Title: Parallel subspace projection beamforming for autonomous, passive sonar signal processing
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Title: Parallel subspace projection beamforming for autonomous, passive sonar signal processing
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kim, Keonwook
George, Alan D.
Publisher: High-performance Computing and Simulation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2001
Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: rev.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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PARALLEL SUBSPACE PROJECTION BEAMFORMING
FOR AUTONOMOUS, PASSIVE SONAR SIGNAL PROCESSING


KEONWOOK KIM and ALAN D. GEORGE
High-performance Computing and Simulation (HCS) Research Laboratory
Department ofElectrical and Computer Engineering, University ofFlorida
P.O. Box 116200, Gainesville, FL 32611-6200


Received 25 Aug 2001
Revised 8 July 2002



Adaptive techniques can be applied to improve performance of a beamformer in a cluttered environment. The
sequential implementation of an adaptive beamformer, for many sensors and over a wide band of frequencies, presents
a serious computational challenge. By coupling each transducer node with a microprocessor, in-situ parallel processing
applied to an adaptive beamformer on a distributed system can glean advantages in execution speed, fault tolerance,
scalability, and cost. In this paper, parallel algorithms for Subspace Projection Beamforming (SPB), using QR
decomposition on distributed systems, are introduced for in-situ signal processing. Performance results from parallel
and sequential algorithms are presented using a distributed system testbed comprised of a cluster of computers
connected by a network. The execution times, parallel efficiencies, and memory requirements of each parallel
algorithm are presented and analyzed. The results of these analyses demonstrate that parallel in-situ processing holds
the potential to meet the needs of future advanced beamforming algorithms in a scalable fashion.




1. Introduction

The conventional beamforming (CBF) algorithm is quite vulnerable to the noise of incoming data due to
the substantial power of the sidelobes in the beampattern known as "spectral leakage." Frequently, the
CBF output in the look direction can be contaminated by unwanted signals that come from directions
other than the look direction. Since the level of sidelobes and the width of the mainlobe are inversely
proportional to the number of nodes, the CBF algorithm generates a very wide and smooth output with a
limited number of nodes and, as a result, a large number of nodes is required for the CBF to resolve the
direction of arrival (DOA) with precise accuracy. Adaptive beamforming (ABF) techniques improve the
performance of the beamformer by maximizing the signal and minimizing noise power of steered
direction output. With certain constraints, the ABF algorithm optimizes the cost function for better
beamforming output with narrower and sharper peaks. These improvements generally require extra
manipulations to compute the data-dependent weights. Many ABF algorithms have been proposed in the
literature'-4, but this paper focuses on subspace beamforming algorithms such as Multiple Signal
Classification (MUSIC), as presented by Schmidt.5
Subspace beamforming algorithms exploit properties of eigenstructures to provide a solution to an
underlying estimation problem for a given observed process. The significant attention given to the
subspace approach in the literature is primarily due to the introduction of the MUSIC algorithm. The
performance improvement of the MUSIC algorithm was so significant that it became an alternative to
most existing methods.6 Stoica7 mathematically analyzed the performance and derived the Cramer-Rao
Bound (CRB) of the MUSIC method.







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The MUSIC beamformer requires eigendecomposition of the Cross-Spectral Matrix (CSM) to
separate the signal and noise subspaces. One method for eigendecomposition is Singular Value
Decomposition (SVD); however, the computation of the SVD is intensive to perform. To implement the
MUSIC beamforming algorithm in real-time, considerable processing power is necessary to cope with
these demands. A beamformer based on a single front-end processor may prove insufficient as these
computational demands increase; thus, several approaches to parallelization have been proposed. Hsiao8
proposed parallel SVD algorithms using a systolic array architecture known as the "Coordinate Rotation
Digital Computer" (CORDIC). Robertson9 built a MUSIC beamforming algorithm for a pipelined
systolic array. Both approaches use iterative methods to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the
input data. In a parallel implementation, iterative methods are not desirable since the convergence rate
of the algorithm depends on the data characteristics and the distribution of the singular values. This
unpredictable workload may develop into an unbalanced workload between processors and lead to
performance degradation of the parallel algorithms. For that reason, both algorithms use a strategy of
stopping after a predetermined number of iterations based on some experimentation. In a scalable
system, however, where the number of sensors is changed by fault or task requirement, the altered
problem size may affect the predetermined number of iterations. Instead of using the SVD algorithm,
Smith10 proposed SPB using row-zeroing QR decomposition, which has fixed computational load.
The work presented in this paper extends the SPB algorithm for parallel in-situ processing on a
linear processor array connected by a network. Parallel experiments were performed on a Linux PC
cluster, which follows the Beowulf style" of parallel computing clusters. Performance analysis of the
computational stages of a sequential version of SPB is shown in order to examine the sequential
bottlenecks inherent in the system. In addition, novel parallel algorithms for SPB are designed for use
with distributed processing arrays, and their performance is analyzed.
Most of the computations in beamforming consist of vector and matrix operations with complex
numbers. The regularity in the patterns of these calculations simplifies the parallelization of the
algorithms. Two parallel versions of SPB have been developed: iteration decomposition and frequency
decomposition. Iteration decomposition, which is a form of control parallelism, is a coarse-grained
scheduling algorithm. An iteration is defined as one complete loop through the beamforming algorithm.
A virtual front-end processor collects the input data set from each sensor, then proceeds to execute a
complete beamforming algorithm independently of the operation of the other nodes. Other processors
concurrently execute the beamforming algorithm with different data sets collected at different times.
Frequency decomposition, a form of data parallelism, is also a coarse-grained scheduling algorithm in
which different frequency jobs for the same data set are assigned to different processors. Application of
these methods to the SPB algorithm extends the original development of parallel algorithms for control
and domain decomposition in Conventional Beamforming (CBF)12, Split-Aperture Conventional
Beamforming (SA-CBF)13, adaptive sonar beamforming14, and robust broadband Minimum Variance
Distortionless Response (MVDR) beamforming5.
A theoretical background of SPB is presented in Section 2 with a focus on digital signal processing.
A sequential version of the SPB algorithm is given in Section 3. In Section 4, two parallel SPB
algorithms are presented. In Section 5, the performance of the parallel SPB algorithms, in terms of
execution time, speedup, efficiency, result latency, and memory requirements, is examined. Finally, a
summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithms and a discussion of future research are
presented in Section 6.

