
logia e Hidrologfa realiza un ejerci-
cio anual de control de inundacio-
nes para preparar al personal que
debera responder en forma rdpida
y efectiva a una emergencia por
inundaci6n en el drea canalera. El
ejercicio tambi6n ayuda a mejorar
la comunicaci6n entre las unidades
participantes y a identificar proce-
dimientos de emergencia que
necesitan mejorar. El ejercicio de
este afio se realiz6 ayer.
El escenario del ejercicio invo-
lucraba niveles altos de los lagos y
lluvias muy fuertes, que obligaron
a la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama
a descargar agua por vertederos y
alcantarillas de esclusas y aretrasar
los transitos. Se dio la alerta a las
7 a.m., cuando el ejercicio indicaba
que los lagos alcanzaban niveles
amenazantes y los hidr6logos del
Canal se preparaban para abrir las
14 compuertas de la Represa de
Gatdn y descargar un gran volumen
de agua de la Represa Madden.
Los participantes de la Comi-
si6n acudieron al Centro de Con-

trol de Inundaciones en el Ramo de
Meteorologfa e Hidrologia, donde
las imigenes de satdlite ayudan a
predecir la condiciones climaticas
y la informacidn sobre las lluvias y
los niveles de rios y lagos llega
cada 15 minutos proveniente de
estaciones en la cuenca del Canal.
Se enviaron boletines de adverten-
cia de inundaci6n para alertar a
funcionarios de la Comisi6n, del
Comando Sur y del Sistema Nacio-
nal de Protecci6n Civil de Panama,
quienes tuvieron que resolver una
gran variedad de emergencias
producidas por la inundaci6n.
Los problemas y las soluciones
propuestas fueron grabadas para
que cualquier recomendaci6n
apropiada pudiera hacerse al
repasar el ejercicio. "Estos
comentarios, critics y recomenda-
ciones nos han ayudado a mejorar
los procedimientos de control de
inundaciones", dice Carlos Vargas,
coordinador del ejercicio. "Los
participantes han identificado fallas
que hemos corregido".
Vargas seiiala que la inundaci6n
del mes pasado en la ciudad de
Panama prepar6 la atm6sfera para
el ejercicio de este afio. Sin em-
bargo, las Iluvias mis fuertes
cayeron s6lo en la ciudad y a lo

Visitantes extranjeros Foto por Armando De Gracia
El Director de Ingenieria y Construccidn de la Comisi6n del Canal de
Panamd, NumanH. Vdsquez, izquierda, explica losproyectosde ensanche
del Corte Gaillard y de estabilizacidn de las riberas a miembros de una
delegaci6n que visita varios paises maritimos para promover el Canal
de St. Lawrence. Abierta en 1959, la via acudtica une los Grandes Lagos
con el Ociano Atldntico a lo largo de lafrontera de Estados Unidos y
Canadd. Es operada por corporaciones gubernamentales de ambas
naciones y se extiende 2,342 millas, elevando y bajando naves a 587pies
por medio de un sistema de 16 esclusas, en un recorrido que toma 8'/2
dias. Durante tres dias, los funcionarios de la via acudtica visitaron
dreas de operacidn del Canal de Panamd, incluyendo las Esclusas de
Miraflores y los centros de adiestramiento maritimo y control de trdfico.

largo de la costa del Pacifico, sin
afectar la cuenca del Canal. De
hecho, el nivel actual del lago es
inferior que en afios anteriores.
No obstante, las intensas lluvias
sefialaron un problema potencial.
"Las inundaciones en la ciudad
pueden evitar que empleados clave
Ileguen a sus sitios de trabajo",
explica Vargas. "Este es uno de los
muchos problemas que pueden
surgir durante una inundaci6n
grande en el area del Canal".

Programas apoyan
a empleados para
volver al trabajo
El siguiente artfculo es una
colaboraci6n de la Divisidn de
Salud Ocupacional de la Comisidn
del Canal de Panamd.
Las personas que estdn en
buenas condiciones de salud y
fisicas son generalmente mas
productivas y disfrutan mis su
trabajo que aquellos que sufren de,
dolores o molestias causados por
lesiones, inactividad o exceso de
peso. Mayor inovilidad, flexibili-
dad y autoestima tambi6n aumentan
la vida personal del individuo.
La Divisi6n de Salud Ocupacio-
nal exhorta a los empleados que
han sufrido lesiones a hacer lo
posible, entre los limites prescritos
por sus m6dicos, para mejorar y
volver al trabajo pronto. Esta
motivaci6n se ofrece a trav6s de
dos programas especificos. El
primero esti disefiado para fortale-
cer el sistema mdsculo-esquel6tico
de los empleados lesionados; el
segundo requiere que los superviso-
res asignen trabajos livianos o
limitados a los empleados que han
sufrido lesiones o enfermedades
en el trabajo y ofrezcan ayuda
razonable para acomodar a los
empleados con discapacidad per-
manente y parcial en posiciones
El prop6sito de estos programas
es lograr que el empleado continde
sinti6ndose productivo, 6til e
independiente. Despu6s de todo,
esti comprobado que la participa-
ci6n continua en el ambiente laboral
ayuda a mejorar la condici6n
sicol6gica y fisica del empleado.
Esto equivale a un individuo mis
feliz, menos tenso, en mejores
condiciones y mas optimista. Para
mas informaci6n, llame a la
Divisi6n de Salud Ocupacional
(272-7968 6 443-7336) o a cual-
quier enfermera de la divisi6n.

Inspeccionan turbina Foto por Armando De Gracia
Los mecdnicos torneros Reynaldo Tuiidn, izquierda, y Jose Fonguer, y
el soldador Carlos Abrego inspeccionan y limpian los componentes de
una turbina de gas de 22 megavatios en la Planta Generadora de
Miraflores durante la rehabilitacidn del equipo.

Ramo de Potencia rehabilita turbina

El Ramo de Potencia rehabilita
una turbina de gas de 22 megavatios
bajo la supervisi6n de personal de
la corporaci6njaponesa Itochu, que
suministra y observa la instalaci6n
de los repuestos dentro de un
contrato valorado en mas de $1
La rehabilitaci6n consiste en
inspeccionar todos los compo-
nentes y reemplazar las partes
dafiadas, cambiar los Alabes de las
turbinas, y reemplazar los compo-
nentes en el sistema de escape de
gas y en los sistemas de combusti6n
y auxiliar. Tambidn incluye limpiar
otras partes e inspeccionar los
sistemas de control el6ctrico y
electr6nico. El rotor de 12
toneladas del generador fue reha-
bilitado a fines del alio pasado.
La dnica unidad en la Planta
Generadora de Miraflores capaz
de arrancar y operar por sus propios
medios, la turbina normalmente se
usa en caso de emergencia o fallo
de cualquier otra unidad. El
mecinico tornero lider del Ramo

de Potencia, Arquimedes Gonzalez,
quien esta a cargo de la rehabilita-
ci6n, dice que el equipo puede em-
pezar a generar electricidad en s6lo
siete minutos, mientras que las otras
unidades de la planta requieren de
45 minutos a cuatro horas. "Es una
unidad de emergencia ripida y
eficaz", explica y afiade que la
turbina se rehabilitacadacinco afios
para prolongar su vida dtil.
AdemAs de la turbina de gas,
tambi6n se esta rehabilitando una
turbina de vapor. La unidad perdi6
una de sus partes el afio pasado,
obligando a realizar una reparaci6n
no programada. Se removieron
todos los alabes en la onceava fila,
reduciendo la capacidad de la
unidad de 22 a 20 Megavatios. El
trabajo actual incluye el reemplazo
del disco de los alabes pararestaurar
la capacidad normal de la turbina.
La rehabilitaci6n estA programada
para terminar a mediados de
noviembre, mientras que se espera
rehabilitar la turbina de gas para
principios de marzo.




Spillway del Canal de Panama

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

aBomberos salvan vida a joven de Albrook

Foto por Jaime Yau
Brian Jacques visita a los bomberos de la Comisidn del Canal que le salvaron cuando
quedd atrapado en una zanja durante una tormenta. Desde la izquierda estdn el Sgto.
Julian Bishop, el conductor-operador Armando Samuels, el Sgto. Martin Salamanca y el
bombero Edwin Lennan.

Ofrecen consejos para usar sustancias toxicas

La exposici6n a sustancias t6xicas como
ars6nico, plomo, mercurio, zinc, cromo,
niquel, cadmio, berilio, pesticidas y solventes,
generalmente ocurre por la falta de cuidado.
Para proteger a los empleados de la Comisi6n
del Canal de Panama de la contaminaci6n, la
Divisi6n de Seguridad recomienda las
siguientes precauciones:

Utilizar equipo protector al trabajar con
sustancias peligrosas.
No comer en areas que puedan estar
contaminadas, como los lugares donde se
guardan o utilizan sustancias t6xicas, y no
entrar en ireas designadas para comer con
equipo o ropas contaminadas.
No comer o fumar despu6s de trabajar
con sustancias t6xicas hasta despu6s de
lavarse las manos.
Despuds de haber estado expuesto a
contaminantes, bafiarse antes de vestirse y
abandonar el sitio de trabajo. Nunca usar
ropa de trabajo o equipo protector en casa.
la ropa personal. Cambiar y guardarla ropa
contaminada solamente en los lugares
designados, alejados de dreas donde se
guarda la ropa personal.

No llevar ropa de trabajo contaminada
a casa para lavar. Los sobretodos de-
sechables debbn destruirse segin los
procedimientos, mientras que la ropa de
trabajo lavable debe lavarla un contratista o
en lavadoras y secadoras designadas que
sean propiedad de la unidad.
No llevar a casa materiales que
contengan sustancias peligrosas para uso
personal. No s61o es ilegal, sino que podria
contaminar su casa y su familia.
Asumir que toda la madera utilizada por
la Comisi6n ha sido tratada con sustancias
t6xicas. Nunca llevar desechos de madera a
casa deben ser desechados segin los
procedimientos aplicables.
No utilizar aire comprimido para limpiar
ropa, equipo o areas de trabajo.
Contactar al higienista industrial en
caso de exposici6n a fibras de asbesto sueltas
en el aire. El asbesto ha sido eliminado casi
totalmente de los sitios de trabajo de la
Comisi6n, pero debe ser considerado mate-
rial peligroso por si s61o en los lugares donde
ain existe.
Siga las mismas precauciones que
tomarfaen el trabajo si alguna vez seencuentia
con sustancias peligrosas fuera del trabajo.

La rapida acci6n de vecinos y un equipo
de bomberos y t6cnicos de emergencia
mddica de la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama
ayudaron a salvar la vida de un niiio de 12
afios que qued6 atrapado en un desague
durante una fuerte lluvia.
El 19 dejulio, Brian Jacques jugaba alas
carreras de botes con amigos del vecindario
en una cuneta de drenaje detras de su casa en
la base area de Albrook. Llovia muy fuerte
y el agua que bajaba desde el cerro a la cuneta
arrastr6 el bote. Cuando Brian trat6 de sacarlo,
la corriente le hizo perder el equilibrio y
termin6 atrapado de la cadera para abajo en
una alcantarilla de 12 pulgadas de ancho.
Los vecinos lamaron al nimero de
emergencias 1-1-9, y se alert6 a un carro
bomba y una ambulancia. El personal de
emergencias lleg6 aproximadamente a la 1:09
p.m. y encontr6 a una mujer sosteniendo la
cabeza de Brian contra su pecho para que
pudiera respirar. El agua le legaba a la
barbilla, explicael oficial de tumo, Sgto. Martin
Los bomberos instalaron una bomba para
bajar el nivel del agua en la cuneta. Los
vecinos colocaron una barrera de botes de
basura y ayudaron a los bomberos a remover
la tierra alrededor de la cuneta para desviar el
curso del agua. Uno de los vecinos trajo un
tubo para ayudar a Brian a respirar bajo el

agua. Sin embargo, apesardeestos esfuerzos,
Salamanca, quien ahora sostenia a Brian de
la espalda, no pudo sacarlo de la alcantarilla.
"Estaba como el corcho en una botella de
champafia", dice Salamanca. Porsuerte, Brian
sinti6 de pronto que la presi6n se aligeraba
y se lo comunic6 a Salamanca, quien intent6
de nuevo, esta vez logrando sacarlo. Los
param6dicos examinaron a Brian, quien se
quejaba de dolor en ambas caderas y te: fa el
area enrojecida y amoratada. Luego lo
transportaronjunto a su madre, ZaideJacques,
al Hospital Gorgas, en donde fue tratado y
dado de alta.
La madre trabajaba en el momento del
accidente y dijo que cuando lleg6 pens6 que
Brian estaba muerto porque todos trataban
de calmarla y evitarque corriera a su lado. "El
Sgto. Julian Bishop me dijo que tratara de
calmarme porque no necesitaban otro
paciente", dice, sefialando que su hijo Jason,
de 19 aios, tambi6n estaba allfpara apoyarla.
La familia Jacques agradeci6 a los
bomberos de la Comisi6n que salvaron la
vida de Brian, einvitaron acenaraSalamanca,
Bishop, Luis Velasquez, Fermin Machore,
Virgilio Lee y Rodolfo Duncan. "Merecen un
reconocimiento sobresaliente, no s6lo por la
forma en que hicieron su trabajo, sino por la
forma c6mo nos consolaron durante la ter-
rible experiencia", dice la madre agradecida.

ig .ULU p~ rutu pi amilU uC Us lauIa
Entre amigos pl
El operador de la planta generadora de Gatun, Isaac Piedra, sentado, recibe la visita de
algunos de los compafieros de trabajo que donaron horas de vacaciones para ayudarle
cuando no podia trabajar. De pie desde la izquierda aparecen Jamie Valdds, Ricardo
Duque, Julian Sinclair, Oscar Fontalvo, Melendez Turnbull, Cecilio Davis y Getulio

Empleado agradece apoyo de compaferos

Evento benifico Foto por Kevin Jenkins
Una delegacidn del Templo Abou Saad se redne con el Administrador de la Comisi6n del
Canal Gilberto Guardia F. y el Subadministrador Joseph W. Cornelison para obsequiarles
entradas para el Shrine Bowl, partido de futbol que se realizard el 21 de octubre en el
Estadio de Balboa. El evento es organizado por la logia Abou Saadpara recaudarfondos
para su programa pro niffos quemados o lisiados. Desde la izquierda aparecen el Dr.
Federico Herrera; Hudson Dalton, del equipo Rams Azules; Kristi May, porrista de los
Rams Blancos; Stevin C. Helin, miembro de la logia; el Potentado de Abou Saad Dean
Homa; el Antiguo Potentado Julio Aquin; Javier Herrera, beneficiario del programa;
Guardia y Cornelison.

