Group Title: Veterinary Science Research Report
Title: Mycotoxins
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094201/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mycotoxins
Series Title: Veterinary Science Research Report
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Edds, G. T
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Toxigenic fungi -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mycotoxicoses in animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: George T. Edds.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March 1973."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094201
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 433106105

Full Text
/c0


VY

Veterinary Science Florida Agricultural
research Report VY-1973-1 Experiment Stations
larch 1973 Gainesville, Florida


MYCOTOXINS

George T. Edds


Molds associated with corn and other grains produce toxins when
the moisture content exceeds 13 percent and temperature is 70 F or
Ibove. These are called mycotoxins. When ingested in toxic amounts
Dy animals or birds, they cause mycotoxicosis. .These toxins or their
netabolites may be excreted in meat, milk or eggs and pose a public
health hazard.

Molds commonly associated with mycotoxicosis in poultry:

1. Aspergitlus flavus or A. parasiticus. The aflatoxins
produced may cause lesions at 10-100 ppm or less. Levels as low
as 0.2 ppm cause lesions in ducklings, trout, turkey poults,
New Hampshire chicks and quail. Such levels are found in Florida
feeds or may be present on grain left in fields and consumed by
wild birds. Damage is characterized by loss of appetite, re-
duced rate of growth, marked drop in egg production, increased
susceptibility to other diseases, liver damage, jaundice and
ultimately liver cancer. There may be increased capillary
fragility, hemorrhage and shortened shelf-life storage quality.

2. Fusaria Toxin-T2 as caused by the common corn cob
rotting mold Gibberella zeae or Fusarium rose. Although swine
may refuse to eat such moldy corn, poultry or birds may consume
it. The T2 toxin causes impaired growth rates, marked decrease
in spleen weights, liver cancer, and swollen vesicles in the
birds' mouth with difficulty in closing the mouth. Death losses
are high.

3. Ochratoxin from A. ochraceus or P. viridicatum. This
toxin has been demonstrated to cause growth depression, swollen
liver, pancreas and gizzard. The liver enlargement is due to
the deposition of glycogen; not fat as in

IHUME LIBRARY

APR 9 1973


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Comparative Oral LD50 Toxicities of Aflatoxin B1


Trout, 100 Gm.
Ducks, day-old
Rabbits
Cats
Pigs, 6-7 kg
Puppies
Rats, day-old
21 days-old
Guinea Pigs
Sheep
Chickens, Rhode Island
Monkeys, macaque
Mice
Hamsters
Catfish, channel


0.5-1.0 mg/kg in 10 days
0.4-0.6 mg/kg in 5 days
0.3 mg/kg
0.3-0.6 mg/kg
0.62 mg/kg
0.5-1.0 mg/kg
1.0 mg/kg
5.5-7.2 mg/kg
1.4 mg/kg
2.0 mg/kg
6.3 mg/kg
7.8 mg/kg
9.0 mg/kg
10.2 mg/kg
10.0-15.0 mg/kg dosed for 5 days


Treatment: Take off toxin contaminated feeds; when damage is not too
severe, tissues are restored to normal in 2-3 weeks. The increase
susceptibility to other diseases may persist.
Placing birds on "clean" feed, high in protein with anti-
biotics to prevent secondary infections may reduce losses.

Prevention: Harvesting and storing of grain with a moisture content
of less than 13% at temperatures less than 70 F.
Addition of acetic or proprionic acids to feed to prevent
growth of molds and toxin production.


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