• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Main
 Appendix






Title: John and Yaninja Phiri's farm and their livelihood system
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094271/00001
 Material Information
Title: John and Yaninja Phiri's farm and their livelihood system results from a linear program model simulation
Physical Description: 18 leaves : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Weigand, Ronaldo
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publication Date: 1995
Copyright Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Zambia -- Kefa   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Zambia -- Kefa   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Zambia -- Kefa   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Zambia -- Kefa
 Notes
General Note: "University of Florida, Food and Resource Economics, AEP 6933 - Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems."
General Note: "Instructor: P.E. Hildebrand; Spring/ 1995."
Statement of Responsibility: by Ronaldo Weigand.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094271
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85810915

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Appendix
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
Full Text





University of Florida
Food and Resources Economics
AEB 6933 Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems







"John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm and their Livelihhod System:
Results from a Linear Program Model Simulation.

By Ronaldo Weigand


. Ins tuctor:,~..EIildebrand
Spring/ 1995








Spring/1995


9 .~' ~.











I Introduction



Small scale family farms around the world comprise the majority of farmers and

are responsible for important part of the world food supplies. Yet they face constraints

and difficulties different from the large scale farms. Understanding these constraints is

very important to promote development in poor regions.

One of the tools to understand these systems and carry out an ex-ante evaluation

of proposed changes is the linear programing. Computer models can simulate many of the

interactions that occur in a farming system and be used to preview the results of a certain

technology or alternative.

This report was written as part of the Economic Analysis of Small Farming

Systems course and is based on information provided by Skj0nsberg'. It is a second

version to include linear program simulations made on Quatro Pro 5 for Windows. For the

linear program, most data was estimated based on the Skj0nsberg (1989).

From the information about Kefa Village, in Zambia, and its residents, an

imaginary farm was created and neither the nor its owners were described by Skjonsberg

(1989). Yet, I tried to create a farm like many others. Nevertheless, this report presents

the farm slightly different from the first one. More data were included in the linear

program, and it is considered here that, in a real situation, the first report would have not

been accurate enough. Then, with a second visit to the farm, more accurate data would

have been available. This report presents the situation before and after the second visit and

linear program, and takes the more complete information as a starting point for the

simulations.



' Skjonsberg, E. 1989. Change in an African village: Kefa speaks / by Else Skjonsberg .
Kumarian Press: Hartford, Conn.










II Kefa Village



According to Skjonsberg, Kefa village is situated in Eastern Zambia, near Chipata

town, and had 250 people living in it. Most residents belong to the Chewa people. The

village has undergoing many changes, and new challenges are faced by farmers. The

market is closer, young people do not want to stay in the village, many times men have

gone to work somewhere else, new crops are cultivated and the ecological characteristics

seem to be changing.

The villagers are small farmers and their primary goal is to run households and not

businesses. They are mostly concerned with subsistence crops and avoiding hunger.

Fortunately, they are settled on good soils, with relatively good fertility, and hunger is not

very common.

The imaginary family that is described in this paper has the same problems and

potentials of its real neighbors in Kefa Village.



III The Household



The household is composed of six people. John Phiri, 45 is the husband. Yaninja,

30, is the wife. They have three children. The oldest is 13, and John has "good plans" for

her, as the custom of receiving a price for the bride is spreading out in the village. Yet,

Yaninja does not want that her daughter marries now, and wants her to study. There is a

boy who is 12 and already helps the father in the field. There is another girl, who is 5,

which does not help much in hard work, and is always sick. There is also Robson, 17, who

works hard but wants to get a job in the city.










IV- The Farm



As many others in Kefa Village, their farm is not a continuous area of land, but has

scattered fields in a given part of the village. The first attempt to describe the farm

included the following characteristics: the closest fields were used for vegetables (0.1 ha),

fruits (0.2 ha), tobacco and sweet potatoes (0.1 ha). The areas far from the house were

used for finger millet (0.1 ha), hybrid maize (0.5 ha), maize (1.1 ha), and groundnuts (0.2

ha). Animals were kept close to the house, and included 3 cows, 4 pigs, and 6 goats (0.5

ha). Sometimes they were taken to fallow areas or to crop fields after harvest to feed on

weeds and crop residues. Animal manure was used in the vegetables plot. The fallow

areas comprised 2.4 ha. Thus, they had access on about 5.2 hectares of land.

However, when the linear program was created, new and more accurate data on

the farm was required, and some of these features had to change. Vegetables, fruits, sweet

potatoes and tobacco, along with small animals now comprise 0.3 ha. Finger millet

continues to occupy 0.1 ha, hybrid maize continues with about 0.5 ha, local maize

increased to 1.6 ha, and groundnuts to 0.7 ha. Larger differences were presented by local

maize and groundnuts because the amount chosen before was an average, and they had to

be adapted to the requirements of this family. Regarding livestock, only cows were

included in the program in more detail. This family is raising two cows and one or two

calves, situation very similar to the first description. This livestock also provides milk for

sale and for the family. The manure is used in the vegetable plot, at a rate of 30 Mg/ha.

Fallow areas continue to comprise 2.4 ha, but the farm size had to be increased from 5.2

to 6.0 ha (see Figure 1) to allow a fallow period equal to the cultivated periods (one year

in fallow for each year in agriculture). Hybrid maize does not require a fallow period

because it uses fertilizer. Crop residues are used to feed the cattle.




























Figure 2: Comparison of the descriptions for the Phiri's farm, before and after the linear

program was developed. Note: VFSA means vegetables, fruits and small animals.


Schematic system models of their farm can be seen in Figure 2, including a model
used in the first report and a model used for the linear program. Matrix 1 (in Apendix 1)
shows the linear program developed for the farm.


