Group Title: Panama Canal spillway : el Canal de Panamá spillway
Title: The Panama Canal spillway =
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The Panama Canal spillway = el Canal de Panamá spillway
Alternate Title: Spillway
Canal de Panamá Spillway
Spillway del Canal de Panamá
Physical Description: 37 v. : ill. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Canal Zone
Canal Zone
Panama Canal Company
United States -- Panama Canal Commission
United States
Publisher: Panama Canal
Place of Publication: Balboa Hights C.Z
Balboa Hights C.Z
Publication Date: August 15, 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
Frequency: biweekly[jan. 6, 1984-1999]
weekly[ former -dec. 23, 1983]
Subject: Periodicals -- Canal Zone   ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Republic of Panama -- Canal Zone -- Balboa -- Balboa Heights
Coordinates: 8.95 x -79.566667 ( Place of Publication )
Language: Text in English and Spanish; Spanish text inverted.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 33 (Feb. 1, 1963)-Vol. 37, no. 26 (Dec. 30, 1999).
Issuing Body: Issued by: Government of the Canal Zone <June 24, 1966-June 13 1969>; by the Panama Canal Company, <Aug. 13, 1976>-Sept. 14, 1979; by the Panama Canal Commission, Sept. 20, 1979-Dec. 1999.
General Note: "Official Panama Canal publication."
General Note: Imprint varies: Balboa Hights, <1966-1978>; Miami, Fla., <1979-1982>; Balboa Heights, Pan. <1983>-1999.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 5, no. 1 (June 24, 1966); title from caption.
General Note: Vols. for 1994-1995 distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
General Note: Special "80th anniversary supplement" issue published on Aug. 12, 1994.
General Note: Special ed. for 65th anniversary of the Panama Canal issued at end of Oct. 1979, is also a joint issue with: The News: authorized unofficial publication of the U.S. Armed Forces, Quarry Heights, Panama, and includes the text of the Panama Canal Act.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094771
Volume ID: VID00045
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02582102
lccn - 83642750
issn - 0364-8044
 Related Items
Preceded by: Spillway
Succeeded by: Faro (Balboa, Panama)

Full Text

I, :. --
i~/1 i

Thoroughly modern Mindi ready

: ,'_e *_'.L : .;-n-- -,1 __ -. .-- .'- ^ -
Photo by Kevin Jenkins
Tug "Paz" joins PCC fleet
The tugboat "Paz," newest addition to the Panama Canal Commission fleet,
demonstrates its cruising speed and maneuverability at the Canal's Pacific
entrance following its recent formal acceptance ceremony.

By Mercedes K. Morris
After a distinguished career marked
by dedication, leadership and profes-
sionalism, John Y. Wagner retired from
his post as Deputy Director of the
Office of Personnel Administration of
the Panama Canal Commission on
August 3. George A. Mercier, pre-
viously the Chief of Personnel Oper-
ations Division, has been appointed to
replace him, and is the first Panamanian
to serve in that post. Felix A. Fil6s-
Remotti, also Panamanian, has been
promoted to fill Mercier's post as Chief
of Personnel Operations Division.
Through aggressive recruitment, place-.
ment and career development pro-
grams, both Mercier and Fil6s-Remotti
look forward to continuing to staff the
Canal with highly qualified Panama-
nian personnel.
Wagner's career with the Canal
began 26 years ago as a student
assistant in the Locks Division. Two
years later he returned to the Canal as a
Marine Traffic Controller. He entered
the personnel field as a trainee position
classification specialist in 1964 and
within two years was promoted to the
personnel policies staff; by 1970 he
became the chief of the staff.
During treaty implementation years,
from 1977 through 1984, he held the
post of chief of the Personnel Oper-
ations Division. From it, Wagner
directed the implementation of the
Personnel Management Systems
(PMS), a computer-based system to
assist personnel management functions.
He was appointed Deputy Personnel
Director in December 1984.
Wagner has received a number of
Outstanding Performance and Special
Act Awards, as well as letters of
appreciation during his career. An
active community leader, he has served
on the Board of Directors of the Diablo
Spinning Club and the YMCA. Upon
his retirement, Wagner.was recognized
with another Special Act or Service
(Continued on page 6)

The Canal's hydraulic cutter dredge
Mindis" production potential is expec-
ted to increase by 40 percent after the
recent completion of intense renovation
work. After two years and $8 million,
the Mindi, primarily used for mainte-
nance dredging, has a new spud carriage
system, state-of-the-art computerized
dredge controls, new hoist and swing
winches, and a new cutter assembly. It
also has three new 1,080-kilowatt
generators on board and a new hull
The improvement efforts for the
Mindi began in 1981, with the economic
justifications for the project. Specifica-
tions for the renovation were issued in
1983, and a contract was awarded in
1984 to the lowest bidder, Interconti-

Top personnel changes
Following a 23-year career with the Panama Canal, John Y. Wagner, seated,
retires, passing on the duties of Deputy Director of the Office of Personnel
Administration to George Mercier, standing, the first Panamanian to serve in that
,M S.

How's the Canal doing?
The following statistics reflect Panama Canal operations and usage
for the month of July:
Average oceangoing transits-33.1 ships per day
Average ready backlog-14.9 ships
Average Canal waters time 19.5 hours
(including transit time)
Average in-transit time--8.5 hours
Ships with beams over 80 feet--48.4 percent
Ships with beams over 100 feet--21.5 percent
The spare miter gates located in Miratlores Lake will be floated to
Mt. Hope Industrial Division on August 18 and 19 for cleaning, painting
and repairs. These gates-the largest in the locks system-will be used to
replace the Miraflores sea gates during the Miraflores Locks miter gate
The total tolls revenue for July was S27.7 million, an increase of
some $1.5 million over June. July transit totaled 1.026 and 11.8 million
long tons of cargo were recorded.

nental Engineering and Manufacturing
Corp. of Kansas City, Missouri.
Sharing with the contractor in the
renovation work were the Industrial,
Storehouse, Engineering, Electrical,
Maintenance, Financial Planning and
Dredging divisions. As a result of the re-
conditioning, the Mindi has been
transformed into a highly competitive
dredge within the international dredg-
ing industry, responding to the de-
mands of the modern shipping industry
to maintain the Canal's vital navi-
gational requirements.

The Mindi was designed and built in
1937 by the Ellicott Machine Corpora-
tion of Baltimore, Maryland, and as
early as 1943 improvement modifica-
tions were initiated. The "A" frame was
modified to strengthen the ladder's
support. The gantry and the ladder
hoist were altered in 1944, and the spud
hoisting machinery was relocated to the
after deck in 1946. The first major
changes were made during the period
between 1977 through 1979, when the
plant and pumping system were
changed from steam to diesel, and from
one pump to three pumps respectively,
(Continued on page 6)


documents for

projects available
Solicitation documents are currently
available through the Panama Canal
Commission Engineering Division for
several construction and installation
projects on both sides of the Isthmus.
Project No. CC-86-49 is for the
construction of a new parking lot,
complete with asphalt paving, drains,
striping, wheel stops and lighting at the
Industrial Division, Mount Hope. The
estimated cost range of the project is
from $100,000 to $250,000.
Project No. CC-86-19 requires the
removal of track span towers, including
conductors and associated insulators
and hardware, and the installation of
new steel track span towers, complete
with pole line hardware and electrical
conductors, at an estimated cost range
of between $500,000 and $1 million.
Acid cleaning of the water and
saturated steam sides of Steam Boilers
No. 3 and No. 4 at Miraflores Power
Plant comprises Project No. CC-86-82.
The estimated cost range is between
S100,000 and S250.000.
Project No. CC-87-5 is for the
reroofing of quarters at I.a Boca, at an
estimated cost range from 5250.000 to
Project No. CC-86-27 calls for the
remodeling of two buildings in the
Ancon and Balboa areas. The estimated
price range is from S100.000 to
Solicitation documents may be
obtained in Room 343 of the Adminis-
tration Building in Balboa Heights.

Personnel Deputy Director Wagner retires

Mercier becomes first Panamanian in post




August 15, 1986

Candid kids praise Canal on 72nd anniversary

As the Panama Canal celebrates the
completion of its 72nd year of
continuous service to world shipping,
we naturally turn our thoughts to the
past. We think about the courageous
builders of the waterway and the Canal
employees who have contributed to its
efficient operation and continued main-
tenance over the years and about our
own role today in the Canal's continued
But, an anniversary is also a time to
look to the future, and one of the best
ways of doing this is by examining the
thoughts and impressions of today's
young people. In looking at the Canal
through their eyes, we see the pride, awe
and high esteem that tomorrow's adults
have for the waterway.
The young people who have contrib-
uted their thoughts to this article are
affiliated with the Canal organization
through the employment of a parent or
grandparent. Each was asked to write a
paragraph describing the most inter-
esting thing about the Canal. The

SPILLWAY staff thanks them for sharing
their ideas with us.
"I think the Panama Canal is
something marvelous because it makes
a passage for ships. Isaw how they pass
through the Canal and how the water
goes down to a level and then goes back
up when they've passed. I also saw how
the men work."
Marvin Turnbull, age 7
son of Melendez Turnbull
Power Branch machinist

"I live near the Canal. It is pleasant
living there because every night I hear
tugboats, ships and trains. That is why I
like living near the Canal."
Laura Kraemer, age 10
daughter of James Kraemer
Canal Protection Division
branch chief

"The Panama Canal united two
oceans and converted Panama into the
center of the world. It has cut the time
and the cost of a passage from one

A child's-eye view
Students of the Guillermo Andreve School at Arraijan wait their turn to enter the
Miraflores Locks Visitor's Pavilion for a close-up look at the Panama Canal.

Prepared childbirth
A new six-week prepared childbirth
class will begin at the Balboa Armed
Services YMCA on August 22. Classes
will be held from 5 to 7 on Friday
evenings. Expectant parents are en-
couraged to learn the finer points of the
Lamaze method with course instructor
Cristina de Caries. For more informa-
tion, call 52-2759 or 52-2839.
YMCA weekday swim
Beginning on August 19, the Balboa
Armed Services YMCA will be offering
swim classes on Tuesdays and Thurs-
days for children and adults at different
age and skill levels. For more informa-
tion, call 52-2759 or 52-2839.
Scuba classes
A basic scuba course will be hcld!
from 6:30 to 8:30 on Monda,.
Wednesday and Friday nights begin-
ning on August 18 at the Balboa
Armed Services YMCA. Students will
take a swim test on the first session and
practice with open water dives on
Sunday at Portobelo. Course instruc-
tor Ren6 G6mez will offer a choice of
LACO certification. For more informa-
tion call 52-2759 or 52-2839.

