The American Association of
A DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES
T his rri -
> throtigea i
H:-'t *f *r
I I *I
H- KRT; &CT
- r ..... ..I
.ei /" I' I ..-i,, .c LC,r .C .
The Unfinished Task
Kansas City Atlanta New York Chicago
COURTESY PORTLAND, OREGON, PTJELIC SCHOOLS
THEME OF THE CONFERENCES
The Unfinished Task
February 20-22, 1946
February 25-27, 1946
March 4-7, 1946
March 12-14, 1946
THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF
A Department of the National Education Association of the United States
1201 SIXTEENTH STREET, NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C.
PRICE, SI PER COPY
American Association of School Administrators
CHARLES H. LAKE, Superintendent of Schools, Cleveland, Ohio
N. L. ENGELHARDT, Associate Superintendent of Schools, New
York, N. Y.
W. FRANK WARREN, Superintendent of Schools, Durham, N. C.
SHERWOOD D. SHANKLAND, 1201 Sixteenth Street, Northwest,
Washington 6, D. C.
W. HOWARD PILLSBURY, Superintendent of Schools, Schenectady,
JOHN L. BRACKEN, Superintendent of Schools, Clayton, Mo.
HENRY H. HILL, President, George Peabody College for Teachers,
HOBART M. CORNING, Superintendent of Schools, Washington,
The President, First and Second Vice-Presidents, ex officio
Aildresses at the Conferences
The Responsibility of Professional Leadership . . . .-Lake 7
Education of the Conqueror . . . . . .-Russell 17
Education for World Citizenship . . . . .-Carr 25
The Next Decade in Education . . . . . .-Pillsbury 36
The American Education Award for 1945-Helen Adams Keller, Recipient .46
Financing Education for a New World. . . . -Boushall .47
The Modern Health Program . . . . . . .-Bracken .53
Education for National Well-Being . . . . . .-Keller .63
Toward Better Schools . . . . . . .-Engelhardt 73
Education and Business . . . . . . .-Johnston 81
The Convention Exhibit . . . . . . .-Krill 87
Personnel Problems in American Education . . . .-Doudna 89
Britain's Greatest Asset-Her Children . . . . .-Studebaker 95
Leadership or Administration . . . . . .-Hanley 98
Developing Lay Leadership. . . . . . . --Mort .106
The Responsibility of Professional Leadership . . . .-Scxson 113
Presentation of Honorary Life Membership to Willis A. Sutton . . .. 120
Personnel Problems in American Education . . . .-Hill . 121
Support for Better Schools . . . . . . .-Norton 130
Personnel Administration . . . . . . .-McFarland 137
Tribute to the Recipient of the American Education Award for
1946 . . . . . . . . .- K rill 139
Acceptance of the American Education Award for 1946 . .-Shankland 140
The American Education Award for 1946-S. D. Shankland, Recipient . 141
Some Questions about School Organization and the School Plant .-Fowlkes 142
The Modern Health Program . . . . . . .-Roudebush ,146
What the Secondary Schools Shall Teach in Meeting Intercultural
and Interracial Problems at Home . . . . .-Tonsor .153
Secondary Schools-Developmental Tasks and the Curriculum .-Jacobson 156
W ork Experience . . . . . . . .-W ickham 159
What the Elementary School Should Teach to Articulate with the
High School . . . . . . .- Pullen 162
What the Elementary Schools Should Teach-Knowledge and
Interest in the Natural and Social World . . . .-English 164
Self-expression and Appreciation of the Creative Arts in the
Elementary Schools . . . .. . . .- Moore 166
What the Elementary School Should Teach-Democratic Group
Living and Services . . . . . . .- Parrott 168
The Proportion of Families with Children in Public Schools
together with Educational Implications . . . .- Holy 169
The Need for School-Building Studies. . .. . ..- derhol 174
How We Can Have Federal Support for Education and Avoid
Undesirable Federal Controls .. . . . .-Johns . 180
6 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Desirable Federal-State Relations Involving Higher Education
Maintaining the Teaching Staff-Cures and Contentment
The Preparation of Teachers to Meet New Problems . .
What a Superintendent Looks for in New Teachers . .
The Role of Certification in Getting Better Teachers . .
Scientific Aids to Education . . . . . . .
Criteria for Allocating and Spending the School Dollar . .
Possible Sources of State Revenue for Public Schools . .
The Teachers of Europe Are Still at War . . . .
This Shrinking W orld . . . . . .
Problems of the Professional Personnel . . . .
.- West 194
.- Caswell 204
Annual Report of the Executive Secretary . .
Report of the Board of Tellers . . . .
Report of the Auditing Committee . . .
Certificate of List of Securities . . . .
Resolutions Adopted by the New York Conference
Kansas City Conference Program . . .
Atlanta Conference Program . . . .
New York Conference Program . . . .
Chicago Conference Program . . . .
Officers 1945-46 and 1946-47 . . . .
Commissions . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . .
OUR POLICY-The American Association of School Administrators
endorses no individual or group of individuals or any sentiment
expressed by any speaker or other participant in its programs, ex-
cept by resolution or by motion approved by a vote of its members.
. . . 233
. . . 256
. . . 257
. . . 258
. . 259
.. . 261
. . . 262
. . . 263
. . . 264
.. . . 265
Addresses at the Conferences
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP
CHARLES H. LAKE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLEVELAND, OHIO;
PRESIDENT, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Address at Atlanta and Chicago Conferences
Thoughts on education today pretty much revolve around the problems:
how to make better men, how to produce better understanding among men,
and how to develop better living conditions for men.
It is the purpose of education in a democracy at all times to help its
people to adjust as satisfactorily as possible to conditions which are imposed
upon them, to fit them to know what improvements should be made in
these conditions, and to give them the working tools to effect these im-
Education increases the demand for the goods of the world, develops
discriminating buyers and users of goods, increases productive capacities,
stimulates trade, and develops the skills and training needed in business
and industry. Our educational program in the past years has had much to
do with making the United States the wealthiest large country in the
world. While developing the demand for more things, more commodities,
more services, and for a wider exercise of human rights, it also has de-
veloped the ability on a large scale to satisfy these demands. On the social
side, education develops the power in the individual to adjust to new and
unusual situations, to adapt his life to the pattern of the society of which
he is a part, to improve cultural and moral standards, and to coordinate
thought and action. On the political side, education must be considered
as the definite means of self-preservation. Through it only may the state in
a democratic society he perpetuated.
The justification of a democracy does not lie in achieved perfection of
social conditions but in the fact that it offers its people an opportunity to
work toward conditions which they think are better than those in which
there find themselves.
A question that often is raised is: WVhy with the best educational system
in the world have we failed to eliminate many of the social and economic
evils which have been with us for so many years? It is quite evident that
training the mind is not enough. In some way or other, such a mind must
be gotten into action. A trained mind is not a cultured mind until it acts
to produce some positive results. Spiritual values do not exist until they
result in direction of thought and action.
While education in the United States has been good enough to justify
our hopes for its achievements, it has not been good enough to justify all
8 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
the claims we have made for it. There probably will not be any sensational
changes in our educational program as the result of the war but there will
be many improvements as the result of our attempts to do better those
things which we always have been trying to do. Postwar planning in edu-
cation means keeping abreast of present developments and being thoroughly
prepared to make changes as the reasons for them become apparent. The ex-
periences of the past must still be the foundation of our program for the
One great purpose of education in a country such as ours is to develop
our youth to understand thoroughly our present social order. We are not
educating for a new social order but working to train our young people
to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of our present governmental
practices, to be alert in suggesting needed changes, and to be so well versed in
the technics of government that such changes may be expeditiously accom-
plished as the need for them becomes apparent in the course of their lives.
Ultimate progress of the human race will depend upon man's continuing
program to control and utilize nature through the application of science
and to promote his ultimate self-interest through a thorough understand-
ing of his relationship to others who are promoting their individual self-
Individual initiative is a wonderful trait of human nature. If the exercise
of it were to be taken away from the human being, our society would
disintegrate rapidly, in my opinion. However, it is evident that such in-
itiative cannot be permitted to operate without some modifying limitations.
The balance between such initiative and responsibility to one's fellowmen
can be established if and when we are convinced that such a balance is
Nearly every sort of criticism has been made of our system of education
in the United States. Our schools have been too "soft." There has been
too much emphasis placed upon discipline resulting in overwork, too
much emphasis on vocations, too little emphasis on vocations, too little
attention to the development of individuality, too much mass education,
too much control by faddists, too much attention to athletics, too little
attention to athletics and physical fitness, too little character training,
too little training for civic life and social efficiency, too little attention to
the education of the "gifted child," too much attention to the "form" of
education with not enough attention to the results, too much interference
from political-minded citizens with the administration of the schools, and so
on through the list.
In general, the administration of education in the United States has
been good. We have been successful to a remarkable degree in developing
excellent units of educational administration in our states and local com-
munities. I know of no other organization, comparable in size, which can
be adjusted to new and unusual situations so quickly as can our educational
system. For example, the teachers of this country several times in recent
years were called upon to perform many emergency services for our nation.
The work was done thoroughly and expeditiously. In our schools we
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 9
collected thousands of tons of scrap metals; we collected clothing by the
carload and waste paper by the thousands of tons. We sold war bonds and
stamps at the rate of several million dollars a month. We trained several
million men and women for specific work in essential war industries. These
services represent but a small fraction of the list of the community and
national services which were performed in the war years in our schools.
Such services, of course, have their educational and economic values, but
we must keep in mind they are but a small part of the educational program.
Such activities could be extended to the point where education would
become the "by-product" of our schools instead of the base product.
In the last century education in the United States has changed from the
"Little Red School House" era to our present complex organization which
extends from the nursery school through the modern university with its
many and extensive offerings in educational opportunities. While these
changes have been taking place, we more or less subconsciously have come
to accept certain traditional beliefs and practices as sound. These practices
and beliefs have served us fairly well. Our system of education has kept
fair pace with the industrial needs of a country whose chief concern was
to be left alone to develop its resources for the benefit of its people;
whether it has kept pace with the social and spiritual needs of its people
is another question.
The destiny of our civilization is inevitably linked with our comprehen-
sive program of popular education. Our entire population is to be initiated
in the ways of our democracy through the medium of compulsory education
and equal educational opportunity for all. With this thesis we probably
all shall agree. The real questions that arise from this statement of an ideal
are: How do we develop in our schools learning situations which result in
real education and the conservation of the varying abilities of our people?
How do we keep our schools, our system of education, from becoming an
end in itself, from becoming an instrument of quantity production with too
little concern for the vastly different powers of people?
Local social problems are certain to arise in our communities. But there
have been few such times when the problem was serious enough to attract
the common interest of our people to the extent that a national solution was
demanded. In one locality people object to the administration of education,
in another to its teachings, in still another its costs. It is true that educa-
tion makes people more exacting, sometimes makes them dissatisfied with
things as they are, but it also is true that only through such dissatisfaction
will plans for producing better conditions arise.
The questions behind progress always have been: Why do we do this
thing the way we do it? and, how can it be done better? WVe have been
continuously raising these questions with regard to our work. America
has developed rapidly. Has our educational system produced in sufficient
numbers the men and women of character, trained intelligence, initiative,
and leadership necessary to preserve the integrity of such a country as ours?
Teaching people to live richly and well is not enough. How do we proceed
10 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
to teach the responsibility which we must accept in our relations with each
other? How do we use our educational system to insure an appreciation
of the cultural, spiritual, and training values to be attained through its
The war centered our attention on many old and new problems. But
even before the war we were keenly conscious that all was not well with
our national economy. There were many problems to be solved and there
was much patchwork in our attempts at solutions. There was the problem
of overproduction, if such a condition is possible, followed by the problem
of underproduction. There was the problem of unemployment, coupled
with our sophomoric attempts to provide for the underprivileged. There
was the problem of strikes and lockouts resulting from lack of adjustment
in our industrial relations. There were problems of international relation-
ships. War was inevitable in the face of the world domination program
of Germany and Japan; yet when war came we were quite unprepared
for it. I am suggesting no criticism of any person or groups. What hap-
pened in these areas of activity was in line with our way of doing things.
It may be that we were confusing our ideas of civilization with ideas of
ease and luxury. It has been done before in the history of the world.
The war also taught us many things in the field of education. It taught
us that we can teach much more than we have been teaching in the time
at our disposal. It taught us that we were not as physically and mentally fit
as we should have been and that we can do better in our teaching to make
us so in the future. It taught us that we can live healthfully on much less
food than we had been consuming and wasting. It taught us that we can
produce adequately for any legitimate purpose. It taught us-we hope-
that genuine cultural values are as essential in education as the sharpening
of the mind and the training of the hand.
While education offers the only possibility of an enlightened and civi-
lized world, it also is as true that not just any education will produce the
enlightenment we seek. The faith of our fathers was based upon the con-
viction that man with each generation was becoming more wise and more
humane. The wars of our times have brought us face to face with the fact
that human nature is at times still brutally savage. What we have called
the peace years of our times have demonstrated, beyond a doubt, that
we have not yet learned how to be as wise as we must be. Man can be
schooled for any purpose or for no purpose at all. The results of education
can be most ineffective and even destructive.
