Group Title: Veterinary Science Mimeo Report
Title: Toxicity problems in beef cattle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094209/00001
 Material Information
Title: Toxicity problems in beef cattle
Alternate Title: Veterinary Science Mimeo Report - University of Florida ; VY70-3
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cardeilhac, Paul
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: May 27, 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Toxicology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Paul T. Cardeilhac.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
General Note: "May, 1970."
General Note: "This paper was presented at the training program for county extension directors and extension agents-livestock in beef cattle production and marketing. May 27, 1970."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094209
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 433129493

Full Text


yY- 79-


Veterinary Science
Mimeo Report VY70-3
May, 1970


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida


TOXICITY PROBLEMS IN BEEF CATTLE



Paul T. Cardeilhac, D.V.M., Ph.D..
Department of Veterinary Sciehce
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601 U.S.A.


This paper was presented at the
Training Program for County
Extension Directors and Extension
Agents-Livestock in Beef Cattle
Production and Marketing.
I'ay 27, 1970


05/70:180





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Introduction

A number of toxicity problems are known to occur in beef cattle.
These problems can be roughly divided into 4 classes.

1) Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of toxic amounts
of agricultural chemicals and drugs.
2) Poisoning as a result of contamination of feedstuffs from
improper handling of feed or as the result of the growth
of microorganisms in the feed.
3) Poisoning from inorganic substances.
4) Poisoning from the ingestion of poisonous plants.

Poisoning by Agricultural Chemicals

The possibilities for poisoning in this group are large and grow-
ing each year as the chemical industry and commercial agriculture
combine to develop and release biologically active agents directed
toward specific agricultural problems. These agents are usually
safe when properly applied, but because of their biological activ-
ity, present a hazard to cattle (Table 1). Cattle may acciden-
tally come in contact with agents such as rodenticides, insecti-
cides and herbicides used in the control of pests. This contact
may result in death or poor performance of the animals.

Poisoning as a result of the contamination of feedstuffs.

The contamination of feedstuffs can occur in several ways. Natural
toxic products may be produced under certain circumstances by the
plant itself (Table 2). These toxic products may not ordinarily
be produced or would usually be removed by processing. Occasion-
ally, insects which contain toxic substances have been reported to
occur in high concentrations in hay or feed. Grains which were
intended for planting have found their way into feedstuffs. Seed
grains may have been treated with a fungicide and these fungicides
have.poisoned both animals and humans. A recently recognized and
more serious problem in the contamination of feedstuffs results
from the growth of toxin-producing microorganisms in the feed.
Contamination from microbial toxins usually results from improper
handling of the feed.

Poisoning from Inorganic Substances

The poisoning of animals by inorganic substances is one of the
oldest areas of toxicology. Lead and arsenic are still common
causes of poisoning and present a hazard to beef cattle in the
form of paints, pesticides, discarded batteries and other materials.
Cattle are particularly susceptible to acute lead poisoning.
Fluorine and selenium can be serious localized problems when
industrial contamination or other special circumstances such as a
seleniferous range are encountered. Nitrates are normal constit-
uents of many plants and nitrate concentrations often increase
after the plants have been sprayed with a weed killer such as





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2, 4-D or after heavy fertilization.

Poisonous Plants (Table 4)

The effects of poisonous plants on livestock continue to produce
losses each year. Cases of plant poisoning in cattle usually
follow droughts and overgrazing. Cattle do not usually prefer
the poisonous plant to forage plants and avoid the poisonous
plant even though they are mixed with forage plants.

Specific conditions may result in animals ingesting poisonous
plants as follows:

1. Hungry animals released into a pasture containing
poisonous plants.
2. Poisonous plants and poisonous seed mixed with good
hay and grain during harvest.
3. Overgrazed pastures.
4. 'Animals watered after a long period of water restriction.

Conclusion

It is apparent that toxicity problems in beef cattle will probably
increase. Older problems remain and new problems arise as new
agents and methods are developed to combat agricultural problems.


