Front Cover
 Commercialism of cholesterol

Group Title: Poultry Science mimeograph series
Title: The relationship of animal food products and cholesterol to the incidence of heart disease
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094220/00001
 Material Information
Title: The relationship of animal food products and cholesterol to the incidence of heart disease
Series Title: Poultry Science mimeograph series - University of Florida ; PY72.2
Physical Description: 7, 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCready, Stuart T. ( Stuart Theodore ), 1944-
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972?
Copyright Date: 1972
Subject: Food -- Cholesterol content -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Meat -- Composition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: S.T. McCready.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 8-9).
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094220
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 319071689

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Commercialism of cholesterol
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text

Poultry Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. PY 72.2 Experiment Station
500 Copies Gainesville, Florida



S. T. McCready

Atherosclerosis is a condition in which certain areas on the inner

wall of the arterial blood vessels become covered with deposits of fatty-

like material that tend to restrict normal blood flow. Coronary heart

disease (CHD) is a specific example of atherosclerosis and is the nation's

number one killer. The relationship between atherosclerosis and choles-

terol was first reported around the turn of the century by researchers who

fed cholesterol to rabbits which subsequently developed atherosclerosis.

Succeeding test work up to the present has revealed that test animals

respond differently to dietary cholesterol. Rabbits are very sensitive

to dietary cholesterol, while laboratory rats can tolerate extremely high

levels of cholesterol in the blood before atherosclerosis developed (Pope,

1971a). However, this initial report concerning atherosclerosis of rabbits

has been the primary basis for attributing CHD to cholesterol levels in the

diet of man.

Various research reports have linked cholesterol to hormone production,

formation of vitamin D in the skin, cell function, bile acid formation,

nerve impulse, fatty acid transport in the blood, and, according to one

report, possibly even resistance to disease. Cholesterol's necessity in

the body is evidenced by its constant formation (1500 to 2000 mg. daily)

from ingested food regardless of cholesterol content (Pope, 1971a).



The public today is probably no better informed about the effects

of diet on atherosclerosis than they were 20 years ago. The American

Heart Association, along with commercial interests whose profits center

around food products incorporating polyunsaturated fats and oils, actively

promote the polyunsaturated fat diet as a definitive means of preventing

heart attacks as well as treatment for existing heart disease. Adver-

tisements in medical journals and lay journals more than merely intimate

that certain margarines and oils will reduce the incidence of CHD and

heart attacks. These ads almost imply negligence on the part of the

practicing physician who does not order his patient to alter his diet to

conform to a rigid, strictly heart-conscious, increased polyunsaturated

fat food intake (Pinckney, 1971), Pinckney (1971), cites a recent adver-

tisement in the Journal of the American Medical Association that directs

the physician specifically to the fact that he can prevent, and even treat,

coronary heart disease by lowering his patient's cholesterol through the

use of polyunsaturates. A margarine ad showing a photo of a preteenager

is headlined: "Is there a heart attack in his future?" Two recent family

magazines contained an ad stating "many doctors advise everyone in your

family to start eating foods that help lower cholesterol levels" (Good

Housekeeping 173(6):145; Redbook 138(2):151).

This type of heavily biased information constantly before the public

indirectly intimates that consuming natural animal food products will

actively invite the occurrence of heart disease. Eggs have probably

attracted more criticism than other animal products because they undoubtedly

do contain more cholesterol than any other natural food source. Two eggs


(approximately 100 grams of edible egg) may contain 460 to 940 mg. of

cholesterol (Turk and Barnett, 1971) depending upon the type of hens,

their egg production (Bartov et al., 1971) and method used for the deter-

mination (Weiss et al., 1964). Other animal products may contain the

following approximate mg. of cholesterol per 100 gms.: beef, 125; beef

liver, 320; pork loin or chop, 70-105; turkey dark meat, 16-26; chicken

fryer, 60-90; butter, 20; and cheddar cheese, 32 (PENB bulletin).

It is possible that researchers may be able to reduce the composition

of their respective products, in regard to cholesterol, through nutritional

or genetic alterations. Clarenburg et al. (1971) has already reported

feeding a plant sterol (sitosterol) at the two percent level in the diet

of laying hens which resulted in a 35 percent reduction in egg cholesterol

and addition of the plant sterol to the composition of the yolk (sitosterol

interferes with intestinal absorption of cholesterol; thus, it lowers cho-

lesterol levels by promoting fecal excretion of sterols and their degrada-

tion products). Changes such as these would undoubtedly be a tremendous

expense to the industry, and would ultimately be passed on to the consumer.

Additionally, in the light of current research now available in the litera-

ture, there may be needless concern about animal food products that contain

high levels of cholesterol. It is perhaps time also, for those in the

agricultural product areas to change from a defensive position to that of

the offense in regard to the much publicized criticism of their cholesterol

containing products. Informed products people can now do more than cringe

when "cholesterol" is mentioned because sufficient research is now avail-

able concerning atherosclerosis to suggest that opponents of cholesterol

and cholesterol containing foods should re-evaluate their position.