Education in any country will be determined by what those in authority
want. If a dictator is in control, the education offered will be that which
he deems essential to the interests of himself and his country. If the people
of a country are in control, as they should be in a democracy, the educa-
tional program will be based on what these people think they want. Let's
analyze this situation. The educational program of the people of a de-
mocracy must be built upon the fundamental needs and desires of those
people. What do people want? They want a government which they
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 11
respect and trust; they want to be free in their right to work, to create,
to do something worth doing; they want some reasonable measure of social
and economic security; they want to be free in their right to think and
direct their acts in accord with practices which they believe are funda-
mental to their happiness; and they want these same things for their
No one expects that we shall get along without education. Children are
going to be trained in some way or another. We have put our faith in
universal free education. We are still firm in that faith but we must of
necessity be critical of our program if our faith is to be maintained. Not
that we haven't been critical in the past. Our schools have been repeatedly
surveyed and constantly criticized. Educators, laymen, parents, taxpayers,
and taxsavers all have entered into the discussions of what to teach, how
to teach, how our schools should be administered, and how and to what
extent they should be financed. Such a situation has its virtues. As long
as there is intelligent discussion concerning our schools, they will be
We have had many childish arguments and fairly polite quarrels over
such words and phrases as "progressivism," "the child-centered school,"
and "democracy in the classroom." I have been quite unable to detect
much difference in the actual practices of the so-called progressive school
and those of any other good school. Much of the so-called progressivism
seemed to be limited to the language of speeches made at conventions or in
articles printed in magazines. Fundamental educational values are rather
constant in war or peace. War and other crises do not change the basic
problems in education; they only bring them into stronger relief and
intensify them. We always have known that not a large enough propor-
tion of our population was getting a good education. We always have
known that many thousands of our young people were not getting the
kind of education that was best for them. Why? Probably because, to
some extent, we were confusing the idea of equal opportunity in education
for all with the idea of equal education for all.
Is there in America a definite program of education which has been
accepted and which applies to all our communities? The answer is "No."
We do have a wide range of schools-nursery schools, kindergartens,
intermediate schools, academic, technical, trade, commercial schools, junior
occupational schools, opportunity schools, junior colleges, colleges, uni-
versities, and private schools of many kinds. However, the offerings and
educational opportunities vary widely with states and communities.
In some way or other, education must be made adequate for all the
children of the nation. This is one country and not a conglomeration
of separate communities, each going its own way in education independ-
ently and with little or no concern or consideration for its effect on other
communities. In my humble opinion it is a national problem as well as a
local one. Of course, local interest in education must be maintained but
that can be done, I believe, without in any way sacrificing the welfare of the
12 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
children. The best plan of financing education, in my opinion, will include
federal, state, and local support in about equal proportions, with the im-
mediate control resting in the local subdivisions.
Indefiniteness is, and has been, the greatest defect in our educational
work. This applies to administration, supervision, curriculums, and teach-
ing. It is rather easy to do something if you know exactly what it is you
want to do. It is easy to teach a unit of work if the unit is definite and you
have a definite idea of its content. The physical and mental fitness may
accrue to the pupil who follows them.
So I say that the first work for educators in postwar education is to
develop an adequate and a definite program. What is it we want to do in
education and what is the most economical way in time, effort, and money
to accomplish the purpose? Hazy ideas in education usually are accompanied
by pages and pages of words which lead no place but not fast. It is true that
administrators have been greatly handicapped by having to give far too
much of their time to many problems which, while relating to education,
are not educational-problems of finance, levies, bond issues, surveys, and
Education in this country has not been as serious a business as it should
have been. A college was a place to which the graduate could return from
time to time to renew old friendships and see the "team" perform. Alumni
organizations got together from time to time to hear the coach's plans and
hopes for the year, but rarely for some other reason concerning the welfare
of the institution and its plans for the future. In other words, there has
been a triviality about much of college life and thought on higher education
that was hardly in accord with the high purposes which we have proclaimed
in our treatises on education. Almost any one could get through college if a
little care was used in the selection of courses. Enrolments became standards
in the minds of many for determining the importance of the school. The
development was logical. Old "grads" sent their sons back to their college
and in too many instances four years and a diploma were the criteria for a
college education. Remember, I am not placing the blame on the college nor
on the college administrators. It was in accord with the spirit of the times.
In my opinion the war has changed this situation and college education will
be much better following the war than it was before. I have the same belief
concerning all public education.
I predict that in the near future we shall give much more attention to the
organization of departments of education within the several states. State
directors of education are going to have much more to do in the postwar
years than they have had to do before and their offices are going to become
increasingly important. The state director of education should be free from
political interference and his tenure in office should be protected to the
extent that he can work with the educators of his area in developing a long-
time basic program for the schools of his state. This cannot be done if he is
compelled to "run for reelection" or work for reappointment every two,
three, or four years.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 13
In the very near future it is more than probable that we shall extend the
range of public education downward to include all children of four years of
age. There are far too many educational opportunities being lost to our
children of these years. At one time we argued that children were better off
in their homes in these earlier years. The "home" of course must be con-
sidered a basic educational institution. However, as such an institution, it
can be much improved through supplementary work done in publicly sup-
ported preprimary schools. Through such a plan the work of the home
would be strengthened to produce a satisfactory environment for the de-
velopment of all children.
At the age of about twelve, or at the end of the primary period, the sixth
grade, these pupils should go into a four-year intermediate school where we
shall institute a greater modification of our present program to fit the
varying abilities of our pupils. I do not suggest that we shall immediately
begin a comprehensive program of vocational education in these years. On
the contrary, each boy and girl will spend much of his school time in the
study of such basic subjects as mathematics, science, social science, lan-
guages, and the arts, but the offerings will be better graded to the abilities
of pupils to pursue such subjects. Vocational offerings will be included in the
program of studies for each pupil in inverse proportion to his ability to
carry the regular academic subjects.
At the beginning of the senior high school, which should include the
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth years, each pupil will be study-
ing for some specific purpose-some to go on into the professional schools
for teachers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, and government services; others
will be preparing for specific occupations in trade and technical schools.
The determination as to allocation of these pupils in their studies will be
through achievement and aptitude tests. The democratic thesis to which we
are committed will not survive unless the abilities of our people are used
where they will most effectively promote the society which we seek to main-
tain. Abilities must be recognized and developed, and the economic status
of a pupil must be no bar to his opportunity for training for his most effec-
tive service. If need be, we must subsidize the education of those pupils of
unusual ability who otherwise would not be able to continue their education
to the point of maximum returns to society.
For such a plan we must have the very best teachers, carefully selected
for training and then carefully trained. Teaching will become a profession to
a much greater degree than at present and gradually we shall eradicate the
idea that any institution of higher learning is a teacher-training institution
and, also, the idea that any one can teach even though he may have failed
at law, medicine, business, or whatever else it was that he tried.
Teacher training will become more and more a professional training and
only those colleges and universities which can meet high standards will be
licensed to train. We have done pretty well with the licensing of doctors in
this country. We have not done so well with the licensing of teachers.
Teachers must be protected in their rights as teachers and encouraged to
14 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
make teaching a profession. Such rights, however, do not include the right
to be habitually poor teachers. There will be no place in the schoolrooms
for such teachers.
Government service will become much more of a profession in the next
few years and information about government in all its aspects will be
studied by our prospective voters. We have been a bit afraid to have our
young people get real information on the subject in our classrooms. If the
facts of political government were studied, it was "politics" and politics was
taboo in the classroom. Politics in the classrooms? No, but information
about politics certainly has a place in the classrooms of a democracy.
While pleading the cause of liberal education, I would also plead that
the intelligence of the young people in our classrooms be liberated to
include any field of thought that contributes positively to the understand-
ing of the people of our world and country. While I have the conviction
that the person who cannot think without training can never be trained
to think, I also have the firm conviction that those who can think must be
given much practice on those problems of society which are most worth
We, of course, will revalue our materials of education, our courses of
study, our time schedules. Through such revaluation we shall deter-
mine what results are most worth achievement, how much time is neces-
sary to achieve them, and allot our time schedules accordingly. I am not
advocating hastening the process of education but simply that we make
education better with each year. "You can grow a squash in three months
but it takes fifty years to grow an oak." Our traditional time-cubicles
in colleges and secondary schools need a careful dusting. In too. many
instances in the past, the "course" was lengthened or stretched to fit into
the organization of semesters and quarters, with too little regard for the
richness of the content.
Our consideration of human nature has brought no plan for the ameliora-
tion of man's social ills other than education and learning. Man has the
possibility of almost complete control of his fate. It is not enough for a
man to be able and good. The able, if our society is to succeed, must
acquire and use power. We may think it "too bad" that these able people
cannot be left free to practice the arts, advance science, work in the profes-
sions, and conduct business in an honest and efficient way. But such service
will not be enough in this world of tomorrow. These people must accept
the responsibility of larger service. Their abilities must be used for political
good as well as for private enterprise.
Just now we are working to discover the best program of education
for the returning veteran-the best program in terms of the individual
veteran and in terms of the country of which he is a part. We in education
have a very definite responsibility for developing this program but it is a
responsibility which the veteran must share with us.
It seems to me that the education of the returning veteran is very
definitely a part of our whole educational program and that it must not
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 15
be considered too much as a segregated program with too little association
with the regular educational program of our country:
The veteran is coming back to his country and home community with a
great deal more of life experience than he had when he left a few years
or months ago to enter the service of his country in the armed forces.
He cannot return to exactly the same community he left because it
doesn't exist as he left it. It has changed in some respects. He is return-
ing with a very sincere and ardent desire to fit into his community as
a normal and active participating member of it-a community made up of
people that he knows, people who have the same hopes and desires for
the future that he has. He wants to pick up the threads of the life he left
as simply, as easily, and as quickly as possible. He does not want to be
considered "the returning veteran problem," but rather the returning
veteran who is anxious to fill his place in the country for which he has
fought, in the most effective and cooperative way possible. We have some-
thing to learn from him and he has something to learn from us.
I sometimes wish that we had another name, or a better name, for
"liberal" education. It has been used in so many ways that I am not
certain that its meaning is clear. A liberal education is that education
which teaches men to understand each other, to understand the life around
them, and how to live with each other. If democracy is to succeed in this
country, every citizen must have such a liberalizing education. We must
not permit ourselves to be lulled to sleep by the cradle songs of those who
would have us believe that there is some easy and simple way to attain
a democratic society. The only road to a democratic community or world
is education, and it is our first duty in American education to define and
introduce an education which will produce such a community here in
the United States. As time goes on and generations pass, we may hope
such a community may include the entire world.
The knowledge and skills that are basic in a crisis are fundamental
knowledge and skills. We must understand our enemies and allies in
order to conduct a successful war. There are at least as many reasons
why we should understand them in peace. WVe must be physically, men-
tally, and emotionally fit in war. We also must he so in peace. We stress
superior ability to learn in time of war; then, certainly, we must do so in
peace for peace is much more difficult than war and proportionately more
Summarizing, I suggest that the trends in education will be toward:
1. An extension of the democratic principle of equality of opportunity through
better elementary and secondary educational programs for all the children of the
nation, without regard to economic status, race, or place of residence.
2. An extension of education downward to include all children in the fourth and
fifth age years. These are very important years in the educational process and we
cannot afford to neglect them.
3. The addition of two years beyond the regular high school's twelfth grade, for
youth of demonstrated abilities-allocation in such schools to be determined by
16 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
examinations designed to place pupils on the basis of their abilities to profit by
instruction in certain specific fields of educational endeavor.
4. A program of subsidizing education which will make it possible for each indi-
vidual of unusual ability to continue his education to the point where his abilities
may be of maximum value to society.
5. A curtailment of the system of free electives as practiced in many secondary)
schools and colleges, and a more definite program of education for each student.
6. A higher quality of education at all levels, as determined by a rigid appraisal
of all present materials and methods.
7. Much more attention to the problem of teacher selection and training. More of
the selection will be done before the applicant trains for teaching instead of after-
8. A vast extension of adult education opportunities including an extension educa-
tion service which will make it unnecessary in the future to have such national youth
service agencies as the NYA and CCC.
9. The reorganization of small district units of educational control to insure a
sufficient number of children in each district to make it economically possible to pro-
vide a suitable program for each child.
10. More attention to the provision of work opportunities for secondary-school
youth in line with their vocational interests and abilities. Work, real work, always
will be a part of a well-rounded educational program.
11. Much attention to the problem of developing facilities and educational pro-
grams for the education of returning veterans and the retraining of civilians who
are compelled to change their work after the war.
12. A program of financing education on a federal, state, and local basis which,
while giving due attention to economy in operation and the maintenance of local
interest and control, will not make it necessary for the education of the children of
this country to be wholly subject to the varying financial abilities of local taxing
13. A program for the thorough rehabilitation of school buildings and a much
wider use of them for education, recreation, and general community betterment.
Educators never have quite agreed on the questions: Just what should
be taught in American education? and To whom should it be taught?
They have agreed quite generally on the "objectives" of education.
All right, we are a group of people engaged in the work of educating
the youth of our respective communities. How may our time be used best
to facilitate the program of education for these young people? What are
the problems that should-have our attention? How do we organize our
time and ability to make our program of secondary education as adequate
for the brilliant pupil as for the slow, as just for the economically rich
as for the poor, as adequate for those who will work with their hands as
for those who will work with their minds? What changes do we need in
order to foster a satisfying and a profound sense of "belonging"-a sense
of being a significant part of our country?
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 17
EDUCATION OF THE CONQUEROR
WILLIAM F. RUSSELL, DEAN, TEACHERS COLLEGE,
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, N. Y.
