Everglades Experiment Station
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Research
March 15, 1960
Outline of Program of Research
(Staff member underlined is responsible for directing project)
State project 818. Investigation of mineral interrelationship of beef cattle
through use of the artificial rumen. He L. Chaman, Jr., R. We Kidder
and C. E. Haines.
The IN VITRO relationships of copper, molybdenum, cobalt, phosphorus, zinc,
manganese, magnesium, iron, aluminum and other minerals are still being studies.
This past year using a washed suspension of rumen micro-organisms it was
found that copper levels in excess of 50 p.p m.; molybdenum in excess of 100
p.p.m.; zinc in excess of 20 p.p.m.; and cobalt in excess of 10 p.p.m. depressed
cellulose digestion IN VITRO. Preliminary results indicate that aluminum may
alleviate the depression of cellulose digestion attributable to molybdenum.
Levels of manganese to 5,000 p,p.m. did not inhibit cellulose digestion by
rumen micro-- organisms in either washed or unwashed cell suspensions.
Work under this project is limited due to personnel shortages. However,
it is planned that preliminary studies of this nature will continue to be run
as time will allow.
State project 819. Feeding value of antibiotics and hormones for beef steers
fattened on pasture. H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. E. Haines and R. W. Kidder.
(Revision IN PREPARATION).
During this past year studies have been conducted to compare diethyletil-
bestrol, 3,3'-diallylhexostrol and 3,3'-diallystilbestrol in steer fattening
rations (E.E.S. Mimeo Rpt. 60-17). Also, studies have been recently completed
with Serpasil and Zymopabst in steer fattening rations. (EES Mimeo Rpts.
60-14 and 60-15).
The majority of steer feeding studies at Belle Glade have been conducted
from about the first of November thru April. It is now end these
studies year around. A steer feeding study just initiate e
experimental treatment design:
Lot Number Treatment
1 Pasture only
2 Pasture + 6 pounds of feed
3 Pasture + full feed of cnce e .
4 Pasture + full feed +0.25 mg Se /steer/day
5 Pasture + full feed + 0.50 mg Serpasil/steer/day
State project 820. Apparent digestibility of nutrients in silages, pasture
forages and feeds produced in the Everglades. H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
C. E. Haines and R. W. Kidder.
Six trials have been conducted during the past two years. The results
of one digestibility study was published in J. An. Stc. 19(4): 1529. The
last ff two digestion studies was recently completed evaluating Roselawn St.
Augustinegrass silages made with different preservatives. The analytical
work is currently being completed and this data will soon be available.
Current plans are to conduct four digestibility studies each year. Plans
are being made to revise this project to include determination of productive
energy ef these materials. This will then be on a cooperative basis with the
State project 821. The use of antibiotics in weaned calf rations. C. E. Haines,
H. L. Chapman, Jr. and R. W. Kidder. (Revision IN PREPARATION)
During each annum at least one trial is conducted to study the value of
different feed additives far calves during the post-weaning period. During
the 1959-60 annun the value o6 aureonyeinj terramycin and oleandbmyein were
compared. In the study comparing the three antibiotics one hundred weanling
calves were divided into four groups on the basis of weaning weights, sex
and breeding and placed in St. Augustinegrass pastures of equal quality. All
groups were fed an average of four pounds of a concentrate mixture per head
daily for a period of 112 days. Group one served as controls and received no
antibiotic while groups tvo, three and four were supplemented with 75 mg. of
aureoarcin, 75 mg. of terramycin and 20 mg. of oleandonycin per head daily
respectively. Antibiotics were placed in the concentrate mixture.
The average total gain during the test period for the control group was
47.8 pounds compared to 94.8, 85.2 and 76.8 pounds for the groups receiving
aureomycin, terraeycin and oleandomycin, respectively. The antibiotic treat-
ments did not appear to effect market grades as each group of calves averaged
approximately 1/3 of a grade lower at the termination of the trial than at
During the 1960-61 annum plans are being formulated to repeat the aureo-
State project 922. Angus, Brangus and Angus x Brangus crossbreds for beef
production in the Everglades area. R. W. Kidder and H. L. Chapman, Jr.
Cooperators: Everglades Experiment Station, Glades State Prison Farm,
Marvin Koger, and J. E. Pace.