2. Overview of Subspace Projection Beamforming
The SPB is based on the subspace beamforming method, which uses the orthogonal property between
signal and noise subspaces. The SPB decomposes the CSM into subspaces via row-zeroing QR







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decomposition. Each column of the orthogonal matrix Q contains DOA information. The columns
corresponding to the target locations are signal subspace, otherwise the columns are noise subspace. The
reciprocal values of the steered noise subspace are the output of the SPB algorithm. Thus, peak points in
the beamforming output indicate DOA of sources.
Unlike the MUSIC algorithm, the SPB algorithm has a fixed amount of computation because the
algorithm estimates rank and subspace by QR decomposition. The conventional SVD algorithm for the
MUSIC estimator requires three steps to compute eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The input data matrix,
the CSM, is defined as
C = E{xxH} (2.1)
where x is a vector of Fourier components near the desired frequency, H denotes complex conjugation
and transposition, and E{ is the expectation operation. The first step for the SVD algorithm of the
CSM, a complex Hermitian matrix, is to reduce the CSM to a complex tridiagonal form by Householder
matrices. Next, using a complex diagonal matrix, the complex tridiagonal matrix transforms into a real
tridiagonal matrix. Finally, by an implicit QL algorithm16 or QR algorithm, the tridiagonal matrix
converges to a diagonal matrix. These diagonal entries of the final matrix are eigenvalues of the CSM,
and the product of all transformation matrices is the eigenvector matrix. In the final stage, the QR or QL
algorithm is an iterative method with a stop criterion; therefore, the computational load for the SVD is
usually unknown.
Smith10 designed the SPB algorithm and showed that the subspace, estimated by row-zeroing QR
decomposition, is almost identical to the subspace from SVD when the signal and noise eigenvalues are
well separated. A row-zeroing method for QR decomposition was used because small elements on the
leading diagonal of the upper triangular matrix R produce corruption subspaces. Therefore, the R matrix
becomes an unreliable indicator of further rank-deficiency. The decomposition avoids the problem by
zeroing R rows, which have a small difference between previous subspaces or a small leading diagonal
element. The main focus of the algorithm is to estimate rank and signal subspace by row-zeroing QR
decomposition, as shown by:

Xs C -Os C (2.2)
where Es is a signal column subspace from SVD and Qs is columns of the Q matrix, which corresponds
to the signal subspace.
In this realization, we assume that the number of signals is known, and the number of nodes is larger
than the number of signals. Generally, the number of signals is determined directly by evaluating the
eigenvalues of CSM or, in the SPB algorithm, the number can be obtained by assessing the diagonal
elements of R matrix.
For simplicity, QR decomposition is realized by the Householder method in this SPB
implementation. The Householder method is easily extended to row-zeroing QR decomposition. Also,
the QR decomposition is equivalent to, and provides an efficient implementation of, the Gram-Schmidt
Orthogonalization (GSO) process, which is used by the original SPB algorithm. In addition, the number
of multiplications required to compute R in the QR decomposition using the Householder method is
about half the multiplication count of the Givens QR method.1
The basic idea and implementation of the Householder method are explained by several references
such as Golub18. The QR decomposition based on the Householder method entails N-l reflections,
which is the matrix multiplication between the Householder matrix and the input matrix, to annihilate
subdiagonal elements of the NxN CSM matrix. Each matrix multiplication zeros out subdiagonal
elements of the kth column of the CSM by multiplying the CSM i\ ill II the Householder matrix. Since
the last column of the CSM does not have subdiagonal elements, no reflection is applied. After N-l






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reflections, the CSM is the upper triangular matrix R and multiplication of all reflection matrices, Hk is
the orthogonal matrix Q as shown in Eq. (2.3).
HN,_ **-HHC = R