Las funciones de Isaac Piedra Medina
incluyen operar los generadores y las
compuertas del vertedero de la Planta
Hidroel6ctrica de Gatin para mantener el
sistema de generaci6n el6ctrica andando.
Tambi6n es responsable de volver a arrancar
los generadores en caso de que falle el
sistema. Sin embargo, este aiio Piedra
enfrent6 otro tipo de falla-relacionada con
su salud y fueron sus compaiieros de
trabajo quienes le dieron la ayuda necesaria.
Luego que sus dos riflones fueron
afectados por una piedra en el riid6n derecho,
se removi6 el calculo con cirugfa. Piedra
necesit6 varios meses para recuperarse, mas
tiempo del que tenia acumulado.
Cuando los compafieros se enteraron de
su situaci6n, decidieron ayudarlo. Ademis
de Ilevarle los cheques de pago, comenzaron
a donarle sus horas de vacaciones. Las
contribuciones de empleados de las plantas
generadoras de Madden, Miraflores y Gatin,
lo mismo que de las Esclusas de Pedro Miguel
y la Divisi6n de Protecci6n del Canal,
oscilaban entre ocho y 100 horas. En poco
tiempo, Piedra recibi6 794 horas, mAs que
suficiente para sostenerse. De hecho, se

regresaron 394 horas a los donantes.
Piedra ha trabajado como operador de
planta generadora con laComisi6n del Canal
de Panama desde quese gradu6 de la Escuela
de Aprendices en 1984. Primero fue asignado
a la planta generadora de Miraflores, donde
trabaj6 por tres afios antes de ser asignado
a Gatdn, un traslado que el residente de
Col6n agradeci6.
El trabajo de Piedra es asegurar la
operaci6n normal de las turbinas hidroel6c-
tricas y los generadores que suministran
energia a las Esclusas de Gatuin y las insta-
laciones y los poblados cercanos. Supervisa
el acceso a la planta y verifica el voltaje, la
presi6n y otros medidores cada hora para
asegurar que el sistema trabaje bien.
En cuanto a su propio regreso al trabajo,
Piedra agradece a la Comisi6n del Canal por
expandir el programa de donaciones de
vacaciones para incluir a los empleados
cubiertos por la Caja de Seguro Social de
Panama. Pero, sobre todo, agradece a todos
los empleados que donaron su tiempo para
ayudarle a 61 y a su familia en tiempos de
crisis. "Todos fueron muy bondadosos",
dice. "Siemprelesagradecer6porsubondad".

Paeina 2

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

Spillway del Canal de Panama

Acondicionan barcaza de salvamento -

La Divisi6n Industrial estd acondi- La barcaza estA actualmente en el dique
cionando la barcaza de salvamento 3 como seco para la fase inicial del acondicio-
barcaza de apoyo de plataforma de buceo, namiento que, a un costo de $42,000, se rea-
para los reacondicionamientos de la com- liza para prepararla para uso de la Divisi6n
puerta del vertedero programados en la Re- Industrial. El trabajo incluye hacer modifi-
presa de Gattin. Al culminar el acondi- caciones a la cubierta para un nuevo cuarto
cionamiento, labarcaza se usard como oficina de maquinas y la instalaci6n de nuevas mam-
principal y plataforma de trabajo para per- paras a babor y estribor. "El proyecto va
sonal y equipo asignados a los reacondi- muybien",diceelcoordinadorRafaelSdenz.
cionamientos. Tambi6n apoyard las opera- La instalaci6n del cuarto de maquinas
ciones de rescate y buceo en el Atldntico. incluird la remoci6n temporal de la caseta y
La reciente transferencia de la barcaza a el recorte de las mamparas. Tambi6n se
la Divisi6n Industrial fue una vuelta del afiadirdn una oficina, un bafio y drea de
destine. Comprada en 1970 a Avondale dep6sito, y los generadores, compresores de
Shipyard en Nueva Orleans, la barcaza inici6 aire y bombas de rescate serdn reacon-
su servicio con el Canal de Panama como dicionados. El casco serd reparado, y la
plataforma de respuesta a emergencias. Mds cubierta principal y el casco seran pintados.
tarde contribuy6 a las operaciones de la Ademis, se instalard una grda pequefia en la
Divisi6n de Dragado durante varios afios y, cubierta para apoyar los reacondicio-
desde entonces, ha pertenecido a la Divisi6n namientos del vertedero y las operaciones de
de Servicios al Canal. salvamento y buceo.

El Canal gradua nuevos aprendices

En una ceremoniade graduaci6n realizada
el 22 de septiembreen el auditorio del Panama
Canal College, 31 hombres y una mujer,
todospanamefios, recibieron sus certificados
del programa de aprendices de la Comisi6n
del Canal de Panama.
La electricista Rosa Espino, que mantuvo
el promedio mas alto, tanto acad6micamente
como en la practice, pronunci6 el discurso
de graduaci6n. Al sefialar que tanto ella
como sus compafieros permaneceran en el
Canal hasta entrado el pr6ximo siglo, luego
de que 6ste sea transferido a Panama, dijo,
"Tal como lo hicieron los aprendices ante-
riores, nosotros hemos aprendido una t6c-
nica...la tdcnicade un trdnsito seguro y rapido
a trav6s del Canal de Panama. S61o espera-
mos que aquellos que dirigiran el destine del
Canal nos permitan mostrarle al mundo que
6ste jams estara en mejores manos".
Comentando que cada grupo de graduan-
dos tiene su propia personalidad, la jefa en-
cargada del Ramo de Adiestramiento Indus-
trial Pamela Garcia, predijo que esta clase
serd recordada por participar en la remode-
laci6n del remolcador Ulua de la Divisi6n

Industrial, "su legado para los afios
El orador de honor, eljefe de la Divisi6n
de Mantenimiento Enrique Sanchez, elogi6
al grupo al decir, "La iniciativa y el esfuerzo
demostrados por los graduados del programa
de aprendices del Canal de Panama son
esenciales para su 6xito, porque es solamente
a trav6s de esfuerzos individuales que una
empresa como el Canal puede ser exitosa".
Los graduados recibieron diplomas en
16 areas incluyendo electricistas, mecanicos,
operadores de grias, montadores de tuberfas,
trabajadores deestructuras de hierro, forjado-
res de metales, pintores, soldadores, mecdni-
cos torneros nduticos y trabajores de madera.
Los cinco graduados de honor- Espino,
Bolivar A. Fung, Omar O. Ortega, Inocencio
Aranis y Carlos P. Vargas recibieron sus
certificados del Subadministrador Joseph W.
Cornelison, mientras que el Director de
Marina Cap. George T. Hull, el Director de
Servicios Generales Ren6 Van Hoorde y el
Director de Ingenierfa y Construcci6n Numan
H. Vasquez presentaron los certificados a
los graduados de sus respectivas direcciones.

Colocan refuerzo Foto por Jaime Yau
Daniel Avila, en los controles de la retroexcavadora, espera las instrucciones de Marcial
Rodriguez para colocar las rocas que se utilizan en el proyecto de control de erosion de
la Division de Mantenimiento. Juan Reluzobserva para brindar ayuda adicional.

Controlan erosi6n con muro de piedra

Cinco toneladas de pedazos de basalto
pueden parecer material inusual para un
proyecto de construcci6n, pero para los
empleados de la Divisi6n de Mantenimiento
que trabajan en el control de la erosi6n, son
ideales. Los trabajadores utilizan la roca
para reforzar una secci6n de la orilla del
Canal cercana al extreme norte de las Esclu-
sas de Pedro Miguel. Las olas de los remolca-
dores han ido erosionado lentamente la orilla
oriental, en donde estan ubicados muelles y
oficinas de la Comisi6n del Canal. Para pro-
teger estas estructuras y prevenir erosi6n fu-
tura, las cuadrillas construyen un muro de
ret6n de piedra y concreto.
La franja de 240 metros comienza en la
oficina de campo del Ramo de Meteorologfa
e Hidrograffa y llega hasta el muelle de Las
Cruces. El capataz de operadores de equipo
m6vil Luis Oakley explica que la t6cnica
para hacer el muro es similar a la utilizada
para construir una torre de bloques gigantes.
Primero, se colocan los pedazos mas grandes

de la roca a 7.5 metros de profundidad en el
agua a lo largo de la orilla, y sobre estas se
colocan capas de rocas cada vez mis
pequefias. Luego se aplica una mezcla de
concrete de secado rdpido paraunirlas capas.
Un contratista, Constructora Urbana, ha
estado llevando unos 1,368 metros cibicos
de roca a la semana para que los empleados
dela Divisi6n de Mantenimiento los coloquen
con un montador frontal. Cuando se termine
el proyecto, en unas 10 semanas, los trabaja-
dores habran colocado suficiente material
como para llenar una cancha de ftitbol con
un piso de altura.
El Jefe del Ramo de Mantenimiento Ex-
terior George Berman informa que los ope-
radores de equipo, capataces e ingenieros
colaboraron para desarrollar esta t6cnica de
construcci6n porqueesfuerzos anteriores por
controlar la erosi6n nohabian dado resultado.
"Es la mejor soluci6n que hemos encontrado
para problemas de erosi6n a lo largo del
Canal de Panama", dice.

Presidentes hablan sobre la

transferencia del Canal

Gradrian aprendices Foto por Jaime Yau
Mostrando sus certificados de artesanos calificados, la clase graduanda de aprendices de
1995 posa para unafoto de grupo luego de la ceremonia de graduaci6n en el auditorio del
Panama Canal College.


Administrador. Comisi6n del Canal de Panamd
Directora de Relaciones PJblicas

Director Asociado



Directora Asociada

El Spillway del Canal de PanamA es una publicaci6n oficial quincenal de la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama. Los articulos que en ella aparecen
pueden ser reproducidos sin pedir autorizaci6n, 6nicamente acreditando la fuente. Toda colaboraci6n debe ser entregada antes del mediodia
del jueves anterior a la semana de su publicaci6n, o antes del mediodla del midrcoles si hay algfn dia feriado durante la semana de publicaci6n.
Las subscripciones de 52 ejemplares cuestan $6 por correo regular, $4 por correo regular para estudiantes y $19 por correo a6reo. Envie
cheque o giro postal a favor de la Comisi6n del Canal de PanamA. Para mayor informaci6n, Ilame al 272-3202 o escriba a la Oficina de
Relaciones Publicas de la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama, Unit 2300, APO AA 34011-2300 o Altos de Balboa, Panama.

El secretario de prensa de la Casa Blanca
public6 un comunicado el 6 de septiembre
sobre labienvenida brindada por el presidente
estadounidense William J. Clinton al presi-
dente panameiio Ernesto P6rez Balladares,
quien realiz6 una visita oficial de trabajo a la
Casa Blanca.
De acuerdo al comunicado, los dos lideres
enfatizaron la sin igual e hist6rica relaci6n
que existe entre sus dos paises y elogiaron la
estrecha cooperaci6n bilateral que mantienen
en varies aspectos. Tambi6n reafirmaron su
compromiso de implementar la letra y espiritu
de los tratados del Canal de Panama de 1977.
"El Presidente Clinton expres6 su con-
fianza en el proceso de transici6n del Canal,
y elogi6 el progreso realizado para lograr un
cambio imperceptible en su administraci6n
en diciembre de 1999", dice el comunicado.
Segin el comunicado, los presidentes habla-
ron sobre las formas de asegurar que la trans-
ferencia de las propiedades militares estado-
unidenses a control panameiio proceda orde-
nadamente y reiteraron su compromiso de
mantener la neutralidad del Canal mas alli
del afio 2000, como fue acordado en el Trata-
do Relative a la Neutralidad Permanente del
Canal de Panama.
Ademis, ambos presidentes resaltaron
la importancia de la actual cooperaci6n bi-
lateral para proteger el medio ambiente,

especialmente la cuenca del Canal.
El comunicado informa que otros asuntos
discutidos incluyeron la lucha contra los
narcotraficantes y el lavado de dinero, y la
importancia de las actuales operaciones he-
misfdricas realizadas desde Panama para
contraatacar el trifico de narc6ticos. Segin
el informe, los presidentes acordaron iniciar
conversaciones para determinar si sus
intereses nacionales y conjuntos, y los benefi-
cios potenciales de una reducida presencia
militar estadounidense despu6s de 1999justi-
fican el inicio de conversaciones formales.
Tambi6n hablaron sobre la manera de forta-
lecer las relaciones comerciales de Panama
con los Estados Unidos.

Tome nota
El Museo de Arte Contempo-
raneo en Anc6n estard presentando
la exhibici6n "Imagenes de Marti" en
honor a Jos6 Marti hasta el 20 de
octubre. Los trabajos de mAs de 20
artistas de Cuba, Mexico, Nicara-
guay Panama podran seradmirados
de 9 a.m. a 4 p.m., los dias de
semana; de 9 a.m. a 12:30 p.m., los
sabados; y de 11 a.m. a 3 p.m., los
domingos. Para mas informaci6n,
Ilame al 262-3376 6 262-8012.