The beef herd, of approximately 1,000 cows, at the Glades State Prison
Farm is being used in this study. In this plan there will be offspring of
Angus and Brangus herds in comparison with the progeny from a crises cross
rotation between these two breeds. Foundation females include Angus, Brahman,
Hereford and crossbred cows. These will be bred to Angus and Brangus bulls
in alternating generations.
The animals in the breeding herd are currently being identified with herd
numbers and classified for breed, former productivity and age, to afford a
means for establishing breeding groups. Scales have been installed. Active.
work under this project should become an actuality during the 1960-61 annum.
State project 924. Feeding value of vegetable by-products, silages and
sugarcane. R. W. Kidder, H. L. Chapman, Jr., and C. E. Haines.
A feeding study has recently been conducted to determine the value, for
steers, of silages made with different preservatives.
Initial studies (in cooperation with F. le Grand) to determine the value
of grazing sugarcane will be conducted under this project. If possible the
experimental grazing plots will be established during the summer of 1960.
State project 990. Breeding beef cattle for adaptation to South Florida
conditions. R. W. Kidder, H. L. Chapman, Jr., and C. E. Haines.
Cooperators: Marvin Koger and A. C. Warnick.
This project has replaced State project 545. The present program w!ll
include purebred Angus, Brahman and Hereford herds in comparison with three
crossbred groups from these three breeds. The first calves from the F1
Angus-Hereford crossbred cows were born in 1960 calving season. Brahman-
Hereford calves (FP) will be included in 1961 and Brahman Angus calves (F2)
will be in the 1962 crop.
It is anticipated that all of the breeding cells for foundation cows
should be completed by the breeding season of January 1961. Every effort is
being made to obtain good, young bull calves of Angus, Hereford and Brahman
breeding. The bulls will be raised at the Everglades Station under a
standard management and feeding program. It is planned that 320 acres of
additional land will be planted to pasture during the summer of 1960, and
that the cattle in this project will be transferred to the new pastures by the
summer of 1961.
State project Wintering yearling steers on pasture (IN PREPARATION).
C. E. Haines, R. W. Kidder and H. L. Chapman, Jr.
The purpose of this project is to determine the economic value of supple-
mental feed for yearling steers and the effect it may have on subsequent feed-
lot performance. This will be a continuous study in effect on a year-around
basis. The first phase of the first years study was completed (EES Mimeo
In this phase one hundred and eight yearling crossbred steers were divided
into three groups and placed on pasture to determine the value of a concentrate
mixture and antibiotic supplementation during the winter period (1958-1959).
One group was maintained on pasture only while a second group was provided with
five pounds of concentrate per head daily. The third group received the
same amount of concentrate plus a combination of two antibiotics, terramycin
and oleandomycin to provide a total of 80 mg. of antibiotic material daily.
The feeding period was conducted for 98 days.
Steers on pasture alone averaged a total gain of 53.6 pounds compared to
94.3 and 124.7 pounds for those receiving the concentrate and the concentrate
plus antibiotics, respectively. These differences in gains between group 1
and group 2 as well as those between group 2 and group 3 were each highly
significant. The two steer groups receiving the concentrate maintained approxi-
mately the same market grade throughout the trial while the steers which were
not supplemented terminated the trial with lower market grades than they were
assigned at the beginning of the study. These steers were allotted to the
steer feeding study recently completed, in order to obtain information concer-
ning the effect of the wintering study on feedlot performance.
The second year of this study had a revised design and was initiated in
October 1959 and is now in progress. These animals will be placed in the feed
lots in the fall of 1960.
State project Comparison of major perennial pasture forages of the
Everglades with and without supplemental feed. (IN PREPARATION)
C. E. Haines, H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. J. Allen, Jr., and R. W. Kidder.
The original project was terminated in the fall of 1959. During the
last year of the earlier study, yearlings were used to compare the productivity
of St. Augustinegrass, paragrass and bahiagrass between October 1958 and October
1959. Productivity was determined by the total live weight gains produced
per acre. Stocking rates were altered throughout the year to conform to
the amount of forage available.
The total live weight gains produced per acre were 1077, 1070, 1053
and 861 pounds for bahiagrass, paragrass, St. Augustinegrass and pangolagrass,
respectively. The greatest number of animal grazing days was recorded for
bahiagrass followed by St. Augustinegrass and then paragrass. Pangolagrass
was the least productive of the four grasses for both carrying capacity and
the total gains produced. Ninety-five percent of the annual gains made on
each of the grasses occurred in a ten months period from February through
November. The maximum gains and carrying capacity for all grasses occurred
between June and September. (Everglades Station Mimeo Report 60-16).
