Florida springs protection areas ( FGS: Open file map series 95 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094761/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida springs protection areas ( FGS: Open file map series 95 )
Physical Description: Map
Language: English
Creator: Greenhalgh, T. H.
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Copyright Date: 2005
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
System ID: UF00094761:00001


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Florida Springs Protecti

Greenhalgh, T. H., P.G. #1277 and Baker, A. E.,

February 9, 2005

Walter Schmidt
State Geologist and Chief


The Florida Springs Protection Areas map was created by the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) at the request of the Florida Department of Community Affairs. The purpose of
the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida springs and to provide a
published resource for land use decision-makers as they work to protect and restore both
the quantity and quality of water discharging from Florida's springs.

A springshed is defined as "those areas of surface water and ground-water basins that
contribute to the discharge of the spring." (Copeland, 2003). To delineate a springshed or
a spring protection area one must have an understanding of the hydrogeology of the study
area, potentiometric surface maps, knowledge of internally drained areas and conduit
connections. Consideration should be given to aquifer recharge, aquifer vulnerability and
the uncertainty in the data. Expert knowledge should be used to refine the delineated
protection area boundaries where appropriate. Current and future research will improve
our understanding of springsheds/protection areas and their boundaries; as a result the
Florida Springs Protection Areas map will be periodically updated.

This map was created by compiling available springshed maps from the Water
Management Districts, the US Geological Survey and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. Utilizing geographic information system software or GIS,
these springsheds were projected onto a map of the State of Florida. To delineate
springsheds for the remaining springs, additional geologic data layers were utilized,
Including FGS spring locations, the thickness of overburden on the Floridan Aquifer
System (FAS) and the thickness of Intermediate Confining Unit sediments.

Realizing that springshed boundaries are dynamic due to changes in climate (seasonal
and long-term) and pumpage, a township buffer is applied to address lateral uncertainty.
For the non-outlier springs. After applying the township buffer, best professional
geologic judgment and expert hydrogeologic knowledge were used to further refine the
delineated spring protection areas. Specifically, areas were excluded where the FAS is
overlain by very thick confining. Utilizing the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map,
regional ground-water divides were used to refine some of the springs protection area

In the springs protection area, the "sole source" of drinking water and the source of
spring discharge is groundwater. Whether pumped from a well or flowing from a spring
vent, it is the same water. Numerous contaminants including bacteria, metals, nutrients
and pesticides are detected in spring waters. These contaminants and potentially others
may be found in ground water within the protection area. Utilizing this map, citizens and
the government can better protect the natural treasures we call springs as well as their
drinking water.

A step by step outline of the process used to create this map is shown in the insets.


Aucott, W.R., 1988, Areal Variation in Recharge to and Discharge
Aquifer System in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey
Investigations Report 88-4057, 1 map.

Springsheds and Springs

FGS Springs
I I Springsheds

Step 1

All available springsheds and all known spring locations
were combined.



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Overburden on Limestone

FGS Springs
= Overburden < 100 ft

Step 2

The initial extent from Step I was then expanded to include
areas of high potential recharge to the FAS, which is based
on FAS overburden that is less than 100 feet thick. This
thickness was previously used to create the NW Florida
Sensitive Karst Areas Map (Cichon et al., 2004) and is
considered a conser-ative estimate of thickness required to
minimize significant adverse water-quality impacts to the
FAS. This overburden may or may not be confining the

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Professional Interpretation

Township Buffer

from the Floridan
Water Resource

Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., and Arthur, J.D., 2004, Application of
Geologic Mapping and Geographic Information Systems to Delineate Sensitive
Karst Areas for Land-Use Decisions, American Geological Institute website,

Copeland, R., 2003, Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No. 52, p. 14

Todd, D.K. 1980. Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 535 pp.


This geologic data was developed by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological Survey (FGS) to carry out agency responsibilities
related to management, protection, and development of Florida's natural resources.
Although efforts have been made to make the information accurate and useful, the
FDEP/FGS assumes no responsibility for errors in the information and does not guarantee
that the data are free from errors or inaccuracies. Similarly FDEP/FGS assumes no
responsibility for the consequences of inappropriate uses or interpretations of the data. As
such, these digital data are distributed on "as is" basis and the user assumes all risk as to
their quality, the results obtained from their use, and the performance of the data.
FDEP/FGS bears no responsibility to inform users of any subsequent changes made to
this data. Anyone using this data is advised that precision implied by the data may far
exceed actual precision. Comments on this data are invited and FDEP/FGS would
appreciate that documented errors be brought to staff attention. The development of these
data sets represents a major investment of staff time and effort. As a professional
responsibility, we expect that the FDEP/FGS will receive proper credit when these data
sets are utilized. Further, since part of this data was developed and collected with U.S.
Government or State of Florida funding, no proprietary rights may be attached to it in
whole or in part, nor may it be sold to the U.S. Government or the Florida State
Government as part of any procurement of products or services.

2000 FAS Potentiometric Surface
I 210 (ft rnsl

-130 (ft rnsl

Step 3

Best professional geological judgment and expert
hydrogeologic knowledge xw'as utilized to refine the
protection area boundaries. Areas delineated in Step 1,
where the FAS is overlain by confining unit sediments
greater than 150 feet thick, were excluded. Conversely,
isolated areas with overburden sediments greater than 100
feet thick were included into the delineated springs protection
area. Additionally, the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map
was used to identify major ground-water divides, which then
allowed for refinements in the protection area boundaries.

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Outlier 3rd Magnitude Springs
= Spring Protection Areas

Step 4

To account for the dynamic nature of springshed boundaries,
lateral uncertainty was addressed utilizing a geographical
buffer created by expanding the protection area to the nearest
township. Moreover, this geopolitical boundary is readily
referenced in rules or policies that may stem from this map.

The springs located outside of the delineated protection area
are third magnitude or less [i.e., discharging less than 10
cubic feet per second (cfs)]. Based on recharge rates in
Florida (Aucott, 1988), it was estimated that an average of 10
inches of recharge occurs annually in the springs recharge
area. Thus, approximately 15 square miles of springshed
would be required to produce a spring discharge of 10 cfs
(Todd, 1980). A radius of 2.2 miles extending from the
spring provides 15 square miles of springshed. Thus,
protection areas for the outlying springs consist of circles
(encompassing a minimum of 15 square miles) with a radius
of 2.2 miles.

a ..*.

Version: February 9, 2005





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