Pigina 3

Spillway del Canal de Panama

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

Lista de vacantes
Los solicitantes deben ser empleados de carrera o de carrera condicional. Los fomularios de solicitud deben
presentarse al Ramo de Empleo y Colocaciones (Edificio 366, Anc6n) en el Formulario 443, Solicitud de
Traslado, a mAs tardar siete dias calendario despues de publicado este aviso.
Quienes sean escogidos para un puesto permanente o para un puesto designado para prueba al azar por drogas
(TDP), tendran que someterse a una prueba de urinalisis para descartar el uso de drogas ilegales antes del
nombramiento o del cambio de puesto permanente. No se exigird el urinalisis a los empleados que ocupen un
puesto sujeto a prueba por drogas antes del cambio de puesto permanente.
Para algunos puestos de series de intervalos de un grado donde no existe puesto en la linea de ascenso normal,
los empleados permanentes podran calificar con un minimo de un afio de experiencia especializada en puestos
en el primer o segundo nivel inmediatamente inferior.
Los solicitantes podran repasar los requisitos de cada puesto en el Centro de Recursos T6cnicos de la
Comisi6n del Canal de Panama (Edificio 38, Balboa). Quienes por raz6n de su experiencia posean las pericias
y habilidades necesarias para ejercer debidamente el puesto, seran calificados en base a requisitos modificados.
Esto no aplica si se trata de un ascenso.
Las tarifas de pago abajo citadas son las tarifas minimas y maximas de pago por hora correspondientes a los
grados de las vacantes anunciadas. Los empleados seleccionados para llenar una vacante seran colocados en el
escal6n, grado y tarifa bAsica salarial correspondiente, de conformidad con los reglamentos.
Para mayor informaci6n, Ilame al Ramo de Empleo y Colocaciones al teldfono 272-3583.
Puestos permanentes Salarios Unidad Lugar Vacantes
Oficinista de personal (automatizaci6n de $6.85/$8.64 Rel. Ind. P 1
oficina), NM-5 '2 (Bilingue)
Guia del Canal de Panama, NM-6/8 '2 (Bilingue) $10.20/$16.32 Rel. Pub. P 2
(Debe saber nadar y trabajar algunos fines de semana).
Especialista de seguridad y salud ocupacional, $16.78/$21.81 Seguridad P 1
NM- 1 12 (Debe saber nadar y tener licencia
de conducir).
Ingeniero civil (especificaciones)/arquitecto (es- $20.11/$26.14 Ingenierfa P 1
pecificaciones), NM-12 1"
Ascenso temporal (mfximo de un aiio) que puede hacerse permanente
Programador de mantenimiento (general), FN-7 2 $17.05/$19.89 Serv. Canal A 1
(Debe saber ingl6s, nadar y tener licencia de conducir).
Ascenso temporal (maximo de seis meses)
Asistente de computadoras, NM-7 4 (Debe saber $11.34/$14.74 Apoyo Log. P 1
SS61o se considerarA a empleados de la Comisi6n.
2 La documentaci6n que pruebe que el solicitante llena los requisitos especiales debe adjuntarse a la solicitud o
incluirse en el expediente oficial; de lo contrario, no se considerara al solicitante para la vacante.
3 Esta es una posici6n interdisciplinaria clasificable como cualquiera de las siguientes especificaciones:
ingeniero civil o arquitecto.
4 Debe tener conocimientos de programaci6n de microcomputadoras en sistemas de administracidn de bases de
datos, por ejemplo, FoxPro, dBase, Clipper o Foxbase. Debe conocer programas de control de redes, tales como
La Comisi6n del Canal de Panama se ajusta a la Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades.

Recuerdan a empleados sobre derecho laboral

La Oficina de Relaciones Laborales
informa a los empleados en unidades de
contrataci6n colectiva de su derecho, segdn
la ley del servicio federal de relaciones
obrero-patronales, de solicitar representa-
cidn del representante exclusivo correspon-
Todo empleado que pertenezca a una
unidad de contrataci6n colectiva tiene el
derecho de solicitar representaci6n sindical
durante una entrevista o investigaci6n
realizada por un funcionario de la Comisi6n,
cuando el empleado considere que la
entrevista podria resultar en la aplicaci6n de
una medida disciplinaria en su contra.
Cuando el empleado ejerza este derecho y

solicite representaci6n sindical, el funcio-
nario de la Comisi6n que entrevista debera
permitir la presencia del representante
El derecho del empleado a recibir
representaci6n y el derecho del sindicato a
estar presente se relacionan entre si. Es la
solicitud del empleado de ser representado
lo que genera el derecho del representante a
estar presente. No obstante, si el represen-
tante sindical no asiste, la entrevista podra
continuar sin su presencia.
Para cualquier consulta sobre este
derecho, los empleados deben Ilamar a su
representante exclusive o a la Oficina de
Relaciones Laborales al 272-3186.

Agradecen a la Comisi6n por visita estudiantil inolvidable
La Comisi6n del Canal de Panama recibi6 recientemente una carta firmada por un
voluntario de los Cuerpos de Paz, un maestro, un director de escuela y 33 padres de
estudiantes de la escuela comunal de Macano, en Ant6n. Los nifios tuvieron la oportunidad
de visitar el Canal de Panama y, en la carta, los padres agradecen a la Comisi6n por hacer
de la excursi6n un 6xito y una "experiencia inolvidable" para los nifios.
El grupo de Macano es s6lo uno de los muchos representados durante las visitas de mds
de 25,000 estudiantes al centro de visitantes de las Esclusas de Miraflores durante el afio
fiscal 1995. Estas visitas permiten que los estudiantes observen el Canal, sus esclusas y
empleados trabajando; escuchen charlas sobre la historia y operaciones del Canal por
miembros del Servicio de Orientaci6n, y vean exhibiciones especiales. Todo esto ayuda a
los estudiantes, durante este periodo de transici6n, a apreciar y conocer la renombrada
"maravilla mundial de la ingenierfa", que estara bajo control total de Panama el 31 de
diciembre de 1999.
Las horas de visita en las Esclusas de Miraflores son de 9 a.m. a 5 p.m. todos los dias,
incluyendo los feriados.

Donaciones de caridad Foto por Jaime Femrnndez
Representantes del Club El Pacifico entregan cheques por $1,500 y $1,000 a la Sociedad
Britdnica de Beneficiencia y el Ejercito de Salvacidn, respectivamente, en memoria de Irene
Campbell McFarlane. Desde la izquierda aparecen el representante de relacionespablicas
del club, Pablo E. Kirven; el Tnte. CliffordA. Scott, del Ejircito de Salvacidn; lapresidenta
de la Sociedad Britdnica de Beneficencia, Elizabeth Borer; la May. Felicia Rapley;
Vivienne J. Headley, miembro del club; el Tnte. Marco Ramos y el May. Alberto Rapley.

Anuncian empleos para estudiantes

La Comisi6n del Canal de Panama esta
aceptando solicitudes para el programa de
ayudantes estudiantiles para el periodo de
vacaciones escolares de Panama de 1996.
La mayorfa de los estudiantes trabajard 40
horas semanales durante un maximo de 13
semanas, entre el 2 de enero y el 30 de
marzo, ganando $3.25 la hora.
Se aceptaran solicitudes de dependientes
de empleados de la Comisi6n. Los soli-
citantes deben ser estudiantes universitarios
de tiempo completo (tomando al menos 12
horas por semestre) que no se graduardn al
final del afio. Ade nis, deben tener un

promedio acumulativo de "C" (2 en una
escala de 4 puntos 6 1 en una escala de 3). Se
solicitard certificaci6n de la universidad y
una copia reciente de los cr6ditos.
Los formularios pueden retirarse durante
horas de oficina en la Divisi6n de Opera-
ciones de Personal (Edificio 366, Anc6n), y
de 8:30 a.m. a 1:30 p.m. en la Oficina 3 del
Edificio 1105 de Crist6bal los viernes. Los
formularios deben ser llenados y devueltos
antes del 7 de noviembre. Aquellos
formularios incompletos o con informaci6n
no veraz podrian resultar en la p6rdida de la
oportunidad de empleo.

-1 4-

Campeones de bola suave Foto por Octavio Rodriguez
Miembros y fandticos del equipo de la Divisidn Industrial celebran su triunfo en la Liga
Divisional de Bola Suave del Atldntico de este afio. Con un record de 14-2, la Divisidn
Industrial derrot6 al equipo de los bomberos del Distrito Norte, invictos por 14 afios.

Eventos locales

Actividades deportivas
El Ramo de Adiestramiento Fisico del
Empleado presenta muchas actividades para
los empleados de la Comisi6n del Canal y
sus dependientes.
El gimnasio de Gamboa celebrard un tor-
neo de billar para 20 dependientes el 12 de
octubre. Llame aElmodio Singh (276-6274)
entre 11 a.m. y 7 p.m. para mis informaci6n.
El Centro Juvenil de Gatdn ofreceraclases
de primeros auxilios de 4 a 8 p.m. el 12 y 13
de octubre. Un torneo de billar del Dia de la
Raza esta programado de 9 a.m. a 1 p.m. el
9 de octubre. Albano Humberto Aguilar
(443-5353) puede ser contactado para mis
informaci6n entre 1 y 8:45 p.m. los martes y
viernes y entre 8 a.m. y 4 p.m. los sabados.
Las actividades en la piscina de Gatdn
incluyen una clase de resucitaci6n cardio-
pulmonar (CPR) para la comunidad, de 9
a.m. a 2 p.m. el 7 y 8 de octubre; una clase de
primeros auxilios para la comunidad y un
curso de seguridad a las mismas horas el 14
y 15 de octubre; un curso de buceo de 10 a.m.
a mediodfa el 21 de octubre; una clinica de
polo acuitico a la misma hora el dfasiguiente;
y una biatl6n, que incluye nadar 300 yardas
y correr en bicicleta alrededor de Gatdn, el
28 de octubre. Llame a Julio Ferrara (443-
5233) para mas informaci6n.
La piscina de Margarita ofrecera clases
de seguridad acuatica de 1 a 5 p.m. el 7 y 8
de octubre, CPR para rescatadores profe-
sionales de 9 a.m. a 5 p.m. el 15 de octubre
y CPR de nifios e infantes de 11 a.m. a 5 p.m.
el 21 de octubre. Llame a Jos6 Navarro
(443-7229) para mis informaci6n.
En la piscina de Gamboa habrd CPR para
adultos de 7 a.m. a 3 p.m. el 16 y 30 de octu-
bre, principios de CPR de 8 a.m. a 2 p.m. el
7 de octubre, primeros auxilios para la comu-
nidad de 7 a.m. a 3 p.m. el 13 de octubre, y
CPR para la comunidad de 1 a 6 p.m. el 19 y
20 de octubre. Llame a Eduardo Morrell
(276-6425) para mas informaci6n.

Charla arqueol6gica
El Dr. Richard Cooke ofrecerd una charla
sobre la arqueologia en Panama en la reuni6n
del Isthmian College Club, de 4:30 a 6:30
p.m. el lo. de noviembre en el Centro Tupper
del Instituto de Investigaciones Tropicales
Smithsonian, en Anc6n.

Obra musical para adultos
La obra "Ruthless: El Musical" abre alas
8 p.m. el 20 de octubre en el Centro de Artes
Teatrales del Pacifico (Edificio 2060, en
Curundu), con otras funciones a la misma
hora losjueves, viernes y sabados hastael 11
de noviembre. JoAnne Mitchell co-dirige
esta producci6n local con Jerry Brees, y la
co-protagoniza con Barbara A. Klein y
Brooke Stringfellow. Para reservaciones,
llame al 286-3152 6 286-3814.

Sociedad busca nuevos miembros
La Sociedad del Canal de Panama de
Florida esta recibiendo nuevos miembros
mayores de 18 afios que hayan trabajado o
estado asociados con la operaci6n, manteni-
miento, construcci6n, apoyo (como contratis-
ta) y protecci6n (militar) del Canal de Pana-
ma. Sus dependientes actuales o antiguos, y
quienes hayan vivido con sus descendientes
tambi6n califican.
La sociedad permite a los miembros
mantenerse en contacto y mantener amista-
des hechas en el area canalera, organizando
una atractiva reuni6n anual de cinco dias;
reuniones mensuales y almuerzos frecuentes;
y publicando un directorio de nombres y
direcciones y el Canal Record, que reporta
sobre temas relacionados con los miembros,
anuncios e historias de dias pasados .
La sociedad cuenta con mas de 4,500
miembros de los 50 estados, Panama y otros
pauses. Los miembros pueden votar cada
afio para elegir a los funcionarios de la
sociedad y para otros asuntos. La inscripci6n
es de $30 por el primer aiio y $20 por los
afios siguientes.
Para obtener las solicitudes, escriba a:
Panama Canal Society of Florida Inc., Semi-
nole Mall, Suite 334, Seminole, FL 34642-
4712, o Ilame al (813) 391-4359.

Pagina 4




Special supplement closing out fiscal year 1995



ar~ -:


~':f.-: a~ a

i ,g,

Panama Canal Spillway supplement

Friday, October 6, 1995

Pennell lithographs

capture essence of

Panama Canal

construction effort

The true wonder, adventure
and magnitude of the effort that
went into building the Panama
Canal are captured forever in the
1912 drawings by artist Joseph
Pennell. Copies of sixteen of these
lithographs are permanently dis-
played in the second floor rotunda
of the Canal Administration
Building in Balboa Heights.
Pennell worried that he might
have gotten to the Canal too late
to observe construction at its most
impressive. As it turned out, he
arrived at exactly the right mo-
ment to capture the power and
vitality of the project. The work
was still going on at full steam
when he disembarked at Cristobal
that January.

Penne lwas an

important (perhaps

the mod important)

A4merican illutrator

during the golden age of

At the Canal, gigantic struc-
tures, nearly complete, but still
empty of water, showed their
enormity and naked strength.
Raw building materials, the tropic
environment and the earth itself
had grudgingly ceded to man,
whose power lay not just in num-
bers (for, man was, indeed, present
in great numbers), but in know-
ing how to combat and harness
the forces of nature and how to
design, make and use machines to
accomplish this great construc-
tion and operational feat. And all
this Pennell drew.
Of the work he wrote, "... it
is the most wonderful thing in the
world; and I have tried to express
this in my drawings at the mo-
ment before it was opened, for
when it is opened, and the water
turned in, half the amazing masses
of masonry will be beneath the
waters on one side and filled in
with earth on the other, and the
picturesqueness will have van-
Well, certainly not completely
vanished by any means, for those
who see the Canal today only in
its water-filled state believe it to
be still quite magnificent.
Pennell's work can take one's
breath away, for the scenes show
vividly not only the huge size of a
locks chamber and gate, for ex-
ample, but also the contrasting
fragility of the human figures at
work upon this colossal mass of
concrete and steel or deep in the
mighty gorge that is Culebra
(Gaillard) Cut. One powerful

drawing depicts the tenacity and
spirit of adventure of workers,
who, instead of using the stairway
provided, cling chillingly sus-
pended from a crane for a lift
from the bottom of a lock cham-
ber at quitting time.
And then there are the land-
scapes ...
Although printed in black on
off-white, so well do the Pennell
drawings depict Panama's special
atmosphere that they seem to take
on living color, emitting an al-
most tangible sense of light and
warmth, and the pungent scents
of fresh-dug earth and steamy
Pennell, born in 1857 of
Quaker parents, grew up in Phila-
delphia, the only child of physi-
cally and emotionally undemon-
strative parents. He was a soli-
tary, quiet, sensitive, thin child
called "Skinny Pennell" by the
other boys. Apparently not an
unhappy child, he devised his own
entertainment, making drawings
on any piece or scrap of available
paper to illustrate made-up sto-
ries. Oddly enough, soldiers were
more often than not the heroes of
these tales. In a biography by his
wife, Elizabeth Robbins Pennell,
she says that he learned his appre-
ciation for good English from the
reading of the Scriptures, both at
meeting and at home.
He graduated from the Ger-
mantown Friends' School in 1876
and went to work as a clerk in a