The most detrimental effects of cholesterol commercialism may be the

neutralizing impact on newer, more recent research findings that would

elucidate the factors that do influence heart disease. Important factors

that are generally unknown by the public include some of the following


There have been some indications that a diet containing a slightly

increased amount of polyunsaturates does lower laboratory-measured serum

cholesterol (although this effect does not seem to persist). Most impor-

tant, however, is the fact that there is still no clinical evidence that

a diet-lowered serum cholesterol in any way prevents, or modifies heart

attacks or heart disease (Pinckney, 1971). Also, during the years 1950

through 1967, the incidence of CHD increased sharply from less than 220

deaths per 100,000 in 1950 to approximately 390 deaths per 100,000 in

1967. Within this same period, egg consumption on a per capital basis

declined from approximately 390 eggs in 1950 to a 1967, and present, low

of approximately 320 eggs per capital (Pope, 1971a).

A similar report by the World Health Organization (1970) noted an

increase in mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease despite attempts

to control heart patients' serum cholesterol by way of dietary changes -

usually increases in polyunsaturates and occasionally decreased cholesterol

intake. In contrast, Japan, whose consumption of dairy products, eggs and

saturated fat foods has greatly increased since 1955, showed a 14 percent

decrease in heart attack deaths for the same time period.

The Framingham diet study (1971) completed in Framingham, Massachusetts,

over a ten-year period with hundreds of people, concluded that diet had no


effect on the incidence of coronary heart disease.

Serum cholesterol levels reportedly decrease approximately three mgs.

for each 100 mgs. of cholesterol that are removed from the diet (Pinckney,

1971). Thus, if one follows the American Heart Association guidelines,

which recommend increased polyunsaturates and decreased intake of choles-

terol by 300 mg., the serum cholesterol would be reduced by only approxi-

mately ten mg.

One of the most important facts seemingly overlooked by the FDA,

advertisers of polyunsaturates and many physicians, is the fact that

heating of polyunsaturates tends to resaturate the product. Resaturation

is possible at temperatures and times commonly used in cooking and thus

defeats the very purpose for which polyunsaturates are commercially pro-

moted. There are many references available that report a decreased

iodine number (increased saturation) when unsaturated fats are heated

(Poling et al., 1962; Arffman, 1969; Kilgore and Bailey, 1970; Stasch

and Kilgore, 1963). The degree of unsaturation becomes even worse if the

fat or oil is reused as it sometimes is by the housewife and is nearly

always so in restaurants and other food service establishments. There is

even some evidence of increased atherosclerosis, tumors, poor growth and

death in test animals fed diets containing heated polyunsaturated fats

(Kummerow, 1961; Nutrition Reviews, 1957); a similar report of increased

atherosclerotic events has occurred with men on an experimentally high

polyunsaturated fat diet (Pearce and Dayton, 1970).

Ingestion of greater amounts of polynsaturated foods and restriction

of cholesterol containing foods, such as eggs, in hopes of preventing or

even treating CHD appears to be a false assumption.


Important research findings which may be overlooked because of the

cholesterol issue,include several reports that have implicated heredity,

age, sex, lack of exercise, overweight, and excessive cigarette smoking

(Burton, 1965; Krause, 1968). There are also recent reports that indicate

a relationship of hardness of water to heart disease (Bolchum, 1971), the

serum cholesterol levels in relation to blood type (Oliver, 1969) and a

relationship of carbon monoxide to atherosclerosis (National Institutes

of Health, 1970).

Although much evidence indicates diet is not the major cause of

heart disease, several recent reports (Nutrition Today, 1970; Internal

Medicine and Diagnosis News, 1970; Agricultural Research, 1971) have

indicated sucrose as a source of atherosclerosis and CHD. One basis for

this theory is the prevalence for atherosclerosis in highly developed

countries, with the largest dietary differences between the poor and the

prosperous countries being sugar consumption. In the last 70 years sugar

has doubled in the United States, whereas fat consumption has increased

only 12 percent.

Friedman (1958, 1964, 1969a, 1969b) has reported the importance of

stress on blood levels of cholesterol (neurogenic hypercholesteremia),

which suggest that laboratory-measured serum cholesterol levels may be an

invalid indicator.of heart disease. Acute rises in laboratory-measured

serum cholesterol have occurred In tax accountants at the height of tax

season, in students during examinations, and in military personnel under-

going stress, all with absolutely no change in diet. Other studies which

have received equally minimal attention, include the significant relation-

- 7 -

ships that exist between heart disease and job stress and risk factors

(French and Caplan, 1970).

The much publicized association of cholesterol to atherosclerosis

has made it difficult for the consumer to accept the conclusions of up-

dated research concerning heart disease; in essence this conclusion is

that no single cause can be clearly associated with atherosclerosis. How-

ever, there is substantial evidence to refute the theory that cholesterol

contained in the diet will cause CHD. It is also indicated that substitu-

tion of polyunsaturates for cholesterol containing animal products will

not effectively alter serum cholesterol levels or combat heart disease.