QHC = R C = QR (2.3)


Multiplying an elementary reflector Hk is equivalent to reflecting a matrix across the plane
perpendicular to the wk vector. For a complex number matrix, modification is necessary for the wk
vector, as shown in Eq. (2.4).
0


0
Wk 1=kk r where r= ckk +Ckk+l1 + kr (2.4)
2r(r + ckk) ck,k+1


Ck,n
In this equation, Wk is a vector for the Householder matrix Hk, which annihilates the kth column of the
CSM, and c, represents the element at the ith row andjth column of the CSM. The parameter a is Ckk
I Ck,k I if Ck,k is nonzero and 1 otherwise. Based on the Wk vector, the Householder matrix is of the form:
Hk = I -2w ~rk (2.5)
The CSM can now be considered as the QR decomposition rewritten in the form, Eq. (2.6)


rl, 1 r2 1 1

C=QR=[qqqqq 0 r2 ... r,
C = R = [q q2 q 2n Q > [Q S N (2.6)

0 0 ...
The orthogonal subspace can be divided into signal and noise subspace by comparing diagonal entries of
the R matrix. Provided the matrix QN consists of a different subset of columns of Q, which exclude
signal subspace columns, then the SPB output can be written as

PB (o)= 1 (2.7)
PSP(0) (O)QN HS(O)
sH N S T
where s(O) is the steering vector corresponding to look direction 0. The noise subspace spanned by the
specific columns of the Q matrix is orthogonal to the signal direction; hence, the multiplication with the
steering vector corresponding to the signal direction makes the denominator terms decrease.
Consequently, the output of the SPB algorithm produces prominent values near source locations.
To illustrate the above processes, Fig. la shows the block diagram of the SPB algorithm, and Fig. lb
is a sample output of SPB and MUSIC algorithms for comparison. As the original SPB paper10 showed,
the results illustrate that both beamforming algorithms generate approximately identical outputs at high
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) scenarios. In the case shown, both algorithms use the same estimated CSM
matrix and the SNR is 25dB with white gaussian noise.








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Beamformer output


Repeat for multiple frequencies


20 0 20degrees
DOA in degrees


Fig. 1. Block diagram of the sequential SPB algorithm (a), and a sample output of the SPB and MUSIC for an eight-
node array with a source at 0 = 300 (b)


The number of emitters we can detect is restricted by the number of input nodes for subspace
beamforming algorithms because of the limitation of signal subspace dimensionality. It is desirable to
increase the number of input nodes and the processing frequencies in a beamforming system, which
generally increases the performance from a statistical perspective, for instance CRB, statistical
efficiency and so forth. Even if there are enough nodes to obtain a high-quality beamforming output,
the number of frequency bins remains an important factor for a high-performance beamformer. For
instance, beamformer post-processing often requires an augmented number of processing frequencies
because of target classification (signature) and detection likelihood.





x 10'


Number of nodes


Number of processed frequency bins


Fig. 2. The required number of multiplication operations as a function of nodes and processed frequency bins


so 60 40







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As both of these parameters increase, the number of multiplication operations required to generate
the beamforming output increases rapidly, as shown in Fig. 2. Due to the QR decomposition stage, the
number of multiplications is more sensitive to the number of nodes. This result is expected, since the
computational complexity of QR decomposition by the Householder method is O(N3). A more detailed
analysis of sequential SPB complexity will be presented in the next section. According to Fig. 2,
significant processing power is essential to generate high-performance beamforming output with
acceptable latency and throughput. In cases where current technology cannot provide sufficient real-
time performance in a single processor, a trade-off is required between response time and performance.
The scalable performance provided by parallel processing will help to overcome limits imposed by a
single front-end processor.

3. Analysis of the Sequential Subspace Projection Beamformer
The SPB algorithm consists of four separate stages: FFT, CSM, QR decomposition, and steering. Each
stage has a distinctive function and computational complexity. The FFT stage transforms data from time
domain to frequency domain by multiplying with a complex number basis. This domain transformation
allows implementation of time shifting in the steering stage by complex number multiplication. The
computation complexity of each node's FFT is 0( .7. '1. ) in terms of data length; however, in terms of
the number of sensor nodes, the complexity is O(N). The creation of the CSM involves an infinite length
of computation, which is not feasible in real situations. The CSM is estimated from the input streaming
data and updated at each iteration with an exponential average (where a is the forgetting factor) shown
below:

C(n + 1)= aC(n) + (1 a){x(n + ).- x(n + )H} (3.1)
In Eq. (3.1), the expectation is computed by performing the exponential average, which is an estimate of
the CSM, assuming that it is stationary. The computational complexity of the CSM stage is O(N2) due to
the vector-vector multiplication, where N is the number of nodes. The next stage is to extract orthogonal
signal and noise subspaces from the CSM by the QR decomposition. The QR decomposition by the
Householder method entails N-l time reflections to annihilate subdiagonal elements of the CSM. Each
reflection creates a Householder matrix, which multiplies with the CSM in consecutive fashion. The QR
decomposition stage is the most intensive stage in the SPB algorithm with O(N3) complexity. The final
stage, steering, computes the output for each direction with complex number vectors. Although the
number of steering angles is often considerable, the computational complexity of the steering stage is
O(N2). Overall, the computational complexity of the SPB algorithm is bounded by the most intensive
stage, QR decomposition, therefore the sequential complexity is O(N3).
In the sequential SPB algorithm, the number of nodes and number of processed frequency bins play
important roles in the computational complexity perspective. However, the number of steering angles is
considerably less significant, since the number of steering angles affects only computation at the steering
stage. The computational pattern of SPB for multiple frequency bins is identical for each frequency
except frequency selection in the FFT stage. For the SPB output, therefore, the beamforming process is
repeated for the number of frequency bins. The complexity, which depends on the number of frequency
bins, is only O(N) because of this simple replication processing. Fig. 2 confirms this observation by
increasing linearly in terms of the number of processed frequency bins. However, the exponential
growth of multiplication represents high order complexity for the number of nodes. The CSM[ stage and
steering stage have the same complexity, but the scalar factors for these complexities are different. Fig.
3 shows that the required multiplications for both stages vary between one another within this range.
However, the numbers from the CSM[ stage and steering stage increase in a quadratic fashion.







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16
Number of nodes


*/ QR
CSM Stages
FFT


Fig. 3. Number of multiplications for each stage with 192 processed frequency bins and 2048 FFT length

To estimate attainable speedup with each of the parallel programs, execution time is the most
important factor to be measured. Therefore, a minimum-calculation model13, which eliminates
redundant computation by using more memory, is selected as the sequential baseline. The sequential
SPB algorithm is optimized for computational speed by precalculating the steering vectors and storing in
memory. The parallel algorithms are also implemented with the same minimum-calculation model, and
it is assumed that each processor has sufficient memory to store the program and data.


4. Parallel Algorithms for Subspace Projection Beamformers

In this paper, parallel algorithms are designed to execute on a sonar array constructed as a distributed
system architecture. The system architecture consists of intelligent nodes connected by a network, as
shown in Fig 4. The elimination of an expensive front-end processor achieves cost effectiveness and
improved fault tolerance by distributing the workload over all the nodes. Each intelligent node has its
own processing power, as well as requisite data collection and communication capability. Therefore, an
augmentation in the number of nodes in the sonar array will increase processing power, as well as the
problem size. Such an architecture ties the degree of parallelism (DOP) to the number of physical nodes
in the target system.


Fig. 4. Distributed architecture model







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To investigate the computational performance of the parallel algorithms, it is desirable to use a
flexible testbed. In these experiments, the testbed is a Linux PC cluster, which follows the Beowulf
style" of parallel computing clusters. This cluster has been chosen as a parallel processing testbed on
which to analyze the speedups obtained by the parallel algorithms, which subsequently can be ported to a
DSP-based system. Although most DSP processors have lower clock speeds than PC microprocessors,
they attain performance comparable to general-purpose processors running at much higher clock speeds
because of their unique architectural features, such as fast multiply-accumulate, multiple-access memory
architecture, specialized addressing modes, etc. These salient features support fast execution of the
repetitive, numerically intensive tasks of signal processing algorithms.
Efficient parallelization comes from minimizing processor stalling, as well as low communication
overhead between processors. With a homogeneous cluster of processors, dividing tasks evenly among
the processors serves to maximize parallel performance by reducing these drawbacks. While task-based
parallelism is possible with the SPB algorithm (i.e. by assigning steering to one node, QR decomposition
to another node, and so forth), the workload would not be homogeneous and would result in degraded
parallel performance. Fig. 3 shows this unbalanced workload among the various sequential tasks and
serves as a justification for not using task-based parallelism.
The two parallel algorithms presented in this section make use of decomposition in two different
domains, iteration and frequency. The next two subsections present an overview of the two parallel
algorithms, followed by performance results in Section 5.

4.1. Iteration decomposition method
The first decomposition method involves the distribution of iterations, that is, the solutions of a complete
beamforming cycle. Iteration decomposition is a technique whereby multiple beamforming iterations,
each operating on a different set of array input samples, are overlapped in execution by pipelining. The
algorithm uses overlapped concurrent execution pipelining, where one operation does not need to be
completed before the next operation is started. The beamforming task for a given sample set is
associated with a single node in the parallel system, and other nodes work concurrently on other
iterations. Pipelining is achieved by allowing nodes to collect new data from the sensors at all nodes and
begin a new iteration before the current iteration is completed. At the beginning of each iteration, all
nodes stop processing the beamforming algorithm, execute the FFT on their own newly collected
samples, and send the results to the other nodes. Once these data have been sent, all nodes resume the
processing of their respective iterations. Using this pipelining procedure, there are as many iterations
currently being computed as there are processors in the system, each at a different stage of completion.
A block diagram illustrating this algorithm in operation on a three-node array is shown in Fig. 5.







