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Group Title: Energy conserving features of new homes in Florida
Title: Energy conserving features of new homes in Florida, 2005 - 2006
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094381/00001
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Title: Energy conserving features of new homes in Florida, 2005 - 2006
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Shimberg Center for Housing Studies, University of Florida
Publisher: Shimberg Center for Housing Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July, 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
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Bibliographic ID: UF00094381
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
Full Text















Energy Conserving Features of New Homes
In Florida


2005- 2006



July 2009




Prepared for:


Florida Department of Community Affairs
2555 Shumard Oak Blvd.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2100



Prepared by:

Shimberg Center for Housing Studies
University of Florida
P. O. Box 115703
Gainesville, FL 32611-5703









CONTENTS

Section Pa

Background........................ ................ ........ ........ 4
Characteristics of the Sample.................... ......... ................ ........ 4

PART I- SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSING..................... 5
Conditioned Floor Area........... ................................... ............ 5
Exterior Wall Type and Insulation.............. .................................. 5
W indow G lazing ............................................................. ....... 6
Ceiling Insulation under Attic................... .................................. 6
Supply Air Duct and Air Handler Location ......................................... 7
Central Air Conditioning System ........................................ ............ 7
Space H eating Equipm ent.................. .......... .............. ........... 8
Domestic Water Heating (DWH) Energy Source ....................... ......... 8
Domestic Water Heating (DWH) Capacity and Efficiency ...................... 8
Glass/Floor-Area Ratio................................ ................ .......... 8
H V A C Credits................... ............... .................. ... ........ 9

PART II- MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING......................................... 10
Sam ple D distribution ................................ ................ .. .. ........ 10
Floor Areas and Numbers of Bedrooms........................ ...... ................. 10
Window Glazing .................... .......... ................ ........... 10
A ttic In su latio n .... .... ...... .................................. ....... ...... 1 1
Supply and Return Ductwork ............... .................................... ... 11
Central Air Conditioning................ ......................... ............ 11
Space Heating................... .................. .................. ............. 12
Domestic Water Heating........................................................... 12
R atio of G lass A rea/Floor A rea.......................... .............. ............. 13
H V A C Credits............ ................... ....................... .. .. ......... 13









LIST OF TABLES


PART I SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSING

Table

PART I SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSING............. 5

1 Distribution of Sample Single-Family Detached &
Multi-Family Housing........................................... 5
2 Conditioned Floor Area Single-Family Detached
Homes....................................... .. 5
3 Exterior Wall Type & Insulation Level........... ............. 6
4 W window Glazing ................ ..................... ............ 6
5 Ceiling Insulation Under Attic...................... ............. 6
6 Supply Air Duct & Air Handler Location ........................ 7
7 Conditioned versus Unconditioned Duct Locations ............ 7
8 Average Capacity and EER of Central Air Conditioning
System s................ ................ ......... ........... 8
9 Space Heating Equipment.................... .............. 8
10 Domestic Water Heating System Energy Source................ 8
11 Domestic Water Heating System Capacities & Efficiencies... 9
12 Ratio of Glass Area to Floor Area .......... ........... 9


PART II MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING ............................. 10

13 Multi-Family Sample Distribution ................................... 10
14 Multi-Family Housing Average Floor Areas & Number
of B edroom s........... ...................... ......... 10
15 Percent of Homes with Different Types of Glazing............... 11
16 Attic Insulation Levels................................... ......... 11
17 Supply/Return Ducts in Conditioned Space ........................ 11
18 Central Air Conditioning System Capacity & Efficiency.......... 12
19 Characteristics of Domestic Water Heating Systems ............ 12
20 Ratio of Glass-Area to Floor-Area ................................. 13









BACKGROUND


In January 2001, the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing entered into an agreement
with the Florida Department of Community Affairs to serve as the receiving point for
Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction (FEECBC) Compliance forms
submitted by local building officials across the state.

Upon receipt of the FEECBC Forms, the Shimberg Center draws a random sample of 1
out of 20 (5%) of the forms for manual entry into a database. If a jurisdiction submits
less than 20 forms, one form is selected at random and entered in to the database. This
procedure insures representation in the database of housing markets with low levels of
construction activity. However, it also results in an over-sampling of the low-activity
areas and results in a sample in excess of 5 percent. The Shimberg Center then issues a
periodic report summarizing the energy conserving characteristics of Florida's housing
stock.

The following analyses are focused on the data captured on the FEECBC compliance
forms submitted for 231 single-family homes built between late 2005 and 2006. Also
included in this periodic report are summaries of the energy conserving features of 747 of
Florida's multi-family housing stock built between 2004 and 2006.

