Group Title: Immokalee AREC Research Report
Title: Vegetable field day
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094211/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vegetable field day
Series Title: Immokalee AREC Research Report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research Center (Immokalee, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Immokalee, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center.
Place of Publication: Immokalee Florida
Immokalee Florida
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Varieties -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Issued by the Agricultural Research Center in Imokalee, Fla., which changed its name to the Agricultural Research and Education Center.
General Note: Description based on: 1973; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1984.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094211
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 433028245
lccn - 2009229391

Full Text


CO
I / ^ Imnokalee ARC Research Report SF73-1



gC' AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Immokalee, Florida

of the

INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA jU\J .. vD


VEGETABLE FIELD DAY

Tuesday, May 8, 1973 .0

*~*\******* *

PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS

A. J. Overman, Associate Nematologist (AREC-Bradenton)
C. H. Blazquez, Associate Plant Pathologist (ARC-Lnmokalee)
S. L. Poe, Assistant Entomologist (AREC-Bradenton)
J. P. Crill, Assistant Plant Pathologist (AREC-Bradenton)
P. H. Everett, Soils Chemist (ARC-Immokalee)

wH ** **** **

D. W. Lander, Collier County Extension Director tbderator

1:00 P.M. Assembly and Registration

1:20 P.M. Dr. P. H. Everett, In-Charge, ARC-Immokalee Welcome

1:30 P.M. Reports on Current Research

Mrs. A. J. Overman Nematode research

Dr. C. H. Blazquez Vegetable diseases and their control

Dr. S. L. Poe Insect control on vegetables

Dr. J. P. Crill Tomato varieties and breeding program

Dr. P. H. Everett Vegetable nutrition and cultural practices

3:00 P.M. Tour of Vegetable Research Plots
** **********

Soft drinks Courtesy of Niagara Chemical Company, Immokalee (Howell Heald,
Mgr.)
Trucks Courtesy of Asgrow-Kilgore Seed Company (Tom Wood, Mgr.), Kaiser
Agricultural Chemicals (Byron Royals, Mgr.), and Kerr-McGee Chemical
Corporation (Lee Cross, Mgr.)


165 copies










TOUR OF RESEARCH PLOTS*

Field M


Block no.

2 East

2 West

4 East

4 West

3

5

6

7

8 East

9

10 East

10 West

11 East

11 West

12

13


Tomato Variety Trial-Replicated (staked)

Tomato Variety Trial-Observational (staked)

Tomato Variety Trial-Replicated (ground)

Tomato Variety Trial-Observational (ground)

Liquid Nitrogen for Tomatoes

Fertilizer Study for Peppers

Fertilizer Rates & Placements for Tomatoes

Fertilizer Rates & Placements for Tomatoes

Fertilizer Rates for Watermelons

Insecticide Spray Trial on Tomatoes

Tomato Fungicide Spray Trial

Cucumber Fungicide Spray Trial

Watermelon Fungicide-Insecticide Spray Trial

Watermelon Fungicide Spray Trial

Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Control

Cucumber Disease Resistance Trial

***********


*Results reported in this Field Day Program are preliminary and do not
constitute an official recommendation unless so stated.












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Page

10

10

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12

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14

16

16

17

18

18

19

20

21

22







REPORTS ON RESEARCH: Agricultural Research Center-Immokalee


9 Pepper Spray Trial (Dr. Blazquez)

Pepper, Control of Leaf Spot Diseases in Spring 1971
Gray leaf spot (Stemphylium solani Weber)

A random block design with three replications was used on Early Cal Wonder
peppers in an experiment to compare two types of Nu-Film 17 sprayed at 7 and
14-day intervals in combination with Dithane M-45. A liquid formulation of
Bravo 6F was tested alone and in combination with Nu-Film 17. Spraying was
done with a "Kirkmolen" mistblower (an airblast type sprayer) and was begun
on April 28 and terminated on May 20. A total of four sprays was made on the
7-day schedule and two on the 14-day schedule.

Good control was obtained with Bravo 6F, the addition of Nu-Film 17 did not
significantly improve its chemical activity. The addition of Nu-Film 17
significantly increased the control of Dithane M-45 when compared with the
combination of Nu-Film P and Dithane M-45. All of the materials tested had
significantly less disease than the unsprayed check.


Treatment and rate Nu-Film Days spray Mean
per 100 gallons Type Rate intervals % Disease Yield in Ibs/plot
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 Ibs 17 1 pt 7 3.98 d* 1.4
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 Ibs 17 1 pt 14 5.15 d 1.6
Bravo 6F 6.0 lbs none 7 4.76 d 1.8
* Bravo 6F 6.0 lbs 17 1 pt 7 3.51 d .6
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 lbs P 4 oz 7 9.99 cd 3.1
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 lbs P 4 oz 14 11.09 bed 3.0
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 lbs none 7 21.82 bc 1.4
Dithane M-45 80W 2.0 Ibs none 14 24.92 b 2.1
Sclex 80W 1.5 Ibs none 7 4.05 d 4.8
Unsprayed check -- -- -- 53.70a 2.6
*Numbers within a given column which are followed by the same letter are not
significantly different according to Duncan's Multiple Range test at 1% level.



Tomato Spray Trial (Dr. Blazquez)

Tomato, Control of Leaf Spot Diseases in Spring 1971
Gray leaf spot (Stemphylium solani Weber)

A random block design with three replications was used on ground Homestead
tomatoes in an experiment to compare two formulations of Bravo fungicide at
two rates, two rates of Difolatan 4 Flo fungicide with Nu-Film 17 sprayed at
7 and 14-day intervals, a double rate of Difolatan 4 Flo, one rate of ethylene
thiuram monosulfide, and one rate of ethylene thiourea for the control of gray
leaf spot of tomatoes. Spraying was done with a "Kirkmolen" mistblower (an
airblast type sprayer) and was begun on February 19 and terminated on May 21,
1971. A total of 14 sprays was made. Gray leaf spot did not become severe
* until early May when significant differences were observed between the sprayed
plots and the unsprayed check.






Good control was obtained with Bravo at 1 and 14 Ibs, Difolatan 4 Flo at 5 pts
on a 7-day schedule, and Difolatan 4 Flo at 24 pts with 1 pt of Nu-Film 17 on
a 7-day schedule. There were highly significant differences (1% level) between
thetematerials-on gray leaf spot control. Ethylene thiourea has no fungicidal
properties, while ethylene thiuram monosulfide is a good fungicide. There
were no significant differences in yield between the sprayed and unsprayed plot.


ITreatment-and rate Days spray Percent Total yield
iper 100 gallons Nu-Film 17 intervals disease in pounds
i Bravo 75WP 1.0 Ib none 7 9.12 b* 171.0**
Bravo 75WP 1.5 Ib none 7 10.06 b 158.0
Bravo AS 75WP 1.0 lb none 7 7.26 b 158.0
Bravo AS 75WP 1.5 Ib none 7 16.85 b 182.0
Difolatan 4 F 5.0 pts none 7 11.44 b 158.0
Difolatan 4 F 2.5 pts 1 pt 7 12.16 b 168.0
Difolatan 4 F 2.5 pts 1 pt 14 8.90 b 140.0
Ethylene thiuram monosulfide none 7 12.17 b 162.0
100 WP 2.0 Ib
Ethylene thiourea 100 WP 2.0 Ib none 7 133.43a 142.0
Unsprayed check -- 136.23a 130.0
*Numbers within a column followed by similar letters are not significantly
different from each other at the 1% level of significance according to
Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
**There were no significant differences found in yield of the plots.



Tomato Spray Trial (Dr. Blazquez)

Tomato, Control of Leaf Spot Diseases in Spring 1972
Gray leaf spot (Stemphylium solani Weber)
Early blight (Alternaria solani Weber)

A random block design with three replications was used on ground Homestead
tomatoes in an experiment to compare eleven different stickers added to the
fungicide Bravo 75WP at three weekly applications. Spraying was done with a
"Kirkmolen" mistblower (an airblast type sprayer) and was done on April 20,
May 2 and May 16. Early blight became severe on May 1, and gray leaf spot
severely attacked the plants on May 10-13. Significant differences in disease
were found between the stickers and Bravo alone in a Duncan's Multiple Range
Test.

Nu-Film 17 at 1 pt gave the best early blight and gray leaf spot control fol-
lowed by the 8 oz rate of Nu-Film and most of the stickers tested.

There were no significant differences in yield between all the stickers used
and the Bravo fungicide alone.







Treatment and rate Percent early Percent gray Total yield
er 100 gallonps .. blgh bl .ht leaf spot... in pounds**
Bravo 15WP 2 Ibs alone 6.67 cd* 36.33 bcde* 225i1
Bravo 75WP'2 lbs 3.00 d 16.00 e 231.9
+ Nu-Film 17 1 pt
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 9.00 bcd 23.33 de 230.8
+ Nu-Film 17 8 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 12.00 bcd 29.67 cde 182.8
+ Nu-Film 17 4 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 lbs 11.33 bcd 38.00 bcde 196.2
+ Nu-Film P 4 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 lbs 20.67 bcd 41.67 bcde 240.7
+ Plyac 4 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 19.00 bcd 48.00 bcde 221.7
+ Ortho Spreader 8 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 14.67 bcd 38.67 bcde 187.5
+ Biofilm 8 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 lbs 25.00 bc 48.67 bcde 203.0
+ Triton B-1956 4 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 lbs 20.33 bcd 50.00 bcd 211.5
+ CS-7 0.1/10 gal
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 15.00 bcd 29.67 bcde 223.0
+ Grace Spreader 4 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 21.67 bcd 54.33 bc 259.2
+ Helena Spreader 5 pts
Bravo 75WP 2 lbs 26.33 b 54.33 bc 221.0
+ Union Carbide 4144 6 oz
Bravo 75WP 2 Ibs 15.00 bcd 36.33 cde 212.0
+ Dupont Sticker 4 oz
Xnsprayed check 52.00a 93.67ab 214.7
*Numbers within a column followed by similar letters are not signifi-
cantly different from each other at the 1% level of significance
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
**There were no significant differences found in yield of the plots.


Cucumber Spray Trial (Dr. Blazquez)

Cucumber, Control of Leaf Spot Diseases in Fall 1972
Target spot (Corynespora cassiicola Berk. & Curt. Wei)

A random block design with three replications was used on Ashley cucumbers in
an experiment to compare five different fungicides alone and in combination
with Nu-Film 17 (a sticker-extender) on weekly applications. Spraying was done
with a "Kirkmolen" mistblower (an airblast type sprayer) on October 17, 24, 31,
November 7, 14, 21, and 28, 1972. A total of seven applications were made.
Target spot was first observed on November 1 and became widespread by November
15. Downy mildew was observed on November 13 but did not become established
nor observed after November 20.

Best control was obtained with the combination of 1 pt of Bravo and Nu-Film 17,
the other treatments did not differ greatly between each other in disease con-
trol, all treatments had less disease than the check. Highest yields were
obtained with the combination Bravo 1 pt and Nu-Film 17, Bravo at 1 pt alone,







and Benlate at 8 oz alone. Favorable weather for disease development was ex-
cellent prior to second disease reading, nearly defoliating all experimental
plots.


Treatment and rate % Disease Harv. yields in lbs/plot
per 100 gallons Nu-Film 17 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd Total
Bravo 6F 1.0 pt -- 7.67 73.67 52.1 12.6 41.8 106.5
Bravo 6F 1.5 pts -- 4i67 53.33 48.5 10.1 31.5 90.1
Bravo 6F 2.0 pts -- 4.00 43.67 55.4 9.8 33.6 98.8
Bravo 6F 1.0 pt 1 pt 2,00 48.67 65.7 11.3 63,4 140.4
Benlate 8 oz -- 13.67 75.00 54.4 10.1 41.1 105.6
Benlate 8 oz -- 17.33 71.67 52.1 10.3 37.0 99.4
+ Dithane M-45 1.5 Ibs
Benlate 8 oz 1 pt 5.67 72.00 48.1 16.4 32.6 97.1
Dithane M-45 -- 11.33 62.00 52.8 8.6 33.1 94.5
Unsprayed check -- 75.67 92.00 55.6 5.9 38.3 99.8


Entomological Research (Dr. Poe)

A means of insect control is still paramount to quality vegetable production
in Florida even in this day of ecological awareness and conservation efforts.
There has but one means been demonstrated and established as reliable for
use on short term vegetable crops and that means is through use of chemical
insecticides. Much of the work reported herein relates to evaluation of
chemicals for pest control.

Several key or major pests must be recognized for any crop grown. Tomatoes
are still readily attacked by fruitworms (tomato fruitworm (Heliothis zea),
southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua)
and fruit must be protected from these pests. The granulate cutworm (Feltia
subterranea) has become a more important fruit pest where plants are not
staked. Resurgent pests such as tomato pinworm(Keiferia lycopersicella) can
be expected to become devastating occasionally and for these pests controls
also must be formulated.

Pests of pepper include aphids, whose greatest damage results from virus
transmission, fruitworms, and recently, another resurgent pest the pepper
weevil. The absence of most useful chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has
resulted in use of more acutely toxic materials which are more expensive and
less persistent. A shorter interval between applications and efficient plant
coverage is necessary when nonpersistent contact insecticides are recommended.

Presently recommended materials for insect control on vegetables such as
tomato, pepper, and the cucurbits are adequate. However, attention should
be given to the mechanics of spray application seeking thorough coverage
and the optimum time for treatment, as well as use of the best material.
By timing the application to correspond to actual need, several sprays could
be eliminated during the crop life. Selective timing of treatments can re-
duce the cost of production where adequate observation and control of fields
are maintained.






Bed shape, fertilizer rates and placements for double row
pepper grown with full-bed mulch and seep irrigation (Dr. Everett)

* In the fall season of 1972 an experiment was conducted to determine the effect
of 5 bed shapes, 3 fertilizer rates and 2 fertilizer placements on plant growth
and yield of pepper when grown with full-bed paper mulch.

Treatments used in this experiment are described below.

Bed shapes
1 North side higher than south side
2 Crowned center
3 Flat and level top
4 Concaved center
5 South side higher than north side

Fertilizer rates
Low rate 75 lb N/A 140 Ib P205/A 110 lb K20/A
*(500 Ib 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 278 lb 18-0-25/A)
Medium rate 225 lb N/A 140 lb P205/A 278 lb K20/A
*(500 lb 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 1111 lbs 18-0-25/A)
High rate 450 lb N/A 140 lb P205/A 630 lb K20/A
*(500 lb 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 2361 lb 18-0-25/A)
*5-8-8-2 + Frit was incorporated in the bed and 500 lb superphosphate/A
was broadcasted and disked in prior to preparing the plant beds.

Fertilizer (18-0-25) placements on bed surface
Single band One narrow band down bed center. Pepper plants are 9" to
each side of this fertilizer band.
0 Triple band Three narrow bands; 1 in center of bed, 1 on each bed
shoulder. Each band contains 1/3 of the total fertilizer.
Pepper plants are approximately 9" from each fertilizer
band.

Pepper (Early Cal Wonder) seedlings were transplanted in the field on September
18, 1972. Plant beds were 6' on center with a 10" in-row plant spacing. The
two pepper rows on each bed were 18" apart. Peppers were harvested 5 times
between November 20, 1972 and January 10, 1973.

Results

Plant Growth "Stem-girdling" was the major cause of reduction in plant stand.
"Stem-girdling", as used here, is believed to be caused by high concentrations
of soluble salts (mainly fertilizer salts) which accumulate in the planting
hole in full-bed mulch.

Symptoms of stem-girdling are an enlargement of the stem just above the soil-
line and a constricted (girdled) area at or just below the soil-line. Severely
affected plants wilt and break at the girdled area when they are small. Plants
that are less severely affected may survive to maturity but are usually less
productive and tend to break-over in windy weather or during harvest. Pre-
liminary attempts to isolate a pathogenic organism from girdled plants have
not been successful, but good correlation has been obtained between stem-
girdling and high salt concentration in the planting hole around the plant stem.







Rain or overhead irrigation tends to lower the salt concentration in the plant-
ing hole. However, during dry weather with seep irrigation, soil water con-
Staining soluble salts moves toward the planting hole, where the water evaporates
leaving the salts to accumulate in the soil near the plant stem. The highest
salt concentration is in the first k" to " of the bed surface which corresponds
to the girdled area on the stem. In this test no rain occurred during the
first 13 days after transplanting, with only a total of 0.75" during the next
4 weeks and the number of stem-girdled plants in some treatments was quite high.


Table 1. Main effect of bed shape on
stem-girdling of pepper

Bed Girdled
shape no. Bed shape plants-%
1 N. side higher than S. side 8
2 Crowned (convexed) center 19
3 Flat 9
4 Depressed concavedd) center 20
5 S. side higher than N. side 9



Table 2. Main effect of fert. rate
on stem-girdling of pepper

Fert. 18-0-25 Girdled
rate lb/A plants-%
C Low 278 9
Medium 1,111 12
High 2,361 17



Table 3. Main effect of fert. placement
on stem-girdling of pepper

Fertilizer Girdled
placement plants-%
1 band 12
3 bands 13


With respect to stem-girdling, bed shape and fertilizer rate had a greater
effect than did fertilizer placement.

Marketable yield for each of 5 harvests and total marketable yield are shown
in the following tables.







Table 4. Main effect of bed shape on pepper yield

Bed Harvests
shape no. 1 2 3 4 5 Total
----------bushels/acre-------------
1 505 149 181 191 144 1170
2 484 124 159 283 195 1245
3 423 170 347 261 93 1294
4 439 193 228 192 165 1217
5 531 136 239 209 164 1297
See Table 1 for bed shapes.


The effect of bed shape on total marketable yield was not significant, although
it did have a significant effect on yield of some of the individual harvests.


Table 5. Main effect of fertilizer
rate on pepper yield


Fert. 18-0-25 Harvests
rate lb/A 1 2 3 4 5 Total
----------bushels/acre-------------
Low 278 519 170 200 156 121 1166
Medium 1,111 487 160 255 272 170 1344
High 2,361 424 133 237 254 166 1214


The medium fertilizer rate resulted in the best total yield. There was no
significant difference in total yield between the low and high rates of ferti-
lizer. If only the first 3 harvests are considered, there was no significant
difference in yield between the low and medium rates, and both of these were
better than the high rate.

Fertilizer rates did not affect fruit size until the 5th harvest when the medium
and high rates had larger fruit than the low rate. However, for the combined
yield from the 5 harvests, the low rate had larger fruit than the high rate.


Table 6. Main effect of fertilizer
placement on pepper yield

Fertilizer Harvests
placement 1 2 3 4 5 Total
-----------bushels/acre------------
1 band 464 147 218 199 132 1160
3 bands 489 162 243 257 173 1324


Pepper yields were higher with the 3-band placement than with the 1-band place-
ment. The yield differences were significant at the 4th and 5th harvests and
for the total yield.

Summary: The results from this test, conducted under full-bed mulch during a
dry season with sub-irrigation (no overhead irrigation), indicate that for a
short harvest season (1 to 3 pickings) the low fertilizer rate, 3-band place-
ment and flat bed would be advisable. For a longer harvest season the medium
fertilizer rate should be used.






TOUR OF RESEARCH PLOTS


Field M


BLOCK 2 (East). Tomato Variety Trial (staked) for Vine-ripe Harvest (replicated)

Objective: To compare advanced breeding lines, which have potential as commer-
cial varieties for; fruit yield, size and quality, vine habit, and other
horticultural characteristics important to fresh market tomatoes harvested
as vine-ripes.


Plot Variety or
no. breeding line
1 Floradel Asgrow
2 Tropic Burpee
3 Walter Foundation seed
4 720357-1-BK
5 721532-1
6 18 x 19


Planting data: Transplanted to field February 7, 1973; 6' between bed centers;
16" between plants

Fertilizer: 500 Ibs 5-8-8-2/A in beds (all plots). Rows 1, 3 & 5 1,500 Ibs
18-0-25/A. Rows 2 & 4 1,000 Ibs 18-0-25/A

Mulch: 55 Ib gray paper coated on each side with 0.25 mil clear plastic

Results to date: Insufficient harvests have been made to evaluate entries in
this trial.



BLOCK 2 (West). Tomato Variety Trial (staked) for Vine-ripe Harvest (observa-
tional)

Objective: To screen tomato breeding lines for advancement to replicated trial
and for eventual commercial use. Also, to make single plant and/or bulk
selections for use in the tomato breeding program.


Plot no. Breeding line
1 OHH-2-I1
2 OHH-2-I2
3 OHH-3-II
4 OHH-4-II
5 OHH-5-I1


Planting data: Transplanted to field February 15, 1973; 6' between bed centers;
16" between plants

Fertilizer: 500 lb 5-8-8/A in beds; 1,000 Ib 18-0-25/A in two bands on top of
beds


-10-







Mulch: 55 Ib gray paper coated on each side with 0.25 mil clear plastic

Results: None to date.



BLOCK 4 (East). Tomato Variety Trial (ground) for Mature Green Harvest (repli-
cated)

Objective: To compare advanced breeding lines, which have potential as commer-
cial varieties for; fruit yield, size and quality, vine habit, concentration
of fruit set, and maturity, and other horticultural characteristics impor-
tant to fresh market tomatoes harvested by machine or by hand.


Plot Variety or
no.* breeding line**
1 Florida MH-l
2 721501-2
3 721531-1
4 721590-1
6 2006-20 x MH-j (F1 hybrid)
7 908-----S4
*There are no No. 5 plots in this
trial.
**All entries have jointless pedicels
and are suitable for hand or machine
harvest.


Planting data: Transplanted to field February 7, 1973; 6' between bed centers;
18" between plants

Fertilizer: 500 lb 5-8-8-2/A in beds (all plots). Rows 1, 3 & 5 1,000 Ibs
18-0-25/A. Rows 2 & 4 500 lbs 18-0-25/A.

Mulch: 55 lb tan paper coated on one side with 1.0 mil black plastic. Mulch
laid with plastic side down.

Results: None to date.



BLOCK 4 (West). Tomato Variety Trial (ground) for Mature Green Harvest (obser-
vational)

Objective: To screen tomato breeding lines for advancement to replicated trial
and for eventual commercial use. Also, to make single plant and/or bulk
selections for use in the tomato breeding program.


-11-






Plot no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17*
18
19*


*Same breeding line.
**2 plots each.


Planting data: Transplanted to
18" between plants


field February 15, 1973; 6' between bed centers;


Fertilizer: 500 Ibs 5-8-8-2/A in bed; 1,000 Ibs 18-0-25/A in 2 bands on top
of beds

Mulch: 55 lb tan paper coated on one side with 1.0 mil black plastic. Mulch
laid with plastic side down.

Results: None to date.



BLOCK 3. Liquid Nitrogen for Tomatoes


Objective: To compare the effect on fruit
with 2 rates of nitrogen from 18-0-25.


yield of 2 rates of liquid nitrogen


Fertilizer treatments:
Tr. 1 175 lb N/A from liquid 10-0-0-1
244 lb K20/A from dry sulfate of potash

Tr. 2 350 lb N/A from liquid 10-0-0-1
588 lb K20/A from dry sulfate of potash

Tr. 3 175 lb N/A from 975 lb 18-0-25/A
244 lb K20/A from 975 Ib 18-0-25/A

Tr. 4 350 Ib N/A from 1950 lb 18-0-25/A
588 Ib K20/A from 1950 lb 18-0-25/A


-12-


Breeding line
OMH-1-FP1
OMH-1-FP2
OMH-3-FP1
OMH-3-FP2
OMH-3-FP3
OMH-5-FPI
OMH-5-FP2
OMH-5-FP3
OMH-5-FP4
OMH-6-FP1
OMH-7-FP1
OMH-7-FP2
OMH-8-FP1
OMH-9-FP1
OMH-9-FP2
OMH-9-FP3
OMH-9-FP6
OMH-9-FP5
OMH-9-FP6


Plot no.
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35**
36**
37**


Breeding line
OMH-1-I1
OMH-5-12
OMH-8-II
OMH-8-12
OMH-8-13
OMH-9-Il
OMH-5-D1
OMH-6-D1
OMH-8-D1
OMH-9-DI
RMH-7-DBK
OMH-116-DBK
722105-2
722537-2
722538-2
722539-1
OMH-5-I1
2006-19 x MH-1 (F1 hybrid)


*Same breeding line.
**2 plots each.






The fertilizer treatments shown on the bottom of the preceding page were
applied in narrow bands on the bed surface 9" to each side of plant row.
In addition, all treatments received 500 Ib superphosphate/A broadcasted
and disked in prior to bedding and 500 Ib 5-8-8-2 + 30 Ib Frit-503/A in
the bed. Therefore, 25 lb N 140 lb P205 40 lb K20/A should be added
to all the treatments shown on the preceding page.

Soil fumigation: South row not fumigated, all other rows fumigated with
Vorlex at 33 gal/broadcast acre.

Planting data: (a) Fumigated, top fertilizer applied, and mulched on February
2, 1973. (b) Walter variety (speedlings) transplanted to field February 16,
1973. (c) Mulch is tan paper covered on each side with 0.5 mil black plastic.
(d) 6' between bed centers; 16" between plants. (e) Plants were pruned twice.

Results: No difference in plant growth due to fertilizer treatments. No yield
data to date.



BLOCK 5. Bed Shape, Fertilizer Placement and Rates for Double Row Pepper Under
Full-bed Mulch

Objective: To determine the effect of bed shape, fertilizer placement and rate
on plant stand, plant growth and yield of sweet peppers grown under full-bed
mulch.

Bed shapes:
1 North side higher than south side
2 Crowned center
3 Flat and level top
4 Concaved center
5 South side higher than north side

Fertilizer placements on bed surface:
Single band One narrow band down bed center. Pepper plants are 9" to each
side of this fertilizer band.

Triple band Three narrow bands; 1 in center of bed, 1 on each bed shoulder.
Each band contains 1/3 of the total fertilizer. Pepper plants
are approximately 9" from each fertilizer band.

Fertilizer rates:
Low rate 75 lb N/A 40 lb P205/A 110 Ib K20/A
*(500 lb 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 278 lb 18-0-25/A)

Medium rate 225 Ib N/A 40 Ib P205/A 278 lb K20/A
*(500 lb 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 1111 lbs 18-0-25/A)

High rate 450 Ib N/A 40 lb P205/A 630 lb K20/A
*(500 lb 5-8-8-2 + Frit/A + 2361 Ib 18-0-25/A)
*5-8-8-2 + Frit was incorporated in the bed.


-13-







Table of Treatments


Plot Fertilizer Fertilizer
no. placement rate
1 1 band Low
2 1 band Medium
3 1 band High
4 3 bands Low
5 3 bands Medium
6 3 bands High


Planting data:
Variety Early Cal Wonder (Asgrow). Transplanted to field March 2, 1973.
Beds 6' on center; 10" between plants.

Mulch Gray paper coated on each side with 0.25 mil plastic.

Results: Considerably more plants have been lost to "stem-girdling" in the
bed with the concaved center (Bed shape #4). Plant stand is slightly re-
duced at the high fertilizer rate and with the 3-band placement. Plants
begin to show signs of "Stem-girdling" approximately 3-4 weeks after trans-
planting. In this test frequent rains and cool temperatures occurred
during the first 6 weeks after transplanting and the amount of "stem-girdling"
has been low.



BLOCK 6. Fertilizer Rate, Placement and Depth of Planting Hole

Objective: To determine the effect of fertilizer rate, placement and depth
of planting hole on movement of soluble salts into the planting hole and
on "stem-girdling" of tomato and pepper plants grown with full-bed mulch.

Fertilizer rates:
1. 500 Ib 18-0-25/A (Low)

2. 1,000 lb 18-0-25/A (High)
This fertilizer was placed in narrow bands on the bed surface 9" to each
side of plant row except in Treatment No. 5 listed on the following page.

Placements of starter fertilizer: In addition to the above fertilizer, all
plots received 142 Ib 18-0-25/A in one of the following placements.


-14-







1. 2 narrow bands on false bed 3" below and 3" to each side of plant row.
2. 30" band across false bed 3" below surface of finished bed.
3. 10" band directly under plant row and 3" below surface of finished bed.
4. 18" band on surface of finished bed.
5. All fertilizer broadcasted, incorporated by rototilling, then bedded.

Total fertilizer:
Low rate 642 lb 18-0-25/A = 115 Ib N + 160 Ib K20/A

High rate 1142 Ib 18-0-25/A = 205 lb N + 285 lb K20/A
Soil test showed high phosphorus, therefore none was added.

Depth of planting hole:
Shallow Soil in planting hole around stem is level with bed surface.

Deep Soil in planting hole around stem is 2" below bed surface. This was
done by removing a soil core 2k" diameter and 2" thick.

Planting data: 20 planting holes in each plot were cut on February 28, 5 of
these were set with pepper and 5 with tomato transplants. The 10 remaining
holes were for soil sampling every 2 days to determine soluble salt concen-
tration in the planting hole. The first soil samples were taken on February
28 and the last on March 18.


Table of Treatments


Fertilizer
rate
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High


Placement of
starter fertilizer
Narrow bands in bed
Narrow bands in bed
30" band on false bed
30" band on false bed
10" band on false bed
10" band on false bed
18" band on bed surface
18" band on bed surface
Incorporated in bed
Incorporated in bed
Narrow bands in bed
Narrow bands in bed
30" band on false bed
30" band on false bed
10" band on false bed
10" band on false bed
18" band on bed surface
18" band on bed surface
Incorporated in bed
Incorporated in bed


Depth of
planting hole
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Sahllow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deep
Shallow
Deeo


Results: Very little "stem-girdling" has occurred, probably due to frequent
showers during March, which tended to reduce salt concentration in planting
hole.(analyses of soil samples, when completed, should indicate this affect).


-15-


Plot
no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20


c






BLOCK 7. Fertilizer Placement and Size of Planting Hole Through Much for
Tomatoes

* Objective: To determine the effect of placement of starter fertilizer and the
size of the planting hole through mulch on salt accumulation in the planting
hole and on growth and yield of tomatoes.

Treatments:
A. Starter fertilizer placement
PI 500 Ib/A 5-8-8-2 in 30" wide band on false bed. Bed-over to a
3" depth (in-bed).
P2 500 Ib/A 5-8-8-2 in 30" band on surface of finished bed.
All plots received 1,000 Ib/A 18-0-25 in two narrow bands 9" to each
side of plant row (surface applied).

B. Size of planting hole
Plot no.
1 2k" dia. round
2 1" dia. round
3 3" slit

Planting data: Thirty planting holes in each plot were cut through mulch on
February 6. Tomatoes (Florida MH-1 variety) were transplanted in the first
15 holes of each plot on February 6. The remaining 15 holes in each plot
were used for soil sampling to determine the soluble salt. Soil samples
were taken every 2 days for a 30-day period beginning February 6 and ending
March 6. This was done to establish a relationship between timeand salt
accumulation in the planting holes of the various treatments.

. Results: Early growth not affected by fertilizer placement or size of planting
hole. Soluble salt determinations on soil samples for the first 12 days
after cutting the planting hole indicate higher salt concentration with the
surface applied starter fertilizer than with the in-bed placement. Slightly
higher salt concentrations were associated with the larger (2k" dia.) plant-
ing hole. Frequent rains during February tended to reduce the accumulation
of soluble salts in all treatments.



BLOCK 8 (East). Fertilizer Rates for Watermelons Under Full-bed Mulch

Objective: To observe the effect of 3 fertilizer rates on growth and yield of
watermelons grown on full-bed paper mulch. This is a preliminary non-repli-
cated test.

Fertilizer rates: All plots received 7 Ib 5-8-8-2/100 row feet. With beds
spaced 10' on center, this is equivalent to 305 Ibs/row acre (4,360 row
feet). This fertilizer was placed in a 30" band on a false bed, then cov-
ered to a 3" depth.

Row #1 High rate 13 lbs 18-0-25/100 row feet equivalent to 566 lbs/row
acre
Row #2 Medium rate 8.6 lbs 18-0-25/100 row feet equivalent to 375
lbs/row acre
Row #3 Low rate 4.3 Ibs 18-0-25/100 row feet equivalent to 188 lbs/row
acre
The 18-0-25 fertilizer was banded in 2 narrow bands on bed surface 9" to each
side of plant row just prior to laying mulch.
-16-







Planting data: (1) Charleston Gray variety was plug-mix seeded on February 1,
1973. (2) 10' between bed centers; 3' between plants in the row. (3) Mulch -
gray paper coated on one side with 0.5 mil clear plastic.

Results to date: Early growth was excellent for all treatments. Reduced vine-
growth with low fertilizer rate (Row #3) was obvious on April 20 and with
the medium rate (Row #2) on April 27. No harvests have been made.



BLOCK 9. Insecticide Spray Trial on Tomatoes

Objective: Combination sprays for control of tomato insects.

Treatments: 12, 11 combinations of two insecticides plus check

Replicates: 4, complete randomized block


Plots: Raised mulch, standard fertilizer and culture practices.
alleyway.

Variety: MH-1 unstaked


25' with 5'


No. plants/plot:


Spacing: 18" centers

Planting date: February 21, 1973

Application: Weekly tank mixes applied with motorized mistblower.


Plot
no.


Material


1 Check
2 Methomyl 90S
+ Parathion 8EC
3 Methomyl 90S
+ Diazinon 50 WP
4 Carbaryl 80S
+ Methoxychlor 50 WP
5 Carbaryl 80S
+ Azinphosmethyl 2 EC
6 Phosvel 2.7 EC
+ Demeton 6 EC
7 Phosvel 2.7 EC
+ Endosulfan 2 EC
8 Orthene 75 WP
+ Azinphosmethyl 2 EC
9 Orthene 75 WP
+ Methoxychlor 50 WP
10 Dipel WP
+ Diazinon 50 WP
11 Dipel WP
+ Demeton 6 EC
12 Endosulfan 2 EC
+ Parathion 8EC


Rate
lbs
Ai/A

0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.75
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.75
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5


Loopers
per
plant
7.5
0.7

0.5

1.0

0.2

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.5


Leafmines
per 15
leaflets
39.7
20.0

13.0

37.2

13.2

19.5

20.7

i4.5

11.2

16.0

23.0

24.7


Granulate
cutworm
per plant
7.0
0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

U.0


Tomato
pinworms
per 5 plants
3.2
0.0

0.0

0.5

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0


-17-






Results to date: Samples April 11, 1973 and April 20, 1973


BLOCK 10 (East). Tomato Fungicide Spray Trial

Objective: To compare the efficacy of newer fungicides at different rates
alone and in combination with sticker-extenders.

Variety: Florida MH-1

Planting data: Transplanted to plots February 28, 1973, and planted on 5 six-
foot rows, 10' plots with 2' between plants.
Fertilizer 500 lbs of 5-8-8 (30% organic) on a 30" band incorporated in the
bed and two 2" bands 18" apart on top of the bed of 18-0-25
fertilizer.
Mulch type Black paper double coated with plastic.


Rate per
Tr. 100 gals
no. Material of water
1 Bravo 6F 1 pts
2 Bravo 6F 14 pts
+ Nu-Film 17 1 pt
3 Bravo 6F 2 pts
4 Benlate 2 oz
5 Benlate 6 oz
6 Benlate 2 oz
+ Nu-Film 17 4 oz
7 Benlate 2 oz
+ Superior Oil 1 qt
8 Bunema 1 pt
9 Bunema 3 pts
10 Unsprayed check ---


Results to date: No diseases have occurred to date to make a comparison.



BLOCK 10 (West). Cucumber Fungicide Spray Trial

Objective: To compare the efficacy of newer fungicides at different rates
alone and in combination with copper fungicides.

Variety: Galaxy (Marketer)

Planting data: Field seeded March 5, 1973. Planted on 5 six-foot rows, 10'
plots with 2' between plants.
Fertilizer 500 lbs of 5-8-8 (30% organic) on a 30" band incorporated in
the bed and two 2" bands 18" apart on top of the bed of 18-0-25
fertilizer.
Mulch type Black paper double coated with plastic.


-18-






Rate per
Tr. 100 gals
no. Material of water
1 Bravo 6F 1 pt
2 Bravo 6F 1 pts
3 Bravo 6F 2 pts
4 Bravo 6F 1 pt
+ Nu-Film 17 1 pt
5 Benlate 8 oz
6 Benlate 8 oz
+ Manzate D 1 Ibs
7 Benlate 8 oz
+ Nu-Film 17 1 pt
8 Manzate D 1 lbs
9 Manzate D 1 Ibs
+ Tribasic Copper Sulfate 4 lbs
10 Manzate D 1 Ibs
+ Kocide 101 2 Ibs
11 Unsprayed check ---


Results to date: No diseases have been observed to date to make a comparison.



BLOCK 11 (East). Watermelon Fungicide-Insecticide Spray Trial

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of Difolatan 4 Flo with three different
insecticides for the control of diseases and determine the effect of in-
secticides on fungicide residue.

Variety: Crimson Sweet

Planting data: Field seeded March 5, 1973. Planted on 3 ten-foot rows, 22'
plots with 3' between plants.
Fertilizer 1,000 lbs of 5--8-8 (30% organic) at bedding. A side dressing
at the same rate was applied after a 2.7" rain on March 8 and
a second side dressing at the same rate on April 20, 1973.
Herbicide Paraquat at 1 oz per gal. applied where required for the control
of weeds (principally crabgrass).

Results: No diseases have been observed to date to make a comparison.


-19-









L.y *


BLOCK 11 (West).


Watermelon Fungicide Spray Trial Copper Inhibition Test


Objective: To determine the effect of tribasic copper sulfate on the fungici-
dal activity of two fungicides against downy mildew.

Variety: Charleston Gray

Planting data: Field seeded March 5, 1973. Planted on 3 ten-foot rows, 22'
plots with 3' between plants.
Fertilizer 1,000 lbs of 5-8-8 (30% organic) at bedding. A side dressing
at the same rate after a 2.7" rain of March 8 and a second
side dressing at the same rate on April 20, 1973.
Herbicide:- Paraquat at 1 oz per gallon applied where required for the
control of weeds (principally crabgrass).


Results :


Rate per
Tr. 100 gals
no. Material of water
1 Bravo 75 WP 2 Ibs
2 Bravo 75 WP 2 lbs
+ Tribasic Copper Sulfate 3 lbs
3 Bravo 75 WP 2 lbs
+ Kocide 101 2 lbs
4 Manzate D 2 Ibs
5 Manzate D 2 lbs
+ Tribasic Copper Sulfate 3 Ibs
6 Manzate D 2 Ibs
+ Kocide 101 3 lbs
7 Unsprayed check


No diseases observed to date to make a comparison.


-20-


Material
Difolatan 4 Flo
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Orthene 75S
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Orthene 75S
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Cygon 2.76E (early)
or Thiodan (late)
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Lannate
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Lannate
+ Mo-Bait
Difolatan 4 Flo
+ Lannate
+ M~-Bait


AI rate
per 100 gals
of water
1.2 pts
1.2 pts
0.5 Ibs
1.2 pts
1.0 lbs
1.2 pts
0.5 Ibs
1.0 Ibs
1.2 pts
0.45 Ibs
1.2 pts
0.45 Ibs
2.0 qts
1.2 pts
0.45 Ibs
1.0 pt






BLOCK 12. Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Control

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Sodium Azide (NaN3) in the
control of Fusarium wilt.

Varieties: Charleston Gray and Florida Giant

Experimental data: Fusarium infested soil was disked in the field on March 5,
1973. Three rates of Sodium Azide were broadcast over entire 1/100 acre
plots (43.5 ft. long by 10 ft. wide) on March 30.

Planting data: Field seeded on April 20, 1973. Charleston Gray seeds were
planted first and Florida Giant were interplanted between Charleston Gray
hills afterwards on 3 ten-foot rows with 1" between plants.
Fertilizer 1,000 lbs of 5-8-8 (30% organic) at bedding.


Tr. no. Material Rate/acre
1 Sodium Azide 8% granular 400 Ibs
2 Sodium Azide 8% granular 500 Ibs
3 Sodium Azide 8% granular 750 Ibs
4 Untreated check ---


Results: An unexpected activity against crabgrass was determined
of control after 24 days since application.


by the rate


Tr. Sodium Azide Av. no. of crab-
no. rates grass plants/ft2
1 300 Ibs 2.35
2 400 Ibs 1.55
3 750 lbs 1.45
4 Untreated check 58.10


BLOCK 13. Damping-Off Trial

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of five fungicides for the control
of soil-borne organisms causing damping-off of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers,
and lima beans.

Varieties:
Tomatoes Homestead 24
Cucumber Galaxy
Lima bean Jackson Wonder
Pepper Early Cal Wonder

Planting data: Field seeded on April 27, 1973. Planted on 2 six-foot rows
with 1" between plants of each variety and 6" between rows of different
varieties.
Fertilizer 500 lbs of 5-8-8 (30% organic) incorporated in the bed at
bedding time on April 3, 1973.
Herbicide None applied.


-21-







Tr. no. Material Rate/A
1 Bravo 6F 1.0 pt
2 Bravo 6F 1.5 pts
3 Bravo 6F 2.0 pts
4 Benlate 4 oz
5 Benlate 8 oz
6 Benlate 12 oz
7 Tersan 65% WP 4 oz
8 Tersan 65% WP 8 oz
9 Tersan 65% WP 12 oz
10 ICI 395 1 Ib 4 oz
11 ICI 395 2 Ib 8 oz
12 Untreated check ---
13 Sodium Azide 300 lbs
14 Sodium Azide 400 Ibs
15 Sodium Azide 500 lbs
16 Untreated check ---


Results: No diseases have occurred to date to make a comparison.



BLOCK 13. Cucumber Disease Resistance Trial

Objective: To determine the resistance of newer cucumber lines and varieties
to target spot, downy mildew and powdery mildew.

Lines and varieties: Poinsett, Gemini, Victory, XP-10485,TXP-B

Planting data: Field seeded on April 5, 1973. Planted on 3 six-foot beds,
20' plots with 1' between plants and 5' alleys. Plants thinned to two
per hill on April 24, 1973.
Fertilizer 500 lbs of 5-8-8 on a 30" band incorporated in the bed and
two 2" bands 18" apart on top of the bed of 18-0-25 fertilizer.
Mulch type Black paper double coated with plastic.


Tr. no. Lines-varieties
1 Poinsett
2 Gemini
3 Victory
4 XP-10485
5 TXP-B


-22-




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