Phiri's Farm Land Allocation
Comparison before/after linear program
6
5-
L4 -


<2


0
VFSA millet hybrid maize groundnuts fallow Total
Activities
before Mafter









Market Community Market Community











Figure 2 Schematic system models of the Phiri's imaginary farm. On the left
Li< Uvestock G.
and by Headman Kefa, hold gave good areas of land to be Houscleareold and used by the family.









results in hybrid maize. The fallow areas are used as sources of firewood, wood for many






In the first description, the main cash crop was hybrid maize, although they sold
also groundnuts and some local maize surplus to the coperative. Local maize, vegetables,


sweet potatoes and finger millet were for home consumption. Also tobacco, banana and

guava were for family use, but could be shared with friends and neighbors.
TheaoThe linear program, howev ger as the main source of income,








followed by hybrid maize and groundnuts. Small animals, vegetables and fruits perform the
same fnctions as before. Although the linear program presents differences in relation to

Fithe first description, it seemystem mods to represent the rs farm even more realisticnary farm. On the allely.ft
side, the schematic model first developed. On the right, the schematic model used




Finger millet is important for beer making, and beer is very appreciated at home

and by Headman Kefa, who gave good areas of land to be cleared andused by the family.

The soil is generally good, and crops grow well. However, fertilizer has shown good

results in hybrid maize. The fallow areas are used as sources of firewood, wood for many



weeds and pests.

In the first description, the main cash crop was hybrid maize, although they sold












the first description, it seems to represent the farm even more realistically.










Activities Analysis and Farming Systems Calendar:

Table 1 shows the main activities disaggregated by gender. Local maize is the most

important crop, and both male and female members of the household work together in

most operations. In other activities, males dominate on heavy work, such as clearing and

preparing land, or on cash generating activities. The woman and the girls work mostly on

subsistence crops. However, for important food crops (maize, sweet potatoes, and

sometimes groundnuts), everyone helps in harvesting, and sometimes weeding. Most of

the workload is concentrated on females. The boy also helps in activities other than the

typical male, but Robson does not want to do those anymore, because they are "girls'

work" for him.

The workload and resource availability vary during the year (Table 2). The rainy

season is concentrated between November and April, but the heaviest rains occur in

January and February. The Phiri's work very hard, weeding during the rainy season, and

work hard as well in May and June when they have to harvest everything before the fires.

In late June it is bush fire season, everything is dry and flammable. On the other hand, July

and August are not too busy months. As we can see in Table 2 (Activities Calendar),

weeding represents one of the hardest work for this family, mainly for the females, along

with harvesting.










Table 1 Activities Analysis.
Activity Males Females
Crop Production
Hybrid maize
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting, selling. x
Groundnuts
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting, selling. x
Local Maize
Soil preparation x x
Sowing x x
Weeding x x
Harvesting x x
Selling (in good years) x
Finger Millet
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting. x
Sweet Potato
Soil preparation x x
Planting x
Weeding x
Harvesting x x
Vegetables
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting. x
Tobacco
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting. x
Banana/ guava
Soil preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting. x

Livestock:
Cows
-herding, feeding x x
-milking x
Pigs
- herding, feeding x
Goats
- herding, feeding, milking x

Housekeeping, cooking, firewood, children and health care. x
Beer production x
Exchange labor x x




From the data presented in Tables 1 and 2, one can see that one of the hardest jobs

is weeding. Females are seriously overloaded with it. Harvest time is also a busy one for







8



females, because many different crops are producing at the same time, and soon the bush

fire season will destroy everything that stays in the fields. In the first preview, cash income

could be considered limited because the only source was hybrid maize, which is sold to the

cooperative and the payment is not immediate. However, other important sources

appeared when the linear program was developed, such as cattle and groundnuts.

Table 2 Activities Calendar.
Activities Calendar
Months JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY



Hybrid maize so pre sown weedin,
-- = harvest
sale
Groundnut soil rep .
Sweedina dilaino
drying
Local maize isor Dvp. h r eof harvest-
lpnsport

Small crops sowrvest
Banana/guav so i
Sweet mp-
.Finger millet SOIL pr-- "
Livestock feeding herding

Repairs House and arnalre bins
maintainanc I--
Legend
Male *
Female -
Male and




This family would exchange labor with other families, in which females would help

each other to transport maize from the fields. Other opportunity to exchange labor is

bush/forest clear cutting or other heavy work as building a house in the community. These

things are done mainly in the dry season.










Resources Analysis:

People within the family have different access and control of resources. The

resources analysis showed in Table 3 gives an idea of access and control of resources in

this family farm. No machinery is available to the family, because of low cash income.

They also have no draft animals. From the gender analysis tools, it seems that appropriate

machinery and draft animals could increase women's work efficiency at sowing, weeding

and transporting the crop, and males' at land preparation. However, extension services are

absent (to provide information about better machinery and tools), as well as agricultural

credit (to provide needed cash to buy it). In addition, when we look at the time allocation

for the linear program, labor is a constraint only in harvest time. Capital is a constraint for

males and land is a constraint for the farm. Alternatives should increase land productivity,

without increasing needs for cash and/or providing credit to implement them.










Table 3 Resources Analysis.
Resource Access Control Notes Implications for FSR/E
Land M, F, C M, F < Man and woman
Headman decide together
on land use
Water F, M F Female decides Irrigation innovations should
on water use look at women's necessities
according to food
crops and
household
decisions
Family labor M, F, C M >F Man often skip Women already have a heavy
household duties load of work. Need
and focus on improvements in efficiency.
cash activities Man could be involved in new
activities.
Community labor Family Commu- People cooperate Community cooperation can be
nity in heavy allocated to organization efforts
activities, such as and building of infra-structure.
harvest, transport
or building
Capital goods Family Male Male decides use Males have more diversified
of cash income sources of income. Maybe it is a
from hybrid good idea to diversify the
maize, heifer and females as well.
milk sale.
Females decide
on income
generated by
their exclusive
activities
Inputs Male Male
purchased
Inputs produced M, F, C M>F Both male and Inputs produced on farm may be
on farm female share fairer than imported inputs
decisions
Cash M, F M
Knowledge M, F, C M, F, C Different To work with indigenous
members of the knowledge requires working with
household have both male and females
different scope of
knowledge
Markets and M, F others
transportation











Benefits and Incentives Analysis:


Table 4 Benefits and Incentives Anal, sis.
Access Control Uses/Characteristics Implications for FSR/E
Crop prod.:
Cash M, F male Cash is used to buy needed Low cash availability,
goods for the household, controlled by male: new
pay school fees and buy activities to generate cash
inputs for hybrid maize. should use more female
labor and provide her with
more cash.
Groundnuts M, F, C F It is primarily food. In good
years can be sold and give
some money.
Hybrid maize M M Cash crop Can be managed to yield
more.
Local maize M, F, C F It is primarily food. In good
years can be sold and give
some money.
Green maize M, F, C F It is primarily food. In good
years can be sold and give
some money.
Finger Millet for M, F F Primarily for the household.
beer Some beer goes to Headman
Kefa. Some can be sold.
Sweet Potato M, F, C F Food
Vegetables M, F, C F Food Surplus can be sold locally
Tobacco leaves M M Only the man uses this. Leaves could be used to
Sometimes he gives some to make pesticide.
his friends.
Banana/guava M, F, C M These fruit crops give Although it is said that the
enough to the family and region is not good for fruits,
some surplus that is shared other fruit species could
with neighbors. They do not improve nutrition and cash
_require much work. income.
Livestock
Milk C M Milk is given to the It is a male activity. If
youngest daughter and other female process milk they
children or sold. will have greater benefit
from it.
Calves M, F, C M Calves and cows are source
of capital
Pigs M, F, C M For community purposes
Pork M, F, C F When killed the pig, the Potential source of protein
meat will be used in the
household to feed the family
Goats M, F, C M, F Also a source of capital, Can be easily combined in
goat meat is used more agroforestry systems.
often as food.









To understand the impact of a proposed change, one should understand the

motivations that people have to adopt and the benefits they will get from the innovation.

The benefits and incentives analysis shown in Table 4 may help us to clarify these points.

Since the man is mostly concerned with the cash crops, it will be difficult to work

on subsistence crops with him. On the other hand, the woman is concerned with

household reproduction but may well integrate cash income in her activities. However, she

is overloaded with work, mainly weeding and harvesting. In the first description, reducing

the time expended by her and her daughters in weed control, and harvesting, was

apparently a way to help the family to expand their area under cultivation, and to improve

production, food and money availability. However, after more information was available,

the area could not be expanded if the fallow areas are to be maintained. Thus, a

sustainability requirement would limit the land, and efforts should be made to increase

productivity per unity of land. Other way would be to increase the farm size, renting,

borrowing or acquiring land.

Resources and Constraints for Production:

Production in the farm involves several resources such as land, labor, capital,

inputs, knowledge and markets. Each of these is limited. Land is limited to 6 ha. Labor is

limited to household labor in most times, and overload is common during parts of the year.

Labor efficiency could be improved. Capital is limited by the lack of credit or income.

Some inputs are present in the farm and some have to be bought. Purchased inputs will be
limited by cash availability. Inputs from the farm will be limited by labor availability and

other factors. Access to the market varies for different products. The local market has not

been explored by this family.









Opportunities for improvements:

This imaginary family farm could be improved by simple practices and better

management. Besides other crops (which need market studies), innovations should include

better methods of weed control, machinery for soil preparation, draft power, better

transportation, and intercropping of cash and subsistence crops (to benefit both types of

crops from cash inputs). These innovations should not involve increases in workload,

mainly for females, and should generate more cash flux to the household (not only for the

man). They also should be culturally acceptable.

Other suggestions include the use of tree species, which could improve livelihood

by giving fruits or providing reserve of capital for the future; the use of leguminous plants

and others, mulch, correct plowing, and intercropping (so that the space will be occupied

earlier) to reduce weeding workload.

Family Goals

Family goals included better education for the 13 years old girl, a job in the city for

Robson, better nutrition for the youngest girl, good cash income for John Phiri and his 12

years old son, and a better and safer future for Yaninja, with less work to do and enough

food at home. To have it so, female work has to be more efficient, food production has to

increase, Robson should be less needed for male activities, and cash flows should increase

and rely on different sources. Also, new activities that require less work or that can use

work for the present to return it in the future (such as forestry) should be adopted to

guarantee a safer future for Yaninja and the family when she gets old.









Modernization and Proposed Alternatives



This section presents a hypothetical scenario of change in the region. The market

economy is intensifying, the government is investing in extension to improve cash crops

and an non-governmental organization is trying to improve the women's situation in the

region. Instead of presenting alternatives, the linear program is used here to analyze the

results of these conditions on the Phiri's family farm.

Changing Situation 1: Modernization.

In Chibata town, a new bank is opening and is offering male farmers opportunities

for investment. The money can be invested in the bank and an interest rate of 12% a year

will be paid. John Phiri has to decide whether or not to invest his scarce money in the

bank, and is talking to Yaninja about it. Matrix 2 shows the linear program for this
situation.

John decides that he would not invest his money in the bank. Also, when credit

was offered, he would not accept it (the linear program gives a very small amount).




Changing Situation 2: Extension to improve maize production.

Then the extension service tries to improving maize production with

recommendations of fertilizer for farmers. Expending only K$ 30 more per hectare, the net

income for hybrid maize would increase from K$ 90 to K$ 200. With this new technology

John and Yaninja decide to borrow K$42 from the Bank to plant 0.6 ha. The Groundnut

area and sales decrease. Cattle increase to 3 cows and 2 calves. Milk sales rise from 800

kg to 1150 kg. Farm net income rises to k$ 270, but female income reduces to zero. Yet,










the female work load remains about the same (see Matrix 3). The proposed change

increases the male domination over females.

Changing Situation 3: NGO support to females.

Working in the area, an NGO detects the problem and decides to improve the

females' condition. To do that the NGO offers a special loan at an interest rate of only

7%. This does not help, because female cash wasn't a constraint and adding this does not

increase their income. In contrast, females learn how to open a banking account and invest

their money. Yet, this investment would not help the female net income and their work

load would be about the same, although it would increase farm net income slightly.

Changing Situation 4: Female Self-Organization.

Although they did not take the loam readily, the contact with the NGO extension

agents stimulates the female organization. Yaninja participate in a group with other

women and they start making beer for sale in a "community pub". Yet, this makes no

money, and.Yaninja stops to participate in the pub. Instead, she starts to produce a sweet

made with groundnut and, learning that she could use her credit limit of K$30 in the
money market, she invests all in the Bank, speculating with the money! Of course, that

gives her a better net income (see Matrix 4).

Changing Situation 5: Renting Land.

With additional money, males and females realize that they can rent land from

people who are not using this and that they can rent their land. The land market begins in

the village, and renting one hectare of land would cost/generate k$30.