Sewing classes
Dressing better for less is the theme of
the Balboa Armed Services YMCA's
ten-week professional sewing and pat-
tern drafting class for beginners and
advanced students, beginning on Au-
gust 23.
The beginners' class will meet from
noon to 4 p.m. on Saturdays and from
5 to 9 p.m. on Tuesdays. The advanced
class will be from 5 to 9 p.m. on
Monday. The course instructor is Edna
C6rdova of the Bishop School of
Clothing Construction.
For information, call 52-2759 or 52-

Biathlon registration
Registration will remain open through
Friday, August 29, for the annual
Atlantic-side Labor Day Biathlon to be
held on Monday, September 1.
Sponsored by the Employee Fitness
Branch, the Biathlon is for Panama
Canal Commission employees and their
dependents, 18 and over.
The Biathlon will include a quarter-
mile swim at the Margarita pool,
followed by a one-mile run. Trophies
will be given to the winner and the
runner-up in each category. For
additional details or to register, contact
Emilio Singh at the Margarita pool (46-
7229). Registrations are also being
accepted at the Gatun pool (43-5233) or
the Gatun Gym (43-5242).

ocean to the other. Before the construc-
tion of the Panama Canal, the vessels
required about two weeks to cross from
one ocean to the other, going by way of
Tierra del Fuego at the southern coast
of Chile, an area where many ships
wrecked during the period of the
conquest of the Americas. This trip that
then took up to two weeks takes eight
hours through the Canal."
Zdenka Campbell, age 14
daughter of Glenford Campbell
Navigation Division
assistant engineer

"The Panama Canal is of interest to
me in many ways. First, Gatun Locks
gives a significant view of how ships are
locked through the waterway. The
personnel -assigned to moving ships in
the area mentioned are so effective in
their duties that every part of the
operation moves with great precision.
My greatest interest in the operation of
the Panama Canal is that my father is
employed as a deckhand with the
Navigation Division, giving support to
the transiting ships through the funnel
for world commerce.
Chantal Booth, age 12
daughter of George booth
Navigation Division deckhand

"One of the most interesting things I
have ever seen was when I was eight
years old and I was going to cross from
one side of the locks to the other. When
we were reaching the end of our cruise,
two security guards stopped us and told
us how the ships go through different
chambers. It was a fascinating sight,
that glamorous and excellent action. I
had never seen a ship raise so quickly
and move in that slow and rocking
motion. My father is a member of the
team that helps keep the Panama Canal
Jessica Layne, age 13
daughter of Walter Layne
Navigation Division
line handler leader

"I think the Panama Canal is very
interesting because I lived in Pennsyl-
vania and they never had that. What I
think is the best of the Panama Canal is
they created a very beautiful thing ...
you get to go and see the boats, and at
night it is even nicer because the lights
are on and you get to see inside."
Michelle Gavis, age 8
granddaughter of George Klein
Industrial Division
budget assistant

"Several years ago as a young child, I
visited Gatun Locks and viewed ships
very close to the east lane. This gave me
a first-hand look at howi ships transit the
Canal. My interest in the operation of
the Panama Canal is the manner in
which the employees keep and maintain
the waterway to permit ships from all
parts of the world to transit freely."
Esaura Zamora, age 11
daughter of Hayman Zamora
Canal Protection Division
security guard

"The launches of the Panama Canal
are the most interesting to me because I
have seen how they are installed and
repaired. I also boarded one of the
launches with my father and saw the
different styles and sizes of the
Nadia Hall, age 9
daughter of Jerry Hall
Industrial Division launch
repair general foreman

What I think is most interesting is all
the mechanical works, how everything
works by the flick of a switch, like the
miter gates and the mules. When you
look down from a plane, it looks pretty
with all the lights and ships out in the
J. Riley Laatz, age 11
son of Helen Laatz
Industrial Division secretary

"I think that the Panama Canal is
interesting because it links two oceans,
the Atlantic and the Pacific. I feel
proud that the United States of America
helped build it. I think the Canal is
really neat, the way it is right in the
middle of the continent."
Zach Gray, age 9
son of Robert Gray
Marine Bureau pilot

"I think the most interesting thing
about the Panama Canal is the sets of
locks. I had the opportunity to see the
transit of a ship through Gatun Locks.
It is amazing how the ship approaches
the first chamber at sea level and while
in the chamber the gates are closed. The
water is let into the chamber and the
ship rises to a higher level until it reaches
the lake level, which is 80 feet higher
than sea level. Whenever my family has
visitors from afar, I ask my parents to
take us there."
Shajira Goulbourne, age 12
daughter of Alberto Goulbourne
Maintenance Division
pipe fitter

"Toad of Toad Hall"

Sara Short as "Phoebe," promises
audiences a barrel of fun at
upcoming performances of "Toad
of Toad Hall." The play opens
tonight at the Ancon Playhouse
and runs through August 30, with
curtain time at 8 p.m. Reserva-
tions may be made by calling 52-

Paqe 2

Auaust 15. 1986


On the rise

Car carrier traffic at the Panama 4
Canal has risen significantly during
fiscal year 1986 and is expected to
continue at the current high levels. -
During the coming year, this traffic
could account for some $62 million in
tolls revenue.

Photo by Kevin Jenkins t .a nrc

Car carrier transits increase sharply

The Panama Canal has experienced
sharp and sustained increases in car
carrier transits during fiscal year 1986.
This surge is attributable to the dynamic
growth in automobile shipments from
the Far East to the United States, as
over 50 percent of these shipments of
cars and trucks pass through the Canal.
Shipments of automobiles through
the Panama Canal totaled 1.8 million
long tons in fiscal year 1985, generating
over 900 car carrier transits paying $50
million in tolls. These annual figures
were nearly equaled in just the first nine

months of the current fiscal year.
Shipments in May reached a record
monthly level, and the indications are
that the automobile trade will remain
Over 73 percent of the total
automobile tonnage moving through
the Panama Canal in 1985 was from
Japan to the United States. Presently,
automobile shipments on this route are
running more than 30 percent above the
prior year. The increase is due primarily
to a rise in Japan's voluntary import
quotas and to additional exports

resulting from several joint-venture
agreements between U.S. and Japanese
automobile producers.
The Canal's convenient location
allows car carriers hauling Far Eastern
automobiles to also have quick and easy
access to several Caribbean islands that
serve as feeder ports for the east coast of
Central and South America. The
increasing importance of Caribbean
ports to the automobile trade became
evident in fiscal year 1985, when
shipments along the Far East-Carib-
bean route increased by 26 percent.
Strong growth on this route has
continued into the current year.
The automobile trade is particularly
important to the Panama Canal in
terms of the tolls revenue it generates.
Although automobiles generally ac-
count for about 1 percent of the Canal's
total cargo tonnage, transits by large

specialized car carriers account for
nearly one-fifth of total tolls revenue.
Canal tolls are assessed on the basis
of the inside cargo-carrying capacity of
each ship. Since relatively more ship
tonnage is required to move low-density
cargoes such as automobiles, a small
increase in this cargo generates a much
larger increase in tolls revenue. For
example, a larger car carrier carrying
3,000 tons of automobiles would pay
essentially the same toll as a bulk carrier
hauling 50,000 tons of coal.
The automobile trade through the
Canal is anticipated to continue at the
current high levels; During the coming
year, over 1,100 car carriers are
expected to transit the waterway
carrying more than 2.2 million long tons
of automobiles. These vessels could
account for some $62 million in tolls
revenue for the Canal.

By Roy Naylor
The Panama Canal's most frequent
user during fiscal year 1985 was the
Ciudad de Barrancabermeja. The Co-
lombian tanker went through the
waterway 40 times during the period,
paying tolls amounting to $1,477,721.
. During fiscal year 1985, 3,984
different vessels made a total of 11,654
transits through the Panama Canal.
Like the Colombian tanker, several
others transited on a frequent basis,

such as the U.S. passenger ship Great
Rivers Explorer (with 36 transits) and
the Greek tanker Zoe Christina (with
Also among the list of 15 most
frequent users during the fiscal year
were ships registered in Switzerland,
Ecuador, Belgium, Panama and Li-
beria. Of the 15 ships, seven were
refrigerated vessels, five were tankers,
two general cargo carriers and one a
passenger ship.

Commission offers training courses
The courses listed below will be offered to Panama Canal Commission employees
at Building 0600, Corozo Street in Balboa Heights.. Nominations should be
submitted through unit training program managers to the Employee and
Management Development Branch by the suspense dates shown. One week before
the start of each course, the branch will notify program managers which nominees
have been selected. Call 52-4163 for further assistance.

Basic W writing Skills .........................

Effective W writing Skills .......................

Tues. & Thurs.
Tues. & Thurs.

Construction Contracts (Management Concepts) 9 3-5
When Women Talk Business (Follow-Up) ...... 9 3
Construction Contracts (Management Concepts) 9 8-10
Safety for Other Federal Agencies (OSHA) ..... 9 8-12
Executive W writing Skills....................... 9 8-12
Position Classification for Staffing Specialists
(OPM )................. .................. 9 9-12
Industrial Hygiene for Safety Officers.......... 9 15-18
Maintenance Seminar for FM 3800D, 8-1, 2 Diesel
Engine (Fairbanks Morse) .................. 9 15-19
Microcomputer Concepts for Beginners ........ 9 16
Managing Management Time ................. 9 16-17
Microcomputer Concepts for Beginners ........ 9 18
Paralegal Research .......................... 9 22-26
Fire Truck Operations & Maintenance ......... 9,22-26
Maintenance Seminar for FM 3800D. 8'/, Diesel
Engine (Fairbanks Morse) .................. 9, 22-26
Introduction to Microcomputers (Basic Super-
calc) .......... ......................... 9/22-25
The Communication Experience ............... 9/23-24
Physical Security (GSA).................... .. 9,29-10/2
National Electrical Code Workshop ............ 9/29-10/3

7:15 a.m.- 9:15 a.m.

8, 19

9:45 a.m.-11:45 a.m. 8 19

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

Page 3

Colombian tanker tops list

of frequent Canal customers

Canal quiz

(Not recommended for serious scholars or historians)

SPILLWAY staff members have sadistically put together this little quiz to test
our readers' knowledge of Panama Canal history. All competitors are hereby
advised that taking the test may be hazardous to your mental health. Those who
insist on proceeding despite this warning can find answers and scoring
information on page 6 -but please, no peeking until you're all finished!
1. What vessel made the first transit through the Panama Canal?
a. The S.S. Ancon.
b. The Alexander La Valler.
c. The good ship Lollipop.
2. Who were the three Panama Canal chief engineers who served during the
U.S. construction era?
a. William L. Sibert, Harry F. Hodges and David D. Gaillard.
b. John F. Wallace, John F. Stevens and George W. Goethals.
c. Eusebio Pedroza, Alfredo Layne and Roberto Duran.

3. What was the name of the Panama Canal organization during the
construction era?
a. The Canal Construction Commission.
b. The Isthmian Canal Commission.
c. The Grace Commission.
4. Why was the Panama Canal closed to traffic in 1915?
a. German submarines posed a threat.
b. A landslide blocked the channel.
c. Carnival celebrations continued for an entire month.
5. How were people, supplies and waste materials transported across the
Isthmus during the construction of the Canal?
a. By mule.
b. By the Panama Railroad.
c. By the light of the silvery moon.
6. Who activated the explosion that destroyed the Gamboa Dyke?
a. Theodore Roosevelt.
b. Woodrow Wilson.
c. Che Guevara.

~--- - ---

Human guinea pigs helped conquer yellow fever

By Charlotte Elton
The fight against yellow fever is an
important aspect of Panama Canal
history, because the establishment of its
cause was basic to successful comple-
tion of the waterway. The fight was not
carried out in the antiseptic conditions
of a gleaming laboratory but in the hills
of Cuba. Moreover, it involved human
guinea pigs, some of whom paid with
their lives. Curiously, one of the "guinea
pigs" who survived-John Moran-
later came and worked on the Canal.
The disease was widely believed to be
contagious or related to filth, though as
early as 1847 the theory had been
advanced speculatively that it was
transmitted by a mosquito. In 1881, Dr.
Carlos J. Finlay of Cuba published a
paper to that effect, but sadly, he was
not taken seriously. His experiments did
not succeed in proving his theory as he
used mosquitoes that had bitten
patients two to five days earlier. Later
experiments showed that infected mos-
quitoes are harmless until 12 days or
longer after biting the sick person.
Yellow fever periodically swept
through large areas of the United States
during the 19th century. An epidemic in
the Mississippi Valley in 1878 caused
nearly 16,000 deaths. Official figures of
deaths were not kept during the French
efforts to build a Canalacross Panama,
but records available show that yellow
fever took a very heavy toll. During the
American army occupation of Cuba in
1900, there were over 1,600 cases among
U.S. officers and men and 231 deaths.
The heavy toll led the surgeon general to
appoint four army surgeons to conduct
experiments on the transmission of
the disease.
The four doctors decided to try the
mosquito transmission theory but felt it
was not fair to submit others to the
experiments. One of them was immune,
and another, Walter Reed, was called to
Washington on urgent business. He
returned to find that one of his
colleagues, Jesse W. Lazear, had died
from the experiment and another,
James Carroll, had barely recovered.