Address at Kansas City and Chicago Conferences
A Missouri doughboy is our President; doughboys, veterans of the last
war, run our country. But the G. I.'s are coming home. Soon they will
replace the doughboys--on schoolboards, in legislatures, at posts of leader-
ship in all walks of life. What kind of country will we turn over to them?
What kind of country will they in turn make ? What sort of education will
they want? What should they want? Is there anything in our experience,
or in world experience, that will help them in making these choices? Are
there good examples to imitate? Are there bad examples to avoid? These are
the problems that I propose that we think about together today.
Doughboy to G. I.-where did this word doughboyy" come from? A
soldier in WVellington's Rifle Brigade, on the retreat from Talaverra in the
year 1809 during the Peninsular War, made the following note in his
For bread we took corn from the fields, and having no proper means of winnow-
ing and grinding it, were obliged . to rub out the ears between our hands and
pound them between stones to make dough . from which wretched practice we
christened the place Dough Boy Hill.1
An officer of the same outfit left the same record. "Here for three weeks
we nearly starved, and our position received the name of Dough Boy Hill."
This is straight from the horse's mouth. What does that expression
mean? The control of the British Army in Wellington's day rested in a
clique of old generals headed by the Duke of York. Their headquarters
was in a building in Whitehall known as the Horse Guards-whence the
expression that I have just used, for an authoritative, if trivial, statement.
All during his younger days, in India, on the Peninsula, in Southern France,
and even at Waterloo, Wellington had to battle a group of old generals.
"Having been conspicuous failures on active service," says Aldington, "they
exercised their old age in diligent and pedantic insistence on obsolete
methods and traditions which ought to have been abolished." They turned
victory into defeat, replaced ability by incompetence; fainthearted, they
forced the courageous to turn back. Mostly it was too little and too late.
But the Duke in his later years and old age in turn became the leader
of the Horse Guards. Says Aldington:
The whooping horse laugh of the brigadiers, the two-fingered salute of corps
commanders, the religion of fox hunting, the tendency for officers to be gentlemen
and to look on other ranks as His Majesty's lackeys in uniform, come from the
Duke. So lasting was this influence that the British Expeditionary Force of 1914 was
a slightly modernized version of the six divisions of the Peninsular Army, and relied
for its fire-power largely on the musketry with which the Duke had accomplished
such military miracles.2
Quoted from Aldington, Richard. The Duke, New York, 1943, p. 151.
SAldington, Richard, op. cit., p. 354.
18 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
I do not need to labor this point. The records show that Marechal
Bazaine, before Sedan in 1871, drilled the French madly along Napoleonic
lines, with some slight modification based on desert warfare in North
Africa, while the Germans, heeding the experience of Grant and Lee and
particularly of Stonewall Jackson, were adapting their training and
strategy to a new technological development-the railroad-and various
devices for rapid-fire.
A defeated nation turns its back on the past. Its leaders were wrong;
its methods were wrong; something new must be tried. A victorious nation
tries to return to normalcy. Its leaders were all right; its tactics proved;
its plans successful. Don't take out a winning pitcher. Don't change horses
in the middle of a stream.
I remember once hearing of a new golf game called "Drink and Smell."
The rules were to have two players, two caddies, two bags of clubs, and
one large bottle of whiskey. After the first hole the winner got a drink and
the loser just a smell. The same procedure on the second and thereafter.
If the same lost three or four holes in succession, he would be bound to
win the next. So in a sense has it been in the field of warfare. Success brings
a trend toward tradition, failure a search for the new, with the certain result
of ultimate alternation of victory and defeat.
This principle applies also to education. The main reforms of education in
Prussia-from which resulted the horrible history of this criminal nation-
date from Fichte's Reden, based upon the defeats inflicted by Napoleon.
The main reforms of education in France up to the present date from 1871,
the debacle at Sedan and the occupation of Paris by Bismarck.
This principle in operation was plain to be seen after the last war. You
could go to Austria or Germany or Hungary or Bulgaria, and they would
ply you with questions about education in the United States. How did you
accomplish this? What would you advise about that? And in each country
were instituted substantial educational reforms, new school organization,
new curriculums, new plans for teacher preparation, new programs for
public health and welfare. But if you went to Paris or London, or particu-
larly Edinburgh, they would welcome you politely and ask you what was it
that you wanted to see. They would start a conversation with, "The trouble
with your education is . .," and being from a conquering country,
naturally, I wanted to tell the world how we had done it.
The countries in the world today can be divided into five groups: the
Defeated-Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, and Japan; the Neutrals-such as
Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland; the Occupied-such as Belgium, Norway,
and Greece; the Allied, who took a minor part in the fighting-such as
Portugal, Brazil, Iran, and Mexico; and the Conquering-France, China,
Great Britain, Soviet Russia, and the United States. The Defeated are not
going to look back. What they did was wrong; their leaders were wrong.
Bit by bit as we proceed from Neutral, to Occupied, to Allied, their eyes
will shift progressively from the future to the past.
Among the conquerors there will also likely be some divergence in the
direction of their view. France, China, and Russia lost battle after battle,
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 19
had much of their mainland occupied, suffered tremendous personal losses.
Britain, while not occupied, was subjected to devastating air attack-once
early in the war in the Battle of Britain, and once late in the Battle of the
V-l's and V-2's. All four-China, France, Soviet Russia, and Britain-
were severely frightened. For long periods only a flicker of hope remained.
Read the secret speech of Winston Churchill recently published in Life
Of all the conquerors the United States stands alone. We were not
invaded-except for the Philippines, a few Pacific Islands, and the tip of
Alaska. We were not bombed. The immensity of the disaster of Pearl Harbor
was kept from us; the early naval losses around Guadalcanal and the Coral
Sea were shrouded in censorship; only the affairs around Kasserine Pass
and the Bastogne Bulge gave us qualm, and they were soon forgotten. We
are proud; we are confident; we have not been scared.
We don't want to fight;
But, by Jingo, if we do,
We've got the ships, we've got the men,
And we've got the money, too.
Also, we have the atom bomb.
Where in all the world is conservatism likely to take hold ? Where will
it he said that the leaders were OK? That tactics were sound? That
policies were right? Where will they be least likely to change the pitcher?
Where will be the smallest chance of effecting a business transaction in
midstream? Right here in the good old USA!
Where in all the world is conservatism in education likely to be popular?
Where will it be said that old professors and superintendents are OK?
That the course of study is sound? That curriculum revisions are unneces-
sary? That Horace Mann and McGuffev were right? Right here in the
good old USA!
We talk a good deal about the reeducation of the Germans. A large
commission has gone to Japan to reeducate the Japanese. I grant the impor-
tance of the two problems. I appreciate from personal experience closer
than most people the importance for future world peace of better educa-
tion of the loco nations. But far more important, I am sure, is the reedu-
cation of the Americans, particularly in the face of the conservative reaction
that, unwatched and unnoticed, seems certain to set in.
The trouble with the problem is that it is so close to us. We are living
with it; we are living in it. Properly to assess our place is like taking one's
own pulse. Somehow or other we have to get outside ourselves so as to look
at ourselves. We must be able to assess trends; to have objective standards
by which to measure where we go and what we do. Fortunately, I think
that we can set up some objective standards by which we can measure our
degeneracy or progress; and upon the basis of these standards determine
whether we will go along or fight.
By a careful study of the history of education and comparative education
we can find certain societies of the past, and almost up to the present, whose
education was geared either to looking forward or looking backward. We
20 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
know, for instance, that the early Egyptians and Chinese set up societies
that lasted for long periods of years. These societies were strong because
they adopted the principle of having each successive generation exactly
duplicate the preceding one, and the system of education fitted this program
exactly. In more recent times we have seen other modern societies adopt
similar programs. In Germany, for instance, the great mass of the people
were taught to obey, to do as they were told. Certain world empires put
this kind of education down upon their subject peoples, such as that of the
Dutch in Java and the British in some of their colonial possessions.
Similarly there have been some societies, particularly in times of fer-
ment, that gained great success precisely because they adopted a policy of
change, of looking forward, of adapting to the new; and here again the
system of education meshed exactly with the program. The most striking
examples were the Ottoman Empire and that phase of German social
planning that kept the mass of the people controlled and at the same time
produced leaders able to look forward and cut red tape.
I do not need to spell out to this audience in detail the characteristics
of these two types of society and education. It will be sufficient to list
briefly the main elements in common.
The characteristics of an educational plan to fit a backward-looking
1. Special trust in the old, suspicion of the young, long and slow advance-
ment-The Senate, the Elders, the Medicine Mien hold the power. Youth
are kept apart. Young men must sit in the background and keep silent.
Only when the fires of youth have been quenched and habit and custom
have full sway can they be trusted to speak and share in decisions.
2. Emphasis on a ruling class-Power descends from father to son.
Power and wealth have special privileges. In education there is usually
one kind of education for the privileged and another for the masses. Wealth
and political position determine educational opportunity.
3. Certain peoples, often in large numbers, outside the pale-Zulus or
half castes-Ainus or Indians-Okies or Okinawans-untouchables, beyond
the pale. They stand back; they cast their eyes down; but they work, work,
work as slaves for the overlords. They receive little schooling; short years,
discipline, limited opportunity.
4. The main content of the curriculum is contained in a ritual or in a
set of books-The lore of the Egyptian priests, the Analects of Confucius,
the ritual of the Pueblo Indians, the Prussian course of study-whatever it
is-must be mastered perfectly by those permitted to learn.
5. Closely related is the-method of teaching memnoriter work-Pupil re-
peats what he has learned. "His not to reason why, his not to make reply."
The procedure is simple. The teacher knows exactly what he wants; the
pupil knows exactly what he is supposed to do. No variation is permitted.
These characteristics are very baldly stated. They will not appear so
plainly in postwar America. They will be dressed up, ornamented, and dis-
guised. We must learn to look squarely and deeply and rip off the tinsel.
The characteristics of education to look forward-to adjust to new con-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 21
editions -to flexibility, adaptability, sensitiveness to change-are almost the
exact antithesis of education for conformity. The goal is definitely not to
bring up one generation exactly like the previous one, but one that is dif-
1. Education is based not on a ritual or the contents of a set of books but
upon the demands of future society-The rules are not there to be followed ;
they must be made up new,to meet new conditions. They must be contrived
in the heat of battle, making use of all the new knowledge and technics
2. Such a society cannot afford a ruling class, hereditary in nature, which
holds the power-New ideas must boil up from underneath. Heredity may
have great weight, but the biological sport must be treasured. Every oppor-
tunity must be given to ability under whatever conditions it may appear.
3. People must have equal opportunity, regardless of race, creed, or eco-
nomic ability-Since all ability must be developed, and decisions must be
made by the people rather than according to a set of books or ritual, all the
people must be educated to assume these responsibilities and the few excep-
tionally able to go far beyond that.
4. Ability, not age or reputation, must be the consideration in choosing
leaders-On the whole, younger rather than aged, flexible rather than blind
respect for the past.
5. The method of teaching should be designed to stimulate flexibility, the
questioning attitude, impatience with the past-The learner should be en-
couraged to vary, to form opinions of his own, to mass knowledge upon
problems of real life, real to him. Flexibility and adaptability should be
These characteristics of forward-moving and backward-moving education
have been stated in extreme form. What I am trying to do is to set up a series
of measuring sticks whereby we can tell, while we are in the process,
whether we are moving forward or backward. Undoubtedly we Americans
will continue to pride ourselves on our progressive ways; we shall talk a lot
about invention and adaptability; but in view of our history and the history
of our education, I think that almost every social pressure will drive us to
the Horse Guards' attitude. Pupils and parents, teachers, professors, and
schoolboard members will tend to work and think that way.
In the main, I should say that our educational system has been very con-
servative; but we have been a progressive people, inventive, adaptable, sen-
sitive to change. Why? We had a new country to settle. Every successive
wave of immigration and settlement had new problems to meet. Our people
were always up against something new. We had to make tools, to devise
machines; we couldn't order what we wanted from Manchester or Rouen.
As we settled one new territory after another, our boys and girls had to
adjust, had to adapt, had to invent.
But not in our education. The little grammar schools and district schools
gave the Three R's and little else. The early colleges were set up to train
young men for the ministry and the law. Each of these professions depends
upon tradition and the adjustment of the individual to a body of tradition.
22 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Then the colleges expanded, took in students preparing for other walks of
life; the high schools were added, little images of the colleges. They were
modeled on a European tradition, a settled society, one which looked back-
ward. Americans kept the European form; but we learned to justify the
system with a new pattern that sounded good to citizens of this new country.
We were told that formal subjects and domination of pupil by teacher
were justified because thereby the mind was trained or character formed.
No matter how much the pupil learned to do just as he was told; no matter
how remote from life might be the subjectmatter; nevertheless, the disci-
plined mind that resulted therefrom was said to be suited to a pioneer
society. Even if it were proved that a good knowledge of formal grammar
did not help one to write or speak English better, it was still good because
of its disciplinary values; and if you want to train a leader, proper education
first disciplines him to be a follower. Both these theories are preposterous.
Neither finds much justification in educational research. They are the talk
of the pedagog which finds willing ears among a population, down under-
neath proud of its past, unworried about its future, like Wellington and
Bazaine ready to face the world with the tactics of Waterloo. Most of my
intelligent friends, good patriotic Americans, down underneath believe in a
form of education much like that of ancient China or Egypt. Most of them
are quite fearful of anything different. That is why some educators have
gained great popularity by the advocacy of the one hundred best books; or
the return to the standards of the McGuffey Readers as the cure of delin-
quency. This address will go unnoticed in the newspapers-which is all
right with me; but if I were to advocate the return to the McGuffey
Readers, or to Plato and Aristotle, these remarks would likely make the
wires of the Associated Press. Such is the educational attitude of the Ameri-
cans. That is why America stands in such grave danger of falling behind
the rest of the world.
Here then are the danger signals:
If you see old men, or groups of old men get the power, whether it be a legis-
lature, or boards of regents, or trustees; if the rank and file are left out of policy
making; if younger men and women fail to get on the Educational Policies Com-
mission, or on curriculum committees-then watch out!
If you see rich people having exceptional opportunities for their children; if money
buys a better opportunity than ability; if poor children tend to drop out; if school
customs and habits and honors go according to social standing; if there are poorer
educational opportunities in the country than the city, in the poorer states than in
the wealthier; if college enrolment is greater from the local area than from a
distance-then watch out!
If children are deprived of.a chance-an equal chance-on account of color and
creed; if quotas are set up for Negroes and Jews; if Indians or Mexicans of good
ability are treated differently from other people of similar ability; if the mountain
people or the Dust Bowl inhabitants, or the cotton pickers, or field hands, or canal
boat people, are treated differently-then watch out!
If Washington, or a supreme council on education, or the state university set
a fixed curriculum; if the CIO or the AFL, or the National Association of Manu-
facturers tell us what to teach; if they set before us one hundred best books and
say that is our educational task; if work in school is justified because it supposedly
trains the mind in general; if obsolete subjectmatter is taught to train the character;
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 23
if newspaper columnists advocate hard education as a bar to delinquency; if they
advocate compulsory military training on any ground other than military necessity-
for instance, as good discipline, democracy and the like-then watch out!
If parents or critics put on campaigns to bring order into the schools; demand
that children be forced to do this or that; bring back the rod; urge memoriter
recitations; require examinations on masses of facts, historical or scientific; state
that things were not like this when I went to school-then watch out!
All these are signs that America is about to rest on her oars.
\We are going into a "new world." No doubt about that. Hiroshima gave
the coup de grace to the idea that the old world lived on. We are entering
just as new a world as did the Pilgrims when they landed on Plymouth
Rock; or as did the settlers who pushed up the river from New Orleans.
1Vhat are the new problems we must solve?
We must find the answer to "one world." Otherwise, we all perish in the
next war. We must find the answer to recurring depressions. Otherwise, we
break to pieces inside our country. We must find the answer to how to regu-
late our life well enough so that people will have food, clothing, shelter, a
measure of security-and not lose the liberties our Fathers fought so hard
We know these things absolutely. If we go on as in the past, we will not
have one world; we shall have a world of desert waste with most humans
dead and the rest in caves. If we go on as in the past, we shall have depres-
sions every few years; and probably our democracy will fall under the
weights. If we go on as in the past, politics and economics geared to an
agrarian age will be quite inadequate for the age of technology. We cannot
win by looking to the past. Therefore, education must not look to the past.
But we want to look to the past; that is our trend-that is our desire-
that's what we'll do if we follow the pattern of previous conquerors.
When the danger signals that I have listed flash-watch out! They are
red lights that say, "Stop!"
Do not lie low when you see reactionary and dangerous practices taking
root. Stand for the young getting their chance. Stimulate decisions with
as wide popular participation as possible. Advocate in every way possible
equal educational chance, regardless of birth, race, religion, or class. Let the
curriculum look to the future, even if it is solidly based upon the past. Do
not be fooled by the professors, college presidents, and scientists who justify
what they do by the theory of formal discipline. Children are human beings,
sacred personalities, and they deserve treatment as such.
You and I are in a big battle, the battle of our lives. Somehow or other,
the United States, triumphant, is doomed to failure, unless the trend that
has gripped all triumphant nations before us is checked and reversed. "Pride
goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall." We do not want
our country destroyed. We do not want America to fall. Therefore, all of
us must give the rest of our lives, not only to prevent traditional conforming
education, but to build schools, colleges, and other means of education to
make America flexible, sensitive to change, and adaptive-truly a land of
New York sky-
line as seen
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
EDUCATION FOR WORLD CITIZENSHIP
WILLIAM G. CARR, SECRETARY, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION;
ASSOCIATE SECRETARY, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Address at New York Conference
About a month ago a great soldier, General Dwight Eisenhower, re-
ceived an honorary degree. In the course of his formal remarks on that
occasion, the General turned to President Marsh of Boston University
and said, "Why doesn't the educational world put my profession out of
I do not know what reply, if any, President Marsh made to this re-
markable challenge-for General Eisenhower regarded it as a challenge,
and said so. That direct question is, however, the nub of the problem of
world peace or World War III.
Can American education accept General Eisenhower's challenge? As
compared with the military profession, our profession is feebly organized
and sometimes fiercely disunited. No American educator-not the Com-
missioner of Education nor the Secretary of the National Education Asso-
ciation nor any other individual-can speak for all American education.
The Chief of Staff can speak on behalf of the United States Army, but
where is the Chief of Staff of American education who might reply on
our behalf? There is no such individual. The rigid chain of command,
characteristic of a great army or a great business organization, is not well
adapted to the spirit and functions of American education.
Furthermore, consider the stupendous dimensions of the General's chal-
lenge. National school systems have often been skilfully used to promote
war. The aggressive militarism of the late and unlamented Axis is only
one of the more extreme illustrations of the general thesis. Our record in
the schools of the United States, although far better in this respect than
that of many other nations, has some episodes and instances that are not
wholly to its credit. Take the world over and history through, and I think it
would appear that our profession has done as much to make war as to make
peace. If we are to accept the challenge, if the profession of education is to
try to put the profession of arms out of business, we must reverse our record
up to now.
Fortunately, our profession does have some useful assets. We have
numbers; there are more of us teachers than there are of any other pro-
fession. We have, let us modestly and gratefully admit, a personnel that is
somewhat better educated than the average run of humanity. We have a
definite governmental structure; we have potent professional organizations
in many countries. We touch more people, and at a more impressionable age,
than any other public agency. We have as yet no effective worldwide organi-
I At the invitation of the Department of State and by appointment of the National Education Asso-
ciation, Dr. Carr served as a Consultant to the United States Delegation at the San Francisco Confer-
ence; he was Deputy-Director of the International Secretariat of the London Conference.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
zation of the teaching profession but definite steps to create such an organi-
zation are underway. Finally, we have in the past few months achieved a
substantial, new international recognition of education through the United
Nations. I shall have more to say about this last asset in a few moments.
So, although the task is not one to be accomplished by pretty platitudes
and academic fancywork, we do have enough resources, and I trust enough
courage and faith in our calling, to make it worthwhile to try. We can
with some hope of success say collectively to General Eisenhower, "Sir,
your challenge is an honor. Our profession proudly accepts it. We are
going to try to put your profession out of business. We know we cannot
do it overnight because our occupation deals largely in futures. We know
it will not be easy but we specialize in the impossible."
To make good on such a response, American educational leadership must
work simultaneously at two aspects of the problem of education for peace-
the domestic and the international. Both are important. Let us consider first
some of the things we need to do here at home and then look at some of the
international relations of American education.
Here at home a successful program will need to exhibit several definite
characteristics. It will need to be: forward-looking, realistic, comprehen-
sive, and responsible.
If our program is to be forward-looking it will have to concern itself
with education for world citizenship. The term "world citizenship" is
sometimes loosely used to describe an attitude of broad humanity, just as
we refer to some people as "citizens of the world." I wish, for the moment,
to use the term more precisely to indicate the relation of an individual to
a world government. There is no world government at present but, in my
opinion, we ought to create one just as soon as we can. If we are going to
try to put the military profession out of business, we had better not be con-
tent with halfway measures. Let us then deliberately educate our youth in
those attitudes which will result in the creation of a world government.
It is not my responsibility to suggest just what areas of life would be subject
to the jurisdiction of a world government. That is a field for experts
in international law and political science. I do believe, however, that world
government, when and if we get it, will be the product of deliberately
planned education. Please note that I am not talking about a campaign
of schoolroom propaganda for some particular plan of world govern-
ment. I am talking about the development of the attitudes, information,
and ability which alone can make world citizenship possible. I am talking
about a careful study of textbooks and curriculum to eliminate content
which fosters intolerance' and prejudice. I am talking about teaching
the fact that all men in this modern world are literally dependent on
each other and that survival for any may well depend upon the cooperation
of all. I am talking about teaching the fact that all of the great religious
faiths of the world rest on man's brotherhood and unity. I am talking
about a wider use of newspapers, periodicals, maps, globes, radio, and the
motion picture in deepening and sharpening our understanding of other
parts of the world. I am talking about more effective methods of foreign
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 27
language instruction. I am talking about a substantial increase in the
exchange of students and teachers. When we review, even thus hurriedly
and incompletely, all of tie vast possibilities that are open to us in laying the
basis for world citizenship, is not our greatest danger that we shall make
too timid and mean an estimate of our potential influence?
Let us face frankly the fact that there will be some opposition to an educa-
tional program of this kind. It will be opposed by those who sincerely be-
lieve it to be in conflict with a program of national citizenship. We should
attempt to persuade these people that their fears are groundless. WVe should
enlist public opinion to cooperate in demonstrating the need of world
organization and world citizenship. Every sincere and well-informed patriot
should recognize that the security of his own nation, the very lives of his
fellow citizens, can be realized only through a world organization with
real power. World citizenship need not mean the sacrifice of national citi-
zenship or the subordination of one national group to another. Good national
citizenship and good world citizenship reenforce each other. The qualities
of character most desirable for good relations in our homes, neighborhoods,
communities, states, and nation are precisely the qualities of character
which are most needed in world citizenship. Education for world citizen-
ship, beginning with the adjustment of children to their immediate environ-
ment, can extend their understanding to a broader horizon which compre-
hends the people and the places of one interdependent world.
So, while we say we would educate for world citizenship, we can not at
present mean that we can directly teach loyalty to a society that does not
yet exist. Rather, we should teach our children and ourselves those skills
and attitudes which alone can create a society in which world citizenship
may become real.
While we study and teach for this future ideal, we must also be
realistic. We are concerned with the world as it is now and as it is likely
to be in the years immediately ahead. There are some basic facts about inter-
national relations which should be as thoroughly taught in our schools as
the multiplication table. The subjectmatter involved often seems complex
and remote from personal experience. But it is not any more complex or
remote than high-school algebra or the plot of The Mlerchant of Venice.
International relations can be taught if we take on the job as though our
lives depended on it-as indeed they probably do.
A general attitude of sweet goodwill, based on delightful stories of
children in other lands or on travel folders or movie travelogues, will not do
the job. WVe have to know a few things thoroughly to be able to survive.
Some tough ingredients of international understanding should be added
to the sweetness and light which we have been endeavoring to create.
Sentimental attachment to peace is not enough to prevent war. American
youth should understand the major sections of the world, their resources,
the status of their people, their varying political systems, cultures, and eco-
nomic arrangements. They should study the conditions which lead to war
or peace. They should know about the organizations which are suitable for
.dealing wvi.th .tie.s.e condi.t.i.ns. A large proportion. of .th American people
28 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
in a recent public opinion poll did not even know whether or not the
United States had ever joined the League of Nations. The schools had
developed a valuable and powerful love of peace and harmony but they
failed to consider seriously enough how these attitudes might find practical
expression. We assumed that attitudes and understandings are important,
which is true, but we too frequently ignored the concrete problems of
international organizations, which was fatal. Our eyes were fixed upon
the stars and we did not see the stumbling blocks around our feet. You will
not suppose that I am belittling the idealistic approach. I am only saying
that idealism is not enough.
To give a single illustration, I suggest that every American boy and girl
should be taught a clear and rather complete factual knowledge of the
United Nations Organization-how it works or fails to work. I saw the
United Nations Organization being built in San Francisco and I realize,
as we all must, that it is a structure of compromises. It is like a vessel which
encounters rough seas immediately after launching, with its engines untested
and its timbers groaning alarmingly indeed. But, by a vote of 89 to 2 in
the United States Senate, we are aboard that vessel; it is the only craft at the
moment between us and shipwreck. We must do our part to help steer it
safely to harbor. Our schools should, I believe, teach the basic facts about
UNO as earnestly and thoroughly as they teach our young people about
the elements of local, state, and national government. Will you not see to
it that at some suitable point in your schools a good job of teaching about
UNO is provided for every student?
In addition to being forward-looking and realistic, our teaching of inter-
national relations should become more comprehensive. We lack, it seems to
me, a general plan of campaign. The curriculum has shifted in terms of
temporary enthusiasm. You will all remember the sudden surge of interest
about five years ago in teaching about Latin America. Now the East-West
Association wants you to teach more about China. The Committee on
American-Soviet Friendship wants you to teach more about Russia. A com-
mittee is now studying educational cooperation with Canada and it requires
no skill as a prophet to predict that it will soon ask you to teach more about
our good neighbor to the north. I have just asked you to teach about the
United Nations. Others will urge you to teach about UNRRA, Bretton
Woods, and a dozen other new international agencies. The list is continually
growing. And every one of these pleas for more attention is, in itself, worthy
of sympathetic consideration. But you cannot make a satisfactory curriculum
in international relations, or in any other field, merely by unguided addition.