Male and female cash start to be used to rent land. The family rents about 4

hectares of land and this greatly increases their net income. However, female net income

decreases slightly. Females stop producing the groundnut sweet. Improved hybrid maize

goes up to almost 6 hectares. Cattle decrease in importance, and no milk is sold. Males









borrow more than K$400 from the Bank. No other investment is made. Females continue

to borrow K$30 from the NGO, but empowerment of women is hardly achieved (see
Matrix 5). If the cash generated is used in the household, it is possible that quality of life

for this family will increase.

Finally Robson would find his job in the city and leave the family. This decreases

farm and male net income. Hybrid maize area reduces to 3 ha, less land is rented and

borrowing is also reduced (see Matrix 6).

Conclusion

The linear program was very useful to understand this small farming system and

simulated it well. The context of a changing socio-economic environment was applied to

the model and results were coherent. With the beginning of modernization in the village,

little influence would occur. However, when the extension service tries to improve maize

production, this intensifies male domination and cattle raising in this family farm. Even

with NGO support for females, little would be achieved. Some alternatives such as credit

could be used in a way other than expected. With more cash available, this farmers would

try to increase their land, resulting in higher net income for males, but not for females. The
increase in land utilization would allow an increase in hybrid maize area, reducing cattle to

subsistence needs. This scenario seems to be what usually happens in a modernization

situation: first, increasing cattle, then farm size increases and a monocrop (hybrid maize)

takes place, increasing money availability but also inequality.


Thus, the model can be considered fairly good in the representation of this family

farm. Results, however, are not encouraging for the promotion of female empowerment,

unless male domination is reduced.









Epilogue

Changing Situation 6: Male migration.

Yaninja and John would start fighting because of their inequality in net income.

Yaninja works hard but she does not achieve a good net income, while John has all the

money. Because of her complaints, he decides to leave her alone and goes to the city. But

now, as head of the household, Yaninja can obtain loans in the Bank. She and her children

do not use all the land, and they start renting 1.4 ha to a neighbor. No hybrid is cultivated.

Groundnut production increases as well as groundnut sweets. Farm net income decreases

almost to the level before all changes, but female net income is greater than ever (see
Matrix 7). There are fewer people in the household now, and Yaninja would think that this

is satisfactory.






Note: The linear program simulations were maximized for farm net income. The solution

cell is presenting the results for farm gross income. Only in Matrix 7, when adult males

leave the farm, female net income was maximized.




















Apendix 1: Linear Program Matrices








Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
Current Situatffon Maximizing farm net income


Activities

Resources Objective
100 Mae capital
30.6738 Female Capital
214.348 Farm Not Income
173.794 Male not income
40.5532 Female net Income
0 Labor Month
59.0313 Male Jul
170.594 Female Jul
20 Male Aug
170.594 Female Aug
83.3846 Male Sep
218.133 Female Sep
78.3846 Male Oct
216.281 Female Oct
318.471 Male Nov
209.687 Female Nov
236.107 Male Dec
297.958 Female Dec
236.107 Male Jan
327.892 Female Jan
260.502 Male Feb
264.508 Female Feb
221.47 Male Mar
212.226 Female Mar
221.47 Meale Apr
196.585 Female Apr
226.47 Male May
363.231 Female May
265.502 Male Jun
384 Female Jun
3.58583 Land use
2.41417 Fallow nu. Icor
6 Lan.ed.+us 2
2.5E-12 Maize account
2000 Maize cons
1E-13 Ground nut account
280 Ground nut cons
-3,94948 Finger millet acc.
5.2E-11 Animal feed
1 beer account
1 homework
1 HomeSuppl. acc.
0.3 vegie+fruit account
1 Repairs & cia
1 School goal
-6 7E-12 Milk account
292 Milk consump.
-6.3E-16 Heifer account
2 39859 Cow>=1
-8509.69 Manure


Farm & Vegies+fruits
homcsupphes repairs & cia beer finger mil. School Hybrid LMaize MTransfer Msale G-o mdAt Oanrt. Gsale Cattle Milk Transf Milk sale Heifer Sale Houskeep small animals
0 0 0 0 0 120 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
20 3 30 26
20 2 0 5 3 0 5
-40 -3 -2 0 -5 90 0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.64 -26 0.15 60 0 -5
-20 -3 0 0 0 90 0 0 0.01 0 0 -26 0.15 60 0 0
-20 -2 0 -5 0.01 -3 0.64 -5


80 -800
-1600


10

80
80
80
1 1 0
0 1
1 2
0 -1300 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0

-3000 -2600


30

100

50
0 1 0
1
2
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 -540 1
0 0 1

-1000


0 0
4
0 0
4
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
0.16
0
0.16


-456

-0.66


-7300


15
153 10
15
153 10
15
153 10
15
153 10
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 10

0
1


RHS

<= 100
<= 40
>= 0
>= 0
>= 0

<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
>= 0
>= 0
<= 6
<= 0
>= 2000
<= 0
>= 280
<= 0

>= 1
>= 1
>= 1
>= 0.3
>= 1


>= 1
<= 0
>= 292
<= 0
>= 1
30000 <= 0


1 1 1 0.10494 1 0.48789 1.58462 2000 0 0.72462 280 111.292 2.39859 292 801.756 1.58307 1 0.3
honmesppli repairs & da beer finger mil School Hybrid LMaize MTransfer Msale &Oo6udt OtD .f. Gsale Cattle MilkTransf Milk sale Helfer Sale Houskeep vewes-, s.


Matrix 1: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Current situation.