Ten years

For the last 10 of
his 30 years' ..."
service with the --
Branch, Joseph
A. Reid has
faithfully wound
the barometer
virtually every

Photo by
Kevin Jenkins

His friends urged him not to submit
himself to the terrible trial.
However, volunteers were still needed
for the second stage---to establish the
period for an infected mosquito to
become harmful and the period that
must elapse after a patient has been
stricken before the disease can be
conveyed to the mosquito. In all, 22
people submitted to the tests, the first
two being John R. Kissinger and John
J. Moran. Both refused monetary
On three successive occasions, they
were taken, clad only in a nightshirt,
into a room where mosquitoes known
to be infected were confined. Lying
down, they remained there quietly while
they were bitten. Both contracted
yellow fever but had the good fortune to
recover. Reed said of them, "This
exhibition of moral courage has never
been surpassed in the annals of the army
of the United States."
In response to the experiments,
immediate measures were taken in the
city of Havana, namely the segregation
of yellow fever patients behind wire
screens and the fumigation of all
infected houses, under the direction of
the chief sanitary officer for the
city-Col. William Gorgas. Within
three months, the disease was banished
from the city, much to the surprise of
Gorgas, who had assumed there were
other methods of transmission.
Gorgas was put in charge of
sanitation in Panama in 1904 and
invited British army doctor Maj.
Ronald Ross to visit the Isthmus. Ross
had discovered in 1898 that malaria was
transmitted to humans by mosquitoes
and had been in charge of anti-malaria
measures at town sites on the Suez
Canal, particularly Ismailia where, due
to defective drainage of shallow mar-
shes and lack of sewage, 2,000 cases
were treated annually in a population of
Measures in Panama included pro-
viding a water system to remove the
need for each household to store water
during the dry season. Streets were

"- --.-_ _
Screened in
Once the relationship between yellow fever and mosquitoes was clearly
established, diseased patients could be screened off to prevent the disease from
spreading. Establishing the relationship, however, required the use of human
guinea pigs, who volunteered to be exposed during experimentation.

paved, sewers installed, marshes
drained, water pools sprayed, houses
screened, vegetation remorselessly cut
and miles of drainage channels dug. The
measures were completely successful,
and the last locally transmitted case of
yellow fever by the aedes aegypti
mosquito was recorded in 1905.
Malaria is almost impossible to eradi-
cate, but efforts to reduce its incidence
were largely successful along the Canal.
Astonished observers were to say, "The

foremost pest-hole of the earth has
become a health resort."
John J. Moran, one of the first yellow
fever volunteers, had hoped to become a
physician himself, but had to leave
medical school for lack of funds. He
signed on with the Isthmian Canal
Commission as a sanitary inspector in
July 1904 and stayed until June 1915.
Thus, he contributed in more ways than
one to making the impossible dream
come true.

living in the country should be protected with a vaccine once every ten
Years. Dr. Richard A. Cheville, chief of the Panama Canal Commission
Occupational Health Division, says that in terms of both its reliability in
S creating an effective immunity and the lack of side effects associated with
it, the yellow fever vaccine is probably the most successful vaccine

SFrench barometer still reliable

despite pressures of 80 years
hT leiddthe nw dh l, so "I t1-

i lIe oil an iLne Inew stanLIIU lleeK Vy
jowl in the Panama Canal Commission
Meteorological and Hydrographic
Branch. In the same room that houses a
state-of-the-art, color-coded radar sys-
tem, which allows meteorologists to
view precipitation over the entire
Panama Canal watershed, stands a
barometer that has been in continuous
service recording atmospheric pressure
since 1905.
A barometer is used by meteoro-
logists to predict rainfall. This particular
model was built by a Parisian instru-
ment maker, Jules Richard, and was
probably bought for the Isthmian Canal
Commission through the supplier
Julien Friez of the Belfort Observatory
of Baltimore. It has an eight-day clock

movement, so the graph paper on the
drum can record pressure for an entire
week. The clock mechanism has been
repaired several times, but as the
instrument has few moving parts, there
is not much else that can go wrong.
It does need winding, however, and
the task has been faithfully performed
by meteorological technician Joseph A.
Reid virtually every Tuesday morning
for the last 10 of his 30 years' service
with the Meteorological and Hydro-
graphic Branch.
An inventory of meteorological
equipment, dated March 11, 1912,
reports that this barograph is "fairly
accurate and satisfactory for making a
continuous record of atmospheric
pressure." That report is still true today.

Jungle variety of disease still seen here:
effective prevention requires vaccination
Although the risk of getting yellow fever is presently very low, cases of
the sylvatic variety are still seen in Panama from time to time. Everyone

Page 4


August 15, 1986


-PU --a-- -'

Grandnephew hopes to know

Canal as well as Constantine

That's me! Photo by Armando De Gracia
That's me!
Fotis Limnios, godson of the legendary Capt. John Constantine, singles himself out
in the picture that hangs in the Museo Antropol6gico "Reina Torres de Arauz" in
the old Panama Railroad station at Cinco de Mayo Plaza. The man in the dark suit
standing near Limnio in the picture is Captain Constantine.

Proud godson remembers

childhood with famous pilot

By David Constable
Seventy-three-year-old Fotis T. Lim-
nio, a semi-retired Panamanian auto-
mobile salesman and insurance broker,
likes to talk about his famous godfather,
Capt. John Constantine, who piloted
the SS Ancon through the Panama
Canal on its historic 1914 inaugural
transit. He is equally proud of the fact
that he was of some help in building the
Captain John Constantine. the model
of a four-masted schooner on perma-
nent display on the second floor of the
Commission's Marine Bureau Building.
Limnio said that he spent some of his
time as a small child at his godfather's
"mansion" that was located adjacent to
the Washington Hotel on the Atlantic
side of the Isthmus. He does not
remember when work on the model
began, but does recall that when he was
about five or six years of age, his
legendary godfather enjoyed having
him around to fetch tools from a well-
stocked locker, to do some sanding and
to bring snacks or refreshments.
Constantine was well versed in
English and several other languages, but
at home spoke only Greek, Limnio said.
Constantine was very meticulous and
endeavored to make sure that every
section of the model was built according
to scale.
Limnio said his godfather was very
popular among the Greek, Panamanian
and American communities on both
sides of the Isthmus. When Constan-
tine's birthday and that of his wife,
Maria, rolled around, the parties
overshadowed even the celebration of
the Greek national holiday. Close
friends called Constantine "Nikita." the
Greek word for "Victor." and other
Greeks called him "capitanio."
Limnio recalls that he was about 10
years of age when Constantine finished
building the model and had a picture
taken of himself, the model and some
Greek. Panamanian and American
friends. Limnio has a cherished copy of
the picture in which he was dressed in a
sailor's suit. There is also a copy that
was donated by former President

Demetrio Lakas on display at the
Museo Antropol6gico "Reina Torres de
Oozing with pride, Limnio tells of
Admiral Rodman arriving at the Canal
in 1915 with a two-and-one-half-mile-
long armada of battleships and giving
orders that Constantine be the one to
pilot his flagship, the U.S.S. New'
Mexico, through the waterway.
He also remembers that Maria
Constantine, or Marig6 (little Mary) as
she was called by her Greek friends,
used to prepare excellent dishes. Limnio
attributes Constantine's longevity to her
sumptuous and well-balanced cuisine.
Constantine died at the age of 81, a year
after receiving a crippling injury that,
according to Limnio, probably broke
his heart.

By Joaquin Horna
Although Panama Canal Com-
mission pilot understudy Capt. Aris-
toteles G. Kattulas never met his
granduncle, the legendary Capt. John
Constantine, he does expect someday to
know the waterway as well as the
famous seaman who piloted the SS
Ancon during the first official Panama
Canal transit on August 15, 1914. "A
pilot must master every inch of the
Canal, till he is practically able to
navigate it with his eyes closed," says
Both Kattulas and his famous relative
linked their destinies to the sea at an
early age. In the 1870s, Constantine
went to sea at the age of 14 as a
quartermaster on Pacific Mail Com-
pany ships running out of San
Francisco. In the 1960s, at age 10,
Kattulas drew and kept record of every
vessel he saw. "My father and grand-
father were also ship masters," he says.
In 1882, Constantine moved to
Col6n to work with the French Canal
company as master of the tug Alex-
andre La Valley. Hejoined the Isthmian
Canal Company as a pilot in 1905. "He
knew every minute part of the
waterway," says Kattulas. "He wit-
nessed its construction and was well
acquainted with the terrain where the
Canal was dug."
Kattulas obtained a scholarship to
study at the Public Nautical School of
Kymi in Greece after graduating from
Colon's San Jos6 de La Salle school. He
was commissioned as a third mate in
1978 and sailed around the world for 18
months. In 1980, he served as second
mate for thirteen months on the
Ambassador, a bulk carrier with a 130-
foot beam (too wide for the Canal locks)
that traded between the United States
and the North Sea.
"On the Ambassador, I learned that
the sea can sink a big vessel as easily as a
small one," he says. "I learned to love
and respect the sea but never under-
estimate it." After 32 months'experience

in the open seas, he took the mandatory
course for first mates in Greece, and in
July 1985, obtained his master's license
to pilot vessels of up to 1,000 tons.
After five years navigating in open
seas, Kattulas joined the Panama Canal
Commission's Pilot Understudy Pro-
gram in the Marine Bureau's Maritime
Training Unit in March. "The program
covers the complete operation of the
waterway, stressing safety matters," says
Kattulas. "At the Panama Canal, a pilot
must be always alert, because there is
more traffic than on the open seas."
Capt. Kattulas thinks the unit is
making a huge effort to teach the future
pilots everything that happens in the
Canal. "The pilot acts as an ambassador
on the foreign ships that visit Panama,
and he must be ready to answer all the
questions," he concludes.
The Pilot Understudy Program lasts
from 18 to 24 months. Graduates then
enter the Pilot-in-Training Program,
the final step on the way to becoming
Panama Canal pilots.

Photo by Kevin Jenkins
Seafaring tradition
Capt. Arist6teles Kattulas admires the 10-foot ship model, "John Constantine," built by and named after his granduncle.
Currently on display in the Marine Bureau Building, the model of the four-masted schooner is built to scale and includes afully
furnished interior.


Page 5

Auaust 15. 1~986i


August 15, 1986

Position Vacancy List
for Panama Canal Commission and other
U.S. government agency employees

Unit tion
Industrial A

Navigation P

Locks A

Locks A

Permanent positions salaries
Accounting Technician, NM-4 . . . . $9,896.00
Clerk-Stenographer. NM-4 (Shorthand at least 80
words per minute) . . . . . . . $9,896.00
Control House Clerk (Teletyping), NM-3/4 (Knowl-
edge of Spanish, swimming ability and shift work
required) . . ... .... . . . . $9,044.00/
Electrician Helper,MG-5 (Swimming ability and shift
work required) . . . . . . $4.04
Environmental Health Technician, NM-8 (Knowledge
of Spanish, swimming ability and driver's license
required) . . . .... . . . . $19,740.00
General Engineer (Dredging). NM-7/II (Swimming
ability and driver's license required) (Civil, mechani-
cal or marine engineering experience required) . $17,824.00/
Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic. MG-10 (Driver's
license required) ...... . . . . $10.26
Panama Canal Guide, NM-5;7 (Works week-ends on
a rotation basis) (Bilingual) .... .. . . $10,768.00/
Recreation Assistant, NM-5 (Knowledge of Spanish
and swimming ability required) (Part-time not to
exceed 30 hours per week) (Must be a Red-Cross
accredited Water Safety Instructor) .. . .. .$10,768.00
Secretary (Stenography), NM-6 (Knowledge of Span-
ish required) (Shorthand at least 80 words per
minute) . . . . . . . . .. $16.040.00
Welder Helper, MG-5 (Swimming ability and shift
work required) . . . . . ... .$4.04
Temporary position
(Not to exceed one year)
Computer Programmer, NM-9 . . . .. $21,804.00

How to Apply: Applications must be submitted to the Employmen

Building 366, Ancon, or Building 1105, Cristobal, on Form 443, Application For Transfer, no later
than seven days from the date of this publication. Qualification standards may be reviewed at the
Panama Canal Commission Library. Further information may be obtained from the Employment
and Placement Branch, telephone 52-3583, 52-7996 or 46-7219.
The Panama Canal Commission is an equal opportunity employer.