The current information indicates it would be unwise to severely alter

one's diet (except under doctor's orders) with substitutes when natural

products such as milk, meat and eggs are available that contain high

amounts of protein, vitamins, minerals and even cholesterol. The Nutrition

Council of the American Medical Association does not support the American

Heart Association in its critical opinion of eggs (Pope, 1971b). The Food

and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences and National Research

Council also make the following statements: "In spite of the large amount

of information accumulated in recent years about atherosclerosis and its

pathogenesis, many gaps in knowledge remain. Results of recent studies

while valuable and though provoking do not provide sufficient data for

firm dietary recommendations for radical dietary changes. Until we learn

more about which fats are desirable nutritionally, the board recommends

that the consumer should partake of the foods that make up a varied

adequate and not overly-rich diet and maintain a normal body weight by

judicious control of calorie intake and by daily exercise" (Hursh, 1970).


Agricultural Research, August, 1971. The Carbohydrate Question, p. 3
U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Arffman, E., 1960. Heated fats and allied compounds as carcinogens: A
critical review of experimental results. J. Nat. Cancer Institute

Bartov, I., S. Bornstein and P. Budowski, 1971. Variability of cholesterol
concentration in plasma and egg yolks of hens and evaluation of the
effect of some dietary oils. Poultry Sci. 50:1357.

Bolchum, 0. J., J. S. O'Brien and B. D. Goldstein, 1971. Ozone and
unsaturated fatty acids. Arch. of Environmental Health, 22:32.

Burton, B. T., 1965. The Heinz Handbook of Nutrition. Second Edition,
p. 68. Blakiston Division McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Clarenburg, R. A., Kim Chung and C. M. Wakefield, 1971. Reducing the
egg cholesterol level by including emulsified sitosterol in standard
chicken diets. J. Nutr. 101:289.

Framingham Diet Study, 1971. U. S. Public Health Service.

French, J. R. P., and R. D. Caplan, 1970. Psychosocial factors in
coronary heart disease. Industrial Medicine (September).

Friedman, M., R. H. Rosenman and V. Carroll, 1958. Changes in the serum
cholesterol and blood clotting time in men subject to cylic variation
of occupational stress. Circulation, 17:852 (May).

Friedman, M., R. H. Rosenman and S. Byers, 1964. Serum lipids and con-
junctival circulation after fat ingestion in men exhibiting type-A
behavior pattern. Circulation, 29:874 (June).

Friedman, M., S. R. Flek and S. 0. Byers, 1969a. Abolition of milieu-
induced hyperlipemia in the rat by electrolytic lesion in the
anterior hypothalamus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131:288 (May).

Friedman, M., S. 0. Byers and S. R. Flek, 1969b. The induction of
neurogenic hypercholesteremla. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131:759

Hursh, L. M., 1970. What's all this fuss about cholesterol. Poultry
Tribune, p. 52 (April).

Internal Medicine and Diagnosis News, 1970. Serum Triglycerides Fall,

Kilgore, L., and M. Bailey, 1970. Degradation of linoleic acid during
potato frying. J. Am. Dietetic Assn. 56:130 (February).

Krause, M. V., 1968. Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Fourth Edition,
pp. 47-48. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Kummerow, F. A., 1961. Lipids and their oxidation. A Symposium on Foods
edited by Schultz, H. W. Oregon State University.

National Institutes of Health, 1970. Dietary Management of Hyperlipipro-
teinemia. Bethesda, Maryland.

Nutrition Reviews, 1957. Nature of the toxic substances in overheated
oils. Volume 15:346 (September).

Nutrition Today, 1970. More about sucrose and atherosclerosis, Autumn,
Volume 15(3):15.

Oliver, M. F., R. D. Cumming, H. Geizerova and J. D. Heady, 1969. Serum
cholesterol and ABO and rhesus blood types. Lancet, 2:605.

Pearce, M. L., and S. Dayton, 1970. Low and high fat diet study results
raise some interesting questions. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 214:2264
(December 28).

Pinckney, E. R., 1971. Is commercialism controlling the controversy over
cholesterol. Medical Counterpoint, 3(5) (May).

Poling, C. E., W. D. Warner, P. E. Mone and E. E. Rice, 1962. The influence
of temperature, heating time and aeration upon the nutritive value of
fats. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 39:315 (July).

Pope, D. L., 1971a. Eggs and cholesterol. Feedstuffs, 43(48):30.

Pope, D. L., 1971b. What should be done to curb over production of eggs.
Poultry Tribune, pp. 40-41 (December).

Poultry and Egg National Board (PENB). A scientist speaks about turkey.
PENB, 8 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 3, Illinois.

Stasch, A. R., and L. Kilgore, 1963. Influence of repeated use for cooking
on some changes in composition of frying fats. Bulletin 662, Miss.
State University Agr. Exp. Sta. (May).

Turk, D. E., and B. D. Barnett, 1971. Cholesterol content of market eggs.
Poultry Sci. 50:1303.

Weiss, J. F., E. C. Naber and R. M. Johnson, 1964. Effect of dietary fat
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