What we lack desperately ard what we must find quickly is a few basic
organizing principles around which all the vast body of new and important
subjectmatter can be gathered. The Committee on International Relations
of the National Education Association is now working on that problem.
It needs the active help of curriculum-makers and school executives every-
One final remark about the domestic aspect of our problem before I ask
you to turn your attention outward. It is one of those things that everyone
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 29
knows and yet that everyone must be told. Our teaching of international
relations must be responsible. We must not forget what it has cost to buy
for us this new chance to educate for peace; we must not forget, to quote
General Eisenhower again, "the regimented rows of white crosses." Only
one year ago today newspapers carried these headlines:
AMERICANS TWO MILES FROM COLOGNE
RUSSIANS CUT OFF DANZIG; NEW NAZI PLANES STRIKE BRITAIN
MARINES' ADVANCE ON IWO IS SLOWED; GAIN 50 YARDS IN
It is difficult to look steadily at those headlines. Difficult because they seem
so far away and long ago. Difficult because it hurts to think about them.
Difficult because we would like to forget and because we dare not. Difficult,
above all, because we know that another war would be infinitely worse.
Many years ago H. G. Wells wrote that civilization is a race between
education and catastrophe. On July 16, 1945, there occurred on a desert
plateau in New Mexico an explosive release of atomic energy which vapor-
ized a two-hundred-foot steel tower and emblazoned the surrounding
bleakness with a scorching light equal to that from two dozen suns. In
Albuquerque, 220 miles away, a blind girl started and asked her mother
what had happened.
WVhat, indeed, had happened? That explosion was the starting gun for
the last lap of the race between education and catastrophe. The race itself
is nothing new. The discovery of ways to control the release of the energy
in the atom does not pose a new problem but it does put a time limit on the
solution of a problem that is as old as human culture itself. To inculcate
in the youth of this land and of all lands a strong sense of individual moral
responsibility and to do it quickly and effectively is the answer to the
terrible dangers and breath-taking opportunities which atomic power
presents. There is no other answer.
So much for the domestic side of the problem of education for peace.
If I have been unable to do more than slide quickly over the surface of the
issues in this field, I shall have to be even more hasty in the second part of
my task. There are two particular aspects of the foreign policy of American
education which I would like to mention. First, a brief word about our
policy toward the educational systems of our defeated enemies; second, the
status of international cooperation in education within the new machinery of
the United Nations.
Educational policy has its part to play in trying to make sure that we
shall not again suffer from the aggressions of our enemies. Our profession
may be justly proud that General MacArthur has invited a commission
of some of our most distinguished colleagues to visit Japan and there to
work with him and with the Japanese government in the development of a
wholesome program for Japanese education. Leaders of British education
have recently examined the German schools in the British zone of Germany.
It might be wise for the Military Government in the American zone to
make similar arrangements. Certainly, as long as we would be interested in
the war-making potential of either Germany or Japan, we must continue to
30 AMERICAN ASSOCIAT-ION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRAT~U'RS
be interested in the kind of education that the youth of those countries
While we are considering what education might do in the future to pro-
mote peace, we should never forget what education did in Germany and
Japan. What shall we say of a teacher who feeds lies to the children in his
care, who knows they are lies when he teaches them, and who admits later
that he knew it at the time? What greater crime is there than to destroy
the morals and defile the mind of one's own children? Perhaps the crime is
one to which the ordinary systems of national and international justice and
law cannot be applied. I would not know about that. But we do have it on
very high authority that he who offends against childhood would be better
off if a millstone were hanged about his neck and he were cast into the depths
of the sea.
We have learned by hard experience that we cannot put the military
profession out of business merely by educating for peace within the United
States. Educational isolation is not the answer. In the twenty years between
the two wars, while we were teaching our children the ways of peace, other
countries were doing just the opposite. Education for world citizenship
cannot succeed if it is practiced only by one nation; it must be a multi-
We have two major new assets in our efforts to deal with this stubborn
fact. One is the series of provisions for education in the United Nations
Charter; the other is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul-
The United Nations Charter adopted at San Francisco refers to educa-
tion in explicit terms, nine different times. It makes the promotion of
educational cooperation a responsibility of the Social and Economic Council.
It authorizes the General Assembly of the United Nations to make studies
and recommendations affecting education. It lays down the principle that
members of the United Nations will provide education in all their dependent
areas. It provides that the Trusteeship Council shall require and receive
reports on the education of the people in areas administered through that
I want you to realize that these provisions in the United Nations Charter
represent historical development. The Covenant of the League of Nations
had no provisions with reference to education. The very word "education"
does not occur in that document. In 1919 a representative of the National
Education Association pleaded with those who were drafting the League of
Nations Covenant to include an article on education. The statesmen listened
politely, as statesmen nearly always do, but no action was taken. Inter-
national cooperation in education, they said in effect, was a minor detail
that could be postponed until the important questions were settled. In 1922
the League of Nations again considered the possibility of machinery for
educational cooperation and, with only one voice raised in opposition, the
word "education" was stricken from a committee report which would have
empowered the League to be active in this field. In 1944, in spite of repre-
sentations made by the Chinese Government, the Dumbarton Oaks Pro-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 31
posals were issued to the world without a word in them about education.
Yet in 1945, on May 22 to be exact, the United Nations at San Francisco
decided to promote educational cooperation-not merely to provide it but
to promote it. For the first time in history, all the major powers of the world
decided that education is a part of keeping the peace.
It is an impressive fact that the government of the United States and the
government of other members of the United Nations have, by adopting the
United Nations Charter, agreed jointly and separately to promote educa-
tional and cultural cooperation.
The arguments in favor of this proposal as they were advanced at the
Hotel Fairmont in San Francisco in 1945 were not any better or any more
ably presented than the arguments set forth at the Hotel Crillon in Paris
in 1919. But something had happened between 1919 and 1945. For one
thing, the teachers of the United States and of the world had learned a
good deal about the power of organization. For another thing, perhaps
even more important, the statesmen of the world had learned, if only from
observing the devastating results of Axis school systems, a decent respect
for the power of education. The statesmen of the world have now come to
realize, and to record in the most solemn and binding language, their con-
viction that education is a weapon which can help them to keep the peace.
The United Nations Conference in San Francisco did not determine the
exact ways and means by which the educational functions of the United
Nations would be conducted. That was postponed for a special conference
held in London in November. The London Conference was called by the
governments of the United Kingdom and France. It was attended by forty-
four of the fifty-one United Nations. The London Conference succeeded
in its purpose-the drafting of a constitution for a specialized international
agency to deal with education and closely related fields. The new agency
thus established is called the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization. This is perhaps the second longest official name
of any organization in the world. The only one that I can think of at the
moment that is any longer is the American Association of School Admin-
istrators, a Department of the National Education Association of the United
States. In order that I may tell you something about the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and not use up all of my
time merely pronouncing its title, I shall refer to it hereafter as UNESCO.
It is too bad that UNESCO sounds something like a new kind of tea biscuit,
about halfway between a soda cracker and a cookie, but anything is better
than the repetition of that long name.
The constitution of UNESCO has been published in full in the Journal
of the National Education Association and is available in many other places
to all who want to examine it. I hope all American educators have done so
or will do so. I shall not take time to report its provisions in detail. There
are, however, one or two points which should be emphasized.
The UNESCO preamble, quoting Prime Minister Attlee, declares that
"since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the
defenses of peace must be constructed."
32 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
One important issue relating to UNESCO was the question of its basic
aim. Would UNESCO be just a clearinghouse where ideas, people, and
materials would be exchanged among nations for the direct value of such
exchange to those who take part in it, or would it be an agency dedicated
to the promotion of peace, judging all its operations in terms of their
contribution to that purpose? I am glad to say that, after some discussion,
the second point of view was adopted unanimously. As a result, UNESCO
is dedicated explicitly to just one purpose, the promotion of peace and
In each of the countries which participAte in the work of UNESCO
there will be a national commission on education, science, and culture. This
commission will link the educational institutions of its country with the
program of the international body. It is of the highest importance that the
national commission which will soon be set up in this country be genuinely
representative of the educational forces of the United States. In my opinion
the major responsibility in the operation of UNESCO, both in this country
and internationally, must be placed upon the educational agencies. What the
world needs now, in addition to the exchange of ideas among the intellec-
tual, artistic, and literary leaders of the different nations, is close and co-
operative relationship among those who are responsible for the education of
the masses of the people.
The United States is not yet a member of UNESCO. Resolutions have
been introduced into both houses of Congress authorizing the United States
to enter this international body. I hope that they may be acted upon
promptly. Members of Congress should be helped to understand the views
of their constituents in this respect.
UNESCO, with its headquarters in Paris, will meet in a different city
throughout the world each year. It is an intergovernmental organization;
that is, delegates will be selected by the United States government and by
the governments of the other nations that belong to it. UNESCO will be
able under its charter to conduct almost any enterprise which in the opinion
of the organization will promote peace and security by means of educa-
tional, scientific, and cultural cooperation. The kinds of operation
UNESCO may usefully undertake are now being outlined by a prepara-
tory commission in London.
UNESCO will be related to the United Nations Organization. Beyond
the formalities, the true nature of this relationship was well expressed by
the French delegate at London who told us in a remarkably brilliant
address that the Conference at San Francisco gave the United Nations a
body, while the Conference at London gave the United Nations a soul.
One of the first tasks of this new organ of the international body politic
should be the negotiation of an agreement among all the members of
UNESCO that they will use their educational systems for the development
of international goodwill and understanding, and that they will refrain
from using their educational systems for the opposite ends. Only when such
an agreement has been negotiated and adopted universally, and when there
is adequate reporting at frequent intervals to make sure that such an agree-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 33
ment is being lived up to, can education for peace proceed safely in any
country. We must develop our own peace education, but we must also insist
that it be accompanied by education for peace everywhere else in the world.
If UNESCO can give us that assurance it will become the keystone in the
structure of education for world citizenship.
Unfortunately, even if all the nations represented at the London
UNESCO meeting were to sign and live up to such an agreement, there
would remain a critically weak spot in the program. I refer to the fact that
the Soviet Union did not attend the conference which created UNESCO
last November in London. Perhaps the Soviet Union will join UNESCO.
Thus far it has not indicated its policy. Whether it joins or not, I think we
should face very frankly the hard fact that, while educational relationships
with the Soviet Union are more needed than anywhere else, they are going to
be extremely difficult to secure and maintain. We have, of course, no means
-or practically no means-of speaking effectively to the Russian people.
There are, of course, fundamental differences in the economic and political
structure and ideals of the two countries. The Russian people and the Ameri-
can people alike want to avoid conflict; their chances of doing so will be
seriously impaired if either party is shut up in cultural isolation. This prob-
lem is not made any easier for educators in the United States either by the
Communists or by the Red-baiters who blame everything from the bad
weather to the baby's measles on the evil machinations of the Russians.
I think our government and our people should say very clearly to the
Soviet Government, and as clearly as we are permitted to say to the Russian
people, that we are eager to enter into educational and cultural relations
with them; that we are prepared to go the limit in exchange of educational
materials and personnel; that we are prepared to have what we teach
about Russia in our schools checked for accuracy and fairness; and that we
want the Soviet Union to permit a similar kind of exchange and checking
to be done from our side of the picture. I think that we should make it clear
that we want to lift the "iron curtain" now separating the intellectual and
educational life of the Soviet Union from that of the rest of the world.
We might offer to send a mission to Moscow as well as a mission to Tokyo
-an educational mission made up of judicial and fair-minded leaders in
American education, who will study the Russian schools and give us a report
on what is going on in the educational system in that vast country; who
will make available to the Russians any information that they may desire
about our own educational system and arrange for a return visit of Russian
I should like to see us go even further. Why not give an opportunity to
the Russians to present their point of view to the American people? I should
like to see Soviet students and teachers in this country and American students
and teachers in the Soviet Union. We should, however, insist that these
arrangements be on a direct exchange basis. I would not be afraid that our
students would become communistic through such associations. I think we
ought to hold fast to Thomas Jefferson's dictum that "Error of opinion
may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it."
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Let us reduce this idea of interchange to its simplest possible terms. Why
should not our government invite the government of the Soviet Union (since
governments are the only important open channel of communication at
present) to exchange with us even one educator during the next school year ?
In issuing such an invitation our government could point to the solemn
agreement in the United Nations Charter regarding educational and cul-
tural cooperation. It could propose that the Soviet Government choose one
of its ablest educators to come to the United States for one year as the guest
of our country and of the schools and colleges of our country. The function
of such an individual while in the United States would be to discuss in a
series of public lectures, to be delivered in many of our major cities under
the auspices of universities or public adult education programs, the economic,
political, social, educational, and home life of the people of the Soviet Union.
It could be arranged that this individual speak to the youth of our country
as well as to the adults. He should be asked to present his subject in the way
that seems best to him, having in mind that as a rule he would be speaking
not to assemblies of scholars but to ordinary American citizens. He should,
of course, be free to make any statements that he wishes and he should be
assured (and I am quite positive that he could be assured) that wherever
he went in the United States he would receive a courteous and attentive
hearing. It should not be our purpose to engage in public debate with this
guest on the merits of the political and economic systems of the two countries
or of the current issues of international relations. Our purpose would be to
learn about life in the Soviet Union as a citizen of that country sees it.
The second half of this agreement, without which it should not be valid,
would be that the Soviet Government invite a good representative of Ameri-
can life to visit the Soviet Union under conditions identical to those which
cover the visit of the Russian educator to this country.
In spite of their newly found appreciation for the power of education,
some statesmen might think this modest proposal rather remote from the
great affairs of state with which they now occupy most of their time; but
I suggest that every measure to promote mutual understanding will greatly
lighten the diplomatic tasks.
I do not know what the reply of the Soviet Government would be to such
proposals. We have no right to assume that it would be unfavorable until
we make the proposal. I will go even further and say that even if we were
sure that the reply would be unfavorable, the invitation ought to be made
anyway for the record.
Clearly, the most difficult and even catastrophic developments are likely
if the Western democracies and the Soviet Union go on screaming at each
other across stormy seas of mounting misunderstanding.
If someone will find, say, a dozen schools in the Soviet which are doing
an intelligent and friendly job of interpreting the culture of the United
States to Russian youth, and publish descriptions of these schools, such an
example would do more to promote intelligent teaching about Russia in
American schools and colleges than any other device.
AnnAssIs AT Th'r CorF 'C'S 35"
I think we ought to keep politely but audibly knocking at the door of
Soviet cultural isolation, because unless that door is opened the chances of-
maintaiining friendly relations with Russia seem- to me to be remote.
Until the spirit of UNESCO, until a more free tranrinissibnr of ideas,.
information, and people from one country to another, can prevail everywhere
in this little world, including the Soviet Union, one of the primary condi-
tions of enduring peace is lacking. We cannot force any nation to cooperate
with us in matters of education, but we can and should invite such coopera-
tion on a completely reciprocal basis with all nations.
One final word of restrained enthusiasm about UNESCO. Although
international education enters this first year of peace with clear recognition
and a potentially powerful organization, we should not consider our task
done just because we have secured references to education in the United
Nations Charter and a special United Nations Organization to serve our
profession and its allied interests. That is only the beginning. If education
is going to put the military profession out of business as General Eisen-
hower wants it to do, we shall have to keep at our task with the same kind of
unremitting energy, the same kind of intelligence, the same kind of financial
support, the same kind of effective organization, that has brought us thus far
along the road. We must find a way to bridge the gap between these great
international organizations, functioning in Paris or New York or some
other part of the world, and the teachers in classrooms thousands of miles
away. It is the teacher in the classroom who will make or break UNO or
UNESCO. I urge you, as leaders of the teaching profession, to see that
the members of your staffs are acquainted with these new tools of interna-
tional relations in education, that they understand what a heavy responsi-
bility these new developments place upon all of us. I cannot imagine what
other task confronting the public schools of this country is entitled to equal
We must never forget that the United Nations Organization and its
specialized organizations such as UNESCO are simply instruments. When
people ask me whether I think that the United Nations will work and
whether I think that the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization will work, I am tempted to ask them in reply
whether they think that a spade will work. A spade is a tool; it works only
if somebody works it. We have all seen those spades that turned the first sod
for the foundation of the new City Hall. There they are, shiny, new, each
in its handsome, tightly sealed, glass-and-chromium case in the lobby,
suitably marked for the admiration of succeeding generations of sightseers.
Thus walled in and ceremoniously displayed, they will never cultivate a
garden or cut a straight ditch to drain a swamp. So it is with the United
Nations Organizations-they are tools, they are instruments. They are not
works of art or historical monuments.
Perhaps I can make my point this way. Suppose some friend in this audi-
ence were to approach me at this moment with a violin in his hand and were
to say to me, "You have talked long enough. It is time for a little relaxa-
36 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
tion. Won't you play us a tune on this violin?" I would have to say, after
I had recovered from my surprise at such unorthodox procedure, "That is
an excellent suggestion, but, you see, I never learned to play the violin. It
looks like a rather complicated instrument with all these keys and frets,
strings and stops, and I cannot make any melody upon it because I have not
studied it or practiced on it."
And if my friend persisted, he might say, "Yes, but see what a splendid
violin this is. See how cunningly it is made, how cleverly the different parts
are put together. The best violin-makers worked for months at San Francisco
and London to make this instrument, using nothing but the finest quality of
wood, glue, and other materials. Surely you can play such an excellent instru-
ment as this." And again, I would have to reply, "I am sorry, it doesn't
make any difference how good the instrument is. Since I have not learned
how to use it, I can produce on it nothing but discords."
But if you had in this auditorium, instead of me, a Fritz Kreisler, or any
other skilled violinist and if you brought to him a battered two-dollar fiddle
that you had picked up at the nearest pawnshop, he could tuck that instru-
ment under his chin and it would pour out most excellent sweet music to
charm the heart out of you. He could make good music on a poor violin,
because he has learned how to play it and practiced the playing of it, long
and patiently from childhood. True, he could make even better music if he
had a better instrument, and we ought to give him the very best instrument
that we can, but the crucial fact is that he knows how; he has learned.
I say to you that the great job of American education and of education all
over the world is to teach these boys and girls how to play on these new
instruments which we have fashioned as best we could for the great purpose
of promoting peace among the nations. For unless these children learn well
and practice persistently, the statesmen of all the world will labor in vain,
and General Eisenhower's magnificent offhand challenge will go unanswered.
THE NEXT DECADE IN EDUCATION
W. HOWARD PILLSBURY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK
Address at Atlanta Conference
The shape of things to come is still not too clear. We know that the
world is rapidly decreasing in size. By means of the radio we can hear
in a few seconds the news around the world. By means of the airplane
any point of the world surface can be reached in less than sixty hours.
Within the next decade this time will probably be cut in half. Television is
just around the corner-about where radio was fifteen years ago. Within
the next decade all of our large cities will be connected by a chain of
stations which will enable us to see as well as hear history in the making.
The world is smaller at the present time than the thirteen colonies were
when the Constitution was signed, and no place on earth is so far from
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
Atlanta today as Savannah was before the coming of railroads. The world
is indeed shrinking before our eyes.
At long last men everywhere are beginning to understand that they
must learn to live in peace if they are to live at all. The use of nuclear
fission as an instrument of destruction has definitely catapulted America
from an isolated, self-centered, and self-sufficient nation sitting in com-
placent security behind her ocean barriers into a front-line position of
responsibility for determining whether our universe shall become one
world or no world at all.
The problems involved fairly stagger the imagination. They include
such international problems as the establishment of conditions of peace,
the determination of political boundaries, the prevention of future aggres-
sion, the rehabilitation of devastated countries, the promotion of racial
tolerance, the stability of international currencies, the freedom of sea and
air, international government, international courts, and international edu-
cation. On the national level they include such problems as reconversion,
social security, full employment, the labor-management disagreements,
controlled inflation, payment of our national debt, the treatment of minor-
ity groups, and a host of others. Hitherto we have been concerned with
the problems of a nation of 135 million people. Now we must raise our
sights to include those of a world of two to three billion.
All of these problems, whether national or international, political, social,
or economic, depend for their solution on the development of sound under-
standings and attitudes by the American people. And this in turn is a
matter of education. Never before in the history of the world have the
responsibilities of education been so great. The times demand that schools
develop upward, downward, outward, and internally.
The upward growth for which the need is greatest is that in the field of
adult education. The schools can and should do their'part in producing
a generation educated for responsible citizenship, but the solution of many
of our problems cannot be deferred. Decisions are already in the making
which may determine our destiny for generations to come. There is a
desperate and immediate need for expansion in adult education in every com-
munity in this country.
1. Perhaps the most familiar type of adult education in our schools is
citizenship education for the foreign-born, or Americanization. It received
its great impetus from World War I when we were amazed to find that
the vaunted melting pot was not functioning as effectively as we had
expected. As a result, practically everywhere in the United States courses
for the teaching of reading and writing English were provided for the
foreign-born with the expectation that the job of assimilation would thus
World War II has shown that this activity, valuable as it is, is not
enough. Traditions and habits of a lifetime are not so easily broken.
38 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Divided loyalties are never strong loyalties. Mere literacy does not neces-
sarily produce the desired emotional attitudes of responsible citizenship. It
is not necessary that the foreign-born should discard all natural affection
for their fatherland, but it is imperative that they should develop a deeper
emotional love for and understanding of America. The situation is much
like that of a young couple setting up a new home. They continue to love
and respect their parents but their supreme loyalty is given to one another
and to this new home.
The situation of the enemy alien during the recent war has been exceed-
ingly difficult and thoroughly bewildering. He felt that in giving his
sons to fight for America, even against the land of his birth, he had con-
clusively demonstrated his allegiance to this country. And yet he found
himself peculiarly restricted in the use of the radio, in freedom of move-
ment, and in many other ways. Frequently he observed an atmosphere of
suspicion and surveillance, merely because of his foreign birth. In the
case of the Japanese, entire communities were bodily transferred from
their homes and businesses to relocation centers which, in effect, constituted
a mild form of concentration camp. These restrictions in time of war were
undoubtedly necessary but if strong loyalties to America are to be developed
in spite of them, something more is needed than a mere knowledge of the
English language. The educational process must extend into their homes,
clubs, churches, and fraternal organizations. It must soften the difficulties
involved in the shift of loyalties by emphasizing the cultural contributions
which they make to the American way of life. And it certainly must
dramatize the meaning and importance of democratic citizenship.
A new need is being brought sharply into focus at the present time by
the arrival in this country of an unprecedented number of war brides,
many already mothers of children. The pattern of family life is mainly
determined by the mother. Here is a situation in which adequate citizen-
ship education for the foreign-born will insure rich returns in terms of
the attitudes and loyalties of a new generation of children.
2. The second most common form of adult education is evening schools.
Many of our cities are offering evening courses in any subject for which
ten people express a desire. This is very helpful but it does not go far
enough. As valuable as drawing, Spanish, and metalwork are, we can
still lose the race between education and catastrophe if we produce too
many drawing, Spanish, and metalwork students who have forgotten
that they are also citizens in a self-governing democracy. Institutes,
conferences, and community meetings on current public questions should
ibe added to evening school activities. Discussions, forums, panels, and
symposiums should be added to the methods. Local experts, community
'leaders, and well-informed citizens should be added to the staffs. The
controversial issues-local, state, national, and international-should be
added to the curriculum.
3. The adjustment of the veteran to civil life is different but, in many
casess, equal in difficulty to that of tthe foreign-born, The veteran, par-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 39
ticularly if he has had considerable battle experience, has been orientated
to a world quite foreign to that to which he returns. War teaches him to
destroy property-civil life to preserve it. War teaches him to kill-with
his bare hands, if necessary, and to do it gladly. Civil life teaches him
that the individual is the heart of democracy and that human life must
be preserved at all costs. W\ar teaches him that unquestioned obedience is
the highest quality of a'soldier. He is told when to arise, what to wear,
when and what to eat; practically all his acts throughout his waking time
are prescribed. Civil life throws him on his own and compels him to make
his own decisions at every turn.
This transition varies in difficulty with the individual and the complete-
ness of his orientation to war. Some make the adjustment quickly and
fairly easy; others only with considerable difficulty. Some who have not
been long out of this country slip back into the high school which they
left before graduation and are scarcely recognizable from the regular
students. Even these, however, need an understanding treatment which
will permit them special privileges in the matter of class attendance
whenever their nerves become jittery.
Others need an adequate counseling service by a qualified counselor
who understands their problems, preferably himself a veteran. And it is
important that educational opportunities be provided for all who desire
them. A surprising number, in view of the forecasts of veteran interest
in further education, desire to avail themselves of the opportunity
of going to college. Many, however, wish to work in order to provide
more adequate subsistence for their families. These should be provided
with-the courses, vocational or academic, which they need when they need
them. Their work should be largely on an individual basis permitting them
to enter at any time and proceed at their own rate. Administration
should be the servant and not the master.
Veterans are destined to be one of the most powerful groups in this
country in the period ahead, and the kind of service which is provided for
them at this time will, to a large degree, determine their attitude toward
the future support of education.
4. Every year millions of young people terminate their connection with
formal education either through graduation or because they see no further
value to them in what the schools have to offer. Their primary concern
is getting a job and establishing a family of their own. These are, of
course, genuine contributions to responsible citizenship but meanwhile
they are losing all connection with the civic life of their community,
usually until about age thirty-five or until their first children enter school.
The dictators have never made the mistake of ignoring this group;
in fact both Hitler and Mussolini rode into power largely on the backs
of youth. In America during the depression some four million of them
wandered up and down the land with all the potentialities of dynamite.
Certainly democracy cannot afford to allow their assets of vigor, en-
thusiasm, loyalty, and the willingness to sacrifice for a cause bigger than
themselves, to degenerate into a dangerous liability.
40 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
This young adult group constitutes about 80 to 85 percent of our future
adult population. They are a special type of adult and need special treat-
ment. The traditional technics of the school are no longer feasible since
in many cases they have left school as a protest against these very procedures.