Solution
345.021


Variables







Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment and credit Maximizing farm net income


Activities

Resources Objective
100 Male Capital
30 67385 Female Capital
215 1952 Farm Net Income
174.642 Male net Income
40.55323 Female net Income
0 Labor Month
59.73372 Male Jul
170.6217 Female Jul
20 Male Aug
170.6217 Female Aug
83.38462 Male Sep
218.1601 Female Sep
78.38462 Male Oct
216.1601 Female Oct
319.7614 Male Nov
209.5385 Female Novc
236.9586 Male Dec
297.6615 Female Dec
236.9586 Male Jan
327.8923 Female Jan
261.7921 Male Feb
264.5077 Female Feb
222.0584 Male Mar
211.8308 Female Mar
222.0584 Male Apr
196.5846 Female Apr
227.0584 Male May
363.2308 Female May
266.7921 Male Jun
384 Female Jun
3.590769 Land use
2 409231 Fallow -wrfem-
6 L... m 2
2.51E-12 Maize account
2000 Maize cons
7.86E-14 Ground nut account
280 Ground nut cons
2.22E-15 Finger millet ace.
5.33E-11 Animal feed
1 beer account
1 homework
1 HomeSuppl. acc.
0.3 vegie+fruit account
1 Repairs & cia
1 School goal
-6.9E-12 Milk account
292 Milk consump.
-8.6E-16 Heifer account
2.405418 Cow>=1
-8559.55 Manure


Farm &
homesqpplies Male invest CredIfor male repair & cia beer finger ml. School Hybrid
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120
20 1 -1 3 30
20 0 2 0 5
-40 112 -1.14 -3 -2 0 -5 90
-20 1.12 -1.14 -3 0 0 0 90
-20 0 -2 0 -5
0


80 -800
-1600


Vegles+fruts+
LMaize MTransfer Msale crodjmm crmoe Gsale Cattle Milk Transf Milk sale Heifer Sale Houskeep small animals
0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
26
3 0 5
0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.64 -26 0.15 60 0 -5
0 0 0.01 0 0 -26 015 60 0 0
0.01 -3 0.64 -5


10

80
80
80
1 1 0
0 1
1 2
0 -1300 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0

-3000 -2600


30

100

50
0 1 0
1
2
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 -540 1
0 0 1

-1000


0 0
4
0 0
4
0 0
4
0 0
4
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 018
0
4 0.18 0.18
0
4 0.18 018
0
0 0,16
0
0 0.16
0
0
1
0


2700


-456 1
1


RHS

<= 100
<= 40
>= 0
>= 0
>= 0

<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 694
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
<= 594
<= 384
>= 0
>= 0
<= 6
<= 0
>= 2000
<= 0
>= 280
<= 0
>=
>= 1
>= 1
>= 1
>= 0.3
>= I


>= 1
<= 0
>= 292
<= 0
>= 1
30000 <= 0


-7300


Variables
1 0 0441026 1 1 0.1 1 0496672 1.584615 2000 0 0.724615 280 111.2923 2.405418 292 804.8708 1.587576 1 0.3
home-pplies male invest cre dfomt repainr&eci beer finger m. School Hybrid LMaie MTransfer Msale G-roLmd Cau f Gsale Cattle MilkTransf MIk sale HeiferSale Houskeep veg-es-r.







Matrix 2: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 1:

modernization.


Solution
346.8129







Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment, credit and improve hybrid


Maximizing farm net income


Activities F.
hoi
Resources Objective
100 Male Capital
30.31874 Female Capital
267 325 Farm Net Income
267 325 Male net Income
-5 GE-14 Female net Income
0 Labor Month
69.48838 Male Jul
179.5916 Female Jul
20.58024 Male Aug
179.5916 Female Aug
83.96486 Male Sep
227.13 Female Sep
78.96486 Male Oct
225.13 Female Oct
385.7136 Male Nov
215.4569 Female Nov
306.6464 Male Dec
300.0289 Female Dec
306.8464 Male Jan
324.3412 Female Jan
337.2139 Male Feb
260.9566 Female Feb
288.3058 Male Mar
213.0145 Female Mar
288.3058 Male Apr
198.952 Female Apr
293.3058 Male May
357.3123 Female May
3422139 Male Jun
384 Female Jun
3709138 Land use
2.290862 Fallow a.. sw
6 8...a==.. 2
-2.2E-11 Maize account
2000 Maize cons
1.6E-13 Ground nut account
280 Ground nut cons
2.2E-15 Finger millet acc.
1.7E-12 Animal feed
1 beer account
1 038683 homework
1 HomeSuppi acc.
0.3 vegie+fruit account
1 Repairs & cia
1 School goal
-1.4E-11 Milk account
292 Milk consump.
-8.8E-15 Heifer account
316828 Cow>=1
-14128.4 Manure


nm&
meeupplies Male invest cred fr ma repairs & cie beer finger mil. School Iapmnvid Hybrid
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 260 120
20 1 -1 3 60 30
20 0 2 0 5 0
-40 1.12 -1.14 -3 -2 0 -5 200 90
-20 1.12 -1.14 -3 0 0 0 200 90
-20 0 -2 0 -5 0
0 0
5 80 80
5 0
5
5
5
5

30
80 80
30 0
30 30
60 0
30 30
0
80 80
0


5
5 0
5
5 60



60


80 -800
-1600
1


80 80
0
1 1
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 01
0


Vegles+ftuits+
LMalze MTransfer Msale OCAdrGnJ OA.. Gsale Cattle Mk Transf Mlk sale Heifer Sale Houskeep small animals
0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
26
3 0 5
0 0 002 -3 0 0.64 -26 0.15 60 0 -5
0 0 001 0 0 -26 015 60 0 0
0.01 -3 0.64 -5


10

80

80
1 0
1
2
-1300 1
0 1
0 0
0 0


-6000 -3000 -2600


30

100

50
0 1 0
1
2
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 -540 1
0 0 1

-1000


0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
0 0.16
0
0 0.16
0
0
1
0

2700


0

0

0

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18

0.18 0.18


-456 1 1


RHS

<= 100
<= 40
>== 0
>= 0
>= 0


15 <= 594
153 10 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 10 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 10 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 10 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 20 <= 384
15 <= 594
153 10 <= 384
1 >= 0
0 >= 0
1 <= 6
<= 0
>= 2000
<= 0
>= 280
<= 0
>=
>= 1
1 >= 1
>= 1
1 >= 0.3
>= 1
>= 1
<= 0
>= 292
<= 0
>= 1
30000 <= 0


Variables
1 0 4205639 1 1 0.1 1 0.811352 0 1.584615 2000 0 0606246 280 47.37303 3.16828 292 1152736 2.091065 1.038683 0.3
ho mompplios male Invest Lri male repair &cia beer finger mi. School ,prverdutd Hybrid LMaize MTransfer Msale Coun Lut Ct. Gsale Cattle Milk Transf Mksale Heifer Sale Houskeep veg s.u -










Matrix 3: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 2: extension

to improve maize production.







Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment, credit and Improve hybrid Maxlmizing farm net income
With NGO credit for female, beer sale and groundnut sweet
Acltill.. C Pt Veg.Os-rjl5
h-ornrupphe Malenvest cn--f-amel Cred ftlem. Femleam reply S&cll beer beersat finger Ml Scthl imreor tr Hyend LMaze MTransfer Mseae OGuoAlnut Ote-n. Gsafe Gsweet Cattle tkiTr"tan Mllksale HelfrSele Houskeep sml arals RH
R.soure.. Object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 260 120 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 3 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
100 Mle. Capit 20 1 -1 3 80 30 26 <= 100
40 Fet,.* c.Pti 20 0 -1 1 2 2 0 5 0 3 0 0.5 5 <= 40
351.6882 FPrmNetO h-ce -40 1.12 -1.14 1.07 1.12 -3 -2 28 0 -5 200 90 0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.64 2.5 -26 0.15 60 0 -5 >= 0
295.4105 M8 k net Ino.e -20 1.12 -1.14 0 0 -3 0 0 0 200 g0 0 0 0.01 0 0 -26 0.15 60 0 0 >= 0
5447763 Fe.M n.tl Inoe. -20 0 1.01 1.12 -2 28 0 -5 0 0.01 -3 0.64 2.5 -5 >= 0
0 Labor Month 0 0
78.46143 Mael ju. 5 80 80 0 0 15 = 594
184467 F-r, J" 5 0 0 2 4 153 10 384
20 M.I. Afu 5 0 0 15 <= 594
184.467 Feins Ai 5 0 2 4 153 10 <= 384
83.38462 Male Sop 5 40 0 0 0 15 = 594
232.0055 r-emce SW 5 30 0 2 4 153 10 -< 384
78 38462 Male Oct 40 0 0 15 <= 594
230.0055 Fera-e Oct 30 30 0 0 2 4 153 10 <= 384
408.7349 "M -e 80 80 80 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 594
2190.3873 Female N 30 0 30 0 2 0 153 20 <= 384
329.9854 M le Dec 30 30 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 594
291.7522 nmae Dac 60 0 70 30 0 0 153 20 <= 384
329.9854 Meae .Jn 30 30 4 0.18 0.18 15 < 594
312 1341 FeMze. .,n 0 70 80 00 0 153 20 <= 384
3666.238 Maen Feu t 0 80 4 0.18 018 15 <= 594
248.70495 Fat F.b 0 30 80 00 0 153 20 <= 384
308.0624 Mee Mar 4 0.18 0.18 15 -a 594
203.9517 Fermie M 80 10 40 0 0 153 20 <= 384
308.0624 Mee l. e 4 018 0.18 15 <= 594
190.6753 Femalet +pr 0 10 30 0 0 153 20 <= 384
3130624 Mete My 5 0 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 5984
343.533 Femaae M"y 5 0 80 100 0 0 153 20 < 384
371.5238 Met Jun 5 80 80 4 0.18 0.18 15 <- 594
384 drtaie Jn 5 60 60 0 80 50 0 2 0 153 10 <= 384
3.787747 Lend -M 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 D 0 0.16 1 = 0
2.212253 FCow>= ea.e 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 = 0
6 eet-- 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0.16 1 <= 6
9.94E-13 Melze ecurnt 60 60 0 0 -1300 1 1 0 0 0 = 0
2000 Ml.e -en 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 = 2000
2.66E-13 Ground nut account 0 0 0 0 0 -540 1 1 1 <= 0
280 Ground mnt cons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 C= 280
3.4E-13 Fingerr mitt acc. 80 80 -800 0 a= 0
-4.gE-12 Amal feed -100 -6000 -3000 -2600 -1000 2700 >
1 beer account 1 1
I homework 0 1 1
1 HomeSuppl. Iec. 1 1
0.3 vegie+fruit account >= D0.3
1 Repairs &t cIa 1 1
1 School goal I =
-2 6E-13 Milk account -456 1 1 < 0
292 Milk consump+. >= 292
-5.1E-16 Helfer account -0.66 1 0
3.404535 Cow>=1 1 >= I
-15853.1 Manure -7300 30000 <= 0
30 NGO cred liNmit <= 50

Sokltton Velelee
528.6628 1 0 55.36399 30 37.46487 1 1 0 0.1 1 0.730768 0 1.584615 2000 0 0.527638 280 0 4.924438 3.404535 292 1260.468 2.246993 1 03
hbamepplhe maleest C r-,erl n ,re (em.remnvl.w aept&ect ber beBrsfle tngerrml Schoow IMeeeHbe d HyCd LMe-ze MTrnsffer Mseee G 0-4 tJ Qsale Gsweet Cattle MtlkTranst Msalee HerferSale Houskeep .,,e(-+



















Matrix 4: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 4: female

self-organization.








Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment, credit and Improve hybrid Mexhmzing farm net income
With N00 credit for female, beer sale and groundnut sweet
knestt. FPm. & mles rmaes tnVes* *
hombsupph lrem. em o i-eam "Irenilandto Marlnrst owMne C e... r.ce Frnee rep'Ac' e beer beersat finger'nl School eneena HytnO LMite MTransrer Msal OeJ. .L GOe..1. Gsal- Glweet Catle MlakTrans Milksae rerersal Houskleep smaarwals
Reora.* Objdtv* 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 260 120 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 3 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
100 Mlt capet 20 30 1 -1 3 60 30 26
40 r.em. copui 20 30 0 -1 1 2 2 0 6 0 3 0 0.5 5
5969522 rmiNot.o nsee -40 -30 -30 30 1.12 -1.14 1.07 1.12 -3 -2 28 0 -5 200 90 0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.64 2.5 -26 0.15 80 0 -S
563.8251 Mm8e.income -20 -30 15 1.12 -1,14 0 0 -3 0 0 0 200 90 0 0 0.01 0 0 -26 0.15 60 0 0
31.52708 Fm.er..et inclm* -20 -30 15 0 1.01 1.12 -2 28 0 -5 0 0.01 -3 0.64 2.5 -5
0 Lbor Monh 0 0
483.5393 Mare Jul 8 80 80 0 0 15
165.9315 Femrer J1u 5 0 0 2 4 153 10