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Time


Node O (( Y"Y2 12 2 S& 1/2
OSM Fr CSM 0FI
pdate R F R St.eenng F Stee..nng lupdat FFTe FT
update Reciprocal- |j


Node 1 2/2 Sum &
*** --- R:S. FFT H
00 Steenng
pRgRopmcal


112 \ 212 V12 \ 2/2
&Sn, &
CSM 1 F A
update OR ) Seng ten
jfD e.,p-.a


Node 2 2/2 1 2/2 1/2
R Steenng FFT Steenng ang FFTSteeng
If R j_ Reciprocal pdate OR


Fig. 5. Block diagram of the iteration decomposition algorithm in a three-node configuration. Solid arrows indicate
interprocessor, all-to-one communication, and shaded boxes represent independent complete beamforming cycles. The
index in the upper portion of some boxes shows the workload index (e.g. where "1/2" signifies the first of two
workload elements).

A number of difficulties exist for iteration decomposition. First, since every partial job is
synchronized at the communication points, an unbalanced processing load can develop across nodes,
which may lead to processor stalling. Second, each iteration of the beamforming algorithm must be
completed by a node before its pipeline cycle is complete to avoid collision between jobs. Therefore, to
maximize the performance of the iteration decomposition algorithm, the beamforming jobs should be
evenly segmented by the number of processors.
For even distribution of workload, iteration decomposition divides the outermost loop of the
sequential algorithm across the set of processors. Each divided loop includes all computational stages,
therefore the intermediate result from each computational stage is forwarded to generate a fraction of the
final result in each pipelined stage. If one of the computational stages cannot produce the intermediate
result, extra pipelining is required to overlap the execution.14 Unlike SVD and matrix inversion, the
intermediate result of QR decomposition can be obtained as the computation is progressing. In the
middle of the QR decomposition stage, one column of the Q matrix and one column of the R matrix can
be obtained by using the matrix reflection. Then, the column of the Q matrix from the QR
decomposition stage is evaluated and steered in the following steering stage. Consequently, the
workload distribution in the iteration decomposition is based on the columns of the Q matrix.
In each pipelined stage, one reflection of the QR decomposition is executed except the final
pipelined stage. The (N-1)th reflection creates the last two columns of the Q and R matrices, and there
is no necessity for another reflection. So, the DOP for the QR decomposition is not the same as the
number of nodes. However, in the final pipelined stage of each iteration, the results of each steered
column are added and inversed for the final SPB output.
Since the noise subspace of the Q matrix is only required for SPB computation, each column of this
matrix is evaluated to determine into which of two different subspaces it belongs. If the leading diagonal
values of the R matrix are less than a threshold value, then the corresponding column of the Q matrix
belongs to the noise subspace. Otherwise, columns are included in the signal subspace. The columns of
the noise subspace are steered at the next stage, and the signal subspace columns are discarded. The
number of steering stages in iteration decomposition is the same as the number of columns in the noise
subspace. The CSM stage is performed only at the first pipelined stage; however, the computational load
offered by this stage is not significant compared with other stages, as shown in Fig. 3. Therefore, this
slight imbalance is not expected to trigger serious computational bottlenecks in iteration decomposition.







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4.2. Frequency decomposition method
The second decomposable space of the SPB algorithm is the frequency domain. The SPB algorithm
generates multiple frequency results by independent computation between frequency bins. The only
differences in computation occur in the frequency selection and steering vectors after the FFT stage.
The other stages are identical from frequency to frequency with different frequency samples. Therefore,
the frequency decomposition algorithm distributes the processing load by decomposing the frequency
bins. Each node calculates the SPB results for a certain number of desired frequency bins from the same
sample set. Before the start of processing, all participating nodes must have a copy of the proper
frequency data from all other nodes. After completing this all-to-all communication, each node
computes beamforming for a different frequency from the same data set. A block diagram illustrating
this algorithm in operation on a three-node array is shown in Fig. 6.
Time


Node 0 1st subset offrequency bins 1st subset offrequency bins 1st subset of frequency bins
S 1 CSM FFT CSM FFT s 2d SM FFTof y
u uate QR Steering u ae QR Steering upae QR Steering


]ode 2 2nd subset offrequency bins 2nd subset offrequency bins 2nd subset offrequency bins
CSM I FFT I CSM FFT CSM FFT
u aMe QR Steering FFT A" C QR Steering FFT A" 4 QR Steering FFT
u idae i er n update QR S update QR


Node 2 9 3rd subset offrequency bins I 3rd subset offrequency bins I 3rd subset offrequency bins
*** CSM FFT CSM FFT CSM FFT ***
update update QR S update QR

Fig. 6. Block diagram of the frequency decomposition algorithm in a three-node configuration. Solid arrows indicate
interprocessor, all-to-all communication and shaded boxes represent independent complete beamforming cycles.