References

Cardeilhac, P. T. Mycotoxicoses of Importance to the Bovine
Practioner. The Bovine Practioner No. 4, 20-25 (1969).

Radeleff, R. D. Veterinary Toxicology, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia
(1964).

Garner, R. J. Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Fd., Williams and
Wilkins, Baltimore, (1963).







PESTICIDES WHICH PAY CAUSE TOXICITY PPOPLFMS IN PFEF CATTLE


AGENT EXAMPLES COMMON SRYPTOM FIRST AID


Podenticides






Insecticides




i Anthelmintics


Herbicides



Fungicides

Insect Chemosteri-
lents


Warfarin

Sodium Fluoroacetate
(1080)

ANTU

Parathion


Dieldrin

Phenothiazine


2,4-D

2,4,5-T

Captan

Alpholate


Hemorrhage

Depression, Convulsions


Cyanoses, Edema of Lungs

Salivation, labored breathing,
incoordination

Depression, Convulsion-3

Irritation of unpigmented areas
of the skin and eye, Depression

Depression, weakness, diarrhea
I I" 7

rapid breathing, depression

death, depression, inanpetance


Remove Poison






Atropine,
Protopam

Chloral hydrate

Shade;
transfusions

Remove poison



fresh feed


TABLF 1










AGENTS WHICH MAY CAUSE POISONING DY CONTAMINATING FEEDSTUFFS


AGENT EXAMPLES COMMON SYMPTOM FIRST AID


Feed Additives

Microbial Toxins














Fungicides



Insects

Natural Products







Pesticides


urea

Aflatoxin

Sporidesimen

Patulin

F-2 toxin

Slaframine


Botulinus toxin

Ergot or tall fescue

Captan

Ceresan

Blister beetle

Gossypol

Paw lineseed meal

Soybean factor

Tung meal

(Table 1)


Rapid breathing, shivering,
death
Eight loss, death

Facial Fczema

Mass death

Decreased fertility

Excessive salivation


Papid death

Lameness

Rapid breathing, depression

Depression, nephritis

Digestive irritation

Decreased growth rate (young)
V 1 G. 9;


Vinegar

Fresh feed







"Slobber forage"
Remove (red clover hay)

Fresh feed
2; 1r


I. '


Hemorrhagic -liarrhea

(Table 1)


(Table 1)


TABLF 2











POISONING OF BEEF CATTLE BY INOPGAPIC COMPOUM.DS


2'.GEN T ESTIMATED OCCURRENCE COTTON SYMPTOMS FIRST AID


Lead


Arsenic


Nitrate

Selenium

Fluorine

Mercury


Common


Occasional


Common

Rare

Pare

Occasional


Salivation, excitement,
muscle twitching

Animals very weaK and
incoordinated

Labored breat'ling, convulsions

Depressed, gr'inting, constipation

Changes in teeth and bones

Violent diarr'iea, shock,
collapse


EDTA



BAL

Methylene blue

Fresh Feed

Fresh Feed

PAL


TALE 3









TABLE 4


PLANT


Coffee

Sorghum and
varieties

Eastern Pracken



Jimsonweecd



Lantana



Pokeweed


POISONOUS PLANTS WFICH MAY AFFECT BFEF CATTLE


OCCUPRENCE IN FLOPIDA COMMON SYMPTOMS


Northern Diarrhea, dehydration, depression

Usually planted Papid death, bright red blood


South to Lake Figh temperature, stand with head
Okeechobee down and drool. Ploody fluid
from nostrils

Common in Northern Dry mouth, rapid pulse and
Florida respiration


Common Sluggishness, extreme weakness
South of Orlando bloody feces, skin irritation
Old gardens & homesites

All of Florida Naus6a, vomiting, purging


FIRST.AID


Fresh Feed

Sodium nitrite


Purgative,
Keep quiet
Batyl alcohol

Purgative,
artificial
respiration

Shade, soft
1 xative feeds


'incral oil


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714.


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