20 Mare Ag
165.9315 Feme Aug
83 38462 MOM sep
213A7 Femee Sep
78.38462 Mae Oci
211 A7 Femare Oct
594 Mao Nv
209.5385 Fem3 Nov
246 3197 Me De
297.6615 Ferre Dec
246.3187 MA Jan
327.8923 Femt Jan
536.0308 MeM Feb
264 5077 Ferme Feb
72.49151 Ma Mar
211.8308 Femre Mar
72.49151 Ma O
196.5848 FDent i
7749151 Ma May
383.2308 Fene May
641.0308 Mae Jun
384 Fent jun
8 700732 Larr4*
2409231 FPaO .
8 =-.... 2
-15E-12 Make eccnre
2000 mtz.c. .n
2.6E-13 Ground nut account
280 Ground nut cons
42E-13 Fingermilet ace.
-36441.3 Adniml feed
1 beer account
1 tomwork
1 Homa-uppl. a
0.3 veglf4+ftht account
1 Repairs & cia
1 School goal
-270 182 Milk ..account
282 Milk conumrnp.
-1 .68-15 Heifer account
1.232877 Cow>=1
1.3E-11 Manre
30 NGO cred flint


Solution
1 26.552

Detail Report


0
5
6 0
5 0 80


-1 -1


80 60


80 S0 -800
-1600


40 0
30
40
30 0
80 80 80
0 30
30 30
0 70 30
30 30
0 70 80
80 80
0 30 80

10 40

10 30

80 100
80 80
0 80 50
1 1 1 0 0 1
O 0 1 1
1 I 2 2
0 0 -1300 1 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -540
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
-6000 -3000 -2600 -1000


0

0
0


0
0 0


0 0
o 0
1 1
1 0


0
2 4
0
2 4
0
2 4
4
2 0
4

4
0
4
0
4
0

4
0

4
0
4
2 0
0.16
0
0.16


15
153 10
15
153 10
15
153 10
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 20
15
153 10
1
0


-456 1
1


ets
IS

<= 180
<= 40
>= 0
>= 0
S 0

< 594
384
< 594
e 384
< 594
384
< 504
<= 384
594
<= 384
< 54
< 384

< 584
< 384
< 594
<= 384
< 594


<= 384
524
< 0 384
<= 5M4
2= 384
>= 0


2000


280

>= 1
> 1





282
>= 1

<= 0


<= 0


30000


1 3.799091 1.310872 0 0 416.682 30 0 1 1 0 0.1 1 8.784241 0 1.584615 2000 0 0.724615 280 111.2923 0 1.232877 292 0 0.813699 1 0.3
burrppcl maes fromales rn male, bt cmer m e rr-o nmeAee beer beersae rfgerl Sccoor e-r rr LMarr e MTrans- -rle re toale i O. J. GSl 4 GswQ4et Cee Ca Mre cTr0 sf MTrce t Mo ferSale HoUskeep ce.o*.


Matrix 5: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 5: Renting


Land.







Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment, credit and improve hybrid MilnBlnig term net Income
With NGO credit for female, beer sale and groundnut sweet
Aatv a pa f males females IO VeeBqfeJeS-
htmuapplie riae taz reatt and t Matt lleae me eMal- framen repa&t twtr tae lanr fro ng-r Sch~oo e atesna LMaize MTaner Msale Oeaualaa at( Gosal Gsmwaet Catl P MleTrf Mnsale Hesea rSle sa HOuskseap smafl maless ls
eesura.a oMkae. 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 260 120 0 0 0.02 0 0 064 3 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
100 M. Ca*"aJ 20 30 1 -1 3 60 30 26 c 100
40 N.ma. pCal 20 30 0 -1 1 2 2 0 5 0 3 0 0.5 5 < 40
420.0272 pnaNeiaor -40 -30 -30 30 1.12 -1.14 1.07 1.12 -3 -2 28 0 -6 200 90 0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.64 2.5 -26 0.15 60 0 0
386.7001 Mawntnamre -20 -30 15 1.12 -1.14 0 0 -3 0 0 0 200 90 0 0 0.01 0 0 -26 0.15 60 0 0 > 0
31.52708 F-.a-l.nain,. -20 -30 15 0 1.01 1.12 -2 28 0 -6 0 0.01 -3 0.64 2.5 -S >= 0
0 La0ar MothO 0 0
273.5393 Male Js 8 0 80 0 0 15 < 384
165.9315 Femal Ji 0 0 2 4 153 10 384
20 Male A 5 0 0 15 < 384
165.9316 Female Aug 0 2 4 153 10 <= 384
83.38462 Male Se 5 40 0 0 0 15 34
21347 Female S 0 30 0 2 4 153 10
78.3S462 Male Op 40 0 0 15 211.47 Female Oct 30 30 0 0 2 4 153 10 384 Mae No, 80 80 80 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 384
209.5385 fmea N 30 0 30 0 2 0 152 20 <= 384
167.5687 Mr De 30 30 4 0.16 0.19 15 i 384
297.6615 Ferme c 60 0 70 30 0 0 153 20 <= 384
167.5687 Male Jan 30 30 4 0.18 0.18 15 384
327.8923 F0mle Jan 0 70 80 0 0 153 20 < 384
3260308 Mae Fea 80 80 4 0.18 0.18 15 a 384
264.5077 Femla Feb 0 30 80 0 0 153 20 <= 384
72.49151 Mae Mar 4 0.18 0.18 15 < 384
211.8308 Feal ar 60 10 40 0 0 153 20 384
72.40151 Male 4 0.18 0.18 15 <* 384
196.5846 Female Ap 0 10 30 0 0 153 20
7749151 M.a My 6 0 4 0.18 0.18 15 5 384
363.2308 Famalt o 65 0 80 100 0 0 153 20 384
331.0308 Mle n s 80 s0 4 0.18 0.16 15 < 34
364 Femal 5 60 so60 0 0 60so 0 2 0 153 10
6.075732 L.adua 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.16 1 >= 6
2.406231 =ale a.a, 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 >0 0
6a, 1 2 -1 -1 1 2 1 1 2 2 0 0.16 1 6
-7.6P-13 MI .......u nut 80 60 0 0 -1300 1 1 0 0 0
2000 Mailz .na 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 >< 2000
3.5E-13 Ground nut account 0 0 0 0 0 -540 1 1 1 <= 0
280 Ground nut cons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 280
3.7E-13 Fingerrrllet acc. 80 80 -800 0
-20691.3 Animal f.1d .18M00 -6000 -3000 -2600 -1000 2700
I bmer nacount I >C I
1 hormwork '0 1 > 1
1 HomrnSuppl act 1 > 1
0 3 vsgia-fnet account 1 0.3
1 Rape Stcia I >a 1
1 School goal I 1
-270.192 Milk account -456 1 1 < 0
292 Milk conturp. 262
-1.6E-15 Haeifer account -0.66 1 <= 0
1 232877 Cow>-1 1 1
9.7E-12 Manure -7300 30000 <= 0
30 NOO cred lima 1 30