Dry dock serves
By Susan K. Stabler
"Construit pour durer." Loosely trans-
lated, these French words mean "built
to last." They describe the Mount Hope
Industrial Division dry dock, which this
year marks its 100th birthday. Built in
1886 by the Compagnie Universelle du
Canal Interocdanique, the first French
company involved in the French canal
project, the completion of the dry dock
predates the opening of the Canal by
more than a quarter of a century.
Industrial Division personnel honored
the century-old facility with a birthday
celebration on August 1.
Clarence George, marine woodwork-
ing and dry docking general foreman,
says that despite its age, the dry dock is
by no means obsolete. However, much

Take note
Department of Defense De-
pendents Schools will again offer hot
lunches at Canal area secondary
schools. Parents of Commission-
sponsored students who believe they
qualify for reduced-price or free-
meal coupons may fill out an
application in Room 254, Adminis-
tration Building, Balboa Heights, or
call 52-7757 or 52-7995.
The Friends of the Ballet will
present a ballet premiere in honor of
President Eric Delvalle at 8:30 p.m.
Tuesday, August 19, at the National
Theater. For information, call 22-
The Department of Defense
Dependents Schools are conducting
a Child Find Activity in effort to
locate all eligible handicapped child-
ren in need of special services.
Families may contact their local
schools for program planning and
enrollment, or call the Regional
Office at 86-4405.

first 100 years
of the floating equipment worked on at
the Industrial Division is now dry-
docked by an ultra-modern, state-of-
the-art tug and miter gate repair facility,
which went into service in 1984,
replacing the obsolete marine railway.
In comparing the marine railway and
tug and miter gate facility with the old
French dry dock, George describes the
latter as "one of the old reliables."
When completed by the French
in 1886, the dry dock measured 190 by
32 feet, tiny by today's standards. The
Isthmian Canal Commission enlarged
the dry dock between 1906 and 1908 to
a usable length of 300 feet and width of
50 feet. Its depth remained as the
French had built it, 131/2 feet over sill
and keel blocks at mean tide. So
enlarged, it was used for dry-docking
dredging equipment, towboats, sub-
marines and other U.S. government
vessels and commercial vessels that it
could accommodate.
After the opening of the Canal, larger
vessels were taken to the 1,000-foot dry
dock in the Balboa industrial area.
Under a 1921 executive order, vessels
transiting to and from Balboa for the
sole purpose of having repairs made at
the dry dock there were exempted from
In 1932, Congress appropriated
$400,000 so that the French dry dock
could be enlarged again. Unable to
accommodate Canal dredges or dump
scows, its usefulness was severely
limited. The enlargement project began
that December, with the dry dock
remaining out of service for a full year.
After it was entirely rebuilt to larger
dimensions and provided with a
modern pumping plant, it reopened on
December 13, 1933, and, as in the past,
it continues to provide the Canal
organization with a dry-docking facil-

M indi (Continued from page I)
reducing fuel consumption 100 percent celebrated with a recommissioning
and enhancing digging productivity by ceremony at the Industrial Division on
va. 30 percent. In 1980 .the dredge was August 1. The dredge's cutter head teeth
cies equipped with sound barriers and oiler's were symbolically painted a fierce white
I booths to provide workers with ade- for the celebration, which was attended
quate noise barriers, by the chiefs of divisions that partici-
S The Mindi's latest renovations were pated in the renovation process.

Sanitation P 1

Dredging P I

Motor Transp. P 1

Public Affairs P 1

Comm. Svcs. A I

Motor Transp.

Locks A I _1 'e "
SPhoto by Arthur Pollack
Mindi" ready to go
Industrial A I The cutter dredge "Mindi," white teeth bared for action, prepares to leave the
t and Placement Branch, Industrial Division following extensive renovations.

Award, presented to him on August 1.
Mercier, the new Deputy Personnel
Director, has worked for the Canal
agency 24 years, over 20 of them in the
personnel area. His career with the
Canal began with an appointment as
restaurant manager in 1962 in the
former Supply Division, where, a few
months later, he was promoted to
become a graduate intern in business
administration. He entered the per-
sonnel field upon his reassignment as a
personnel staffing and employee rela-
tions specialist at Cristobal in 1965.
From that post, he was promoted to
chief of the adverse and disciplinary
actions section, and has since headed
the local recruitment/in-service actions
section, the special placement unit, the
employee and management develop-
ment branch, the position classification

(Continued from page 1)
branch, and the Personnel Operations
Fil6s-Remotti, the new Personnel
Operations Division chief, has been on
board 22 years, all of them in
personnel. He has always worked
closely with Mercier. More than
supervisor and subordinate, Fil6s-
Remotti says, their professional rela-
tionship has developed into that of
trusted friends. Personnel decisions are
made through free and open discussion
in which they reach a consensus. "But
that's not to say that Mr. Mercier
doesn't let his opinion be known," Fil6s-
Remotti says jokingly. Both men have
worked as a team for many years, and
consider that the key to upward
mobility within the Panama Canal
Commission is professionalism and
dedication in one's job.


Spillway ,

Administrator, Panama Canal Commission Deputy Administrator
Director of Public Affairs Deputy Director of Public Affairs
Press Officer Acting Editor
The SPILLWAY is an official Panama Canal publication. Articles may be reprinted without further permission by crediting the
PANAMA CANAL SPILLWAY as the source. News items should arrive in the Press Office by noon. Thursday, the week prior to
publication. Only urgent, official material will be accepted after the deadline. Subscriptions for 52 issues are 56 regular mail. $4
regular mail students, and S19 airmail. Send check or money order payable to the Panama Canal Commission to the Office of Public
Affairs. APO Miami 34011-5000.

Pane 6

Answers to Canal quiZ (Continued from page 3)
For all questions, compare your responses with this key:
a. Close, but no cigar.
b. Congratulations, smart aleck.
c. Canal history is obviously not your forte.

Now, count up the number of correct responses and find the appropriate
category below.
Six correct answers-don't let it go to your head.
Five correct answers-you can always blame the editor for putting in a trick
Two to four correct answers-maybe it's just not your day.
Less than two correct answers-statistically speaking, your performance is
below that of a blindfolded monkey on LSD.



:- '. ,

Hay "Paz" en a flota Foto por Kevin Jenkins
Hay "Paz" en la flota
El remolcador "Paz", la mds reciente adicion a la flota del Canal de Panama,
demuestra su velocidad de desplazamiento y maniobrabilidad en la entrada
Pacifica del Canal, una vez cumplida la ceremonia formal de su aceptaci6n.

Mercier logra histdrico ascenso

ernes 15 de Ago

En un 40 por ciento debe aumentar el
potential de producci6n de la draga
hidraulica de succi6n Mini, luego de
intensivos trabajos de renovaci6n que se
acaban de completar en la misma. Tras
dos afios y $8 millones, la Mindi, usada
primordialmente para trabajos de
dragado de mantenimiento, cuenta
ahora con un nuevo sistema de
excavaci6n y corte, lo mis modern en
controls computarizados, nuevos guin-
ches de izamiento, y un nuevo cabezal
cortador. Tambi6n cuenta con tres
nuevos generadores de 1,080 kilovatios
a bordo y un nuevo casco.
Los esfuerzos por mejorar la Mindi
comenzaron en 1981, con la justifica-
ci6n econ6mica para el proyecto. Las
especificaciones para la renovaci6n
fueron dadas a conocer en 1983, y un
contrato fue adjudicado en 1984 al
proponents mas bajo, Intercontinental
Engineering and Manufacturing Corp.,

Primer panamerio Subdirector de Personal

Por Mercedes K. Morris
Culminando una distinguida carrera
marcada por su dedicaci6n, liderazgo y
profesionalismo, John Y. Wagner se
jubil6 el 3 de agosto como Subdirector
dc la Oficina de Administraci6n de
Personal de la Comisi6n del Canal de
Panama. George A. Mercier, hasta
entonces jefe de la Divisi6n de
Operaciones de Personal, ha sido
designado en su reemplazo, convirti6n-
dose en el primer panamefio que ocupa
tan alto cargo. El tambien panamefio
Felix A. Fil6s-Remotti ha sido ascen-
dido al cargo de jefe de la Divisi6n de
Operaciones de Personal que dej6
vacant Mercier. Mediante agresivos
programs de reclutamiento, colocaci6n y
desarrollo de carreras, tanto Mercier
como Fil6s-Remotti buscaran seguir
dotando al Canal de personal pana-
mefio altamente calificado.
La carrera de Wagner con el Canal se
inici6 hace 26 afios como asistente
estudiantil en la Divisi6n de Esclusas.
Dos afios mas tarde, retorn6 al Canal
como controlador de trafico maritime.
Entr6 al campo de personal como
especialista en adiestramiento en clasifi-
caci6n de puestos en 1964, y dos afios
despu6s entr6 a former parte del
personal de political de personal,
convirtiendose en jefe del mismo en
Durante los afios de implementaci6n
del tratado, de 1977 a 1984, ocup6 la
posici6n de jefe de la Divisi6n de
Operaciones de Personal. Desde alli,
Wagner dirigi6 la implementaci6n del
Sistema de Administraci6n de Personal
(PMS). un sistema computarizado de
apoyo a las funciones de administra-
ci6n. Fue designado Subdirector de
Personal en diciembre de 1984.
Wagner ha recibido various premios
de Desempefio Sobresaliente yde Actos
Especiales. asi como cartas de encomio
durante su carrera. Activo lider-comuni-
tario. ha servido en las juntas directives
del Club de Yates de Diablo y del
YMCA. Al jubilarse. Wagner recibi6 el
primcro de agosto otro premio por
Actos Especiales.
(Contintia en la pdgina 6)


.- YI,

Cambio ejecutivo Foto por Kevin Jenkins
John Y. Wagner, sentado, se acoge a lajubilaci6n luego de23 aiios de servicios con
el Canal de Panamd, cediendo las funciones de subdirector de la Oficina de
Administraci6n de Personal a George Mercier, de pie, el primer panametio que
ocupa ese cargo.

El Canal por dentro
Las siguientes estadisticas indican las operaciones del Canal y su uso
durante el pasado mes de Julio:
Transitos diaries promedio de alto calado -33.1
Naves acumuladas listas para transitar 14.9
Tiempo promedio en aguas del Canal 19.5 horas
(incluso el tiempo de trAnsito)
Tiempo promedio de transito -8.5 horas
Naves con manga de mis de 80 pies 48.4 por ciento
Naves con manga de mas de 100 pies 21.5 por ciento
Las compuertas flotantes de repuesto ubicadas en cl L.ago
Miraflores seran Ilevadas a flote el 18 v 19 de agosto hasta la Divisi6n
Industrial en Mount Hope, en donde las limpiaran, pintaran y
repararan. Estas compuertas-las mais grandes del sistema de
esclusas seran usadas para reemplazar las compuertas fijas durante el
reacondicionamiento de estas 6ltimas.
Los $27.7 millones que ingresaron en concept de peajes durante el
mes dejulio, superan en $1.5 1o recaudado enjunio. Enjulio se realizaron
1.026 transitos v se registraron 1 1.8 millones de toneladas largas de carga.

NQ 17
osto de 1986

la draga Mindi
de Kansas City, Missouri. Compar-
tieron el trabajo de renovaci6n con el
contratista las divisions Industrial, de
Almacenes, Ingenieria, Electricidad,
Mantenimiento y Dragado, ademas de
la Oficina de Planificaci6n Ejecutiva.
Como resultado de la renovaci6n, la
Mindi ha sido transformada en una
draga altamente competitive dentro de
la industrial international del dragado,
respondiendo a las demands de la
industrial naviera por mantener los
vitales requisitos de navegaci6n del
La Mindi fue disefiada y construida
en 1937 por la Ellicott Machine
Corporation de Baltimore, Maryland, y
ya para 1943 se le introducian las
primeras modificaciones. La grfia de
portal y el izador de escala fueron
alterados en 1944, y la maquinaria de
izamiento del material excavado y
triturado fue trasladada a la cubierta de
popa en 1946. Los primeros cambios
mayores fueron hechos entire 1977 y
1979, cuando el sistema de plant y de
bombeo fueron cambiados de vapor a
diesel, y de una a tres bombas,
respectivamente, reduciendo el con-
sumo de combustible en un 100 por
ciento e incrementando la producti-
vidad excavadora en un 30 por ciento
En 1980, la draga fue equipada con
(Continia en la pdgina 6)