coal company, attending the In-
dustrial Art School at night. Art,
and especially art as a career, was
frowned upon by the Friends, who
considered it perhaps just short of
sinful. Notwithstanding, Pennell
studied and drew and read. He
also tried to sell cartoons and once
raced to a fire in hopes of making
a drawing and selling it to a news-
paper. He quit his office job to
devote more time to art. He drew
anything and everything and, with
a group of students, went out on
Sundays to draw and sketch.
Pennell was interested in sports
activities. In the winter he skated,
and at other times of the year he
bicycled. He was an active mem-
ber of the League of American
Wheelmen and of the German-
town Bicycle Club.
But mostly, Pennell was dedi-

cated to his artistic work and to-
wards becoming an illustrator.
This was his true recreation. And
it wasn't long before the world
realized his talent. Lithography
became his chosen medium, and
he mastered both its artistic and
technical aspects so well that his
later book on the subject, "Lithog-
raphy and Lithographers," became
a professional standard.
Pennell was an important (per-
haps the most important) Ameri-
can illustrator during the golden
age of illustration. He was a de-
voted friend of American artist
James Abbott McNeill Whistler,
and he was thrilled in 1900 when
he was commissioned to write the
"Life of Whistler," a project about
which he was exceedingly enthu-
siastic, both because of his. fond-
ness of Whistler and his admira-
tion and respect for Whistler's
work. He asked his wife, a fre-
quent collaborator, to write the
book with him.
Pennell was a traveler and an
adventurer. Living in London, he
traveled throughout Europe -
England, Spain, Italy, Greece,
France and other countries as
well as in the United States and, of
course, he came to Panama. Being
an avid cyclist, he pedaled every-
where, carrying with him pen and
ink, etching plate and needle, to
make the drawings that would il-
lustrate dozens of publications.
His wife was his frequent travel-
ing companion, as well as co-au-
thor of many books they wrote
It was love at first sight when
Pennell first became acquainted
with a new invention, the motor
bicycle. He rode one over the
Alps in the summer of 1900, from
which came a later (1904) article,
"In the Alps on a Motor Bicycle."
And so, it is no wonder that
Pennell had so much feeling for
the great adventure that was (and
is) the Panama Canal. It was his
own idea to come to Panama, and
he knew not whether he would be
welcomed or chased off by Canal
authorities. He was, of course,

welcomed, and provided every
courtesy and assistance, particu-
larly by Isthmian Canal Commis-
sion Secretary Joseph Bucklin
Bishop, in carrying out his work.
Letters to Pennell from Pana-
ma Canal Chief Engineer George
W. Goethals and Bishop are pub-
lished in the "Catalogue of an
Exhibition (September 19 to Oc-
tober 12, 1912) of Lithographs
and Etchings of the Panama Ca-
nal" by Joseph Pennell.
"I cannot express in words the
pleasure that these pictures give
me," Goethals wrote, "as they il-
lustrate so clearly, forcibly and
vividly the work, and portray ac-
tual conditions with a force which
I did not think could be devel-
oped in a picture."
Bishop wrote, "I have your
letter telling me that the Govern-
ment at Washington has bought a
complete set of your Panama litho-
graphs. This is glorious news and
is a worthy recognition of a great
artist and a great work, for I am
sure that these prints will rank
amongst the best things you have
ever done. You saw the work as
no one else has had the eyes and
the brains to see it, save, of course,
those of us who are actually en-
gaged in it. I am delighted that
this is the outcome."
Several of the Pennell litho-
graphs illustrate this article, but a
better appreciation for the artist's
work can be had from viewing the
works displayed in the Adminis-
tration Building, and all can be
seen in a book titled "Joseph
Pennell's Pictures of the Panama

Paee 2

An early morning scene of Culebra (now Gaillard) Cut at Paraiso, shows wisps of mist stretching across the
Canal at the point where the old railroad once crossed the Canal bed.

Workers lay the floor of Pedro Miguel Locks. The Pennell sketch at
right is ofhimselfand his wife on one of their bicycle tours.

_ _~ ~~ _~~ _________~__~~______~__~ __ __=

yadirF October 6 1995

Panama Canal Spillway supplement

Record-breaking fiscal year expected at Panama Canal

Most major elements of Pana-
ma Canal traffic enjoyed a con-
tinued sharp rise during the first
11 months of fiscal year 1995, and
all-time record levels are expected
once the year-end figures have
been tabulated. This follows solid
performance in fiscal year 1994,
which reversed a two-year declin-
ing trend.
The number of oceangoing
transits should reach 13,633 by
the time year-end figures are com-
piled for fiscal year 1995, and PC/
UMS net tons should total ap-
proximately 214 million, with gen-
erated tolls revenue of at least
$460 million.
During the first 11 months of
fiscal year 1995, oceangoing tran-
sits rose about 9 percent and PC/
UMS net tonnage and tolls rev-
enue grew nearly 10 percent.
These record levels were driven
by avery strong, 11.2-percent gain
in commercial cargo tonnage.
This has been mainly the result of
greater worldwide movement of
bulk-type and specialized com-
For the ninth consecutive year,
the volatile grain trade remains
the leading Canal commodity Vessels from around the world transit the Panama Canal carrying all types of cargo. This photo shows a typical day at Gatun Locks. Final fiscalyear
1995 figures are expected to establish all-time records.

'or the nin l

consecutive year, the

volatl grain trade

remain the ad

commodity group in terms

of tonnage.

group in terms of tonnage, having
risen 27.7 percent to 40 million
long tons so far this fiscal year.
Within this total, corn is register-
ing a remarkable increase of al-
most 50 percent, to 22 million
long tons during this 11-month
period, making it the key com-
modity currently transiting the
Panama Canal. Such exception-
ally robust corn activity has not
been seen since the 1983 peak of
21.6 million long tons. The in-
creased demand for U.S. corn has
been triggered by drought and
generally adverse weather condi-
tions in major grain-producing na-
tions like Australia and China,
causing them to buy from the
United States, which has had

bumper crops in recent years, and
also allowing the United States to
absorb a part of the market nor-
mally supplied by these countries.
The corn moves from the U.S.
Gulf Coast through the Panama
Canal to the Far East, particularly
Japan, the Republic of Korea and
Except for wheat and petro-
leum products, which showed de-
creases of about 2 and 6 percent,
respectively, all other major com-

Corn is the hey

commodity currentIy

transiting the Panama


modity groups have reflected gains
of 3 percent or more when com-
pared to the same period in fiscal
year 1994. Refrigerated cargo, for
example, has risen close to 16 per-
cent, largely as a result of increased
shipments of Ecuadorian bananas
bound for Europe. Another im-
portant commodity group, coal

and coke, shows
gains of nearly 24 4
percent, mainly
due to increased
shipments of coal 14
from western Can-
ada to Europe for 13
use in power gen-
eration. Manufac- 13
tures of iron and C
steel have also 12
grown by over 14
percent, basically 12
reflecting an im-
proved U.S. econ-
omy importing
these goods from
the Far East. 11
volumes of bulk
and specialized
cargo are being translated into
more, bigger and more heavily
laden ships, all of which place
great demands on the Canal's hu-
man and material resources. Dur-

ing fiscal year 1995, Panamax ves-


volumes of u and

specialzed cargo are being

translatedd into more,

bigger and more heavily

laden Saps.

sels (vessels having beams of 100
feet and over) set a new record,
with an increase of nearly 12 per-
cent over fiscal year 1994 levels,
having reached 3,349 transits,
which represents almost 27 per-
cent of total oceangoing transits
at the Canal.
The trade-led economic expan-
sion in the United States, Europe
and Latin America and the excep-


4,500 -]







35.0 '

.000 ---
1992 1993 1994
Prepared by: Ecomic Reearch & Market
Development Dmaion (EPEM). 8/24195

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Fiscal Year

tionally high shipments of grain
to the Far East should result in
record levels of traffic and tolls
revenue in fiscal year 1995. Cur-
rent patterns suggest a continua-

tion of strong performance into
early fiscal year 1996; however,
growth rates are anticipated to
return to more moderate, sustain-
able levels as the year progresses.

Moderate, steady trade growth

forecast for upcoming years

Market forecasting is a very
specialized field, with predic-
tions arrived at by analyzing a
broad range of complex factors,
including interviews with
Panama Canal customers.
The forecast for fiscal year
1996 calls for Canal trade to
remain strong, but below the
unusually high levels achieved
in the current year. The slight
decrease in Canal trade is ex-
pected as a result of slowing
U.S. economic and trade growth
and the continued recession in
Potential reductions are ex-
pected in containerized cargo,
in the refrigerated trades, in coal
and in automobiles. As a result

of these developments, traffic
and tolls revenue in fiscal year
1996 are estimated at 13,235
transits, or 36.2 daily, PC/UMS
net tons at 211 million and tolls
revenue at $451 million.
A modest upturn in Canal
trade is expected in fiscal year
1997, with total oceangoing
transits rising slightly to 13,410,
or 36.7.daily, PC/UMS reach-
ing approximately 214 million
and tolls revenue totaling $459.3
million. Over the longer term,
growth in Canal traffic and tolls
revenue is projected to average
1.9 to 2 percent annually, al-
though significant variations
can and will occur on a year-to-
year basis.

Page 3

(First eleven months-FY 1995)



Prepared by: Economic Research & Market Development Division (EPEM), 9/22/95



Panama Canal Spillway supplement

Friday, October 6, 1995

Theodore Roosevelt visits Panama in November 1906,

makes whirlwind tour of Canal construction sites

By Janet Len-Rios

Roosevelt recognizes special spirit

related to Panama Canal construction

"Next to a man's home life, the
thing best worth while doing, is
something that counts, not only for
himself but for the country at large,
and that is the kind of thing you are
doing, and I hope that the spirit
already here will grow even greater,
such as will make each man identify
himself with his work and do it in
such shape, that in the future it will
only be necessary to say ofany man,
'He was connected with the digging
of the Panama Canal,' to confer a
patent of nobility upon that man."
These words, spoken by Presi-
dent Theodore Roosevelt in a
speech at the Culebra Adminis-
tration Building in mid-Novem-
ber 1906, during his only visit to
Panama, are official recognition
of the early development at the
Panama Canal of the special spirit
of which he speaks, a spirit that
has long been known to flourish
here, not just during construction
days, but over the years since the
waterway officially opened to
world shipping. It is this spirit,
still alive and well today, that will
facilitate a smooth transfer of the
Panama Canal from U.S. to Pana-

ou are doing the

b4est t o/ tde

hind that hai ever

een Lone.

manian control at noon on De-
cember 31, 1999, and ensure its
continued safe and efficient op-
eration into the next century.
Work on the Panama Canal
was off to a good start at the time
of Roosevelt's November 1906
visit to the Isthmus of Panama. In
an address, he referred to the im-
portance of the trip, saying, "It
was without precedent for a presi-
dent to come across the water
from the United States, but I de-
termined to ignore this unwritten
law because this job was without
Unlike now, with Air Force
One, trips then were long ship
voyages, taking a president away
from his duties for a number of
days, including the several days
travel time necessary each way,
even to a place as "near" as Panama.
Roosevelt, a young and ener-
getic president who already pos-
sessed a reputation for a love of
adventure (among other activities
he led his famous volunteer cav-
alry troop, the "Rough Riders,"
in Cuba during the Spanish-
American war), is reported to have
thoroughly enjoyed his visit to

Panama and the Canal construc-
tion site. On many occasions, he
stopped his official train to get
off, inspect equipment and work
and talk to workers in the field,
being greatly impressed with both
the work and the employees vis-
The Canal project had gotten
a lot of bad press in the United
States and Europe during previ-
ous years. Reports of disease and
bad conditions on the Isthmus
and the resignation of first Canal
Chief Engineer John F. Wallace
had been amplified by Canal
naysayers. Criticism during the
year before the president's Canal
visit, according to Isthmian Canal
Commission Secretary Joseph
Bucklin Bishop in his book
"Panama Gateway," had been es-
pecially venomous. "There
seemed to be behind it powerful
influences which were determined
to prevent the construction of the
canal," Bishop says, and quotes
Roosevelt as saying about such
"American slanderers" (as opposed
to "foreign slanderers," for whom
he had "no concern"), "I feel for
them the heartiest contempt and
indignation; because, in a spirit of
wanton dishonesty and malice,
they are trying to interfere with,
and hamper the execution of, the
greatest work of the kind ever
attempted and are seeking to bring
to naught the efforts of their coun-
trymen to put to the credit of
America one of the giant feats of
the ages."
Roosevelt was thus under-
standably very pleased to see the
great strides that had been made
regarding the Canal project, espe-
cially in working conditions, un-
der the supervision of then Chief
Engineer John F. Stevens and
Chief Sanitation Officer Dr. Wil-
liam Crawford Gorgas.
Most of the public remarks
Roosevelt made praising the work
force during the short three-day
visit were addressed to the North
American sector, because, after
all, he was their president. But, as
we shall see, he was concerned
about the welfare of all of the
work force.
"You are doing the biggest
thing of the kind that has ever
been done, and I am thankful that
I shall be able to take back to the
United States the message that its
big sons are carrying themselves
so well here that I can absolutely
guarantee the success of the mighty
work which they are doing," he
In extolling the Canal project
he wanted to be sure that both his
sincerity and the momentousness
of the task were understood and
"Now I want you to realize
that I never say, on the stump or
off the stump, anything that I do

Roosevelt is greeted by Panama President ManuelAmador Guerrero at Panama City's Cathedral Plaza.
Panamanian men on horseback are dressed as "Rough Riders" in Roosevelt's honor.

not absolutely mean, and to un-
derstand that I am weighing my
words well when I say that you
here who are doing your work
well in bringing to completion
this great enterprise, are standing
exactly as a soldier of the few great
wars of the world's history. This
is one of the great works of the
world. It is a greater work than
you yourselves at the moment
In one of his speeches, Roose-
velt acknowledged that the em-
ployees would have difficulties to
contend with in the work, then
got laughter and applause when
he added, "I notice, myself, that it
occasionally rains."
The Colon Independent of
November 14, 1906, ran a front-
page article anticipating the
Roosevelt visit. "Three days," it
said, "is too brief a space in which
to look into the present condition
of the stupendous enterprise of
which he is the virtual head. It is
to be feared, for example, that he
will fail, as Mr. Taft (William
Howard Taft, then Roosevelt's
Secretary of War) failed, to take a
look at Colon."
They needn't have worried.
According to reports, Roose-
velt's phenomenal energy and
desire to see absolutely everything
- steam shovel operations and
blasting in the deepest part of then
Culebra (now Gaillard) Cut; the
Gatun Dam site; Panama Bay and
its islands; the locks sites; Canal
construction offices at Culebra;
machine shops, planing mills and
foundries at Matachin; and much
more most of it in pouring rain
- simply wore out much of his

entourage. But the president was
bothered not a bit.
Canal Chief Engineer John F.
Stevens, also a man who liked to
be out in the field, accompanied
the president on these excursions,
"personally explaining the prog-
ress of construction and the diffi-
culties of the undertaking yet to
be overcome."
Flag-decorated tugs, dredges
and other floating equipment in
Panama Bay saluted the president
with whistles when he took his
tour around the islands, and he
was greeted by lusty cheers from
the crews of American steamers.