Solution v 944.0516 1 1.174091 1.310872 0 0 160.432 30 0 1 1 0 0.1 1 3.169241 0 1.584615 2000 0 0.724615 280 111.2923 0 1.232877 292 0 0.813699 1 0.3
Detil Report rmra a an d t 1

























Matrix 6: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 5: Renting


Land (and Robson leaves the farm).








Economic Analysis of Small Farming Systems
John and Yaninja Phiri's Farm model
New Bank Investment, credit and improve hybrid Male migration, Pirl divorced Maximlzing farm net income
With NGO credit for female, beer sale and groundnut sweet
Activies Prca males females em Veg'es-tnvs-
Phehooda ppp oa f e imn.. etandto. Malenvest poc.lm. cris.M Fea-et reie n.o beer beersae ngermd school -a-en- Hy-d LMazoe MTransfer Msae OA..n.u O u L Gsoe GsWBt1 Cattle lkTreasf MAsNae HefeeSale Houskeep sman amas Hs
nR..urce Ob Jolve 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 200 120 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.64 3 0 0 0.15 60 0 0
0 MOal Capital 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0
40 remlcapite 30 30 -1 -1 1 3 2 2 0 6 80 30 3 0 0.5 26 5 40
246.501 FrmNOtinor. -30 -30 -30 30 0 -1.14 1.07 1.12 0 -2 28 0 -5 200 90 0 0 0.02 -3 0 0.84 25 -26 0.15 80 0 -5 >= 0
0 Mtrlnetncoee 0 -30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >= 0
244.701 Fem.ll etIncome -30 -30 30 -1.14 1.01 1.12 -2 29 0 -6 200 90 0.02 -3 0.64 2.5 -26 0.15 60 -5 0
0 Lab. M.nts 0 0
20 u Ma 6 0 800 0 0 15 <= 144
200 5464 Frem Jsl 5 0 0 2 4 153 10 < 384
20 Mar AP 5 0 0 15 <= 144
200 5464 Fe. A4 5 0 2 4 153 10 < 384
61.84610' e SeD 6 40 0 0 0 15 144
231.931 Fe6r. sp 5 30 0 2 4 153 10 < 384
56.84615 Mao opc 40 0 0 15 <= 144
229.931 Fepe oct 30 30 0 0 2 4 153 10 <= 384
144 Ma. N 0. 80 0 0 4 0.18 0.18 15 < 144
227 9995 FPea N 30' 0 30 0 2 0 153 20 < 384
7249161 Ma. De 30 30 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 144
265.0485 Fta Dec 60 0 70 30 0 0 153 20 <= 384
72.49151 Mae Jn 30 30 4 0.18 0.18 15 <0 144
303,7393 Fe-e jan 0 70 80 0 0 153 20 <= 384
7249151 Msa FO e 80 80 4 0.18 0.18 15 144
261.8931 Fpiek Feb 0 30 80 0 0 153 20 <= 384
72.49151 M.. Mr, 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 144
213.2158 Feme ear 80 10 40 0 0 153 20 <= 384
72,49151 Ma 4 0.18 0.18 15 < 144
196.2772 FPm Ap, 0 10 30 0 0 153 20 <= 384
77.49151 Mate My 6 0 4 0.10 0.18 15 144
337 0770 FPee Ma 5 0 80 100 0 0 153 20 <= 384
7749151 Ma. Jun S 80 00 4 0.18 0.18 15 <= 144
384 FPepa Jun 65 0 60 0 80 60 0 2 0 153 10 <= 384
2.53727 Land us 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.18 1 >* 0
204001 Fa-e raIaa' 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 >0 0
a LOO-. 2 -1 -1 1 2 I 1 2 2 0 0.16 1 6
-6.5E-13 Ma eaoutum 60 60 0 0 -1300 1 1 0 0 0 <= 0
1300 Mal-a-ne 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 > 1300
3.7E-13 Ground nut account 0 0 0 0 0 -540 1 1 1 < 0
200 Ground nut cons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 > 2300
8.7E-15 Fingermillet acc. 80 80 -800 0 <= 0
-445.089 Animalfeed -1600 -6000 -3000 -2600 .1000 2700
1 ber account I >p 1
1 homework 1 >* 1
1 Hom.Suppl. ace. 1 > 1
0 3 voglofruit account 1 0.3
1 Repairs & 1 > 1
1 School goal 1 1
-270.192 Mikaccourt -456 1 1 <= 0
292 Milk consump. 1 292
.1E- 16 Heifer account -0.66 1 <= 0
1.232877 Cow>=1 1 >
.-2.3E-12 Manure -7300 30000 <= 0
30 NGO crod limit 30
Solution varala
313.2558 1 0 0 1.42272 0 1409008 30 0 1 1 0 0.1 1 0 0 1.048164 1300 0 0.893856 200 265.3749 17.30744 1.232877 292 0 0.813699 1 03
h.mouppbh ma p. tnales farm maletvest IpIo. .Moara.. .e.aeK rep o&* beer beer ae fingermI school 4W Hync LMaeto MTransfer MSae Oe".J.ar Ot... Gslel Gsweet Caitt ikTranrst Miksale HeeerSale Houskeep .--a..-.


























Matrix 7: Linear program model for the Phiri's farm, maximizing farm net income. Changing situation 6: Male


migration.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs