Veterinary Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Report VY70-A Experiment Stations
April, 1970 Gainesville, Florida
NUTRITION vs DISEASES AND PARASITES1
Dr. G. T. Edds,2
Department of Veterinary Science
University of Florida
Common Nutritional Diseases
Vitamin A deficiency Xerophthalmia, slow wound healing,
poor local tissue defensive mechanism, keratitis,
tracheitis, pyelitis, endometritis, cystitis.
Vitamin D Rickets, osteomalacia
Vitamin E White muscle disease
Vitamin K Hemorrhagic diseases
Generally lowered vitality, poor weight gains, greater susceptibil-
ity to disease. Thin, semi-starved animals do not readily respond
Diets deficient in 1 nutrient are generally deficient in several.
1. Does examination of the ration suggest deficiency?
2. Does examination of an animal, or litter suggest deficiency?
3. Does supplementation of the diet with the suspected nutrient
prevent or cure the condition?
Niacin, reboflavin deficiencies in dogs and man result in inflam-
mation of the mucous membranes of the mouth recovery occurs when
Normal antibody formation is hampered by a deficiency of pantothenic
acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and iron; methionine, tryptophane,
riboflavin, biotin, miacin and essential amino acids are also
necessary. Enzymes and hormones, along with well-balanced quality
proteins are also essential.
Fluid balance and electrolytes are' most important and critical
aspectsof nutrition during disease. Fever increases the matabolic
rate 7% for each degree of temperature; lower water intake, depressed
appetite, vomiting and diarrhea rapidly deplete the body of fluid
!Presented at Ft. Pierce Kennel Club, April 29, 1970
2Chairman, Department of Veterinary Scie
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1. Corrections of dietary deficiencies Vitamins A & D.
2. Febrile conditions and infections.
3. Stress periods.
4. Enteritis & diarrhea.
5. Sulfonamide therapy during and following.
6. Periods of rapid growth.
7. Before and after immunization to aid antibody production.
8. During heavy parasitism.
9. During lactation and gestation.
Ration containing 15% protein (soybean, meat & fish meals) did
not permit optimum growth of cocker pups. An increase to 20%
resulted in good growth. Proteins should make up 20% of the
calories in a ration and should equal the fat content W/W basis.
High biological value meat, liver, fish, milk & cheese
Carboyhydrates maximum of 70% dry basis.
Fats 5-11% of diet. An excess may have destructive effect on
Pregnancy All dietary essentials increased for bitch & puppies -
calories, proteins, (amino acids) minerals and vitamins.
With high protein intake 15% of calcium absorbed.
S low 5% "
Morris Research Labs:
Beginning with the 5th week of pregnancy 7th week, 10%
increase in diet every 5 days of total diet consumption.
7th week to whelping.- dog receives a 25% increase after
each 5 days of clean-up of diet. Should bitch not clean-up
the amount, she gets an automatic 10% decrease.
Offer 25% increase after each 5 day period during lactation.
A lactating bitch may increase her consumption 50% or more
Or weigh the pups periodically add 100 calories of good
ration to the bitch's ration per pound of puppies.
Hypoproteinemia Vascular shock, low antibody levels & low
resistance to infection, delayed wound healing, delayed healing
of fractures, liver dysfunctions, increased susceptibility to
anesthetics and other liver poisons, anemias, tissue edema
weight loss, weakness, depression, low pulse rate, low blood
pressure. In case of caeserian operations, with minimum hemorrhage,
loss of placenta, animal goes into shock.
A 25# dog cocker spaniel would have 1250cc. blood represent-
ing 87.5 Gms. blood protein. If he loses 12.5 Gms. blood protein
this represents 375 Gms. intracellular protein; lower blood protein
only 1 Gm/100 ml. 30 Gms. of proteins must be deposited in the
tissues/Gm. in blood.
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Skin and Haircoats reflect adequate nutrition:
A diet that furnishes an adequate amount of protein of high
biological value and which provides an optimum amount of fat,
vitamins and minerals should be considered an essential part of
therapy in skin diseases.
Vitamin A important degeneration of the epithelium, a tendency
to hyperkeratotic lesions of the skin.
D Non-specific dermatosis get good results assists
in mobilization of calcium, reduces hyperirritability of
the skin, muscles and nerves.
B-deficiency syndrome generalized dermatitis, loss of hair,
dryness of the skin, dull haircoat. May result from
prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Vitamin C important in man and G-pigs Also may be important in
non-specific dermatosis; for general surgery to promote
more rapid healing of wounds.
Fats dietary deficiency = enzyme in dogs & cats. vs, dull,
lusterless haircoat, dry flaky dandruff, squamous type of
Diseases predisposing to skin diseases hepatitis, chronic
inflammation of the anal glands, prostatitis, digestive disorders,
malignancies, metritis, pyometra.
Dogs require a nutritionally adequate diet which should also
have appetite appeal. Since the dog is a carnivore and protein is
the most important constituent of its diet, a considerable portion
should be of animal origin. This can be supplied by the addition
of meat or meat products, eggs, and fish to other foods which may
With the exception of vitamin C, the vitamin requirements of
dogs resemble those of human beings. Estimates of a dog's daily
vitamin needs are as follows:
Vitamin A ---- 70 to 80 international units per kilogram of body
Vitamin B1 (thiamin chloride)--- 5 to 10 international units per
kilogram of body weight for mature dogs, and up to
three times this amount during rapid growth.
Vitamin B2---- 25 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.
Nicotinic acid --- 0.2 microgram per kilogram of body weight for
prevention of canine black tongue, and 0.5 microgram
as a curvative for this condition.
Vitamin Bg---- Requirement about 0.2 milligram per kilogram of body
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--- No specific requirement for healthy dogs.
--- Requirements variable. Average is 1.5 to 2 inter-
national units per kilogram of body weight for mature
dogs; 20 to 25 units during rapid growth.
--- The ordinary balanced ration contains a sufficient
amount of this vitamin. Need is estimated at 1 to
It is seldom necessary to supplement a good animal diet by adding
any of these vitamins.
Some additional pertinent items concerning feeding are
Although the ene :y requirement fcr the dog is often estimated
at 80 calories pe: ki': .rai of body weight, no simple relation
between energy require:rient :nd body weight exists.
Dogs that have had surgical operations require additional
protein, and those depleted of protein need considerable more
than a normal animal.
Liver and horsemeat must not be overcooked. Ten minutes of
cooking is sufficient for 2-inch cubes.
Soybean meal is rich in protein and is a good food supplement
when additional veget-ale protein is needed.
Obviously, food shouldd be fresh at each feeding. Any food
not eaten should be discarded when cages or pens are cleaned, and
the food dish routinely washed.
CA&LCUL!.L.ED CALORIC NEEDS FOR PUPPIES
*Calories per pound body weight per day