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- Humans, Homo sapiens, appear in Florida in the very late Pleistocene, approximately 12,000 years before present.
- Florida's exposed land area reaches its greatest extent with sea level about 300 feet below present msl.
- Sea level fluctuations create more exposed sea floor terraces and escarpments around the state. These are in descending order of age and elevation: Talbot Terrace
at 25 to 42 feet above present msl, Pamlico Terrace at 10 to 25 feet above present msl, and the Silver Bluff Terrace at 1 to 10 feet above present msl,
- Except for Bison sp., all large bodied mammals become extinct in Florida. These include mastodons, mammoths, and camels. This extinction is due to major
climatic changes brought about by global glaciation and possibly human interactions.
- Bison latifrons, a large bison with horns measuring 6 feet tip to tip, the Florida cave bear Tremarctos flondanus, and the giant lion Panthera atrox appear in Florida.
- The Miami and Key Largo Limestones of southern Florida and the Keys, and the Anastasia Formation of east coast Florida are deposited during a sea level high stand
about 125,000 years before present..
- The Penholoway sea floor terrace is formed at 42 to 70 feet above present day msl.
- During interglacial and glacial stages, sea level fluctuations allow for deposition of alternating freshwater limestones and marine shell beds of the Fort Thompson Formation.
- The Wcomico sea floor terrace and Cody Scarp are formed The scarp is found at 70 to 100 feet above present msl and stretches across the width of the Florida panhandle.
- The early mammoth Mammuthus imperator, and the giant bear-size beaver Castomides ohioensis, are some of the animals arriving in Florida.
- Sea level fluctuations regulate paths of migration for land animals into Florida. At high sea level stands, routes are limited to those from the north; at low stands, routes
are along the east coast and around the Gulf of Mexico to South America.
- The Caloosalhatchee Formation, representing a tropical sea bottom, is deposited across southern Florida. Faunal diversity is abundant with over 500 species of gastropods
documented from this formation. Macrofossils include the gastropods Liochlamys bulbosa, Vasum horridum, and Fasciolaria sca/amna.
Late Pleistocene paleoindians
hunting Tremarctos floridanus
- The "Age of the Dinosaurs" has come to an end. Although no dinosaurs inhabit Florida, the Cretaceous -iertiary boundary marks the occurrence of mass
extinctions worldwide. These extinctions are possibly due to the impact of a meteor with the Earth near the Yucatan Peninsula of Central America.
- The carbonate framework builders (rudist bivalves) of the Lower Cretaceous become extinct.
- Carbonate production ends on the west coast margin, but continues over the interior of the platform with deposition of the Lawson Formation and the
Rebecca Shoal Dolomite member of the Pine Key Formation.
- Carbonate deposition progresses westward through the panhandle with deposition of the Selma Group. This group is noted for its chalk lithology.
- The Tuscaloosa Group, a quartz sand rich plastic unit, is deposited in the western panhandle. The upper part of this unit reflects marine, deltaic, and possibly
fluvial environments of deposition.
- The Florida Strait forms separating the eastern margin of the Florida platform from the Bahamas platform.
- Florida's paleolatitude is approximately 25 degrees north of the equator.
- Two major rises in sea level occur. Related to plate tectonics, these eustatic (global) changes result in the drowning of the Florida Platform.
- The Florida Escarpment forms in the Gulf of Mexico. Located about 100 miles west of Tampa, this escarpment is created by carbonate framework builders (rudists).
- This escarpment reaches over 10,000 feet in depth and forms the western edge of the Florida Platform marking the boundary between continental and oceanic crust.
- The Suwannee Straits develop across northern Florida and southern Georgia connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Atlantic Ocean. This marine channel separates
the continental border from the islands representing Florida.
- In the panhandle, undifferentiated reddish to reddish-brown interbedded sales and sandstones form the Lower Cretaceous undifferentiated.