"his is one ofothe

great work of te

world. It is a reater

worn than you

yourselves at the

moment realize.

Roosevelt took considerable
time and particular interest in in-
specting the living conditions of
the laborers, going inside their
homes and listening to their prob-
The New York Times of No-
vember 18, 1906, reports that at
Colon on the previous day "Presi-
dent Roosevelt mounted a horse,
and, accompanied by Chief Engi-

neer Stevens and other canal offi-
cials and Secret Service men, gal-
loped over the entire town." The
president reportedly said he would
look into the laborers' chief com-
plaint, that of a "scarcity of West
Indian food" and also promised
other needed improvements, such
as kitchens, baths and paved
The previous day he had left
his special inspection train to visit
laborers at Rio Grande along the
Canal, inspecting their sleeping
and living quarters and making an
impromptu stop at the commis-
sary, all in pouring rain. He re-
turned to his train "wet through
and spattered with mud."
The president was greeted with
enthusiasm by everyone every-
where he went. Official welcomes
were gay with bunting, flags,
palms and the cheering of crowds.
At stops along the Canal con-
struction line, the "Star Spangled
Banner" and other patriotic songs
were sung by schoolchildren. In
Culebra Cut, he was given a salute
with 21 dynamite blasts and, in
Colon, the water system was
shown off by opening 21 fire hy-
drants to shoot 21 giant streams of
water so high they topped the
The Star and Herald reports
on President Roosevelt's arrival
in Panama City.
"Central Avenue was deco-
rated along its entire length by
arches, flags and lanterns and the
district around the Cathedral was
gay with vari-colored streamers,
the United States and Panama
national emblems being every-
where conspicuous.

Page 4


Friday. October 6. 1995

Panama Canal Spillway supplement

"The park and the contiguous
buildings were ablaze with color
and designs expressive of welcome.
The steps and landing of the Ca-
thedral were decorated by a
canopy resplendent with bright
tints, but there was an absence of
gorgeousness or elaborate display,
the chaste simplicity of the im-
provised platform being quite in
keeping with the unostentatious
character of the President."
In a speech delivered at Cathe-
dral Plaza, the New York Times
reports Roosevelt as expressing
his "affection for the young coun-
try," and saying that work on the
Canal was "being performed wor-
thily" and that his "only desire
was to see the republic increase in
wealth and prosperity until it be-
came a republic whose history
was reflected upon the entire
world as a land of liberty and
order." Finally, he "voiced a warn-
ing against revolution" and re-
marked upon the "beauty and fer-
tility of Panama, for which he
prophesied a great future."
Security precautions taken for

*Ir* f*^

On many occasionS

he stopped zis

official train to

get off inspect

equipment and

work andlath a to

employee in the 1 ield.

the three-day presidential visit
were extensive, at least for those
days. Searches were made of all
steamers arriving at the Isthmus
and "suspicious characters" were
imprisoned until after the presi-
dent's departure. "Known anar-
chists" in both Panama and the
United States were arrested. The
police of Panama City, Colon and
the Panama Canal Zone worked
together with the American Se-
cret Service to ensure presidential
safety. As a result, no untoward
events were reported (or, perhaps,
nothing would have happened
In addition to his hectic tour
of the Canal project, President
and Mrs. Roosevelt were officially
greeted and entertained on a grand
scale, being welcomed by Panama
President and Mrs. Manuel
Amador Guerrero and hosted at
various lunches, receptions, din-
ners and banquets, including a
gala reception and dance in the
"spacious parlors of the Commer-
cial Club," which, according to an
account in the November 19,1906,
Star and Herald, was a most el-
egant and well-attended affair.
Guests included "the flower of
Panama's youth and beauty" in
"all its bloom," which "mixed
freely with Panama Government
and Canal officials, the officers of
the marine battalion stationed at
Bas Obispo, and many other
prominent gentlemen and ladies
of Panama and Colon." Music

was provided by an 11-member
orchestra from the Hamburg-
American steamer Prinz Eitel
Friederich, and the club entrance
was "brilliantly illuminated by the
numerous electric lights which
studded the framework of the
door, and the stairway leading up
to the club rooms and the rooms
themselves were tastefully deco-
rated with bunting, American and
Panamanian flags entwined, palm
and festoons of evergreens and
tropical flowers, which made the
air heavy with their rich perfume."
Guests began arriving at 10 p.m.
and at 11 p.m., amidst "tremen-
dous cheering," the presidents
entered the room, President
Roosevelt escorting Mrs. Amador
and President Amador escorting
Mrs. Roosevelt.
After much handshaking, wel-
coming words and conversation,
President and Mrs. Roosevelt ex-
cused themselves and returned to
their hotel, leaving the other guests
to dance until 4 in the morning.
Roosevelt and his party stayed
at the old Tivoli Hotel, which
stood in Ancon on the site now
occupied by the Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute. This
was the first time the hotel had
been used, as construction wasn't
quite finished. The Roosevelt
party occupied the wing of the
hotel that was most nearly com-
pleted, and, following the visit, it
was closed again until its formal
opening on January 1, 1907. The
rooms stayed in by President and
Mrs. Roosevelt were thereafter
called the "Presidential Suite."
President and Mrs. Roosevelt
and their party departed from
Cristobal on the evening of Satur-
day, November 17, aboard the
U.S.S. Louisiana.
In mid-December, in a written
special message, Roosevelt pre-
sented a detailed report to Con-
gress on his trip to Panama. Thou-
sands of copies.were printed. To
again quote Joseph Bucklin

A famous Rooseveltphotograph shows the president seated inside a 95-ton Bucyrus steam shovel at work near the
site ofPedro Miguel Locks, questioning the engineer to learn about the controls.

Bishop, "The message had a wide
circulation throughout the United
States and in Europe, and was of
incalculable value in placing be-
fore the world the truth about
conditions on the isthmus. The
position and character of its au-
thor commanded for it universal
attention and unquestioning ac-

A 42-year-old Theodore Roosevelt becamepresident ofthe United States in
September 1901, following the assassination of William McKinley.

"It is not the critic who counts, not the man
who points out how the strong man stumbled, or
where the doer of deeds could have done them
better. The credit belongs to the man who is
actually in the arena; whose face is marred by
dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly,
who errs and comes short again and again; who
knows the great enthusiasms, the great devo-
tions, and spends himself in a worthy cause; who,
at the best, knows in the end the triumph of high
achievement; and who, at the worst, if he fails,
at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place
shall never be with those cold and timid souls
who know neither victory nor defeat."
Theodore Roosevelt

A bronze plaque bearing this quotation is mounted in the rotunda of the
Panama Canal Administration Building.

Canal Record reports keen Roosevelt

appreciation of Panama Canal effort

In a September 5, 1907, reply to a September 4 note from Chief
Engineer Col. George W Goethals on August Canal excavation progress,
President Theodore Roosevelt praises the Canal work force.
"I heartily congratulate you and all the men on the Canal for (the)
extraordinary showing you have made during the month of August.
As this is the height of the rainy season, I had not for a moment
supposed you would be able to keep up your already big record of
work done, and I am as surprised as I am pleased that you should have
surpassed it."
The following excerpt quotes from an August 21, 1908, letter of
appreciation written by President Roosevelt to a special committee ap-
pointed to investigate conditions on the Isthmus ofPanama.
"The success has literally been astounding. Five years ago when we
undertook the task, no sane man would have dared hoped for the
results which have already been achieved. The work itself has been
greatly advanced and the rapidity of the rate of progress has steadily


- -r ''

Panama Canal Spillway supplement

Friday, October 6, 1995

Manuel Amador Guerrero: Physician, revolutionary and Panama's first president

By Myrna A. Iglesias
The first president of the Re-
public of Panama, Dr. Manuel
Amador Guerrero, earned his
place in history not simply for
this fact, but for his leadership in
the November 1903 revolution-
ary movement that brought inde-
pendence to Panama from Co-
Amador made the decision to
act at a time, toward the end of the
last century, when hope for the
prosperity and well-being of Pana-
manians was flagging. Those
hopes had been pinned on the
opening of a canal through Pana-
manian territory by the French,
an effort that, for all practical pur-
poses at the time, had failed.
An unlikely revolutionary,
Amador had passed his 70th birth-
day at the time he brought about
the independence of Panama, but

An aniihe

revolutionary, mardo

hadpaised hiL 70th

birthdaY at the time he

even at that age, he retained the
vitality and enthusiasm of youth,
a fact that kept him going during
difficult days as he conspired, trav-
eled, suffered disappointments and
encountered obstacles.
Amador was born into a
prominent family in Turbaco,
Colombia, near Cartagena de
Indias, on June 30, 1833. Edu-
cated at the University of Carta-
gena, he received a degree as doc-
tor in medicine and surgery at the

Maria Ossa de Amador

age of 22. He later moved to so
Colon, where he began his medi- Pa
cal practice, and from there to w;
Panama City, where he resided m
permanently from then on. He ki
married Maria Ossa, who came tic
from a distinguished Panamanian
family. A:
In addition to his private medi- in
cal practice, Amador served as set
physician for the Panama Rail- wi
road Company and devoted many hc

paid hours to charitable work
Santo Tomais Hospital.
When Panama had broken ties
ith Spain in 1821, it had been a
atter of discussion whether the
:hmus should join Peru or the
ite of Gran Colombia, just cre-
ed by liberator Sim6n Bolivar.
he Panamanian people, im-
ressed by the heroic achieve-
ents of the liberator, decided to
in Colombia.
In 1890, it became evident that
e French company that had be-
in the construction of an inter-
:eanic canal across Panama
ould be unable to finish it within
e stipulated concession time. By
en, construction was almost
Ltirely suspended and a terrible
onomic lethargy was setting in
a the Isthmus. Panama, directly
fected by the crisis and hoping
at extension of the French con-
ssion might enable them to re-
ganize and finish the work so
tal to the economic life of the
country, dispatched a delegation
Bogota. The Colombian gov-
nment agreed to a ten-year ex-
nsion, to begin in 1894, but the
rench enterprise was already too
verely debilitated and its capital
:hausted by heavy expenditures
ring the early years.
When all hope was lost that
e French company might be
ble to finish the canal, people
came firmly convinced that
ere was only one recourse, only
ie nation in the world with suf-
:ient resources to carry out the
ork of uniting the two oceans -
Id that was the United States.
Passage of the Spooner bill
ithorized the president of the
nited States to negotiate a treaty
ith Colombia for the construc-
on of a Panama canal and, if an
reement with that nation should
)t be reached, to initiate negotia-
tions for construc-
Stion of a canal
across Nicaragua.
These negotia-
07 tions culminated
'. / Treaty, which, af-
S- -' ter long debate in
Colombia and
Panama, was fi-
S nally rejected by
Colombia in Au-
gust 1903.
historian Ricardo
J. Alfaro says in
an article in "The
Pan American
Union" that it
would be a mis-
take to consider
the rejection of
the Hay-Herran
Treaty as the sole
and exclusive rea-
n for the independence of
nama, but that "No doubt it
as the cause which started the
ovement, the spark which
ndled anew the spirit of separa-
on on the Isthmus."
A group of patriots, led by
mador, joined in a plan to gain
dependence. Amador was cho-
n to sail to New York to meet
ith U.S. officials to learn just
ow they would react to Panama's

Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero was inaugurated as Panama'sfirst president on February 20, 1904, at age 70. A
medical doctor, he servedfor many years as chief physician for the Panama Railroad Company.

daring and subversive plans.
This complex and sensitive
mission, filled with intrigue, ten-
sion and suspense, succeeded in
securing backing for Amador and
his group. Events moved quickly
after that and culminated in an
independence movement that
took place at 5 p.m. on November
3, 1903, a day ahead of that origi-
nally planned, and without spill-
ing a drop of blood. A jubilant
population had attained a most-
wanted desire, and Panama was
free to negotiate a treaty with the
United States for construction of
a canal.
Thanks to the intelligence,
courage and energy with which
Amador headed, directed and con-
summated the separatist move-
ment, the Republic of Panama
came into the family of nations.
Even though he was not a profes-
sional politician, Amador's ac-
tivities as a member of the Con-
servative Party brought him im-
portant public posts, which he
performed in conjunction with
the practice of medicine, at which
he showed great skill and through
which he earned position, fame
and fortune. After Panama gained
.independence, Amador was
elected president, serving a four-
year term beginning in 1904.
Historian Alfaro says that
looking at the work of Amador as
first president of Panama, viewed
through the perspective of time
and remembering what Panama
was in 1904 and the changes that
had taken place by 1908 amidst
the scarcity of resources of all
kinds with which Amador car-
ried out the difficult task of orga-

nizing the republic, "one feels that
posterity cannot fully render hom-
age to the memory of that strong,
upright old man."
While president of the Repub-
lic of Panama, Amador received
visits from the three most illustri-
ous American public men of the
time: William H. Taft, then Sec-
retary of War; Secretary of State
Elihu Root; and Theodore
Roosevelt, the first president of
the United States to set foot on
foreign soil while holding that
The November 16, 1906, edi-
tion of the New York Times
quotes Amador saying in a speech
delivered at Cathedral Plaza in
Panama City to welcome Presi-

dent Roosevelt to Panama that his
visit was an "additional cause for
the love and respect of the Panama
people." According to the article,
"He called President Roosevelt
the commander in chief of the
Panama-American forces, allied
to perform the greatest engineer-
ing feat in the world and said that
in the hearts of his people there
dwelt the indelible memory that
in President Roosevelt they had
found in the past a generous de-
His term of office finished,
Amador returned to the peace of
his home to rest from his labors.
He died on May 2, 1909, admired
by his fellow citizens and respected
by his adversaries.

Colon's 1870 Washington House rebuilt

as Spanish-style Washington Hotel

A bit of Colon history is embodied in the following note from the April
5, 1911, issue of the Canal Record, which discusses construction plans for
the Washington Hotel. The original Washington House referred to was
built by the Panama Railroad Company around 1870, and U.S. President
William Howard Taft is the president mentioned in the article.
The first signature on the register following the opening of the hotel,
dated Thursday, March 13, 1913, was that of Vincent Astor, New York
real estate magnate, businessman and publisher ofNewsweek magazine.
Capt. C.B. Fenton, who started the C.B. Fenton & Co. Inc. shipping
agency, was a resident ofthe hotelfor many years, originally checking into
one of its three guest suites in February 1916.
In accordance with a plan agreed upon by the President on his visit
to the Isthmus in November, 1910, the Panama Railroad Company
will construct a new hotel in Colon, on the site occupied by the present
Washington House and adjacent buildings. It is probable that the
material will be reinforced concrete. B.G. Goodhue of the firm of
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, which has charge of the additions to the
Military Academy at West Point, has been requested to confer with the
President of the railroad company with regard to plans. Mr. Goodhue
has made a study of Spanish architecture and it is probable that the new
hotel will be of that class.

