Veterinary Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Report VY67-1 Experiment Stations
August, 1966 Gainesville, Florida
STRAINING PROGRAMS IN TOXICOLOGY
S\ GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE
/ /. George T. Edds
Approval of the Master of Science in Veterinary Science degree
program at the University of Florida in 1964 has provided opportunities
for studies in four departmental divisions of microbiology, parasi-
tology, pathology, pharmacology-toxicology. Support by a 5-year NIH
Training Grant in Pharmacology-Toxicology initiated in July 1965
included 4 fellowships for graduate veterinarians at $6500, supporting
staff, and equipment funds for a total of $50,000 annually.
Theses completed after one year in toxicology include:
"Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Its Effects as a Feed Additive in
Growing Chicks" William A. Bunting, Jr. D.V.M., M.S.
"Toxicity of Cassia Occidentalis" Henry D. Mercer, D.V.M., M.S.
COURSE OUTLINE PHARMACOLOGY-TOXICOLOGY, VY 632-633 8 CREDITS
Lectures, Fall and Spring Trimesters
Dr. G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., (Pharmacology U. of Minn.)
1. Research Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology;
University Industry Food and Drug Administration;
Raw Material Specifications; Formula Stability Studies;
Comparative Studies Raw Materials and Compounded Drugs
2. Drug Assays
3. Fate of Drugs Related to Toxicology
4. Use of Animals in Drug Evaluation Studies Acute, Chronic
5. Clinical Hematology, Biochemistry; Hematinics
6. Chemotherapeutic Agents; Drug Residues
7. Poisonous Plants Acute and Chronic Intoxications
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Dr. J. A. Himes, D.V.M., Ph.D. (Physiology Cornell)
1. Drugs Affecting the CNS
(1) Psychomimetics & Tranquilizers
2. General Anesthetics Volatile and Nonvolatile
3. Local Anesthetics and DMSO
4. Insecticides, Topical and Systemic
Dr. Malcolm Kling, D.V.M., Ph.D. (Pharmacology U. of Fla.)
1. Drugs Affecting the Autonomic N.S.
3. Cardiovascular Drugs
4. Drugs on GI Tract and Liver
5. Vitamins and Hormones
7. Histamines and Antihistaminics
Laboratories, Fall & Spring Trimesters, VY 632-633
1. Assay of Sodium Pentobarbital
2. Assay of Promazine Hydrochloride
3. Assay of Desoxyephedrine Hydrochloride
4. Assay of Sulfaquinoxaline Sodium
5. Assay of Streptomycin
6. Assay of Hexachlorocyclohexane.
7. Assay of Epinephrine
8. Determination of red cell and plasma cholinesterase Modified
9. Effect of an organophosphate anthelmintics on red cell and
plasma cholinesterase levels in the horse measured at 1,
2, 24, and 48 hours, post-treatment.
10. Use of statistics in pharmacological experimentation the
effect of DMSO on the absorption of pentobarbital sodium from
the peritoneal cavity in mice.
11. Chemical tests for the presence of poisons heavy metals and
12. Cyanacethydrazide toxicity in young pigs.
13. Effect of diamidinodiazoaminobenzene (Berenil) on the blood
pressure of dogs.
14. Nitrate poisoning in dogs determination of methemoglobin
and response to treatment with methylene blue.
15. Use of Promazine Hydrochloride in horses reversal of effect
by use of desoxyephedrine.
16. Sulfonamide pharmacodynamics administration of sulfonamides
by different routes and determination of levels in blood,
urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.
17. Use of laboratory animals for testing drugs for anticonvulsant
activity maximal electroshock seizure test, rotarod test,
and pentylenetetrazol seizure test.
18. Enzyme induction use of sodium barbital as an enzyme
inducer as measured by its effect on sodium pentobarbital
19. Effect of diamidinodiazoaminobenzene (Berenil) on respiration
of rat liver homogenates as measured by the Warburg apparatus.
20. Effect of repeated injections of succinylcholine in the
horse attempts to demonstrate the development of tolerance
and to build up a conditioned response to the injection.
21. Evaluation of disinfectant properties of compounds the
22. Pesticides laboratory demonstration of instrumentation and
techniques used in pesticide research.
23. Research methods in a Medical School Pharmacology Dept.
RELATED RESEARCH IN PHARMACOLOGY TOXICOLOGY 1965-1966
"Cholinesterase in Domestic Animals. Significance of Depression of
Activity after the Administration of Organophosphate Compounds".
Dr. James A. Himes. "Annual Report", 1966.
Research has been directed toward:
1. Development of methods of testing for cholinesterase activity
2. Changes in cholinesterase activity in horses after dosage
with organophosphates as anthelmintics.
3. Relation of plasma cholinesterase activity in horses to the
response to a depolarizing muscle relaxant, succinylcholine
Plasma cholinesterase was depressed within an hour and consider-
ably depressed 24 hours post-treatment. It was surprising to find
that a period of approximately 2 months was required for the
cholinesterase levels to return to pretreatment levels. Early trials
suggest there is potential danger involved in the injection of
succinylcholine subsequent to exposure to organophosphate compounds.
Further work is necessary to determine how long this danger will
"Piroplasmosis (Babesiosis) of Horses"
Dr. W. W. Kirkham, "Annual Report", 1966.
Work on equine babesiosis (Babesia caballi) was continued during
the past year with the main emphasis being placed on therapeutic
agents. Berenil, Phenamidine, and Diampron were found to be effective
for eliminating the "carrier" state of the animals. It is important
that proper dosage levels be followed and that the animals not be
worked for at least two weeks following treatment.
Increased respiration and intestinal activity, hypotension,
sweating, tachycardia, and muscle tremors occurred in some animals
following intramuscular or intravenous injections of Berenil,
Phenamidine, or Diampron. There were indications that Berenil and
Phenamidine were toxic to the liver and kidneys.
A study of 80 animals on two ranches was started in March.
The complement fixation test is being used in evaluation of the agents,
Berenil, Phenamidine, and Diampron. The first tests were very promis-
ing, but the work will not be completed until September. It is
hoped that a practical way to handle field cases will come from this
A second organism, Babesia equi, was found in the United States
for the first time in April 1965. Preliminary work indicates that
its pathogenicity and drug susceptibility are very different from
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"Investigation of a Non-infectious Disease of Swine, Costa Rica, 1966".
G.T. Edds, "Annual Report" 1966.
High morbidity and a mortality rate of 12% was associated with a
swine disease problem in Costa Rica in 1965-1966. Most losses
occurred during the "rainy season" or from July to November. Young,
weaned pigs, fed a formula containing 4% sorghum showed slowed
growth rates, digestive disturbances, and marked tachypnea and
dyspnea. Post-mortem lesions included petechial hemorrhages of
the liver, kidneys and heart muscle. Histological examination
revealed passive congestion of the liver and lungs with lesions of
the kidneys and liver suggestive of aflatoxin intoxication.
Feed from Costa Rica, including grain sorghum, yucca and a
suspected MA feed formula, was shipped to Florida. These feeds have
been sampled for determination of their moisture contents and types
of fungi present. Groups of White Peking ducklings have been placed
on these formulas: (1) P control, good quality, chick starter ration
(2) This ration containing 4% sorghum, (3) This ration plus 50%
sorghum (4) The imported MA formulated feed (recently prepared)
(5) The imported MA formulated feed (stored). Further trials in
young,weaned pigs are to be initiated.