Adequate counseling service should be available to them. They should
be followed up on the job until they become well adjusted. Their interests
should be explored and capitalized on for continuing education. Those
who can profit by it should be given leadership training and every effort
should be made to bring them into active participation in community enter-
prises. Education can no longer afford to ignore its extramural respon-
5. Every community has a tremendous number of organized groups
whose programs have educational possibilities. No community realizes
how many there are until it has made an actual survey. In my own
community of Schenectady, for example, we found over thirteen hundred
such groups of which about half had potential educational values. They
include individual study groups, churches, lodges, labor organizations,
clubs, women's groups, farm organizations, parent-teacher associations, and
Their program makers in most cases recognize their need for help
and welcome assistance. Schools should provide one or more people as a
field service whose function it is to consult with them as to their needs
and make available to them all the adult education resources of the com-
munity. The principal fields in which local organizations need help are
program content and technics, the provision of speakers and discussion
groups, and program materials such as books, pamphlets, slides, films,
and the like. Since they are already going concerns, these groups offer the
richest opportunity in any community for a large return on a relatively
Adult education can no longer be considered a luxury. It is a vital
necessity today if education is to meet its responsibilities. The problems
which confront us are too pressing and the time all too short for provid-
ing the sound understanding and attitudes which the times require. If
we are to wage peace in the same spirit in which we wage war, all our
resources of public information, our schools and colleges, libraries and
museums, radio and movies, newspapers and pamphlets, forums and
discussion groups-in short, all the adult education resources of our com-
munities-must be mobilized for world citizenship.
THE NURSERY SCHOOL
Just as the schools must grow upward, so also they must develop down-
ward.' Just as education does not cease when the child leaves school, so it
does not begin when he enters the school door. The school is only one of a
great number of educational institutions in the life of the individual.
These include the home, church, stores, streets, playground, books, movies,
and radio. All his experiences which change his ways of thinking and
acting are part of his education.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 41
The process begins with his first conscious reactions to his environment
and has gone a long way before he enters the traditional school building.
In fact, his health habits and attitudes as well as his pattern of social
behavior and speech are largely determined by his preschool years.
One of our foremost authorities on the period of infancy tells us that
a child who grows up under the most favorable conditions where he is
allowed to investigate to, his heart's content and whose questions are
answered in terms which he can understand will have learned half the
things he'll ever know before he reaches school age. And if, on the
other hand, he grows up under the most unfavorable conditions where
he is neglected and pushed aside, he will enter the school with the mark
of the dullard already on his face. Only if he is unusually fortunate in
coming under the influence of wise, understanding, and interested teachers
will he achieve anything beyond mediocrity. "The waste from a machine
can be salvaged and melted down into new metal. A wasted human life
rarely gets a new start."
The Iowa studies seem to confirm this point of view. They demonstrate
that even the IQ which we have hitherto regarded as fixed tends to
rise or fall in the early years as the environment is favorable or otherwise.
Their study of the effect of the nursery school shows that an average
increase of as much as eight points can be made in an entire class in
a single year. The value of the nursery school in meeting the problems of the
preschool child is, therefore, obvious.
Not only is the nursery school important for its direct effect on the
preschool child. It is also a most valuable laboratory for parent education.
It is one of the paradoxes of American education that despite our recogni-
tion of the home as, next to the school, the community's most important
educational institution, we do very little to prepare our young people to
become efficient parents. AIany of our states today are requiring at least
a four-year professional course for teaching in the schools, but for the
teaching in the home no preparation is considered necessary. We proceed
apparently on the assumption that by some strange alchemy the mere
process of parenthood endows the individual with all the wisdom, patience,
and understanding necessary for the most complex and difficult job we
know-the guidance of the physical, mental, social, and spiritual develop-
ment of a young child.
Unfortunately there is no such sudden acquisition of wisdom. Educa-
tion for parenthood is a pressing need. This should include courses in
our high schools designed to prepare young people for marriage and parent-
hood. It should also include courses and discussion groups for the training
of mothers on the job. But valuable as these are, they are not enough.
They need to be supplemented both for youth and for parents with the
use of the nursery school as a laboratory. I would suggest that one of the
prices of admission for children in nursery school should be an agree-
ment by the mother to spend at least two days a month in the school
as helper to the teacher in charge.
42 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Most of our cities have had some experience with the nursery school.
During the depression funds were made available first by FERA and
later by WPA primarily to provide jobs for unemployed teachers. During
the war Lanham funds were provided to care for the children of work-
ing mothers. Regardless of the purpose of the funds, our schools have had
an opportunity to observe the beneficial effects of this work on the health,
nutritional, and mental habits of children and on the homes from which
they came. We ought not to need a depression or a war to make it possible
to provide adequate facilities for the education of children in these all-
important first years. The recent publication of the Educational Poli-
cies Commission, Educational Services for Young Children, should give
a strong impetus to this movement in the decade ahead.
Education must grow outward into the community. The time is
past when the school can safely regard itself as a closed corporation,
neither welcoming nor tolerating interference from without. Public rela-
tions has always been one of the greatest weaknesses of our public schools.
Many a school has seen a fine, carefully-thought-out program, rich in prom-
ise for the most effective education of youth, suddenly upset by the public
demand for a return to the procedures of a former generation. No school
system can safely progress more rapidly than it can carry public under-
standing and support along with it.
Furthermore, a considerable increase in the expenditures for edu-
cation in the decade ahead is inevitable. We are facing a large expansion in
vocational education to provide the skilled workers for our increasing
production. Vocational education is not cheap. It is far more expensive to
house, to equip, and to operate than an academic school. Yet the necessity
for this development is obvious. The imperative need for a considerable
expansion in adult education and for the provision of education for the
preschool child, which has previously been discussed, involves another
large increase in the school budget.
There is evidence to show that the public will support these ex-
penditures but only if they thoroughly understand the reasons for these
new developments in the curriculum. In this connection I wish to call your
attention to the most encouraging pronouncements which have recently
come out of the United States Chamber of Commerce. The pamphlet,
Education, An Investment in People, demonstrating the consistent rela-
tion between business prosperity and educational expenditures should be
in the hands of every businessman in your community.
The time has come when educators should deliberately embark on the
policy of making the public a partner in the educational enterprise. Lay-
men should share with the professional staff in planning the program if
public support is to be assured.
There are, of course, many ways in which this can be done. As an
example, I would like to present a method which we in Schenectady
have found very effective for this purpose. In common with a number of
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 43
systems in New York State, we have embarked on a study of the prob-
lems confronting schoolboards in the postwar period. The study has been
divided into four steps. Step I tried to answer the question, "What Kind
of a Community Shall We Have a Decade Hence?" It attempted to forecast
the following five decisive factors: first, the probable population of the city
and its environs, changes in age groups and minority groups, and other
population trends which might affect the education program; second,
economic conditions, including the number of employees, changes in
vocational opportunity, the probable income of the average family; third,
the preparations for those who are being demobilized both from the
services and from industry, the educational provisions available and added
facilities needed; fourth, the adequacy of the home as an educational
institution, the housing development needed, the probable number of
employed mothers, and the quality of provisions for healthful living in
the average home, the highest 10 percent, and the lowest 10 percent; and
fifth, other community factors such as social and recreational facilities,
libraries and museums, movies and radio, fine arts, health and social wel-
fare, and opportunities to prepare for civic responsibilities. The data
involved in this step were largely factual. Some of the material was already
available in one form or another. A committee of twenty-five composed
almost entirely of laymen made this study and prepared an excellent fore-
cast of our community a decade hence.
Step II faced the question, "What Kind of Education Do We Need
for Such a Community?" WVhat information, attitudes, and appreciations
should be developed? What vocational and guidance opportunities should
be offered? What provision should be made for the nursery school, the
lunch program, education for the handicapped and the gifted, for adult
education, parent education, for recreation and cooperation with com-
munity organizations? In other words, what should be the educa-
tional objectives of Schenectady in the next decade?
This committee needed a high degree of imagination and understand-
ing of education. Nevertheless, of the committee of thirty, at least 80
percent were laymen. It included some of the best minds of the community
-college professors, engineers and other professional men, representatives
of business and labor, leaders of women's groups, and young adults.
It was a most inspiring experience to watch this committee in action.
They started by familiarizing themselves with some of the best modern
educational literature, such as the Educational Policies Commission's
Education for All American Youth. They put a tremendous amount of
enthusiastic effort into the study and it was most interesting to watch
deep-seated prejudices gradually melt under the impact of new ideas.
It was a fine demonstration of intellectual integrity and one which even
we in the profession might well emulate.
Their report proposes a much bolder set of objectives than the members of
our staff would have dared to present to the public, but it is offered by the
leaders in the community who cannot be charged with a vested interest
and will, therefore, carry more weight. Their interest once aroused is
44 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
a continuing one and will probably result in a permanent advisory coun-
cil to help in carrying out the objectives which they have suggested.
Step III, now in process, is facing the question: "How Do We Go from
Where We Are to the Achievement of the Objectives Suggested by the
Committee on Step II?" This committee will lay out a definite program
by which the objectives formulated by the preceding committee may be
This is, of course, a technical matter, and the central committee is com-
posed largely of the professional staff with only about one-third lay repre-
sentation. The committee is doing the best job of getting the entire teach-
ing staff on its toes that I have ever seen. Through its various subcommittees
it will bring into its operation nearly one thousand people, including staff,
laymen, and students. It expects to make a preliminary report before the
close of the school year but it is already evident to the various subcom-
mittees that they are embarked on at least a five-year plan.
Step IV is the function of the board of education. Having received the
program laid out by the preceding committee, the board will decide how
much of the program to accept, what priorities to give to the various phases,
how they can be financed, and how public support can best be secured.
Taken as a whole, the project has proved one of the best media for
enlisting the deep and abiding interest of the leaders of public opinion in a
community with which I have ever had the good fortune to come into
contact. The program which is emerging will be sound not only from the
professional standpoint but from the point of view of public support as
well. Furthermore, it produced by-products of in-service training of no
mean order. I can commend it to any system interested in professional
growth in combination with effective public relations.
And not only must our schools grow upward, downward, and outward-
they must also develop internally. The purpose of the school is twofold:
first, to inculcate in the student those qualities which make for responsible
citizenship; and, second, to help him attain the optimum development of his
capacities as an individual.
As to the first, the record of the school, though far from adequate, has
stood up fairly well under the acid test of war. Life in democratic American
classrooms has fostered qualities of initiative, endurance, straight thinking,
self-reliance, cooperation, and pride in a job well done which have paid
rich dividends in foxholes, submarines, and Flying Fortresses all over the
world. They have enabled a generation unconditioned to the ways of war,
after relatively short preparation, to meet the best trained forces of Europe.
Now they must be prepared to wage peace with equal effectiveness. They
must build tolerance, understanding, and an outlook which reaches beyond
state and national boundaries if we are to have an enduring peace. They
must be taught the interdependence of nations; that there can be no long-
range prosperity in the United States which is not based on a rising stand-
ard of living all over the world; that a desire for the universal welfare
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 45
is not merely a matter of altruism but the very essence of self-preservation.
In this broadening of our vision, the schools face a very real job which will
challenge the best thinking of our curriculum-makers. It is imperative
that the coming generation should not only be responsible citizens of a
democratic America but world citizens as well.
As to the second purpose, schools have long given lip service to the
importance of educating, the individual. They have glibly accepted the
philosophy of education as a process of continuing educational development
from the kindergarten through the senior high school. In practice, how-
ever, very little has been done about it. In most schools there is still a
hierarchy of preparation from one level to another-elementary to junior
high, junior high to senior high, and senior high to college. We are still far
from fitting the curriculum to the child, as witness the fact that, for the
United States as a whole, less than 50 percent of those going into seventh
grade graduate from high school.
In the decade ahead there must be less mass education and more attention
to the individual. Just as in the army, the essential qualification for a
leader was that he should know his men, so teachers must realize the crucial
importance of knowing the individual as an indispensable foundation for
sound teaching. Administrators, as well as teachers, must understand more
clearly the implication of education as a process of continuous child develop-
ment. Both in their preservice and in-service training, teachers must be put
in possession of that great body of literature in this field which has so
enriched our understanding of children. They must be given a better com-
prehension of the social service point of view and become more conscious
of the community resources and how they can best be used in cooperation
with school needs.
In other words, there must be a tremendous expansion in the field of
guidance. This must become the core of the curriculum. Every teacher
must be a guidance counselor. This includes guidance of all kinds-voca-
tional, educational, social, health, recreational, and personal. In fact, it is
almost impossible to formulate a definition of guidance which is not also
a definition of good teaching.
The specialist in guidance will find his particular function in helping the
teachers to operate more effectively as guidance counselors in handling
special problems which are beyond the time and capacity of the teacher,
and in acting as a liaison between the school and the social service agencies of
It is the business of the school to help the student solve the problems
which confront him.
We are entering a new era in history with all the problems which this
involves. All of these problems whether national or international, political,
social, or economic, depend for their solution on the development of sound
understandings and attitudes by the American people. And this in turn
is a matter of education. Never before in the history of the world have
responsibilities of education been so great. The times demand that schools
develop upward, downward, outward, and internally.
HELEN ADAMS KELLER
Is Awarded This Testimonial
THE AMERICAN EDUCATION AWARD
Great-souled in her outlook upon life apparently
darkened by many shadows, and invincible against
forces which would seem insurmountable to one less
resolute, while on the one hand she manifested in-
genious personal bravery, on the other she became
to all of us the exemplar of faith in one's self and in
his fellow man.
Far from being stranger to those endeavors by
which men strive for excellence, she rose to pre-
eminence in the very skills and arts which demand
the exercise of man's noblest faculties.