As can be seen, the sample is particularly small in this reporting period. Shortly after
entering 2009, the Department of Community Affairs notified the Shimberg Center that it
may not be possible to continue funding for the processing of the FEECBC forms due to
the current economic climate. In response to this warning, the level of effort for the
manual data entry was significantly reduced. The task of receiving and processing the
FEECBC forms, however, had to be continued because of the continuous receipt of the
forms from across the state.

The objective of this report is to provide the Department of Community Affairs and other
interested organizations with a snapshot of the single-family detached and multi-family
housing built in Florida. Part I of this report addresses single-family detached homes
constructed in Florida in the 2005-2006 time frame and Part II of this report addresses the
multi-family housing constructed between 2004 and 2006.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE

Of the 298 forms randomly chosen as the sample of single-family detached homes, 9.1
percent were from the Southern Climatic zone of Florida, 55.4 percent were in the
Northern zone, and 35.6% were in the Central zone as shown in Table 1.

The 761 multi-family housing units sample included 53.3 percent from the Northern
zone, 8.8 percent from the Central zone, and 37.8 percent from the Southern zone. All
forms in the sample were for newly constructed single-family or multi-family residential
structures.














Table 1: Distribution of the Sample
Single-Family Detached and Multi-family Housing

Year Single-family Multi-family
built Climate zone detached housing
2004 Central 14 nde*
2004 Northern 160 35
2005 Central 53 53
2005 Southern 27 288
2005 Northern 5 346
2006 Central 39 nde*
nde No data entered for this cell


PART I SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED HOUSING

Conditioned Floor Area

The average conditioned floor area of the of the single-family detached homes built in the
Central climatic zone were the smallest with and average conditioned floor area of 2163.7
square feet. The largest home were reported in the Northern zone with and average
conditioned floor area of 2687.2 square feet. (See Table 2)

Table 2 Conditioned Floor Area Single Family Detached Homes
Year Average Conditioned
built Climate zone Floor area (sq.ft.)
2005 Central 2163.7
2005 Southern 2484.8
2006 Central 2293.8
2006 Northern 2687.2


Exterior Wall Type & Insulation

Presented in Table 3 are the average R-values of the insulation installed in exterior walls
of different construction methods. As may be seen, the wood-frame wall system had
insulation material installed with an average R-value of about R-11.0. It is interesting to
note that none of the FEECBC forms included in the 5% random sample included either
steel framed homes or log homes.











Table 3 Exterior Wall Type & Insulation Level*

Year Wood frame
built Climate zone Brick veneer Concrete Wood frame
R-value R-value R-value
2005 Central 4.1 4.5 11.3
2005 Southern 4.6 4.3 nde*
2006 Central 5.0 4.1 11.0
2006 Northern nde* nde* nde*
nde no data entered


Window Glazing

Table 4 presents the percent of homes that were constructed with various types of
fenestration glazing. As may be seen, builders in a given region made window purchases
independently resulting in a market for all types of window features. That is, the window
glazing choices in a given Climate Zone appear to reflect traditional practice on the part
of the specific builder. That is, the choice of fenestration features is likely related more
to pricing than to climatic conditions.

Table 4 Window Glazing

Year Single pane Double pane Single pane Double pane
built Climate zone Clear glass Clear glass Tinted glass* Tinted glass*
2005 Central 69.3% 67.9% 56.5% 58.8%
2005 Southern 11.7% 14.3% 2.2% 11.8%
2006 Central 16.9% 16.7% 39.1% 29.4%
2006 Northern 2.2% 1.2% 2.2% 0.0%
Indicates that the glass may be tinted, covered with a film, or covered by a solar screen.


Ceiling Insulation Under Attic

Presented in Table 5 are the average attic floor insulation levels installed in new single-
family detached homes constructed in Florida in 2005 and 2006. As may be seen, these
attic insulation levels are quite consistent across the state.


Table 5 Ceiling Insulation Under Attic
Year Average
built Climate zone R-value
2005 Central 25.9
2005 Southern 25.2
2006 Central 26.5
2006 Northern nde*
*nde No data entered









Supply Air Duct & Air Handler Location


Supply air duct and Air Handler location in single-family detached housing constructed
in 2005 and 2006 is presented in Table 6. The percentage values shown in the table
indicate the percent of homes built reporting that Supply Air ducts or Air Handler were
located in the Attic, Garage, or in an Interior space.