Est0n disponibles

documents sobre

nuevos proyectos
En la Divisi6n de Ingenieria de la
Comisi6n del Canal de Panama esti a
disposici6n de los interesados la
documentaci6n necesaria que se rela-
ciona con various proyectos de construc-
ci6n e instalaci6n que se realizaran en
ambos sectors del Istmo.
El Proyecto CC-86-49 es para la
construcci6n de una nueva playa de
estacionamiento, complete con su
carpeta asfaltica, drenajes, demarca-
ciones, topes y alumbrado, en la
Division Industrial en Mount Hope. El
costo estimado del proyecto oscila centre
$100,000 y $250,000.
El Proyecto CC-86-19 es para la
remoci6n de las torres de la linea de
transmisi6n en las vias del Ferrocarril
de Panama, incluyendo los conduc-
tores, aisladores y herrajes, y la
instalaci6n de nuevas torres de acero,
completes con conductores, aisladores y
herrajes, a un costo estimado que va de
$500,000 a $1,000,000.
El Proyecto No. CC-86-82 pide la
limpie/a con acido de los tubos de vapor
y agua de las calderas No. 3 y No. 4 de
la Planta de Miraflores. El costo
estimado ha sido fijado entire $ 100,000 y
El Proyecto CC-87-5 es para el
reemplazo de techos en viviendas
ubicadas en La Boca, a un costo
estimado que oscila entire $250,000 y
El Proyecto CC-86-27 se relaciona
con la remodelaci6n de dos edificios en
las areas de Anc6n y Balboa. El costo
estimado va desde S100,000 a $250,000.
La documentaci6n necesaria puede
obtenerse en el Despacho 343 del
Edificio de Administraci6n en Altos de


Agosto 15, 1986

NicAos dicen lo que sienten y piensan del Canal
Ninfos dicen lo que sienten y piensan del Canal

Al celebrar el Canal de Panama su
septuag6simo segundo afio de servicio
continue a la navegaci6n mundial, es
natural que echemos una mirada hacia'
el pasado. Que recordemos a los
corajudos hombres que construyeron la
via acuatica y a los empleados del Canal
que han contribuido a su eficiente
operaci6n y continuado mantenimiento
a trav6s de los afios, y tambi6n a nuestro
propio papel en ese sostenido servicio
que ha prestado el Canal.
Pero da el caso de que un aniversario
es tambi6n el moment para mirar
hacia el future, y una de las mejores
maneras de hacerlo es mediante un
examen de los pensamientos e impre-
siones de la juventud de hoy dia. Al
mirar al Canal a trav6s de sus ojos,
podemos ver el orgullo, el asombro y la
alta estimaci6n que tienen los adults de
mafiana por la via interoceAnica.
Los j6venes que han aportado sus
pensamientos a este articulo estan
vinculados a la organizaci6n del Canal
porque algin padre o abuelo esta
empleado por la agencia. A cada uno se
le pidi6 que. escribiera un parrafo
describiendo lo que les parecia lo mas
interesante del Canal. El personal del

SPILLWAY les agradece el haber
compartido sus ideas con nosotros.

Yo creo que el Canal de Panamd es
algo maravilloso, porque hacia un
paseo de barco y vi cidmo era elpasopor
el Canal y como elagua bajd a un nivel y
al pasar se sube de nuevo. Vi tambidn
c6mo los hombres trabajan".
Marvin Turnbull, 7 afios de edad
Hijo de Mel6ndez A. Turnbull
Mec~nico tornero del Ramo de
Energia El6ctrica.

"Yo vivo cerca del Canal. Es
agradable vivir alli porque todas las
noches escucho a los remolcadores,
barcos v trenes. Es por eso que me
agrada vivir cerca del Canal':
Laura Kraemer, 10 afios de edad
Hija de James Kraemer
Jefe de Ramo de la Divisi6n
de Protecci6n del Canal

"El Canal de Panamd unid dos
ocianos i' convirtid a Panamd en el
centro del mundo. Ha recortado el
tiempo y el cost del viaje de un mar
hacia otro, debido a que anterior a la
construccidn del Canal de Panamnd. las

Vista de cerca

Estudiantes de la Escuela Guillermo Andreve de Arraijdn esperan su turno para
entrar al pabell6n de visitantes de las Esclusas de Miraflores, para apreciar de
cerca el Canal de Panama.

Preparaci6n para el parto
A partir del 22 de agosto se estard
dictando un nuevo curso de prepara-
ci6n para el parto en el YMCA de los
Servicios Armados en Balboa. El curso
dura seis semanas, y las classes se
impartirdn los viernes de 5 a 7 p.m. Se
invita a los futures padres a aprender el
m6todo Lamaze con la instructor
bilingiie Cristina de Caries. Para mayor
informaci6n, Ilame a los tel6fonos 52-
2759 y 52-2839.
Aprenda a nadar
Comenzando el 19 de agosto, el
YMCA de los Servicios Armados en
Balboa ofrecera classes de nataci6n los
martes y jueves a nifios y adults de
distintas edades y niveles de destreza.
Para mayor informaci6n, Ilame a los
telefonos 52-2759 y 52-2839.
Clases de buceo
Un curso bisico de buceo sera
impartido por el instructor Ren6
G6mez en el YMCA de los Servicios
Armados en Balboa los lunes, mi6rcoles
y viernes a partir del 18 de agosto, en
horario de 6:30 a 8:30 p.m. Los
estudiantes se sometaran a una prueba
de nataci6n en la primera sesi6n, y a
zambullidas en mar abierto los domin-
gos en Portobelo. Al final del curso
pueden hacer su selecci6n de certifica-
LACO. Para mayor informaci6n, Ilame
a los tel6fonos 52-2759 v 52-2839.

Clases de costura
El 23 de agosto se inicia en el YMCA
de los Servicios Armados en Balboa un
curso de costura professional y de
confecci6n de patrons de diez semanas
de duraci6n para principiantes y
estudiantes avanzados.
Las classes para principiantes se
dictaran de mediodia a 4 p.m. los
sabados, y de 5 a 9 p.m. los martes. Las
classes para los avanzados se impartiran
de 5 a 9 p.m. los lunes. La instructor
del curso es Edna C6rdova, de la
Escuela Bishop de Confecci6n de
Para mayor informaci6n; llame a los
tel6fonos 52-2759 y 52-2839.
Inscripci6n para biatl6n
Hasta el viernes 29 de agosto
permaneceran abiertas las inscripciones
para el biatl6n annual del Dia del
Trabajo que se correra el primero de
septiembre en el sector Atlantico.
Auspiciado por el Ramo de Acondicio-
namiento del Empleado, el biatl6n es
para empleados de la Comisi6n del
Canal de Panama y sus dependientes de
S18 afios o mis. Hombres y mujeres
competiran en cuatro categories por
edad, sin limits en el n6mero de
El biatl6n incluira una prueba de
nado de un cuarto de milla en la piscina
de Margarita, seguido de un event
pedestre de una milla. El ganador y el
ocupante del segundo lugar en cada
categoria recibiran sendos trofeos. Para
mayores detalles, o para inscribirse,
p6ngase en contact con Emilio Singh
en la piscina de Margarita (46-7229).
Tambi6n se aceptan inscripciones en la
piscina de Gat6n (43-5233) y en el
gimnasio de Gat6n (43-5242).

naves requerian alrededor de dos
semanas para cruzar de un mar hacia
otro pasando por Tierra del Fuego en el
sur de la costa chilena, lugar de
naufragio de muchas embarcaciones
durante la dpoca de la. conquista de
Amdrica, viaje que tomaria hasta dos
semanas por realizar, mientras que por
el Canal en mencidn toma ocho horas'.
Zdenka Campbell, 14 afios
de edad
Hija de Glenford Campbell
Suboficial de maquinas de la
Division de Navegaci6n

"El Canal de Panamd es de interns
para mi en muchos aspects. Primero,
las Esclusas de Gatuin brindan una
magnifica vista de cdmo pasan los
barcos a travis de la via interocednica.
Elpersonal asignado a mover barcos en
el drea mencionada son tan efectivos en
sus funciones, que cada fase de la
operacidn se mueve con gran precision.
Mi mdximo interns en la operacidn del
Canal de Panamd es que mi padre
trabaja como pasacable con la Division
de Navegacion, v brinda apoyo a los
barcos que transitan a travis del
embudo para el comercio mundial".
Chantal Booth, 12 afios de edad
Hija de George Booth
Pasacable de la Divisi6n de

"Una de las cosas mds interesantes
que jamnds he visto fue cuando tenia
ocho anos e iba a cruzar de un lado a
otro de las esclusas. Cuando nos
aproximndbamos alfinal de nuestra gira,
dos guardias de seguridad nos detu-
vieron v nos explicaron como era que
los barcos pasaban a traves de las
distintas cdmaras. Fue una vista
fascinante esa glamorosa y excelente
accidn. Jamds habia visto un barco
elevarse tan rdpidamente v movers con
ese 11nmovimiento .enILo Iv acompasado.
Mi padre es nienmbro del equipo que
aruda a mantener al Canal de Panamnd
en marcha.
Jessica Layne, 13 afios de edad
Hija de Walter Layne
Primer pasacable de la
Division de Navegaci6n

"Yo opino que el Canal de Panamd es
interesante porque vo vivia en Pensil-
vania y alld no tienen nada como dsto.
Lo que me luce lo mejor del Canal de
Panamnd es que se ha creado algo muy
hermoso ... se puede ir a ver los barcos,
y de noche es atrn mds atractivo debido
a que las luces estdn encendidas y se
puede ver dentro. "
Michelle Gavis, 8 afios de edad
Nieta de George Klein
Asistente e presupuestos
de la Divisi6n Industrial

"Hace algunos ahos, siendo todavia
una nifita, visit las Esclusas de Gattin v
observed a los barcos muv cerca desde la

via oriental. Esto me brindd la
oportunidad de ver personalmente
cdmno los barcos transitan el Canal. Mi
interns en la operacidn del Canal es la
forma cdmo los empleados conservan y
manlienen la via acudtica a fin de
permitir que los barcos de todas parties
del mundo puedan transitar libre-
Esaura Zamora, 11 afios de edad
Hija de Hayman Zamora
Guardia de seguridad de la
Division de Protecci6n
del Canal

"Las lanchas del Canal de Panamd
son las que mds interns tienen para mi,
porque he visto cdmo las instalan v
reparan. He abordado una de ellas con
mipadre, v he visto los distintos estilos y
tamahos de las lanchas".
Nadia Hall, 9 afios de edad
Hija de Jerry Hall
Capataz general de reparaci6n
de lanchas de la Divisi6n

"Lo que yo consider mds interesante
son las instalaciones mecdnicas; ver
cdmno todo echa a andar con el
movimiento de una palanca, como las
compuertas las mulas. Cuando se le
mira desde un avidn, luce mur bonito
con todas sus luces encendidas y los
barcos en el lago "
J. Riley Laatz, 11 afios de edad
Hijo de Helen Laatz
Secretaria en la Divisi6n

S"Opino que el Canal de Panamd es
interesante debido a que une dos
ocianos, el Atldntico y el Pacifico.
Estoy orgulloso de que los Estados
Unidos ayudaron a construirlo. Creo
que el Canal es realmente estupendo,
estando como estd en el medio del
Zach Gray, 9 afids de edad
Hijo de Robert Gray
Prictico de la Direcci6n
de Marina

"Creo que lo mds interesante del
Canal de Panamnd son sus juegos de
esclusas. Tuve oportunidad de ver el
trdnsito de un barco por las Esclusas de
Gatun. Es asomnbrosa laforma en que el
barco se aproxima a laprimera cdmara
a nivel del mar, v tras de dl se cierran las
compuertas cuando ha entrado a la
cdmnara. Luego, la cdmara se llena de
agua v el barco se eleva a un nivel mds
alto hasta llegar a nivel del lago, que estd
a 80 pies sobre el nivel del mar. Cada
vez que misfamiliares reciben visitantes
del exterior, les pido a mis padres que
nos eleven alli'".
Shajira Gouldbourne, 12 afios de
Hija de Alberto Gouldbourne
Montador de tuberia de la
Division de Mantenimiento

Divertida comedia

Sara Short, como "Phoebe", pro-
mete al auditorio un barril de
diversion en las presentaciones
venideras de "Toad of Toad Hall".
La divertida comedia se estrena
esta noche a las 8:30 p.m. en el
Teatro Guild de Anc6n y se presen-
tard hasta el 30 de agosto. Para
hacerreservaciones, lame al tel-
fono 52-6786.

PA ;i 29

Anosto 15. 1986


Va en aumento

Se ha registrado un incremento signifi-
cativo en los trdnsitos de cargueros de
autom6viles por el Canal de Panamd
durante el aio fiscal 1986, y se espera
que continue a los mismos niveles
altos. Durante el pr6ximo aiio, este
trdfico podria representar unos $62
millones en concept de peajes.