The communication requirement of the frequency decomposition is considerably higher than that of
the iteration decomposition algorithm due to the all-to-all communication to distribute the data and all-
to-one communication to collect results. The second communication is necessary to gather results
because each node has partial results of wideband output following the frequency decomposition
beamforming computation. The complexity and the number of instances of communication per iteration
increase the total execution time of the parallel algorithm. To lower the impact of communication in the
frequency decomposition method, data packing is used where nodes combine the result data of the
previous iteration and the new data for the current iteration as one packet. Data packing eliminates the
need to perform an all-to-one communication at the collecting stage between each pipeline stage. The
beamforming results of all frequency bins are available at every node after all-to-all communication. For
example, the result of the first beamforming iteration is sent by the next instance of communication in
Fig. 6. The use of data packing makes the granularity of the parallel algorithm more coarse. Due to the
overhead in setting up communication in a distributed-array system, sending small amounts of data
results in a high overhead to payload ratio, hence it is desirable to combine multiple data packets
together to amortize the overhead and reduce the effective execution time. This parallel algorithm
involves a more complex communication mechanism best served with a broadcasting network.
However, it does not require the additional overhead necessary to manage pipelining, as does the
iteration decomposition method.







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5. Performance Analysis of Subspace Projection Beamformers

In this section, the two parallel algorithms presented are evaluated on a distributed system testbed to
analyze the parallel performance. The target testbed of this experiment is a cluster of 32 Linux PCs
where each node contains a 400MHz Intel Celeron processor and 64MB of memory. The
communication channel between the computers is provided by switched Fast Ethernet.
The algorithms were implemented via message-passing parallel programs written in C with the
Message-Passing Interface (MPI)19. MPI is a library of functions and macros for message-passing
communication and synchronization that can be used in C/C++ and FORTRAN programs. In the
program code, a time-check function is invoked at the beginning of a stage that stores time-stamp
information with clock-cycle resolution. After each stage, the function is invoked again and the earlier
value is subtracted from the new return value, where the difference is the number of clock cycles
required in the execution of the stage. In order to obtain reliable results, all experiments were performed
for 900 iterations, and execution times were averaged.

5.1. Execution time of sequential algorithm
The first experiment involves the execution of the sequential SPB algorithm on a single computer, where
the number of sensors is varied to study the effects of problem size. The basic beamforming parameters
of this experiment and the sequential execution times are shown in Fig. 7. Execution times of the FFT,
CSM, QR decomposition, and steering stages are observed to increase correspondingly with an increase
in the number of sensor nodes. As expected, the execution time of the QR decomposition stage increases
rapidly because the complexity of the stage is the most intensive in the SPB algorithm. However, the
CSM stage shows less computation time than the FFT stage even though the CSM stage has a higher
computational complexity. The reason for this phenomenon is that, for this problem size, the scalar
factor of the FFT complexity is significantly bigger than that of the CSM with a fixed FFT length, 2048.
Eventually, the computation time of the CSM[ stage will exceed the FFT time if the problem size is
increased further.


2.5E+10



1)
2.0E+10

2 1.5E+10
U

1.0E+10

w 5.0E+09

O.OE+00
2 4 8 16 32
ESteer 5.77E+06 1.64E+07 6.55E+07 2.43E+08 1.29E+09
3QR 5.52E+05 5.19E+06 7.42E+07 1.15E+09 1.91E+10
HCSM 1.14E+05 3.16E+05 1.29E+06 4.82E+06 2.71 E+07
*FFT 2.13E+06 4.25E+06 8.52E+06 1.71E+07 3.41 E+07
Number of sensor nodes


Fig. 7. Average execution time per iteration as a function of array size for the sequential SPB algorithm with 900
iterations on the testbed. (181 steering angles, 2048 FFT length and 192 processed frequency bins)







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5.2. Execution time of parallel algorithms
Fig. 8 illustrates the average parallel execution times for five different problem and system sizes. The
execution time measured from both decomposition methods is the effective execution time, which
represents the amount of time between outputs from successive iterations once the pipeline has filled.
The execution time of the FFT stage does not change significantly as the number of nodes increases.
As mentioned earlier, the parallel computing model of this implementation uses intelligent nodes at each
input sensor; therefore, the number of data stream vectors is identical to the number of processors. This
linear processor model decreases the degree of the complexity polynomial by one in terms of number of
nodes. For example, the FFT complexity in this implementation will be 0(1) from O(N); hence, the
additional workload caused by increasing the number of nodes is evenly distributed across the processors
in this case. As a result, the number of nodes does not influence the execution time of this stage. The
execution times for the CSM, QR, and steering stages increase in the fashion of O(N), O(N2) and O(N),
respectively.
Total computation time, which excludes communication time, shows that the iteration
decomposition method requires more computation than frequency decomposition. To manage the
pipelined execution, the iteration decomposition involves overhead, which allows the sequential
workload to be distributed evenly over pipeline stages. In addition to the pipeline overhead, the slight
imbalance of workload, as explained in Section 4.1, also increases the effective execution time of
iteration decomposition.

1 2E+09 I I


S 1 OE+09
U
>1
U
,. 8 OE+08
U
0
6w 6 E+08
E
c
.0 4 OE+08
U
W 2 OE+08


0 0E+00


Iaam


*Steer 7 40E+06 9 13E+06 1 91E+07 3 91E+07 9 72E+07 4 80E+06 5 26E+06 9 14E+06 1 67E+07 3 27E+07
DQR 4 76E+05 1 59E+06 1 04E+07 8 84E+07 8 39E+08 7 76E+05 1 69E+06 1 01E+07 7 82E+07 6 32E+08
0CSM 3 31E+05 5 35E+05 1 50E+06 5 58E+06 2 62E+07 1 19E+05 1 22E+05 1 86E+05 3 59E+05 6 53E+05
*Comm 2 43E+05 3 43E+05 5 72E+05 9 84E+05 1 90E+06 2 59E+05 4 33E+05 8 22E+05 1 74E+06 5 48E+06
*FFT 1 13E+06 1 17E+06 1 16E+06 1 19E+06 1 20E+06 1 15E+06 1 13E+06 1 14E+06 1 16E+06 1 16E+06
Number of nodes


Fig. 8. Average parallel execution time as a function of array size for the parallel SPB algorithms (ID is iteration
decomposition and FD is frequency decomposition) with 900 iterations on the Linux PC cluster



5.3. Computation vs. communication

The communication time in this parallel experiment is defined as the time spent in communication
function calls of MPI. The iteration decomposition uses a simple all-to-one communication but
frequency decomposition communicates an all-to-all message at the initial phase of each beamforming







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iteration. All nodes require approximately the same amount of time for all-to-all communication, but in
all-to-one communication, only one node requires greater communication time for receiving data from
other nodes. Since every partial job is synchronized at the communication points, receiving time is
considered as communication time for iteration decomposition.
Compared to frequency decomposition, the communication time of iteration decomposition has a
smaller contribution to the total execution time. Due to the increased communication complexity in
frequency decomposition, the time of the data communication increases rapidly with the number of
nodes as evidenced in Fig. 9a. With this increase in communication comes an increase in the MPI
overhead, an increase in network contention, and poorer performance, which eventually deteriorates the
parallel performance as the problem and system size increase. Obviously, the relatively small amount of
communication in iteration decomposition is an advantage.
6xio ID 6X1', D 0 06 006 FD

5 5 0 05 0.05

4 4 0 04 0.04

C) C)

2 2 002 0.02
E E
1 0.01 0 01

2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32
Numberofnodes Number ofnodes Number of nodes Number of nodes

(a) (b)

Fig. 9. Average communication time per iteration (a) and communication to execution time ratio (b)

The parallelization of the sequential algorithm inevitably requires interprocessor communication,
which cannot be divided into any domain. By contrast, it is possible to distribute the computation
portion of the algorithm into processors or time space. According to Amdahl's law, a small number of
sequential operations can significantly limit the speedup achievable by a parallel program. Thus, the
bottleneck caused by the communication limits the speedup if the communication to parallel execution
time ratio is significant. To analyze the parallel algorithm from this viewpoint, Fig. 9b plots the
communication to execution time ratio (CER). If the computation portion of the sequential algorithm is
effectively partitioned, a smaller CER is desirable because less CER indicates the less communication
time for the parallel algorithm. With a small number of nodes, the increased CER may cause
performance degradation of both the parallel algorithms. Overall, the CER of both decompositions
decreases as the number of nodes increases because of computational complexity; hence, we expect the
parallel algorithms for SPB to be scalable in this viewpoint.

5.4. Scaled speedup and parallel efficiency
Fig. 10a shows the scaled speedup of the two decomposition methods on the testbed cluster of Linux
PCs. The baseline for comparison is the sequential SPB algorithm running on one PC of the same
testbed. Since the algorithms incur additional workload as sensors are added, the plots show scaled
speedup. Fig. 10b displays scaled efficiency, which is defined as scaled speedup divided by the number
of processors used. The parallel efficiency for both decomposition techniques demonstrates an
increasing trend with a different offset value. For iteration decomposition, the parallel efficiency starts







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from 45% and levels off at 67%. The efficiency of iteration decomposition is bounded by the pipeline
overhead and imbalance of the parallel algorithm rather than by interprocessor communication. The
communication time of iteration decomposition is not considerable, as seen from the small CER values;
therefore, the contribution of the communication time is negligible. However, in this case, the
bottleneck caused by overhead and imbalance limits the speedup to no more than 12 for a 16-node
configuration and 23 for a 32-node configuration.
ID FD 100 ID 1000 FD
30 30-
90 90
25 25 80 80
70 70


40 40


5- 15

-. M II10 W50
2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32
Number of nodes Number of nodes Number of nodes Number of nodes

(a) (b)

Fig. 10. Scaled speedup (a) and scaled efficiency (b) as a function of the number of processors for the iteration
decomposition and frequency decomposition algorithms

For frequency decomposition, the parallel efficiency increases with problem and system size to a
greater extent than did iteration decomposition. As mentioned earlier, frequency decomposition
efficiently distributes sequential workload with less overhead, but the communication time of the all-to-
all scheme compensates for the execution time with a small number of nodes. The advantage of efficient
partitioning is not fully realized by the complicated communication up to a certain range of the problem
and system size. For the two-node configuration, the parallel efficiency of frequency decomposition is
the worst because of the significant communication time. As the number of nodes increases, the
computational part becomes more dominant, and the parallel efficiency approaches the ideal. However,
it is expected that, as the problem and system sizes continue to increase, eventually communication will
become a serious performance bottleneck given the nature of its O(N2) communication complexity.


5.5. Result latency
Due to the pipeline property between nodes, the results of iteration decomposition for a given
beamforming cycle are obtained after N stages. As is typical of all pipelines, due to the overhead
incurred, the result latency of iteration decomposition is greater than the total execution time of the
sequential algorithm. For frequency decomposition, the communication is overlapped across iterations
by the data packing technique; therefore, the result latency of this parallel algorithm is the effective
execution time plus a small amount of overhead. In this case, after the data are transformed, the first
communication takes place to distribute data to all nodes. The generated beamforming results from each
node are delivered by the next communication. In addition to the effective execution time, the result
latency of frequency decomposition requires one more FFT and communication time. Fig. 11 shows
result latency of the beamforming algorithms. As expected, frequency decomposition experiences short
latency but iteration decomposition suffers from longer latency than the sequential algorithm.








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2 0E+10

1 5E+10

1 OE+10

5 OE+09

0 OE+00-
2 4 8 16 32
SEQ 857E+06 2 62E+07 1 49E+08 1 42E+09 2 05E+10
ID 1 92E+07 5 10E+07 2 62E+08 2 16E+09 3 09E+10
FD 851E+06 1 02E+07 2 33E+07 1 01E+08 6 78E+08
Number of nodes


Fig. 11. Average result latency time per beamforming job as a function of array size for the sequential and parallel SPB
algorithms with 900 iterations on the Linux PC cluster



5.6. Data memory capacity

For faster execution, most of the invariant parameters are stored in memory space. In this configuration,
the majority of the memory requirements associated with the sequential and parallel SPB algorithms
arises from the steering stage. Iteration decomposition requires the full amount of steering vectors
because each processor implements a whole beamforming task for an incoming data set. By contrast,
frequency decomposition needs only part of the memory space for steering since individual processors
generate only part of the beamforming result for a given data set. For both the sequential algorithm and
iteration decomposition, the demands for memory space for the steering stage grow linearly as the
number of nodes is increased, as shown in Fig. 12. However, little change is observed for frequency
decomposition.







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2 OE+07


1 2E+07


1 2E+07 "


S8 0E+06


40E+06



2 nodes 4 nodes 8nodes 16 nodes 32 nodes
Number of nodes


Fig. 12. Memory requirement of the steering stage as a function of nodes for both parallel algorithms. The memory
requirements for the sequential algorithm are comparable to those of iteration decomposition.


6. Conclusions

In this paper, two novel parallel algorithms are developed and analyzed for the computationally intensive
SPB beamforming algorithm. In the iteration decomposition, the sequential workload is divided into the
number of processor stages and these stages are overlapped in execution by pipelining. Each processor
in the frequency decomposition calculates the beamforming results for a subset of desired frequency bins
from the same data set. For the workload distribution, the iteration decomposition uses the column and
row of the sequential matrix computation and the frequency decomposition is based on the entire matrix
computation for the certain set of the frequency bins. Another major difference between the two parallel
algorithms is the communication pattern, which is all-to-one for the iteration decomposition and all-to-
all for the frequency decomposition. The performance of these parallel algorithms is investigated as
aspects of communication and computation such as execution time, scalable speedup, parallel efficiency,
result latency, and memory requirements.
Overall, both the parallel algorithms achieve scalable parallel performance with increasing scaled
efficiency. On the testbed, it was observed that parallel efficiency increased by almost 22% and 35%
from a 2-node to a 32-node system with iteration decomposition and frequency decomposition,
respectively. Due to the cubic computational complexity in the sequential algorithm, the partitioned
computation in the parallel SPB algorithms occupies most of the parallel execution time as the number of
nodes increases. Thus, the overhead caused by parallel implementation is concealed by these
computation times and parallel efficiency of both algorithms exhibits better performance for larger
system size. Of the two algorithms, frequency decomposition is the better overall choice since it shows
better scalable performance with a smaller memory requirement and shorter result latency as ratio of
system size. Furthermore, the parallel performance of frequency decomposition may be further
improved by using a high-speed network with efficient broadcast capability. By contrast, due to the
limited amount of communication, iteration decomposition may be well suited for architectures with a
low-performance network, or when problem and system sizes begin to make communication the
dominant factor in execution time.







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The parallel beamforming techniques described in this paper present many opportunities for
increased performance, reliability, and flexibility in a distributed parallel sonar array. Future work will
involve parallelizing more intricate beamforming algorithms, including matched-field processing and
match-field tracking. Furthermore, the fault tolerance of the sonar architecture will be studied to take
advantages of the distributed nature of the parallel architecture.


Acknowledgments
The support provided by the Office of Naval Research on Grant N00014-99-1-0278 is acknowledged and
appreciated. Special thanks go to Thomas Phipps from the Applied Research Lab at the University of
Texas at Austin for his insight and many useful suggestions. This work was also made possible by
equipment donations from Nortel Networks.


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