Table 6 Supply Air Duct & Air Handler Location
Year
built Climate zone Attic Garage Interior
Supply air ducts
2005 Central 5.1% 63.3% 31.6%
2005 Southern 1.9% 1.9% 96.2%
2006 Central 0% 79.7% 20.3%
2006 Northern 20.0% 40.0% 40.0%
Air handler
2005 Central 12.2% 34.1% 53.7%
2005 Southern 0% 4.3% 95.7%
2006 Central *nde *nde *nde
2006 Northern *nde *nde *nde
No data entered

The Supply duct and return duct locations are interesting but the more important
consideration is whether the locations are in a conditioned environment. It is relatively
safe to assume that a Garage and an Attic location are unconditioned. Table 6 provides
the answers to the question of whether the Air Ducts are in an unconditioned space.

Table 6 Conditioned versus Unconditioned Duct Locations


Year Supply Ducts Return Ducts
built Climate zone Unconditioned Unconditioned
2005 Central 80.0% 49.8%
2005 Southern 10.0% 0.5%
2006 Central 0% 48.8%
2006 Northern 10% 1.0%


Central Air Conditioning System

Presented in Table 7 are data describing the average capacity and average Energy
Efficiency Rating (EER) of the central air conditioning systems installed in new homes.









Table 7 Average Capacity and EER of Central Air
Conditioning Systems

Year Capacity in
built Climate Zone Btuh Avg. EER
2005 Central 41.4 11.9
2005 Southern 49.0 12.2
2006 Central 41.9 12.3
2006 Northern 45.3 10.9


Space Heating Equipment

The FEECBC Compliance form captures three types of heating system equipment: Heat
pump, Electric strip, and Natural gas. Presented in Table 8 is a summary of the incidence
of each of the three types of heating systems. The values presented in Table 8 represent
the percent of homes built with each of the three heating systems.


Table 8 Space Heating Equipment Installed
Year
built Climate zone Heat pump Elec. strip Natural gas
2005 Central 80.9% 20.6% 100.0%
2005 Southern 0% 79.4% 0%
2006 Central 16.2% 0% 0%
2006 Northern 2.9% 0% 0%


Domestic Water Heating (DWH)

The energy powering domestic water heating systems in Florida is dominated by the
electricity as shown in Table 9. The values presented in Table 9 are the percentages of
homes that had the indicated DWH system installed.


Table 9 Domestic Water Heating System Energy Source
Year
built Climate zone Electric Nat. gas LP Gas
2005 Central 89.3% 8.8% 1.9%
2005 Southern 100% 0% 0%
2006 Central 100% 0% 0%
2006 Northern 100% 0% 0%









Domestic Water Heating (DWH) Capacity & Efficiency


Presented in Table 10 is the average capacity in gallons of the DWH systems installed in
new single-family detached homes in 2005 and 2006 as well as the average efficiencies
associated with the DWH system.

Table 10 DWH Capacities and Efficiencies

Year DWH Capacity DWH system
built Climate zone (in gal.) Efficiency
2005 Central 46.1 0.86
2005 Southern 53.6 0.89
2006 Central 41.3 0.91
2006 Northern 59.2 0.92

Glass/Floor-Area Ratio

The ratio of the square feet of fenestration glass to the conditioned floor area of a home is
a value that typically ranges from 0.12 to 0.18. The higher the ratio value the more glass
area can be expected in the home. The statewide ratio for 2005 and 2006 was 0.18 with
slight variation as shown in Table 11.

Table 11 Ratio of Glass-Area to Floor-Area


Year Glass area/
built Climate zone Floor area
2005 Central 0.144
2005 Southern 0.177
2006 Central 0.151
2006 Northern 0.156
Statewide 0.180


HVAC Credits
Evaluation of a building's degree of compliance with the Florida Energy Efficiency Code
for Building Construction provides for credits for the inclusion in the building of certain
energy conserving technologies. The five features for which credit was issued for single-
family detached homes were: 4.0% of the homes in the sample included Ceiling Fans:
17.1% of the homes provided Programmable Thermostats, 3.2% of the homes employed
multi-zone cooling, 3.2% of the homes employed multi-zone heating, and 3.2% of the
homes reported having a whole-house fan installed..









PART II MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING


Sample Distribution

A total of 761 multi-family units were included in the sample with nearly half located in
the Northern climatic zone and nearly 40 percent located in the Southern zone as shown
in Table 12.

Table 12 Multi-family Sample Distribution


Year
built Climate zone Count Percent
2004 Central 14 1.8%
2004 Northern 35 4.6%
2005 Central 53 7.0%
2005 Northern 346 45.5%
2005 Southern 288 37.8%
Total 761


Floor Areas & Number of Bedrooms

As shown in Table 13, the average floor areas of multi-family units ranged from 1,252.4
square feet up to 2,768.2 while the number of bedrooms ranged from 2.4 to 4.1. The
overall average square footage of these housing units was nearly 1800 square feet and
they contained an average of 2.9 bedrooms.