Pare 6

-0-- ,, -- -- c



Suplemento especial para el cierre del aiio fiscal 1995

LV -

.1-11 --

I I -

- ------~-----~--

:~c;; ~ii i-a



Pagina 2

Litografias de Pennell

captan esencia de la



Canal de Panama,

La maravilla, aventuray magni-
tud del esfuerzo de la construcci6n
del Canal de Panama fueron
captadas para la posteridad en los
dibujos realizados en 1912 por
Joseph Pennell. Copias de sus
dieciseis litografias se exhiben
permanentemente en el segundo
piso de la rotonda del Edificio de
Administraci6n, en Altos de
Pennell temia haber llegado al
Canal demasiado tarde para
observar la construcci6n en todo
su esplendor. Pero, lleg6 en el
momento justo para captarel poder
y la vitalidad del proyecto. Los
trabajos aun continuaban a toda
maquina cuando desembarc6 en
Crist6bal en enero.

Pennell era un

ilustrador americano


de la epoca dorada
de la ilustracion.
En el Canal, una serie de es-
tructuras gigantescas casi termi-
nadas, pero aun sin agua, mostra-
ban su grandeza y resistencia. La
materia prima de la construcci6n,
el medio ambiente tropical y la
tierra misma habian cedido a rega-
fiadientes ante el hombre, cuyo
poder no sblo estaba en el numero
(porque la presencia del hombre
era abrumadora), sino en el cono-
cimiento para combatir y aprove-
char las fuerzas de la naturaleza y
disefiar, construiry usar maquinas
para lograr esta hazafia de constru-
cci6n y operaci6n. Y todo eso lo
transmiti6 Pennell en sus pinturas.
El artista escribi6 sobre su
trabajo: "...es la cosa mas mara-
villosadelmundo; yhetratadode
expresar esto en mis dibujos en el
momento previo a su apertura,
pues cuando sea inaugurado, y
entren las aguas, la mitad de las
impresionantes masas de cemento
quedaran bajo las aguas en un lado
y llenas de tierra en el otro, y lo
pintoresco se habra desvanecido".
Ciertamente, no se desvaneci6
por completo, pues quienes ven el
Canal hoy siguen creyendo en su
La obra de Pennell puede
quitarle a uno el aliento, pues las
escenas muestran de manera
vivida, no s61o el enorme tamaiio
de una camara y compuerta de las
esclusas, sino la fragilidad contras-
tante de lafigura humana, trabajan-
do en esta colosal masa de concreto
y acero, o en la profundidad de la
impresionante garganta que es el
Corte Culebra (Gaillard). Un po-
deroso dibujo refleja la tenacidad
yespiritude aventurade lostrabaja-

dores, quienes, en vez de usar la es-
calera proporcionada, se agarran
de manera temeraria de una grua
para ser elevados a la hora de la
salida desde el fondo de una camara
de las esclusas.
Y luego estan los paisajes...
Aunque pintados en tonos
negros y blancos, Pennell muestra
tan bien la atm6sfera especial de
Panama que sus dibujos parecen
tener colores vivos, emitiendo un
sentido casi tangible de luz y
calor, y las penetrantes esencias
de la tierra recien excavada y la
selva humeante.
Pennell, nacido en 1857 de
padres cuaqueros, se cri6 en Fila-
delfia: hijo uinico de padres que
no le demostraron mayor afecto.
Era un nifio solitario, tranquilo,
sensible y delgado, por lo que lo
llamaban "el Flaco Pennell". A-
parentaba no ser infeliz e invent
su propio entretenimiento, dibu-
jando en cualquier pedazo de
papel disponible para ilustrar
sus propias historias. Extrafia-
mente, los heroes de estas histo-
rias solian ser soldados. Una
biograffa escrita por su esposa,
Elizabeth Robbins Pennell,
cuenta que aprendi6 a apreciar
el buen ingles leyendo las
Sagradas Escrituras, tanto en la
congregacion como en su casa.
Se gradu6 en 1876 de la
Escuela Germantown's Friends
y trabaj6 como oficinista en una
compafila de carb6n, asistiendo de
noche a la Escuela de Arte In-

dustrial. El arte, especialmente
como una carrera, era desaprobado
entonces y considerado casi
pecaminoso. No obstante, Pennell
estudi6, dibuj6 y ley6. Tambien
intent vender caricaturas y, en
una ocasion, se esmero mucho con
la esperanza de hacer y vender un
dibujo a un peri6dico. Renunci6 a
su trabajo de oficinistaparadedicar
mas tiempo al arte. Dibujaba de
todo y salia los domingos a dibujar
con un grupo de estudiantes.
Pennell se interesaba en acti-
vidades deportivas. En el invier-
no esquiaba, y en otras epocas
del afio montaba bicicleta. Era
miembro active de la Liga de
Pedalistas Americanos y del Club
de Ciclismo de Germantown.
Pero, mas que nada, Pennell
estaba dedicado a su trabajo ar-
tistico y a convertirse en ilustra-
dor. Esta era su verdadera diver-

si6n. Y pas6 mucho tiempo antes
de que el mundo reconociera su
La litografia se convirtib en su
medio elegido, y domin6 tan bien
sus aspectos artisticos y tecnicos
que su posterior libro sobre la
materia, "Litografia y Lit6grafos",
se convirti6 en un clasico para
Pennell era un ilustrador
americano importante (quizis el
mis importante) durante la 6po-
ca dorada de la ilustraci6n. Fue
amigo del artista norteamericano
James Abbott McNeil Whistler, y
se emociono en 1900 cuando se
le encomend6 escribir "La Vida de
Whistler", proyecto con el que
estuvo sumamente entusiasmado,
tanto por su carifio aWhistler como
por su admiraci6n y respeto por el
trabajo del artista. Pidi6 a su
esposa, colaboradora frecuen-te,
que escribiera el libro con el.
Pennell era un viajero aventu-
rero. Viviendo en Londres, viaj6
por toda Europa -Inglaterra,
Espafia, Italia, Grecia, Francia y
otros paises- al igual que por los
Estados Unidos y, por supuesto,
vino a Panama. Ciclista Avido,
pedale6 por todos lados llevando
consigo pluma y tinta, paleta de
aguafuerte y aguja, para hacer
los dibujos que ilustrarian doce-
nas de publicaciones. Su esposa
era con frecuencia su compafiera
de viaje, al igual que la coautora
de muchos de los libros que
escribieron juntos.
Cuando Pennell conoci6 por
la motocicleta, fue amor a primera
vista. Manej6 una por los Alpes en
el verano de 1900, de lo cual surgi6
mis tarde un articulo (1904), "En
los Alpes en motocicleta".
Por esto no es de extrafiar que
Pennell tuviera tanto interest en
la gran aventura que era (y es) el
Canal de Panama. Fue su idea
venir a Panama, y no sabia si seria
bien recibido o lanzado por las
autoridades del Canal. Por su-
puesto que fue bien recibido, y
obtuvo mucha ayuda, particu-
larmente del Secretario de la
Comisi6n del Canal Istmico,

Vieres 6 de octubre de 1995

Joseph Bucklin Bishop, para
realizar su trabajo.
En el "Catilogo de una Ex-
posici6n (19 de septiembre a 12 de
octubre de 1912) de Litografias y
Bosquejos del Canal de Panama",
de Joseph Pennell, se publican
cartas a Pennell del Ingeniero Jefe
del Canal de Panama, George W.
Goethals y de Bishop.
"No puedo expresar con
palabras el placer que me dan
estos dibujos", escribi6 Goethals,
"pues ilustran tan clara, fuerte y
vividamente el trabajo, y.retratan
las condiciones reales con tal
fuerza que no crei pudiera
proyectarse en un dibujo".
Bishop escribi6, "Tengo su
carta contandome que el gobier-
no de Washington ha comprado
un juego completo de sus litogra-
fias de Panama. Esta es una noti-
cia gloriosa y es un recono-
cimiento valioso de un gran
artista y un gran trabajo, pues
estoy seguro que estas impresio-
nes estaran entre las mejores
cosas que ha hecho alguna vez.
Usted vio el trabajo como nadie
ha tenido los ojos y el cerebro
para verlo, excepto, por supuesto,
quienes estan involucrados en
el. Estoy encantado de que este
sea el resultado".
Varias de las litografias de
Pennell ilustran este articulo,
pero para apreciar mejor el
trabajo del artista se pueden
observar los trabajos exhibidos
en el Edificio de Administraci6n.
Ademas, todos pueden apreciarse
en el Centro de Recursos Tecnicos
del Canal, en el libro titulado
"Los Dibujos de Joseph Pennell
Sobre el Canal de Panami".

Suplemento del Spillway del Canal de Panama

Una escena de madrugada en el Corte Gaillard en Paraz'so muestra vestigios de neblina a lo largo del Canal
en elpunto donde el viejoferrocarril cruzaba el lecho del Canal.

Trabajadores construyen elpiso en las Esclusas de Pedro Miguel. El
bosquejo a la derecha es de Pennelly su esposa en bicicleta.

_ ~I_ ~IP_ ~ _ ~ ~


Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

Suplemento del Spillway del Canal de Panami

El Canal de Panama alcanzara niveles records este aFio

La mayoria de los elementos
importantes del trafico por el Canal
de Panami han mostrado un in-
cremento continuo y pronunciado
en los primeros once meses del afio
fiscal 1995, y se espera alcanzar ni-
veles records hist6ricos una vez se
haya hecho el balance final anual.
Este patr6n es el resultado del fuerte
desempefio del afio fiscal 1994,
que revirti6 la tendencia declinante
de los iltimos dos afios.
Se estima que el total de trin-
sitos de alto calado ascenderd a
13,633 para cuando sean recopila-
das las cifras al final del afio fiscal
1995. Las toneladas netas del Siste-
ma Universal de Medici6n del Ca-
nal de Panama (PC/UMS) deberin
totalizar 214 millones, con ingresos
por peajes estimados en al menos
$460 millones.
Durante los once primeros me-
ses del afio fiscal 1995, el transito
de naves de alto calado aument6
cerca del 9 por ciento, y el tonelaje
neto PC/UMS y los ingresos por
peajes aumentaron en mis del 10
por ciento. Estos niveles records
se produjeron por un fuerte aumento
del 11.2 por ciento en el tonelaje de
carga comercial, causado princi-
palmente por movimientos mayo-
res de carga a granel y productos
especializados a nivel mundial.

Por noveno ano

consecuiwo, los yranos

permanecen como el

principalproducto en

terminos de tonelaje.

Por noveno afio consecutivo, el
volatil comercio de granos perma-
nece como el principal producto en
el Canal en t6rminos de tonelaje,
aumentando 27.7 por ciento para
40 millones de toneladas en lo que
va del afio fiscal. Dentro de este to-
tal, el mafz ha registrado un aumen-
to notable de casi 50 por ciento,
para 22 millones de toneladas
durante este periodo de once meses,
convirti6ndose en el principal pro-
ducto que transita el Canal en la
actualidad. No se habia observado
una actividad del mafz tan fuerte
desde 1983, cuando se alcanz6 un
nivel maximo de 21.6 millones. La
creciente demanda del maiz de los
Estados Unidos se origin por las
sequfas y las condiciones climdticas
adversas que afectaron a las
naciones productoras de granos,
como Australia y China, lo cual las

Barcos de todas partes del mundo y llevando todo tipo de productos transitan el Canal. Estafoto muestra un dia ttpico en las Esclusas de Gattin. Se
espera que las cifras finales del ano fiscal de 1995 establezcan niveles records histdricos.

oblig6 a comprar a los Estados
Unidos, que ha tenido muy buenas
cosechas en los iltimos afios. Esta
situaci6n tambi6n ha permitido a
los Estados Unidos absorber una
parte del mercado normalmente
abastecido por estos paises. El
mafz atraviesa el Canal de Panama
proveniente de la Costa del Golfo
de los Estados Unidos y con rumbo
al Lejano Oriente, particularmente
Jap6n, Corea y China.
Excepto por el trigo y el petr6-
leo, que disminuyeron en un 2 y 6

ECmaiz ed elprincipal

producto que trandita e


por ciento, respectivamente, todos
los otros grupos principales de pro-
ductos han mostrado incrementos
de 3 por ciento o mas, al compa-
rdrseles con el mismo period del
afio fiscal 1994. Por ejemplo, la
carga refrigerada ha aumentado en
casi 16 por ciento, principalmente
como resultado del aumento en el
embarque de bananos ecuatorianos
hacia Europa. Otro grupo impor-
tante de productos, carb6n y coque,

refleja incrementos
de casi 24 por cien-
to, principalmente
por el aumento en los
embarques de carb6n
del oeste de Canada
hacia Europa para ser
usados en la gene-
raci6n de energia.
Los productos de
hierro y acero tam-
bi6n han aumentado
por encima del 15 por
ciento, reflejando la
recuperaci6n de la
economia de los
Estados Unidos al
importar estos pro-
ductos desdeel lejano

El volumen casi
record de carga a
granel y especializada se traduce
en una mayor cantidad de barcos,
mis grandes y cargados, que crea
una mayor demanda en los recursos
humanos y materiales del Canal.
Durante el afio fiscal de 1995, los
buques Panamax (barcos con

oioamenes casi ,rcorl Le

cara a granetu

especializada inifican

mayor cantidad de arcos

grande mds caryados.

mangas de 100 pies o mis)
establecieron un nuevo record, con
3,349 transitos, un aumento de casi
12 por ciento sobre los niveles del
afio fiscal 1994, representando casi
el 27 por ciento de todos los
trinsitos de alto calado del Canal.
El desarrollo econ6mico en los
Estados Unidos, Europa y Am6rica
Latina y los excepcionalmente nu-
merosos embarques de granos para
el Lejano Oriente deberdn producir
niveles records de transitos e ingre-

sos por peajes en el afio fiscal 1995.
Los patrones actuales indican que
este desempefio fuerte continuara
hasta el inicio del afio fiscal 1996.

Sin embargo, se espera que los ni-
veles de crecimiento regresen.a
niveles mas moderados y sosteni-
bles a medida que progrese el afio.

Las proyecciones indican un

incremento comercial moderado

La proyecci6n de mercados
es un campo muy especializado
que involucra analizar una amplia
gama de factores complejos,
incluyendo entrevistas con los
usuarios del Canal de Panami.
Las proyecciones para el afio
1996 indican que el comercio
por el Canal se mantendri fuerte,
pero por debajo de los niveles
inusualmente altos alcanzados en
el presente afio. Se espera una
disminuci6n ligera del comercio
canalero, ocasionada por la dis-
minuci6n del ritmo de crecimien-
to econ6mico y comercial de los
Estados Unidos y larecesi6n con-
tinuadeJap6n. Seesperanreduc-
ciones potenciales de las cargas
contenerizadas y del comercio
de carga refrigerada, carb6n y

autom6viles. Se estima que el
trifico y los ingresos por peajes
para el afio fiscal 1996 seran de
13,235 trdnsitos, 6 36.2 diarios,
las toneladas netas PC/UMS de
unos 211 millones y los ingresos
por peajes de $451 millones.
Se espera un incremento mo-
derado del comercio por el Ca-
nal para el afio fiscal 1997, con
un total de casi 13,410 transitos,
6 36.7 diarios, unos 214 millones
de toneladas PC/UMS y un
ingreso total porpeajes de $459.3
millones. A largo plazo, el
crecimiento del trafico y los
ingresos por peajes se proyectan
a un promedio de 1.9 a 2 por
ciento anuales, aunque cada afio
pueden y se darn variaciones

Pigina 3

14.500T 40.0
0 -38.0

132,000 30
35.0 "
I 12.500 3 0.0


11.000 - ;---- 30.0

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Prepaado pw la Oivisin de lnvetigacin
Econma y Desarolo de Mecados (EPEM). Ano Fiscal

(Primeros once meses-AF 1995)



Preparado por la Divisi6n de Investigaci6n Econ6mica y Desarrollo de Mercados (EPEM), 22/9/95

Suplemento del Spillway del Canal de Panama

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

Theodore Roosevelt visita Panama en

1906 para

inspeccionar la construcci6n del canal transistmico

Por Janet Len-Rios

Roosevelt reconoce el espiritu de los

constructores del Canal de Panama Afl

"Despuds de la vida defamilia
del hombre, la cosa mds valiosa por
hacer es algo que lo beneficie, no sdlo
a el mismo, sino alpals en general, y
eso es lo que ustedes estdn haciendo,
y espero que este espiritu crezca au'n
mds, de manera que cada hombre se
identifique con su trabajo y lo haga
deforma tal, queen elfuturo sdlo sea
necesario decir de cada hombre, 'El
estuvo involucrado en la excavacidn
delCanaldePanama',para conferir
un grado de nobleza a ese hombre".
Estas palabras, pronunciadas
por el Presidente Theodore
Roosevelt a mediados, de no-
viembre de 1906 en un discurso en
el Edificio de Administraci6n del
Canal, en Culebra, constituyen el
reconocimiento oficial al espiritu
que existia durante los primeros
dias de la construction del Canal,
una actitud que ha crecido aqui
por mucho tiempo, no s61o durante
los afios de la construcci6n, sino a
traves de los afios desde que la via
acuitica abri6 sus puertas a la nave-
gacion mundial. Es este espiritu,
aun vivo y sano, lo que facilitara la
transferencia efectiva del control
estadounidense del Canal de
Panama a manos panamefias el

+ + * * ** + 77

&-tdn reaAlzando a

obra ma grande este

tipo jamda antes

intentada .

mediodia del 31 de diciembre de
1999, y asegurara la continuidad
de su operaci6n segura y eficiente
el pr6ximo siglo.
Los trabajos de construcci6n
del Canal de Panama ya habian
comenzado cuando el Presidente
Theodore Roosevelt visit6 el
Istmo a mediados de noviembre
de 1906. Enundiscurso, Roosevelt
se refiri6 a la importancia de este
viaje: "No hay precedente de que
un presidente viaje por mar desde
Estados Unidos, pero decidi igno-
rar esa ley no escrita porque esta
obra tampoco tiene precedente".
A diferencia de hoy dia en que
contamos con la Fuerza Aerea, los
viajes en barco en esa epoca eran
muy largos, y alejaban al presi-
dente de sus deberes durante mu-
chos dias, incluyendo los de ida y
vuelta, ain a un lugar tan "cerca-
no" como Panama.
Roosevelt, un presidente joven
y energico, que amaba la aventura
(entre otras cosas, dirigi6 la famosa
tropa montada "Rough Riders"
durante la guerra entre Estados
Unidos y Espafia, en Cuba), apa-
rentemente disfrut6 muchisimo
su visita a Panama y a los trabajos
de construcci6n del Canal. En

varias ocasiones, orden6 parar su
tren oficial para bajarse, ins-
peccionar el equipo y hablar con
los trabajadores. Roosevelt qued6
impresionado con la obra y sus
El proyecto del Canal habia
obtenido muy mala publicidad en
Estados Unidos y Europa en los
afios anteriores. Los informes de
las enfermedades y las malas con-
diciones en el Istmo, y la renuncia
del primer Ingeniero Jefe del Ca-
nal, John F. Wallace, habian sido
exagerados por los detractores del
Canal.. Las criticas durante el afio
anterior a la visita del presidente,
de acuerdo al Secretario de la Comi-'
si6n del Canal Istmico, Joseph
Bucklin Bishop en su libro
"Panama Gateway", habian sido
especialmente venenosas. "Pare-
cian apoyadas por personas influ-
yentes, determinadas a impedir la
construcci6n del Canal", dice
Bishop, y cita a Roosevelt refi-
riendose a estos "difamadores ame-
ricanos" (que no hay que confundir
con los "difamadores extran-
jeros"- que no le preocupaban):
"Siento por ellos el mas grande
desprecio e indignaci6n, porque,
con un espiritu desenfrenado de
deshonestidad y malicia, tratan de
interferir e interrumpir la ejecuci6n
de la obra mas grande de este tipo
jamis antes intentada, buscando
reducir a cero los esfuerzos de sus
compatriotas para acreditar a los
Estados Unidos con una de las mas
grandes hazafias de todos los
Es comprensible la satisfacci6n
de Roosevelt al ver los grandes
adelantos hechos en el proyecto
del Canal, especialmente las mejo-
ras en las condiciones de trabajo,
bajo la supervision del entonces
ingeniero jefe, John F. Stevens, y
del jefe de sanidad, Doctor Will-
iam Crawford Gorgas.
La mayoria de los comentarios
favorables que Roosevelt hizo para
destacar el trabajo de la fuerza la-
boral durante su cortavisita de tres
dias estaban dirigidos a los nortea-
mericanos, porque, despues de to-
do, e1 era su presidente. Pero, e1
estaba preocupado porel bienestar
de toda la fuerza laboral.
"Ustedes estan realizando la
obra mas grande de este tipo que
jamas haya sido intentada, y yo
estoy agradecido de poder llevar
de regreso a los Estados Unidos el
mensaje de que sus grandes hijos
estan logrando tanto aqui, que
puedo garantizar absolutamente
el exito del enorme trabajo que
estan haciendo", dijo.
Al elogiar el proyecto del Ca-
nal, Roosevelt queria estar seguro
de que tanto su sinceridad como la
grandeza de la obra, eran enten-
didas y apreciadas.
"Ahora quiero que se den cuenta
de que yo nunca digo, dentro o fue-
ra de mis discursos, algo que no

Roosevelt es bienvenido por el Presidente de Panamd, ManuelA mador Guerrero, en la Plaza de la Catedral en la
ciudad de Panamd. dJvenes panamefos a caballo se vistieron como "Rough Riders" en honor a Roosevelt.

pienso de verdad, y que entiendan
que yo estoy valorando mis
palabras cuando digo que ustedes
estan haciendo bien su trabajo, al
completar esta gran empresa,
exactamente como un soldado de
una de las grandes guerras en la
historia mundial. Esta es una de las
grandes obras mundiales. Es mas
grande de lo que ustedes mismos
puedan ahora comprender".
En uno de sus discursos,
Roosevelt reconoci6 que en su tra-
bajo los empleados enfrentarian
dificultades; entonces, provoc6
risas y aplausos cuando afiadi6,
"Yo mismo me di cuenta de que
Ilueve ocasionalmente".
El Independent de Col6n del 14
de noviembre de 1906, imprimi6
un articulo de primera plana anti-
cipando la visita de Roosevelt.
"Tres dias", decia, "es un periodo
muy corto para observar la condi-
ci6n actual de la estupenda empresa
que 'l encabeza. Es de temer, por
ejemplo, que el, como hizo elsefior
Taft (William Howard Taft,
Secretario de Guerra de Roosevelt),
no visite Col6n".
No debieron preocuparse.
De acuerdo a los informes, la
energia fenomenal de Roosevelt y
su deseo por ver todo la
operaci6n de una pala de vapor y
las explosiones en las profun-
didades del Corte Culebra (ahora
Gaillard); el sitio de la Represa de
Gatuin; la Bahia de Panama y sus
islas; las ubicaciones de las esclusas;
las oficinas de la construction en
Culebra; los talleres de maquinaria;
los aserraderos y fundidoras en
Matachin; y mucho mas la
mayoria de estas visitas en medio
de fuertes Iluvias simplemente

cans6 a su sequito. Pero el
presidente no mostr6 serial de
Elingenierojefe del Canal,John
F. Stevens, un hombre a quien
tambien le gustaba estar en los
sitios de trabajo, acompafi6 al
presidente en estas excursiones,
"explicando personalmente el
progreso de la construcci6n y las
dificultades ain por enfrentar".
Remolcadores, dragas y otro
equipo flotante, decorados con
banderas en la Bahia de Panama,
saludaron al Presidente con sus
sirenas al recorrer las islas. Ade-
mis, los trabajadores de los vapores
americanos dieron la bienvenida

%tda e.na da ,

grandes obra6 d mun o.

C md grande de que

udtedei mtlsmo6 puec/en

compren Jr

al Presidente con fuertes vitoras.
Roosevelt dedic6 un tiempo
considerable y mostr6 interns espe-
cial por conocer las condiciones
de vida de los trabajadores, visi-
tando sus casas y escuchandolos.
El New York Times del 18 de
noviembre de 1906 report6 que el
dia anterior en Col6n el "Pre-
sidente Roosevelt mont6 a caballo,
y, acompafiado por el Ingeniero
Jefe Stevens y otros funcionarios
del Canal y del Servicio Secreto,

galop6 por el pueblo entero".
Reportaron que el Presidente dijo
que examinaria la queja principal
de los trabajadores, "la escasez de
comida afroantillana", y ademas
prometi6 otras mejoras necesarias,
como cocinas, bafios y calles
El dia anterior Roosevelt habia
abandonado su tren de inspecci6n
para visitar a los trabajadores en
Rio Grande, a lo largo del Canal,
inspeccionando sus viviendas, y
haciendo una visita improvisada
al comisariato, todo bajo unafuerte
lluvia. Regreso al tren "totalmente
mojado y salpicado de lodo".
El presidente era saludado con
entusiasmo dondequiera que iba.
Las bienvenidas oficiales eran
alegres, con adornos colgantes,
banderas, palmas y las multitudes
vitoreando. En las paradas a lo
largo de la linea de construcci6n
del Canal, el himno "Star Spangled
Banner" y otras canciones patri6-
ticas eran cantadas por los nifios de
las escuelas. En el Corte Culebra,
Roosevelt fue saludado con 21
explosiones de dinamita; y, en
Col6n, se exhibi6 el sistema de
agua abriendo 21 hidrantes contra
incendios que dispararon 21
chorros de agua tan altos que
pasaban sobre los edificios.
El Star and Herald report la
Ilegada del Presidente Roosevelt a
la ciudad de Panama. "La Avenida
Central estaba totalmente deco-
rada con arcadas, banderas y faroles
y el area alrededor de la Catedral
estaba alegre con banderolas mul-
ticolores; los emblemas nacionales
de los Estados Unidos y Panama
estaban visibles por todos lados".
"El parque y los edificios

Pagina 4

__I _I __ __ __ __

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

Suplemento del Spillway del Canal de Panami

vecinos estaban encendidos con
colores y disefios expresivos de
bienvenida. Las escaleras y el area
de la Catedral estaban decorados
con un pabell6n resplandeciente,
de colores brillantes, pero no habia
una excesiva suntuosidad o des-
pliegues elaborados y la sencillez
de la improvisada plataforma iba
de acuerdo con el caracter poco
ostentoso del presidente".
En un discurso pronunciado en
la Plaza de la Catedral, The New
York Times cita a Roosevelt
expresando su "afecto por el joven
pals", y diciendo que el trabajo en
el Canal estaba "siendo realizado
dignamente" y que su "unico deseo
era ver a la repliblica aumentar su
riqueza y prosperidad hasta con-
vertirse en una repuiblica cuya
historia se reflejara en el mundo
entero como una tierra de libertad
y orden". Finalmente, Roosevelt
express6 una advertencia a la
contrarevoluci6n" e hizo una
observaci6n sobre la "belleza y
fertilidad de Panama, para la que
profetiz6 un gran futuro".
Las medidas de seguridad toma-

Muc a veces d tuvo e

tren oficialy de taj para


a mauinaria y eltrabaio

y habar con

Ls trabaj res.

das durante la visita presidencial
de tres dias fueran amplias, al
menos para la epoca. Se revisaron
todos los vapores que llegaron al
Istmo y los "personajes sospecho-
sos" fueron encarcelados hasta la
ida del presidente. "Anarquistas
conocidos" tanto en Panama como
en los Estados Unidos fueron
arrestados. Los policies de la
ciudadde Panama, Col6n y la Zona
del Canal trabajaron con el Ser-
vicio Secreto estadounidense para
garantizar la seguridad presi-
dencial. Como resultado, no hubo
ning n evento adverso (a lo mejor
no hubiese pasado nada de todas
Ademas de su agitadorecorrido
por el proyecto del Canal, el
Presidente Roosevelt y su esposa
fueron saludados y atendidos
oficialmente, siendo bienvenidos
a Panama por el Presidente Manuel
Amador Guerrero y su esposa, e
invitados a varios almuerzos,
recepciones, cenas y banquetes,
incluyendo una recepci6n de gala
en "los espaciosos salones del Club
Comercial", que, de acuerdo a un
articulo en el Star and Herald del
19 de noviembre de 1906, fue un
acto muy elegante y de gran
concurrencia. Los invitados
incluyeron "la flor de la belleza y
juventud panamefia" en "todo su
esplendor", la cual "se mezclaba
libremente con los funcionarios
del Canal y el Gobierno pana-
mefio, los oficiales del batall6n de
la Marina estacionado en Bas
Obispo y otros prominentes ca-
balleros y damas de Panama y

Colon". La musica provena de
una orquesta de 11 hombres del
vapor "Prinz Eitel Friederich", y la
entrada al club estaba "brillan-
temente iluminada con numerosas
luces que adornaban el marco de
la puerta, y la escalera que Ilevaba
a los salones del club y los mismos
salones estaban gustosamente
decorados con adornos colgantes,
banderas entrelazadas de Estados
Unidos y Panama, palmas, guir-
naldas y flores tropicales, que
impregnaban el ambiente con su
rico aroma". Los invitados
comenzaron a llegar alas 10 p.m. y,
alas 11 p.m., entre gritos dealegria,
los presidentes entraron al sal6n;
Roosevelt escoltaba a la primera
dama de Panama y Amador escol-
taba a la primera dama de los
'Estados Unidos.
Despubs de muchos apretones
de manos, palabras de bienvenida
y conversaciones, el Presidente
Roosevelty su esposa se excusaron
y regresaron a su hotel, dejando a
los otros invitados bailando hasta
las cuatro de la mafiana.
Roosevelt y su sequito se
quedaron en el viejo Hotel Tivoli,
que estaba en Anc6n, en el lugar
ahora ocupado por el Instituto
Smithsonian. Esta fue la primera
ocasion en que se utilize el hotel,
ya que ]a construcci6n no estaba
terminada. La delegaci6n de
Roosevelt ocup6 el ala del hotel
que estaba casi terminada, y que,
despues de la visita, fue cerrada
nuevamente hasta su inauguraci6n
formal el primero de enero de 1907.
Las habitaciones en las que se
alojaron el Presidente Roosevelt y
su esposa se llamaron desde
entonces "Suite Presidencial".
El Presidente Roosevelt, la
primera dama y su grupo abando-
naron Crist6bal en la noche del
sabado 17 de noviembre, a bordo
del U.S.S. Louisiana.
A mediados de diciembre, en
un mensaje especial, Roosevelt
present al Congreso un informe
detallado de su viaje a Panama.

Unafotofamosa de Roosevelt lo muestra sentado dentro de una pala de vapor Bucyrus, de 95 toneladas, cerca de
la actual ubicacidn de lasEsclusas dePedro Miguel, mientras lepregunta alingeniero sobre elmanejo delos controles.

Miles de copias fueron impresas.
Citando de nuevo aJoseph Bucklin
Bishop, "El mensaje tuvo una
amplia circulaci6n a traves de
Estados Unidos y Europa, y un
valor incalculable ya que pre-
sentaba al mundo la verdad sobre
las condiciones del Istmo. La
posici6n y caracter de su autor
demandaban atenci6n universal y
aprobaci6n indiscutible".

Theodore Roosevelt se convirtid a los 42 aifos en Presidente de los Estados
Unidos en septiembre de 1901, luego del asesinato de William McKinley.

"No es el critico quien vale, ni tampoco aquel
que sefiala d6nde el fuerte tropez6, o c6mo pudo
el autor de la hazafia haberla hecho mejor. El
merito pertenece al hombre que esta en el ruedo;
cuyo rostro esta empafiado por el polvo y por el
sudor y la sangre; que lucha valientemente; que se
equivoca y se queda corto una y otra vez; que
conoce los grandes entusiasmos, las grandes
devociones, y agota sus energias por una causa
digna; que, en su mejor hora, saborea al final el
triunfo de una causa noble; y que, en su peor hora,
si fracasa, al menos cae tras un gran despliegue de
audacia, por lo que su sitial nunca estara junto a
aquellos seres frios y timidos que jams han
probado ni el triunfo ni la derrota".
Theodore Roosevelt

Esta cita estd inscrita en una placa de bronce colocada en la rotonda del
Edificio de Administracidn del Canal de Panami.

Record del Canal publica elogio de

Roosevelt sobre esfuerzo canalero
En una respuesta del 5 de septiembre de 1907 a una nota del 4 de
septiembre deljefe de ingenieros, Coronel George W Goethals, sobre los
avances de las excavaciones del Canal en agosto, el Presidente Theodore
Roosevelt alaba a los empleados del Canal.
"De todo coraz6n lo felicito a usted y a sus hombres en el Canal por
la muestra extraordinaria que han hecho durante el mes de agosto.
Como este es el pico de la temporada de lluvias, en ningin momento
supuse que ustedes podrian mantener el gran record de trabajo hecho,
y estoy tan sorprendido como satisfecho de que lo hayan excedido".
El siguiente extracto cita una carta de agradecimiento escrita por el
PresidenteRoosevelt el 2 deagosto de 1908a un comite especial, nombrado
para investigar las condiciones en el Istmo de Panamd.
"El exito ha sido literalmente sorprendente. Cinco afios atras
cuando comenzamos el trabajo, ning'n hombre sensato se hubiera
atrevido a esperar los resultados que ya hemos alcanzado. El trabajo ha
avanzado considerablemente y la rapidez con que se progresa crece

Pigina 5


o tnemelpuS del Spillway del Canal de Panami

Viemes 6 de octubre de 1995

ManuelAmador Guerrero: Medico, revolucionario yprimerpresidente de Panama

Por Myra A. Iglesias
El Dr. Manuel Amador Gue-
rrero, primer presidente de la
Republica de Panama, obtuvo su
lugar en la historia no sblo por
este hecho, sino por el liderazgo
que mostr6 durante el movimiento
revolucionario de noviembre de
1903, que culmin6 con la indepen-
dencia de Panama de Colombia.
Amador Guerrero tom6 la
decisi6n de actuar a finales del
siglo pasado, en momentos enque
la esperanza de prosperidad y
bienestar de los panamefios estaba
debilitandose. Estas esperanzas
estaban cifradas en la apertura de
un canal a trav6s del territorio
panamefio por los franceses,
esfuerzo que, por muchas razones,
habia fracasado.
Revolucionario inusual, Ama-
dor Guerrero ya habia celebrado
su septuagesimo aniversario cuan-
do logr6 la independencia de Pana-

Amador haba

cumpltdo 70 aiod

almomento de convertirse

en precursor

de l inpendencia

de Panama..

ma, pero aun a esa edad mantenia
la vitalidad y entusiasmo de la ju-
ventud, hecho que lo sostuvo du-
rante los dias dificiles mientras
conspiraba, viajaba, sufria decep-
ciones y encontraba obstaculos.
Amador Guerrero naci6 en
una familia prominente en Turba-
co, Colombia, cerca de Cartagena
de Indias, el 30 de junio de 1833.
Educado en la Universidad de
Cartagena, recibi6 su titulo de
doctor en medicina y cirugia a los
22 afos. Posteriormente su mud6

Maria Ossa de Amador

a Col6n, en donde inici6 su ca
prictica de medicina, y de alli a la ch
ciudad de Panama, en donde es]
residi6 permanentemente. Se cas6
con Maria Ossa, de una distinguida dc
familia panamefia. ur
Ademfis de su prictica privada ci;
de medicina, Amador Guerrero dc
trabaj6 como m6dico de la Compa- rei
fima del Ferrocarril de Panama y ur
dedic6 muchas horas de trabajo re;
voluntario a obras de caridad en el su

ospital Santo Tomas.
Al romper Panama sus lazos
)n Espafia en 1821, se debati6 si
Istmo debia unirse a Peru o a la
ran Colombia, recien fundada
or el Libertador Sim6n Bolivar.
dmirados por las her6icas haza-
is del Libertador, los panamefios
'cidieron unirse a Colombia.
En 1890, fue evidente que la
ompafila francesa que habia
iciado la construcci6n de un ca-
ll interoceanico a traves de
anama no seria capaz de termi-
irlo en el tiempo estipulado en la
ncesi6n. En ese entonces, la
nstruccion estaba suspendida
si por completo y un terrible
eriodo de letargo econ6mico se
loderaba del Istmo. Panami,
rectamente afectada por la crisis
con la esperanza de que la
tensionn de la concesi6n francesa
s permitiese reorganizarse y
rminar el trabajo tan vital para
economla del pals, envi6 una
elegaci6n a Bogota. El gobierno
ilombiano accedi6 a una exten-
6n de diez afios, a partir de 1894,
;ro la empresa francesa estaba
uy afectada y su capital se habia
otado por los grandes gastos en
s afios iniciales.
Cuando se perdi6 toda esperan-
Sde que la compafila francesa
idiera terminar el canal, la gente
taba firmemente convencida de
ae quedaba una opci6n; s61o
abia una naci6n en el mundo con
s recursos suficientes para
alizar el trabajo de unir los dos
:eanos: los Estados Unidos.
La promulgaci6n de la Ley
sooner autoriz6 al presidente de
s Estados Unidos a negociar un
atado con Colombia para la
onstrucci6n de un canal en
anama y, en caso de no llegar a
a acuerdo con esa naci6n, a iniciar
s negociaciones para la construc-
6n de un canal a traves de Nica-
gua. Estas negociaciones
culminaron con el
Tratado Herrin-
Hay, el cual, luego
de un largo debate
I tanto en Colombia
Scomo en Panama,
Sfue finalmente re-
chazado por Co-
lombia en agosto de
El historiador
i panamefio Ricardo
J. Alfaro dice en un
articulo en "The
Pan American
Union", que seria
un error considerar
el rechazo del Tra-
tado Herran-Hay
como la unica y
exclusiva raz6n de
la independencia de
Panami, pero que
"Sin duda fue la
usa que inici6 el movimiento; la
.ispa que volvi6 a encender el
piritu de separacion en el Istmo".
Un grupo de patriotas dirigi-
Spor Amador, se uni6 y elabor6
I plan para lograr la independen-
a. Amador Guerrero fue escogi-
Spara viajar a Nueva York y
unirse con funcionarios estado-
lidenses para conocer como
accionarian a los temerarios y
bversivos planes panamefios.

El Dr. ManuelAmador Guerrero fue juramentado como primer presidente de Panamd el 20 defebrero de 1904
a los 70 afos. Durante muchos afos sirvid como jefe de medicos para la Compaiia del Ferrocarril de Panamd.

Esta compleja y peligrosa
mission, llena de intriga, tension y
suspense, logr6 respaldo para
Amador Guerrero y su grupo.
Los eventos ocurrieron rapida-
mente luego de esto, culminando
con el movimiento separatista que
se consum6 el 3 de noviembre de
1903 a las 5 p.m., un dia antes de
lo que estaba originalmente
planeado, y sin derramar una sola
gota de sangre. La poblaci6n
estaba jubilosa por haber logrado
el anhelado deseo y Panama
obtenia la libertad quede permiti6
negociar un tratado con los
Estados Unidos para la construc-
ci6n de un canal.
Gracias a la inteligencia, coraje
y energia con que Amador Gue-
rrero lideriz6, dirigi6 y realize el
movimiento separatista, la Repu-
blica de Panami ingres6 a la fami-
lia de las naciones. Auin cuando
no era un politico profesional, las
actividades de Amador Guerrero
como miembro del Partido
Conservador le valieron impor-
tantes puestos publicos, los cuales
desempefi6 al tiempo que ejercia
la medicina, en la cual demostr6
gran destreza y a traves de la cual
gan6 posici6n, fama y fortuna.
Luego de la independencia, Ama-
dor Guerrero fue electo presiden-
te, sirviendo por un period de
cuatro afios a partir de 1904.
El historiador Alfaro dice que
viendo el trabajo de Amador
Guerrero como primer presidente
de Panami desde la perspectiva
de la epoca y recordando lo que
Panama era en 1904 y los cambios
que se habian suscitado hacia 1908,
y tomando en cuenta la escasez de
recursos con los que Amador

Guerrero cont6 para realizar la
dificil tarea de organizar la
republica, "uno siente que la
posteridad no puede del todo
rendir homenaje a la memoria de
ese fuerte y respetable anciano".
Siendo Presidente de Panama,
Amador Guerrero recibi6 la visita
de los tres hombres publicos esta-
dounidenses mas ilustres de la epo-
ca: William H. Taft, entonces
Secretario de Guerra; el Secretario
de Estado Elihu Root, y Theodore
Roosevelt, primer Presidente de
Estados Unidos en visitar el extran-
jero mientras ocupaba el cargo.
La edici6n del New York
Times del 16 de noviembre de
1906, cita a Amador diciendo, al
darle la bienvenida a Roosevelt en

la Plaza de la Catedral, que su
visita era una "raz6n adicional para
el amor y respeto de los paname-
fios". De acuerdo con el articulo,
"Llam6 al Presidente Roosevelt
comandante en jefe de las fuerzas
panamefias-estadounidenses, alia-
das para realizar la mis grande
hazafia de ingenieria en el mundo
y dijo que en los corazones de su
gente existe el recuerdo imbo-
rrable de que en el Presidente
Roosevelt habia encontrado en el
pasado a un generoso defensor".
Al terminar su periodo presi-
dencial, Amador Guerrero regres6
a la paz de su hogar para descansar.
Falleci6 el 2 de mayo de 1909,
admirado por sus compatriotas y
respetado por sus adversarios.

Origenes del Hotel Washington de

Colon se remontan al siglo pasado
Algo de la historia de Col6n se condensa en la siguiente nota de la
edicidn del Rcord del Canal de Panama del 5 de abril de 1911, que explica
los planes de construccidn del Hotel Washington. La Casa Washington
original a que se refiere, fue construida por la Compafia del Ferrocarril de
Panama alrededor de 1870, y el Presidente William Howard Taft es el
presidente mencionado en el articulo.
La primera firma en el registro tras la apertura del hotel, fechada el
jueves 13 de marzo de 1913, era del neoyorquino Vincent Astor, magnate
de las bienes raices, hombre de negocios y editor de la revista Newsweek. El
Cap. C. B. Fenton,fundadorde la agencia naviera C.B. Fenton & Co. Inc.,
residid en el hotel por muchos aios y se registry originalmente en una de
las tres habitaciones para hudspedes enfebrero de 1916.
De acuerdo con un plan acordado por el Presidente durante su visita
al Istmo en'noviembre de 1910, la Compafima del Ferrocarril de Panama
construiria un nuevo hotel en Col6n, en el lugar ocupado por la actual
Casa Washington y los edificios adyacentes. Es posible que se use con-
creto reforzado. Se ha solicitado a B.G. Goodhue de la firma Cram,
Goodhue & Ferguson, encargada de las ampliaciones a la Academia Mi-
litar en West Point, consultar al presidente de la compafia del ferrocarril
sobre los planes. El Sr. Goodhue ha realizado un estudio sobre
arquitectura espafiola y es posible que el nuevo hotel sea de este tipo.

Pairina 6f

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