Foto por Kevin Jenkins


El Canal de Panama ha experimen-
tado durante el afio fiscal 1986 energicos
y sostenidos incrementos en los trinsi-
tos de cargueros de autom6viles. Se
atribuye este surgimiento al dinamico
crecimiento en los embarques de
autom6viles desde el Lejano Oriente
hacia los Estados Unidos, toda vez que
el 50 por ciento de estos embarques de
autos y camiones pasan por el Canal.
Los embarques de autom6viles a
trav6s del Canal de Panama sumaron
1.8 millones de toneladas largas en el
aio fiscal 1985, generando mas de 900
transitos de cargueros de autom6viles,
que pagaron $50 millones en peajes.
Estas cifras anuales fueron casi iguala-

Barco cisterna co

el que mas trans

Por Roy Naylor
El usuario mas frecuente del Canal de
Panama durante el afio fiscal de 1985
fue el Ciudad de Barrancabermeja. El
buque cisterna colombiano pas6 por la
via acuatica 40 veces durante el period,
pagando un total de $1,477,721 en
concept de peajes.
Durante el citado afio fiscal, 3,984
naves diferentes efectuaron un total de
11,654 transitos a trav6s del Canal de
Panama. Igual que el buque cisterna

..- --.' .2 ^rg g ^ ^ ^^ g "- -^ S S B BH

":ne- ;- - ai--
....7--7_ - 7 -7.-- '_s. ---

1o en el trafico de carga rodante

das en los primeros nueve meses del afio
fiscal corriente. Los embarques de
mayo alcanzaron un nivel mensual
record, y todo indica que el comercio de
autom6viles se mantendra vigoroso.
MAs del 73 por ciento del total del
tonelaje en autom6viles que se movi6 a
trav6s del Canal de Panama en 1985
provenia del Jap6n con destiny a los
Estados Unidos. Actualmente, los
embarques de autom6viles en esta ruta
Ilevan un ritmo de 30 por ciento por
encima del afio anterior. El aumento se
debe primordialmente a un alza en las
cuotas de importaci6n voluntaria y a
exportaciones adicionales que resultan
de diversos acuerdos de empresa


ita el Canal
colombiano, various otros transitaron
con frecuencia, tales como el buque de
pasajeros estadounidense Great Rivers
Explorer (con 36 transitos) y el buque
cisterna griego Zoe Christina (con 33).
Tambi6n figuran en la lista de los 15
usuarios mas frecuentes en el aiio fiscal
de 1985, naves con registry maritime de
Suiza, Ecuador, Bl6gica, Panama y
Liberia. De esas 15 embarcaciones, siete
eran naves refrigeradas, cinco buques
cisternas, dos transportadores de carga
general, y una un barco de pasajeros.

Nuevos cursos dictaran en septiembre
Los cufsos enumerados a continuaci6n seran ofrecidos a los empleados de la
Comisi6n del Canal de Panama en el Edificio 0600 de la Calle Corozo en Altos de
Balboa. Las postulaciones deben ser sometidas a trav6s de los gerentes de programs
de adiestramiento de cada unidad al Ramo de Adiestramiento del Empleado y
Desarrollo del Personal Administrativo a mas tardar la fecha tope indicada. Una
semana antes de iniciarse cada curso, el Ramo notificara a los gerentes de programs
qui6nes han sido los seleccionados. Para mayores informes, Ilame al tel6fono 52-4163.

Habilidades BAsicas de Redacci6n ............
Habilidades de Redacci6n Efectiva ............

Contratos de Construcci6n (Conceptos de Admi-
nistraci6n) ................. ............
Cuando las Mujeres Hablan de Negocios (Conti-
nuaci6n) ...............................
Contratos de Construcci6n (Conceptos de Admi-
nistraci6n) ............... ............ .
Seguridad para Otras Agencias Federales (OSHA)
Habilidades de Redacci6n para Ejecutivos ......
Clasificaci6n de Posiciones para Especialistas en
Tecnicas de Personal (OPM)...............
Higiene Industrial para Oficiales de Seguridad ..
Seminario sobre Mantenimientode Motores Diesel
FM 3800D, 8'/, (Fairbanks Morse) ..........
Conceptos de Microcomputadoras para Princi-
piantes ................... ..... ...........
Manejo del Tiempo Administrativo ...........
Conceptos de Microcomputadoras para Princi-
Investigaci6n Paralegal.......................
Operaci6n y Mantenimiento de Carros-Bombas ...
Seminario sobre Mantenimiento de Motores Diesel
FM 3800D. 8'/, (Fairbanks Morse)...........
Introducci6n a las Microcomputadoras (Basic Su-
percalc) ..................................
La Experiencia de la Comunicaci6n ...........
Seguridad Fisica (GSA) ......................
Taller sobre el C6digo Nacional de Electricidad ...

Mar. y Jue.
Mar. y Jue.


9 8-12
9 15-18
9 15-19

9, 16
9 16-17
9 18
9 22-26
9 22-26

9 22-25
9; 23-24
9 29-10, 2

7:15 a.m.- 9:15 a.m.
9:45 a.m.- 1:45 a.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.-
8:00 a.m.-
8:00 a.m.-

4:00 p.m.
4:00 p.m.
4:00 p.m.

8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.


8 20

8 25
8 26
9 15
9: 15

conjunta entire grandes productores de
autom6viles de Estados Unidos y
La convenient ubicaci6n del Canal
permit a los cargueros de autom6viles
que transportan vehiculos desde el
Lejano Oriente, tener ficil acceso a
diversas islas del Caribe que sirven
como puertos de reembarque hacia los
puertos de la costa oriental de Centro y
Sur Am6rica. La creciente importancia
de los puertos del Caribe para el
comercio de autom6viles se hizo
evidence en el afio fiscal 1985, cuando
los embarques en la ruta Lejano
Oriente-Caribe aumentaron en un 26
por ciento. El vigoroso crecimiento de
esta ruta ha continuado durante el afio
que corre.
El comercio de autom6viles es
particularmente important para el
Canal de Panama, en lo que toca a la
generaci6n de ingresos por peajes.
Aunque el rengl6n de autom6viles
generalmente represent el uno por.
ciento del tonelaje total del Canal, los
transitos que hacen los cargueros

especializados en autom6viles son
responsables de casi un quinto del total
del ingreso en concept de peajes.
Los peajes del Canal se calculan en
base a la capacidad interior de carga de
cada barco. Debido a que relativamente
se require mayor tonelaje para mover
carga de baja densidad como son los
autom6viles, un pequefio aumento en
este tipo de carga genera un mayor
incremento en los ingresos por peajes.
Por ejemplo, un carguero de vehiculos
mis grande que transport 3,000
toneladas de autom6viles pagaria esen-
cialmente el mismo peaje que un barco
de carga a granel que transport 50,000
toneladas de carb6n.
Se anticipa que el'comercio de
autom6viles por el Canal continuard a
los actuales niveles altos. Durante el afio
venidero, se espera que mas de 1,100
cargueros de vehiculos transit la via
acuatica llevando a bordo mis de 2.2
millones largas de autom6viles. Estas
nayes podrian representar unos $62
millones en ingresos por peajes para el

Pagina 3

Canal quiz

(No recomendable para estudiantes e
historiadores serious)
Los miembros del personal del SPILLWAY hemos elaborado esta divertida
encuesta para probar si nuestros lectores tienen conocimiento de la historic del
Canal de Panama. Se le advierte a todos los participants que someterse a esta
prueba puede ser peligroso para su salud mental. Aquellos que insistan en hacerla
a pesar de la advertencia, podran encontrar las respuestas e informaci6n sobre
puntaje en la Pigina 6-pero por favor, nada de copiarse antes de terminar.

1. iQu nave realize el primer trAnsito a trav6s del Canal?
a. El S.S. Ancdn.
b. El Alexander La Valler.
c. El barco de golosinas Lollipop.

2. LQui6nes fueron los tres ingenieros jefes del Canal de Panama que prestaron
servicio durante la epoca de la construcci6n por los Estados Unidos?
a. William L. Sibert, Harry F. Hodges y David D. Gaillard.
b. John F. Wallace, John F. Stevens y George W. Goethals.
c. Eusebio Pedroza. Alfredo Layne y Roberto Iurin.

3. i,Cudl era el nombre de la organizaci6n del Canal de Panama durante la
epoca de la construcci6n?
a. La Comisi6n de la Construcci6n del Canal.
b. La Comisi6n del Canal Istmico.
c. La Comisi6n Grace.

4. ;,Por que fue cerrado al trifico el Canal de Panama en 1915?
a. Los submarines alemanes presentaban una amenaza.
b. Un desprendimiento de tierra cerr6 el cauce.
c. La celebraci6n del Carnaval continue durante todo un mes.

5. iC6moeran transportadas las personas, abastecimientos y desperdicios a
traves del Istmo durante la construcci6n del Canal?
a. Por mula.
b. Por el Ferrocarril de Panama.
c. Por medio de la luz de la luna.

6. ;Qui6n active la explosion que destruy6 el Dique de Gamboa?
a. Theodore Roosevelt.
b. Woodrow Wilson.
c. Che Guevara.

7 if:

Expusieron sus vidaspara salvar a los demas

Por Charlotte Elton
La lucha contra la fiebre amarilla es
un aspect important de la historic del
Canal de Panama, en vista de que los
descubrimientos sobre sus causes fue-
ron esenciales a la feliz terminaci6n de la
via acuatica. Esa lucha no se libr6 en las
antis6pticas condiciones de un relucien-
te laboratorio, sino en los cerros de
Cuba. Mas atn, involucr6 a conejillos
de Indias humans, algunos de los
cuales pagaron con sus vidas. Curiosa-
mente, uno de esos "conejillos" que
logr6 sobrevivir-John Moran--vino
posteriormente a trabajar para el Canal.
Existia la creencia de que el mal era
contagioso o relacionado con las
deposiciones fecales, a pesar de que ya
para 1847 era conocida la hipbtesis de
que el agent transmisor era el
mosquito. En 1881, elcientificocubano,
Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, public un studio
sobre el tema que desafortunadamente
no fue tomado muy en serio. Sus
experiments no lograron sustentar su
teoria, ya que us6 mosquitos que habian
picado a pacientes enfermos de dos a
cinco dias antes, ya que posteriores
experiments demostraron que el mos-
quito infectado es inofensivo hasta
despues de 12 dias o mas de haber
picado a una persona infectada.
La fiebre amarilla peri6dicamente
arrasaba grandes areas de los Estados
Unidos durante el siglo 19. Una
epidemia que azot6 el Valle del
Mississippi en 1878 cause6 cerca de
16,000 muertes. No se llevaban estadis-
ticas oficiales de las muertes que
ocurrieron durante el esfuerzo frances
por construir el Canal a trav6s de
Panama, pero los datos disponibles
demuestran que la fiebre amarilla caus6
muchas de ellas. Durante la ocupaci6n
military de Cuba por los Estados Unidos
en 1900, se registraron 1,600 casos entire
oficiales y tropas de los Estados Unidos,
y 231 muertes. Tan elevada cantidad
llev6 al cirujano general a designer a
cuatro cirujanos militares a realizar
experiments sobre la transmisi6n de la
Los cuatro m6dicos decidieron pro-
bar la teoria de la transmisi6n por el
mosquito, .pero pensaron que era
injusto someter a otros a los experimen-
tos. Uno de ellos era inmune, y otro,
Walter Reed, fue llamado a Washing-
ton para tender asuntos urgentes.
Regres6 para hallar que uno de sus


Durante los
ultimos 10 de sus
30,aflos de a '
servicio con el
Ramo de
Meteorologia e
Joseph A. Reid
ha cumplido
fielmente la
tarea de darle
cuerda a este
bar6metro todos -
los martes por
la manana.