This project is currently in its first year, in the revised form. This
will be for the purpose of evaluating supplemental feeds for increasing the
carrying capacity per acre and pounds of animal gain produced per acre.
State project Blackstrap molasses and other energy containing feeds
as a supplement to pasture for beef cows. (IN PREPARATION) H. L.
Chapman, Jr., C. E. Haines and R. W. Kidder.
The purpose of this project is to study the effect of energy-containing
feedstuffs, when fed as a supplement to pasture, upon the general performance
and reproductive efficiency of cows. Active work on the initial study began
in December, 1959. It is a year-around project. The treatment design of
this experiment is as follows:
Lot Number Treatment
1 Pasture only
2 Pasture molasses, 120-140 days in winter
3 Pasture molasses, continually.
Miscellaneous project. Value of Mycostatin for growing-fattening pigs being
fattened on garbage. C. E. Haines and H. L. Chapman, Jr.
This is a cooperative study between the Everglades Station, Department
of Animal Husbandry (G. E. Combs) and Glades State Prison Farm.
Two trials were conducted with pigs at the Glades State Prison Farm to
determine the value of mycostatin to garbage fattened swine. The results of
the first trial were not satisfactory while those of the second trial are
reported. Forty three feeder pigs were full-fed cooked garbage plus one
pound of soybean oil meal per head daily for 112 days. Twenty-two of these
pigs also received 200 milligrams of mycostatin daily during the trial.
The group of pigs not provided the antibiotic gained an average of 132.2
pounds compared to 136.9 pounds for pigs receiving the mycostatin. Garbage
samples secured during the trial emphasized a great variation in composition
between days. Proximate analysis showed that this feeding material averaged
44.6 percent dry matter, 19.1 percent crude protein, 11.4 percent fiber, 28.1
percent fat and 6.8 percent ash. (E.E.S. Mimeo 60-23).
Miscellaneous project. The effect of injectable Serpasil upon intransit shrink
of beef cattle. C. E. Haines and H. L. Chapman, Jr.
Several trials have been conducted to determine the value of Serpasil,
an injectable tranquilizer, to cattle during transit. Initial phases consisted
of exploring the physiological effects of various dosages. Subsequent studies
have pertained to the actual shipment of cattle.
Respiration rates, pulse rates and body temperatures have not been
affected by the level of administered Serpasil except for excessive dosages
which caused fatality. There was a great variation in these values, between
animals, regardless of treatment. In feeder steers shipped 100, 200 or 400
miles Serpasil reduced intransit shrink to some extent and rates of above
0.80 mg. per 100 lbs. of body caused undesirable side effects in some
individuals. However, animals did not all respond in the same manner to
different dosage rates. Neither the breed or sex of the animal accounted for
the individual animal differences encountered,
Miscellaneous project. The value of cobalt bullets for beef cattle.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. E. Haines and R. W. Kidder.
Three studies are currently in progress to evaluate this material. One
experiment is being conducted in Collier County, one in Hendry County and one
at the Everglades Station. Each of these studies were scheduled to last for
State project Growth and reproduction of beef cattle as affected by the
interaction of various mineral elements. H. L. Chapman, Jr., A. C.
Warnick and C. E. Haines. (IN PREPARATION)
It is planned that this project will be activated during the fall of
1960. The pasture has been established on virgin soil. This will be a year
around project and will be conducted cooperatively with A. C. Warnicks
With the establishment of the 320 acres of additional pasture the
breeding herd will be transferred to that tract of ground. This will release
acreage at the Everglades Station for much needed studies. Some of these will
probably be initiated during the 1961-63 biennium. These include the following:
1. Effect of Pasture fertility upon animal gain produced. This study may
include rate of application, time of application, number of applications per
year, etc. Current indications are that nitrogen and potash warrant initial
study. However, the design and extent of this study will be guided by work
currently being conducted by Dr. Frank Thomas, Assistant Chemist.
2. Effect of rate of stocking upon animal gains produced per acre. It is
entirely possible that part of this study could be superimposed on the pasture
fertility study. However, this cannot be determined at present. It is im-
portant to study the effect of different stocking rates on animal gains
produced on pasture, with or without supplemental feed.
3. Value of various types of mole-drains for pastures. This cannot be out-
lined at present. However, it is entirely probable that a study should be
initiated on Section 8 to compare water control with no mole drains and mole
drains made by the two available techniques.