Table 13 Multi-Family Housing Average Floor Areas
and Number of Bedrooms


Year Avg. sq. Avg. No.
built Climate zone feet Bedrooms
2004 Central 1837.9 2.9
2004 Northern 2768.2 4.1
2005 Central 1517.6 2.6
2005 Northern 1726.2 2.8
2005 Southern 1587.3 2.5
2006 Northern 1252.4 2.4


Window Glazing

The FEECBC Form captures information about the nature of the glass used in the
building's fenestration. Presented in Table 14 are the percentage of units with the various
types of glazing. Note that "Tinted" refers to glass that may be tinted, covered by a
plastic film, or covered by a solar screen.









Table 14 Percent of Homes with Different Type Glazings

Year Single pane Double pane Single pane Double pane
built Climate zone Clear glass Clear glass Tinted glass* Tinted glass*
2004 Central 42.9% 0.0% 21.4% 35.7%
2004 Northern 20.0% 31.4% 0.0% 48.6%
2005 Central 79.2% 20.8% 0.0% 0.0%
2005 Northern 10.7% 42.8% 0.3% 40.8%
2005 Southern 95.8% 36.1% 3.8% 0.0%
2006 Northern 0.0% 24.0% 0.0% 52.0%
* Indicates that the glass may be tinted, covered with a film, or covered by a solar screen.


Attic Insulation


Presented in Table 15
in multi-family units.


are summary data describing the installed levels of attic insulation


Table 15 Attic Insulation Levels

Year Attic Insulation
built Climate zone Average R-value
2004 Central 24.0
2004 Northern 26.6
2005 Central 19.0
2005 Northern 23.4
2005 Southern 19.0
2006 Northern 19.0


Supply and Return Ductwork

The information presented in Table 16 represents the percent of responses that indicated
that the supply or return ducts was mounted in conditioned space in the home.

Table 16 Supply/Return Ducts in Conditioned Space
Year built 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006
Climate zone Central Northern Central Northern Southern Northern Total
Supply ducts 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 58.0% 62.8% 55.3% 58.5%
Return ducts 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 42.0% 37.2% 44.7% 41.5%


Central Air Conditioning

Both the cooling capacity and the efficiency of the central air conditioning systems are
presented in Table 17.









Table 17: Central Air Conditioning System Capacity & Efficiency


Year Capacity Efficiency
built Climate zone Btuh EER
2004 Central 27.6 11.3
2004 North 32.3 10.6
2005 Central 31.6 11.8
2005 North 31.5 10.6
2005 Southern 30.2 11.5
2006 Northern 24.1 10.3


Space Heating

Electric heat pump systems were the heating system of choice in the 2004 2006 time
frame. In this period the electric heat pump had 54.0% of the new construction market
share and electric resistance heating made up 44.4 % of the market. The remaining less
than two percent of the market was served by Natural gas and L.P. gas systems.


Domestic Water Heating

Presented in Table 18 is a summary of the characteristics of the domestic water heating
systems installed in new homes in 2004-2006. As may be seen, the electric water heating
system dominated the market, with Natural Gas and L.P. Gas a distant second and third,
respectively.

The average capacity of the Electric water heating systems was reported as 47.9 gallons,
the average natural gas system had a capacity of 52.1 gallons, and the average L.P. Gas
system capacity was 53.1 gallons.

The average efficiency of the electric water heating systems was reported to be 0.88, the
average efficiency of the natural gas systems was reported as 0.68 and the L.P. Gas
systems were reported to have an average efficiency rating of 0.65.


Table 18 Characteristics of Domestic Water Heating Systems


DWH energy Capacity System Percent
source (gal.) efficiency of market
Electric 47.9 0.88 94%
Natural gas 52.1 0.68 4.5%
L.P. Gas 53.1 0.65 1.4%











Ratio of Glass Area/Floor area


Presented in Table 19 are the average ratios of fenestration glass area divided by the
square feet of conditioned space in the homes. As may be seen the values range from
0.0.075 to 0.120. It appears that the homes in the Northern portion of Florida have
smaller ratios while the southern portions of the state have larger ratios.

Table 18 Ratio of Glass Area to Floor Area


Year Glass/Floor area
built Climate zone Ratio
2004 Central 0.106
2004 Northern 0.119
2005 Central 0.111
2005 Northern 0.108
2005 Southern 0.124
2006 Northern 0.073


HVAC Credits
Evaluation of a building's degree of compliance with the Florida Energy Efficiency Code
for Building Construction provide for credits for the inclusion in the building of certain
technologies. The two features for which credit was issued were 7.9% of the homes in
the sample included Ceiling Fans and 26.2% of the homes provided Programmable
Thermostats.




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