Foto por
Kevin Jenkins

colegas, Jesse W. Lazear, habia muerto
a causa del experiment, y que otro,
James Carroll, apenas si habia logrado
sobrevivir. Sus amigos le pidieron que
no se sometiera a la terrible prueba.
Sin embargo, aln se necesitaban
voluntarios para la segunda etapa-
establecer el period en que el mosquito
se hace dafiino, y el period que debe
transcurrir desde que un paciente haya
sido infectado antes de que el mal pueda
ser traspasado al mosquito. En total, 22
personas se sometieron a las pruebas,
siendo los dos primeros John R.
Kissinger y John J. Moran. Ambos
rechazaron compensaciones en efectivo.
En tres ocasiones seguidas, fueron
Ilevados, vestidos finicamente en cami-
zones, a una habitaci6n en que habian
mosquitos que se sabia estaban infecta-
dos. Alli acostados, permanecieron
tranquilos mientras los picaban. Ambos
contrajeron. la fiebre amarilla, pero
afortunadamente se recuperaron. Reed
dijo de ellos que "esta exhibici6n de
coraje moral nunca ha sido superada en
los anales del ejercito de los Estados
En respuesta a los experiments, se
tomaron medidas inmediatas en la
Ciudad de La Habana, a saber, la
segregaci6n de infectados de fiebre
amarilla tras grandes alambradas, y la
fumigaci6n de todas las casas infecta-
das, bajo la direcci6n del official jefe de
sanidad para la ciudad-Crnl. William
Gorgas. Dentro de tres meses, el mal
habia sido erradicado de la ciudad, para
sorpresa inclusive del mismo Gorgas,
quien habia asumido que habian otros
m6todos de transmisi6n.
Gorgas fue puesto a cargo de la
sanidad en Panama en 1904, e invit6 al
m6dico military britinico Mayor Ronald
Ross a visitar el Istmo. Ross habia
descubierto en 1898 que la
transmitia a los humans por medio del
mosquito, y habia estado a cargo de las
riedidas antimalaricas en los poblados
a lo largo del Canal de Suez,
particularmente Ismailia donde, debido
a un defectuoso sistema de drenaje y la
falta de alcantarillas, se trataban 2,000
casos anualmente, dentro de una
poblaci6n de 10,000.
Las medidas en Panama incluyeron
la instalaci6n de un sistema de
acueducto que eliminaba la necesidad
de almacenar agua durante la tempora-
da seca. Las calls fueron pavimenta-

Una vez establecida la relaci6n existente entire la fiebre amarilla y los mosquitos,
pudo aislarse a las personas infectadas para evitar la propagaci6n de la
enfermedad. Sin embargo, para establecer esta relaci6n, se us6 a series humans
como conejillos de Indias durante la etapa experimental.

das, se instalaron alcantarillas, los
pantanos fueron drenados, se regaron
los pozos de agua, las casas alambradas,
se cort6 la hierba y otra vegetaci6n, y se
cavaron millas de canales dedrenaje. La
media fue del todo exitosa, y el uiltimo
caso conocido de transmisi6n de fiebre
amarilla por el mosquito aedes aegypti
se registry en 1905. Es casi impossible
erradicar la malaria, pero los esfuerzos
por reducir su incidencia tuvieron
much 6xito a lo largo del Canal.
Algunos asombrados observadores has-

ta exclamaron que "la mas destacada
cueva de peste en el mundo se ha
convertido en un remanso de salud".
John J. Moran, uno de los primeros
voluntarios de la fiebre, amarilla,
aspiraba a ser medico, pero tuvo que
abandonar sus studios de medicine por
falta de fondos. Ingres6 a la Comision
del Canal Istmico en julio de 1904 como
inspector sanitario y permaneci6 en ese
puesto hasta junior de 1915. Por lo tanto,
contribuy6 en mas de una manera a que
el suefio impossible se hiciera realidad.

Adin quedan vestigios de fiebre amarilla;
y la vacunacidn es la prevencidn efectiva
Aunque el riesgo de adquirir fiebre amarilla es actualmente muy bajo, se
siguen registrando de vez en cuando en Panama casos de la variedad

,fX selvatica. Por tal motivo, todos los residents deben protegerse
vacunandose por lo menos una vez cada 10 afios. El Dr. Richard A.
SCheville, jefe de la Divisi6n de Salud Ocupacional de la Comisi6n del \
Canal de Panama, dice que, tanto para crear una inmunidad efectiva
Scomb para eliminar los efectos colaterales vinculados a ella, la vacuna
contra la fiebre amarilla es probablemente la mas exitosa de que se

SAntiguo bar6metro aun funciona

Sgracias a cuidados de Joe Reid
SLo viejo y lo nuevo estan ubicados de manera de que se pueda registrar en
lado a lado en el Ramo de Meteorologia el papel cuadricular la presi6n de toda
e Hidrologia de la Comisi6n del Canal una semana. El mecanismo del reloj ha
de Panama. En la misma oficina que sido reparado varias veces, pero en vista
aloja un modern sistema de radar de de que tiene muy pocas parties mo-
color codificado que permit a los vibles, no es tanto lo otro que se
meteor6logos observer la precipitaci6n nueda dafiar.

por toda la cuenca hidrogrAfica del
Canal de Panama, se levanta un
bar6metro que ha estado en servicio
continue registrando la presi6n atmos-
f6rica desde 1905.
Los meteor6logos usan el bar6metro
para predecir la lluvia. Este modelo en
particular fue construido por el pari-
siense fabricante de instruments Jules
Richard. y probablemente fue compra-
do por la Comisi6n del Canal Istmico por
intermedio del abastecedor Julien Friez,
del Observatorio Belfort de Baltimore.
El movimiento del reloj dura ocho dias,

Sin embargo, si hay quedarlecuerda,
y esa tarea ha sido realizada fielmente
por el t6cnico meteor6logo Joseph A.
Reid virtualmente todos los martes en la
mariana durante los ciltimos 10 de los 30
afios de servicio que Ileva con el Ramo
de Meteorologia e Hidrologia.
Un inventario del equipo meteorol6-
gico fechado marzo 11, 1912, da cuenta
de que este bar6metro es "bastante
precise y satisfactorio como para
efectuar un registro continue de la
presi6n atmosf6rica". Ese informed sigue
siendo veraz hoy dia.

L Agosto 15, 1986

Pfigina 4


A osto 15 1986

S..r.. tAspira a conocer el Canal
tan bien como su tio abuelo

Foto por Armando De Gracia

Fotis Limnio, ahijado del legendario capitdn John Constantine, se identifica en la
fotografia que estd colgada en el Museo Antropol6gico "Reina Torres de Araiz",
ubicado en la antigua estaci6n del Ferrocarril de Panamd en la Plaza 5 de Mayo. El
hombre vestido de oscuro que aparece al lado de Limnio en la foto es el capitan

Ahijado recuerda a

piloto del "Ancon"
PSor David Constable Rebozante de orgullo, el.Sr. Limnio

Fotis T. Limnio, de 73 afios de edad,
vendedor de autom6viles y corredor de
seguros semi-jubilado, le gusta hablar
de su famoso padrino, el capitan John
Constantine, el primer practice en
pilotar el SS Ancdn a trav6s del Canal
de Panama en su hist6rico transito
inaugural en 1914. Se siente igualmente
orgulloso del hecho de que ayud6 en
alguna media a la construcci6n del
Captain John Constantine, un model
de goleta de cuatro mastiles que se
exhibe permanentemente en el segundo
piso del edificio de la Direcci6n de
Marina de la Comisi6n.
El Sr. Limnio dice que de pequefio
pas6 algin tiempo en la "mansi6n" de
su padrino, contigua al Hotel Wash-
ington en el sector Atlantico del Istmo.
No precisa cuando se comenz6 el
trabajo de construir el modelo, pero si
recuerda que cuando tenia unos cinco o
seis afios de edad, su legendario padrino
disfrutaba tenerlo cerca para que fuera y
le trajera las herramientas que guardaba
en un armario bien surtido, hacer
trabajos de lijado y traerle bocadillos o
El capitan Constantine era bien
versado en el ingl6s asi como en various
otros idiomas, pero en el hogar
solamente hablaba griego, sefiala el Sr.
Limnio. Era una persona muy me-
ticulosa y se esforz6 por asegurar que
cada secci6n del modelo fuese cons-
truido de acuerdo a la escala.
El Sr. Limnio dice que su padrino era
muy popular entire las comunidades
griega, panamefia y norteamericana en
ambos sectors del Istmo. Cuando el o
su esposa Maria cumplian afios, las
fiestas que se daban eran hasta mas
fastuosas que las de la celebraci6n de la
fecha national griega. Las amistades
intimas Ilamaban al capitan Constan-
tine "Nikita". el equivalent griego de
"Victor". v otros griegos le Ilamaban
El Sr. Limnio recuerda que tendria
aproximadamente 10 afios de edad
cuando el capitan Constantine termin6
de construir el model, e hizo que le
tomaran fotos junto al modelo en
compafiia de algunas amistades griegas.
panamefias y norteamericanas. El Sr.
Limnio tiene una copia de las fotos, las
que aprecia much, y en una de las
cuales aparece vestido de marinero. En
el Museo Antropol6gico Reina Torres
de Arauz tambidn hav en exhibition
otra copia que fuera donada por el ex-
presidente Demetrio B. Lakas.

cuenta sobre la llegada del Almirante
Rodman al Canal en 1915 con una
armada de buques de guerra de dos y
media millas de largo, y dando 6rdenes
de que el capitn Constantine fuera el
que piloteara su buque insignia, el
U.S.S. New Mexico, a trav6s de la via
Tambi6n recuerda que Maria Cons-
tantine, o Marig6 (pequefia Maria)
como la llamaban sus amistades
griegas, acostumbraba preparar ex-
celentes plates, por lo que el Sr. Limnio
atribuye la larga vida del capitan a la
exquisite y bien balanceada cocina de su
esposa. El capitAn Constantine muri6 a
los 81 afios de edad, un afio despubs de
un accident que lo dej6 lisiado y que,
seguin el Sr. Limnio, probablemente le
destroz6 el coraz6n.

Por Joaquin Horna
Aunque el Capt. Arist6teles G.
Kattulas nunca conoci6 a su tio abuelo.
el legendario Capt. John Constantine. si
espera algun dia llegar a conocer la via
acuatica tan bien como el famoso
marino, quien fuera el practice del
SS Ancon en el primer transito official
por el Canal de Panama, el 15 de agosto
de 1914. "Un practice debe dominar
cada pulgada del Canal, hasta poder
navegarlo practicamente con los ojos
cerrados," dice Kattulas.
Tanto Kattulas como su famoso
familiar ligaron sus destinos al mar
desde muy temprana edad. Alli por los
afios de los 1870, a la edad de 14 afios,
Constantine navegaba como intendente
en los barcos de la Compafiia de
Correos del Pacifico, en San Francisco,
California. En la d6cada de los 1960, a
los 10 afios de edad, Kattulas dibujaba y
Ilevaba un registro de cada barco que
veia. "Mi padre y mi abuelo tambi6n
eran capitanes de barco," dice el joven
marino colonense.
En 1882, Constantine lleg6 a Col6n
para trabajar con la compaiiia del Canal
Francs, como capitan del remolcador
Alexandre La Valley. Ingres6 en la
Comisi6n del Canal Istmico como
practice, en 1905. "Conocia muy bien
cada palmo de la via," comenta
Kattulas. "Como testigo de la construc-
ci6n, estaba bien familiarizado con el
terreno donde fue excavado el Canal."
Kattulas gan6 una beca para estudiar
marina mercante en la Escuela Nautica
PNiblica de Kymi, Grecia, despu6s de
graduarse en el Colegio San Jos6 de La
Salle, en Col6n. Fue comisionado como
tercer official en 1978 y naveg6 alrededor
del mundo durante 18 meses. En 1980,
sirvi6 como segundo official por trece
meses en el Ambassador, buque de
carga a granel de 130 pies de manga
(muy ancho para las esclusas), que
mercadeaba entire los Estados Unidos y
el Mar del Norte.
"En el Ambassador aprendi que el
mar puede hundir un barco grande tan
facilmente como uno pequefio,"confie-
sa. "Aprendi a querer y respetar el mar,
pero nunca subestimarlo." Al cumplir
32 meses en alta mar, tom6 el curso
obligatorio para los primeros oficiales
griegos. En julio de 1985, obtuvo el
grado de capitAn, con licencia para
tripular naves de hasta mil toneladas.


_I..' -- -_ -

En marzo pasado, luego de cinco
afios navegando en alta mar. Kattulas
ingres6 al Programa Preparatorio de
Practicos de la Comisi6n del Canal de
Panama, program a cargo de la
Unidad de Adiestramiento Maritimo de
la Direcci6n de Marina. "El program
abarca el funcionamiento complete de
la via interoceanica, enfatizando en la
seguridad," dice Kattulas. "En el Canal
de Panama el practice debe estar
siempre alerta, pues hay much mis
trafico que en alta mar."
El Capt. Kattulas opina que la
unidad realize un gran esfuerzo por
ensefarle a los futures practices todo
cuanto sucede en el Canal. "El practice
actua como embajador en los barcos
extranjeros que visitan Panama, y debe
star bien preparado para responder
todas las preguntas," concluye.
El Program Preparatorio de Practi-
cos dura de 18 a 24 meses. Al concluir,
los graduados ingresan al Programa de
Practicos en Adiestramiento, etapa
final antes de convertirse en practices
del Canal de Panama.

Cap. John Constantine


Foto por Kevin Jenkins

Tradici6n marina
El capitan Arist6teles Kattulas admira el barco modelo de 10 pies, "John Constantine", construido por su tio abuelo y cuyo
nombre Ileva. Actualmente en exhibici6n en el edificio de la Direcci6n de Marina, el modelo del velero de cuatro m6stiles esta
construido a escala e incluye un interior completamente amoblado.




Pcigina 5_


P~nina i


Agosto 15, 1986

Lista de Vacantes
Para empleados de la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama y
otras agencies del gobierno de los
Estados Unidos

Puestos permanentes Salario
Tecnico en Contabilidad. NM-4 . . . .. $9,896.00
Oficinista Esten6grafo(a), NM-4 (Estenografia a
80 ppm por lo menos) . . . . . .$9,896.00
Oficinista. Caseta de Control (Teletipo), NM-3/4
(Dcbe saber espafiol. saber nadar, y trabajar turns) $9,044.00;
Ayudante de Electricista. MG-5 (Debe saber nadar y
trabajar turnos) . . . . . . . $4.04
Tlcnico(a) en Salud Ambiental, NM-8 (Debe saber
espafol. saber nadar y tener licencia de conductor) $19,740.00
Ingeniero General (Dragado). NM-7 II (Debe saber
nadar y tener licencia de conductor) (Debe poseer
experiencia en ingenieria civil, mecanica o marina) $17.824.00
MecAnico de Equipo M6vil Pesado. MG-10 (Debe
tener licencia de conductor) . . . .... $10.26
Guia del Canal de Panamai, NM-5 7 (Debe trabajar
turnos rotativos los fines de semana) (Bilingiic) $10,768.00
Asistente de Acti\idades Recreativas, NM-5 (Debe
saber cspafiol y debe saber nadar) (Tiempo parcial
maximo de 30 horas a la semana) (Debe star
acreditado por la Cruz Roja como Instructor de
Seguridad Acuatica) . . ..... . $10,768.00
Secretario(a) (Taquigrafia),N M-6 (Debe saber espahol
v tolnar estenografia a 80 ppm por lo menos) . $16.040.00
Ayudante de Soldador, M G-5 (I)ebe saber nadar y debe
trabajar turnos) . . . . . . . $4.04
Puesto temporal
(Maximo de 1 afo)
Programador(a) de Computadora. NM-9 ... .21,804.00


M indi (Viene de la pdgina 1)

barreras contra el sonido y casetas para
aceiteros, para proveer a los trabaja-
dores con adecuadas barreras contra el
Las l6timas renovaciones de la Mindi
fueron celebradas con una nueva
ceremonia de botadura que tuvo lugar

el I de agosto en la Divisi6n Industrial.
Para esta ceremonia, a la que asistieron
los jefes de las divisions que parti-
ciparon en el process de renovaci6n, los
dientes del cabezal cortador de la draga
fueron pintadas de blanco para dar la
sensaci6n de fiereza.

Esclusas A
Esclusas A
Sanidad P I

Dragado P 1
Trans. Motor P I

Informacion P I

Serv. Coin.
Trans. Motor

Industrial A 1

C6mo Solicitar Empleo: Las solicitudes se recibiran en el Ramo de Empleo y Colocaciones
ubicado en el Edificio 366. en Anc6n, o en el Edificio 1105, en Crist6bal. La solicitud se hara
mcdiante el Formulario 443. Solicitud de Traslado. y deberA ser recibida en el Ramo dentro de los
pr6ximos site dias calendarios posleriores a la fecha de esta publicaci6n. Pueden verificarse los
requisitos de los puestosen la Biblioteca y Museo de la Comisi6n del Canal de Panama. Para mayor
informaci6n llame al Ramo de Empleo y Colocaciones. a los tel6fonos 52-3583, 52-7996 6 46-7219.
La Comisi6n del Canal de Panama es un empleador que se ajusta a la Ley sobre
Igualdad die Oportunidades.

Cumple 100 afios dique seco

Por Susan K. Stabler
" 'Construit pour durer". Libremente
traducido, estas palabras francesas
significant "construido para que dure".
Ellas described el dique seco de la
Division Industrial en Mount Hope,
que este afo celebra su centenario.
Construido en 1886 por la Compagnie
Universelle du Canal Interoc6anique, la
primera compafiia francesa involucrada
en el proyecto del canal francs, la
terminaci6n del dique seco precede a la
apertura del Canal por mas de un
cuarto de siglo. El personal de la
Division Industrial honr6 a la centena-
ria instalaci6n el primero de agosto con
una fiesta de cumpleafios.
Clarence George, capataz general de
trabajos de enmaderado nautico y dique

Las Escuelas para Dependien-
tes del Departamento de Defensa
volveran a ofrecer almuerzos calien-
tes en las escuelas secundarias del
area del Canal. Los padres de
estudiantes patrocinados por la
Comisi6n que piensen que ellos
califican para obtener cupones de
almuerzo gratis o a precious reduci-
dos, pueden solicitar mayor infor-
maci6n llamando a los tel6fonos 52-
7757 y 52-7995.
Los Amigos del Ballet presen-
taran una funci6n de gala en honor
del Presidente de la Repiblica de
Panama, Don Eric Arturo Delvalle,
el martes 19 de agosto a las 8:30 p.m.,
en el Teatro Nacional. Para obtener
mayor informaci6n. Ilame al tel6-
fono 22-2302.
Las Escuelas para Dependien-
tes del Departamento de Defensa
estan realizando una Actividad de
Busqueda de Nifios Impedidos, en su
afan por localizar nifios impedidos
elegibles que necesiten de servicios
especiales. Las families pueden
ponerse en contact con las escuelas
locales para efectos de planificaci6n
de programs e inscripci6n. o pedir
mayor informaci6n al telefono 86-
4405 de la Oficina Regional.

seco, dice que no obstante sus afios, el
dique seco nada tiene de obsolete. Sin
embargo, la mayor parte del equipo
flotante en que se trabaja en la Divisi6n
Industrial es ahora reparada en una
instalaci6n de alta tecnologia para la
reparaci6n y reacondicionamiento de
remolcadores y compuertas de esclusas,
que entr6 en servicio en 1984, reempla-
zando el obsolete ferrocarril. maritime.
Al comparar el ferrocarril maritime y la
instalaci6n para la reparaci6n de
remolcadores y compuertas de esclusas
con el antiguo dique francs, George
describe a este l6timo como "uno de los
viejos confiables".
Cuando los franceses lo terminaron
en 1886, el dique seco media 190 por
32 pies, dimensions si se quiere
pequefias. Entre 1906 y 1908, la
Comisi6n del Canal Istmico ampli6 el
dique seco a una utilizable longitud de
300 pies y una anchura de 50 pies. Su
profundidad permaneci6 igual, de 131
pies sobre el batiporte y picaderos de
quilla a nivel medio del mar. Lo
agrandaron de tal manera, que era
usado para poner en dique seco el
equipo de dragado, remolcadores,
submarines y otras naves del gobierno
de los Estados Unidos y aquellas naves
comerciales que pudiera acomodar.
Despu6s de la apertura del Canal, las
naves de mayor tamafio eran Ilevadas al
dique seco de mil pies en el area
industrial de Balboa. Bajo una ley de
1921, las naves que transitaban hasta y
desde Balboa con el inico prop6sito de
que se le efectuaran reparaciones en el
dique seco, eran eximidas del pago de
En 1932, el Congreso asign6 $400,000
para que el dique seco francs pudiera
ser agrandado nuevamente. Incapaz de
acomodar las dragas o barcazas de
disposici6n de desperdicios del Canal,
su utilidad se vio severamente limitada.
El proyecto de expansi6m se inici6 en el
mes de diciembre de ese afio, quedando
el dique seco fuera de servicio por todo
un afio. Despues de reconstruido
totalmente a sus nuevas dimensions, y
provisto de una modern plant de
bombeo, fue reinaugurado el 13 de
diciembre de 1933 y, como en el pasado,
contin6a proporcionando a la organi-
7aci6n del Canal una instalaci6n de
dique seco.

Lioto por Arthur Pollack
Lista para la brega
La grua de succi6n "Mindi", sus blancos colmillospidiendo acci6n, seprepara para
abandonar la Divisi6n Industrial luego de extensas renovaciones.

Respuestas--Canal quiz (Viene de la pdgina 3)

Para todas las preguntas, compare sus respuestas con esta clave:
a. Cerca, pero no se merece un cigarro.
b. Felicitaciones, sabelotodo.
c. Obviamente, la historic del Canal no es su fuerte.

Ahora, cuente el n6mero de respuestas correctas, y encuentre la categoria
apropiada a continuaci6n.
Seis correctas-no deje que se le vaya a la cabeza.
Cinco correctas--puede culpar a la director por haber incluido una
pregunta capciosa.
Dos a cuatro correctas -tal vez este. no haya sido su dia.
Menos. de dos correctas-hablando estadisticamente, su desempefio ha
sido inferior al de un mono vendado bajo los efectos de alguna droga.


Mercier, el nuevo Subdirector de
Personal, ha trabajado para la agencia
del Canal durante 24 afios, mis de una
veintena de ellos en el campo de
personal. Su carrera con el Canal
comenz6 en 1962 con su designaci6n
como Gerente de Restaurante dentro de
la Division d.e Suministros donde. a los
pocos meses, se le escogi6 para iniciar
studios como Graduado Interno en
Administraci6n de Negocios. Al ser
reasignado en 1965, ingres6 al campo de
personal como especialista en asigna-
ci6n de personal y relaciones con el
empleado, en Crist6bal. Desde ese
cargo fue ascendido al de jefe de la
secci6n de acciones adversas y discipli-
narias, y desde entonces ha encabezado
la secci6n de reclutamiento local/
acciones en-servicio, la unidad de
colocaciones especiales, el ramo de
capacitaci6n de empleados y desarrollo
de personal administrative, el ramo de

(Viene de la pdgina I)

clasificaci6n de puestos, y la Divisi6n de
Operaciones de Personal.
Fil6s-Remotti, nuevo jefe de la
Division de Operaciones de Personal,
ha estado con el Canal durante
22 afios, todos ellos en el campo de
personal. Siempre ha trabajado estre-
chamentc asociado a Mercier. Mis que
supervisor y subordinado, dice Fil6s-
Remotti, esa relacion professional se ha
convertido en reciproca amistad. Las
decisions sobre personal se toman
mediante discusiones libres y abiertas,
en las que se Ilega a un consenso. "Pero
eso no quiere decir que el Sr. Mercier no
deja que se sepa cual es su opinion", dice
Fil6s-Remotti jocosamente. Ambos
han trabajado en equipo por muchos
afios, y consideran que la lave de la
movilidad ascendente dentro de la
Comisi6n del Canal de Panama es el
profesionalismo y la dedicaci6n al


.4dministrador de la Comisidn del Canal Subadministrador
Director de Relaciones Publicas Suhdirectora de Relaciones Pjhlicas
Official de Prensa Direclora Interina
El SPII LWAY cs una publicaci6n official del Canaldc Panama I osarticulo quen clla aparecn pueden se reproducidos sin pedir
autorioacin. unicamente acredltando al SPILLWAY DEI. CANAl. DE PANAMA como la fuente "foda colaborac6ndebeccstar
en la Oficina de Prcnsa antes del mcdiodia del jucces anlcror a su puhlicaci6n DespuCs de cea fccha s61o sc accptaran noticias
oficiales de urgencia Las subscrpciones de 52 cjempl.ars cuessltn S6 porcorrcicl rdmario.54 por correoordinario paraestudianlcs.
S519 por correo aereo. En ic cheque o giro postal a fa.or de C'omision del Canal de Panama. dirigidoa Oficina de Informaci6n y
Relaciones Pubhicas. APO Miami 34011-500)0

UrU u""" -- n NJ` -

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