Having won the degree of Bachelor of Arts, she
entered upon life's career in which she became dis-
tinguished as a lecturer, as author, as valued member
of various national commissions and advisory boards.
as writer for current magazines, and as most active
participant in other worthy enterprises for the in-
spiration and advancement of those unendowed by
Nature's gifts of sight and hearing.
To these, no less than to all humankind. Helen
Adams Keller is, and will ever remain, a light in
darkness and an inspiration to worthy achievement.
The above is the wording on the illuminated
manuscript presented to Helen Adams Keller
by the Associated Exhibitors of the National
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
FINANCING EDUCATION FOR A NEW WORLD
THOMAS C. BOUSHALL, PRESIDENT, THE BANK OF VIRGINIA, RICHMOND,
VA., CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, CHAMBER OF
COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES
Address, at rNew York Conference
Discussion of the subject assigned me-"Financing Education in a New
World"-is not one lightly entered upon. I do hope, however, that I can
bring to your attention a new approach to the underwriting of the cost of
education in this so-called New World.
There are three points that I want to develop: First, the possibilities in-
herent in the use of the instrument of education to bring rising social well-
being to our people in our land, and in turn to other nations that compose
this New World. Second, who is the greatest and most direct beneficiary of
the current and the proposed educational process? Third, how can the deter-
mined beneficiary most profitably and equitably meet the increased cost of
education adapted to the New World?
First of all, you who are educators need no exposition from me to develop
the idea that a better trained individual has greater potentials in technical
skill and in the development of cultural wants than an untrained person out-
side the influence of educational facilities. I bring up the point because I am
a businessman talking to educators. I want you to know that we in-the
business world are rapidly coming to see the basic significance of the relation-
ship between educational level and economic status.
Business is abandoning its previous efforts to get the educator to plump
for the system of private enterprise. Rather, the alert and advanced business-
man of today is discovering the educational process as his greatest hope of
expansion, his greatest bulwark against any declining support of the Ameri-
can way of life, his greatest weapon with which to defeat the march of social-
ism or communism 'round the world. Business has taken off its colored
glasses through which it saw education with a tint of red around the edges
or in the middle.
We are all seeing now that as the mass of our people throughout the land
rise in their capacity to develop technical skills, we can introduce more
machinery on the farm, in the forest, in the mine, at sea, in the factory, and
on the road, where mobile equipment can be used. WVe see that this machinery
can be more complex and automatic when operated by an intelligent, under-
standing individual whose education has opened his mind to greater per-
ception and abler execution.
Again we sec that such people, so educated, are making a greater contri-
bution to the production of goods and services by using their better polished
brains over their heretofore limited use of straining brawn.
Finally, the businessman is seeing that the able technical capacity to con-
tribute to production and to earn greater income does not matter unless the
individual is likewise being taught cultural concepts that develop intense ap-
petites for better clothes and homes, better food and recreation, better sur-
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
roundings, and wider opportunity for travel; then the technical skills will
only be used to earn just enough to keep body and soul together. But given a
parallel step-up in cultural wants, the trained technical operator will exert
himself to earn the money with which to satisfy the cultural desires.
It is not a long jump for the businessman's imagination to get out in front
and himself plump for the proposition that better education of our whole
people means an abler group of producers, earning more money with which
to buy a greater variety and quantity of better goods and services.
There you have an all but perfected formula for business development
which holds not only in the United States of America but in every other
land on the globe.
It is just this concept that stimulated the Committee on Education of the
Chamber of Commerce of the United States to make studies of its own that
would bring these facts, these pertinent economic financial profit and loss
figures, to the attention of the businessmen of America. There was little
point in bringing coals to Newcastle in telling this story to educators; nor
could educators themselves carry this story to business without being as
suspect in turn as business has been when it sought to sell you educators on
the private enterprise concept.
I have found that you educators, members of the American Association of
School Administrators, are as alert to the virtues of our private enterprise
concept here in our democracy, operating as a representative republic, as are
the businessmen of the nation.
And now we are learning that the businessmen of the nation are beginning
to discover that the educational processes of our country are as basic and
integral in our successful economy and as necessary to its continuance, its
maintenance, and its expansion, as are the very factories and their machinery,
the railroads and the highways, the banks and the stores.
This mutual discovery of the high regard that each holds for the other,
and the recognition that only by joint effort and integrated functioning can
we hope to meet our rising problems, has more significant promise for this
country than perhaps any discovery in the twentieth century.
Increased earning power and production, accompanied by increased appe-
tites and consequent increased consumption, is the promise of our New
World, based on education's realization that it must greatly augment its
facilities, modernize its processes, streamline its methods. Education must
realize that it must produce youth and adult graduates, tempered and con-
ditioned to this modern world-this New World from which all of us so
hopefully expect so much.
Business views the situation with comfort and with hope.
And now for the second point: If there be so much promise inherent in
the use of the instrument of education to bring a rising social well-being
to our total people and an expanding and profitable economy to our business
world, who will be the greatest beneficiary? For that beneficiary must want
to bear the cost incident to a stepped-up educational process. That benefi-
ciary must be impatient to set the program in motion, that its benefits may
all the sooner be realized.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 49
Heretofore most of the income of the local governments with which to
pay the cost of education has come from assessments on real estate. But is
the real-estate owner the greatest beneficiary? Perhaps education, new dis-
coveries, and new developments will carry the would-be home-owner deep
into the country, outside the town, where real-estate values usually are high-
est. There is more danger for the real-estate owner than there is promise of
good in an expanding economy in the day of car and plane, television and
radio, good roads, and decentralized marketing facilities. If education speeds
these processes, it may lower current real-estate values in the cities and raise
them in the countryside.
And so the real-estate owner will not happily or voluntarily rush out to
urge a greater assessment for educational expansion that may be detrimental
to him and perhaps holds little if any hope of benefit.
The general income tax payer will not want to see the fairly static bracket
of income rates broken open in the several states for the purpose of increasing
state income with which to pay for greater educational effort. Once the set
brackets are opened for this purpose, there will appear a score of causes
wanting to add 1, 2, 3, or more percent figures on to present rates with
which to achieve their several purposes.
We must come back then to the greatest beneficiary of the educational
process-business itself. We can properly suggest that the increasing bene-
ficiary pay the increased cost, just as the gasoline tax was put on to pay only
for roads and for no other cause in most of the soundly financed states.
The third point then is how to apply such a tax on an equitable basis.
What considerations should govern in determining an equitable distribu-
tion of this cost? How can we allocate to each business venture its proper
pro rata part?
We find the precedent already set in the gasoline tax. There the automo-
bile operator pays a 6-cent tax on every gallon of gasoline he uses.
If an employer has but one employee, he can only benefit to that degree.
If an employer has 10 or 100 or 1000 employees, he presumably benefits
10 or 100 or 1000 times more.
In my state of Virginia, as an example, I am advised that $18,000,000 is
required for currently needed additional equipment and salaries to put
education on a proper modern basis. WVe have 900,000 employed persons in
Virginia. Thus 900,000 (the number of workers) divided into $18,000,000
(the number of dollars) comes out $20 per employee. Hence the employer
of one person would pay $20 per annum educational use tax and the em-
ployer of 100 people would pay $2000.
No doubt the costs would vary in each state, and likewise the number of
employed persons. The educational use tax on employers might then range
from $5 to $10, $20, $30, or $40, as the case in each state might require. In
such a method we find an equitable distribution of the cost to be borne by
the greatest beneficiaries of the results obtained from the added educational
I have discussed this thought with a great many businessmen, large and
small employers alike. None have refused to accept the following principles:
50 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
(a) That business is the greatest beneficiary of education; (b) that the sug-
gested method of meeting the cost is equitable; (c) that business would do
well itself to inaugurate the program in order to lead the way toward
practical realism in governmental affairs. By that I mean that socially desir-
able programs, leading to the rising well-being of the people, should have a
sound economic base. Such a base should be one that can be supported
year in and year out. It should be creative in concept and one that adds profit
to the whole people-socializes the profit, if you please. The opposite concept
of meeting a social need on a deficit basis presumes that we will forever
socialize the loss. This deficit method is one that can only lead to the state's
final insolvency and society's eventual bankruptcy. Surely the creative
profit-developing program, to be shared by all, is preferable. The question
then comes, will business and legislators, social planners and educators-in
fact, the whole general public-accept the premise that would lead to its
*There are three premises that must be first presented and adopted:
(a) That the potential development of the technical skill and cultural appe-
tites of the total people will result in an expanding economy with a rising
social well-being for all; (b) that business itself is and will continue to be
the greatest beneficiary of a stepped-up educational program attuned to our
current postwar world; (c) that a per capital educational use tax, adjusted in
amount to the needs of each state, paid by the employer for each employee,
is the equitable way to meet that cost.
Cities are the centers of industries where populations tend to concentrate.
Rural youth migrates to the city to find work that brings in cash income for
more congenial and less onerous duties. But this migrating youth has been
educated in the local rural school at the expense of the locality. He migrates
out. He does not stay to repay to his community the cost of his or her educa-
tion. The locality constantly being deserted by its educated youth cannot
afford but just so high a degree of education. Yet that education is the style to
which the city industry must become accustomed if it draws away an appre-
ciable number of men and women from surrounding rural areas-a process
that has gone on for a thousand years the world over.
The suggestion that the employer pay into the state treasury a per capital
educational use tax for every employee means that the rural localities, which
have heretofore at their own expense sent their educated youths to the cities
and towns, would then be able to recapture as their part of the fund perhaps
more from this fund than the current burden of educational cost.
It further means that the locality will have a better brand of education
for its youth remaining at home. This also means a better educated youth
that comes on to the city centers looking for a job in town. This means in
turn that the industrialist or banker, the storekeeper or public service com-
pany, is getting far better trained people coming to them from the country
than the country schools have heretofore been able to provide.
Put briefly, the suggested program is designed to distribute and equalize
educational opportunities far more evenly throughout each individual state
than has heretofore been possible anywhere in our several states.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
I was talking to a member of an outstanding legislative body on this sub-
ject recently. He remarked, smiling, "Well, you'll have no trouble with my
state assembly. We have a majority of our members from the rural sections.
When it becomes apparent that the city and town employers will be called
upon to put up most of the money to educate our local rural youth and pro-
vide each locality with more money for education than we have ever had
before, we country folk will'readily go along."
The city people say that they see great benefit in having everybody
throughout the state equally well educated. In these days of good roads and
quick transportation between city and farm, there is every advantage in the
equalization of educational opportunities. The bigger the employer, the
greater his benefit despite his greater cost. The heavily taxed real-estate
owner and those fearful of a heavier income tax will perhaps welcome a new
device by which money is freshly supplied for the greatest single expendi-
ture of local government-education.
The day can come-it may indeed come fairly soon-if these principles
are generally accepted as the best method by which to provide the necessary
money to support a stronger, better adapted educational process geared to
our current economy and society, when all levies on real estate or other forms
of property can be abandoned. In fact, all levies on real property have been
abandoned in the process of raising money to build and maintain state and
Once we have set our foot in this path, the issue merely comes down to
the rate of payment per employee based on the rising productive and con-
sumptive power that this expenditure generates on the part of the total
There are no known limits on the consumptive capacity of the people. TVe
know now that the limit on the consumptive power of the people is tied into
their earning ability and cultural appetites.
If through the educational process the instrument of education can be the
lever by which we can raise the consumptive power of the people, reaching
out toward but never possibly attaining the limits of the total consumptive
capacity of the people, we may have uncovered indeed a new use of an old
hut modernized instrument in a new and demanding world.
I have one more point to present, and I am done. But before doing so let
me make a pertinent fact crystal clear. The Committee on Education of the
U. S. Chamber of Commerce is responsible only for the development of the
program to show business that there is a positive parallel between educational
level and economic status. The Committee has proved the premise so clearly
that it warrants the keenest and closest study of every local Chamber off
Commerce and trade organization in the land.
The idea that we should finance the stepped-up needs of modernized
education to bring it into realistic touch with our current world, through
the application of an educational use tax levied on the employer for each of
his employees, is not a concept developed by the U. S. Chamber's committee.
I assume full responsibility for this suggestion.
It is my purpose to present the idea to the Committee on Education, and
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
I hope in turn to the board of directors and the general membership of the
Chamber of Commerce in the United States.
I am making this statement merely to keep the record clear and thus in no
way to commit the U. S. Chamber or its Committee on Education.
The final point is this: Businessmen are waking up to the fact that they
cannot operate their businesses with illiterate or quasi illiterate people. They
are realizing rapidly that the deficiency in the educational preparation of
their employees is the degree by which their respective business ventures
Too, businessmen are waking up to the fact that a people technically
trained but not culturally developed will work only so hard for only so many
days and then lay off. Business is beginning to realize that if the zest of
cultural appetites is developed wherein men want better things for them-
selves and for their families, then not only will men and women work full
time, with a will, in order to earn, to buy, to acquire, and enjoy these better
things, but in so doing they widen the world's markets. Widened markets
reduce prices. Reduced prices in turn again widen markets. Cultural appe-
tites are prerequisite then to the full operation of these processes. Education
is the sine qua non of rising cultural concepts among the people.
Eric Johnston is now the ambassador of the moving-picture industry to
present it to the world as a tremendously potent and significant agency of
what? Of education, of the cultural development of the people both in the
United States and abroad. One of Eric Johnston's first undertakings, as he
gives up the direction of the policies of the U. S. Chamber and takes over the
policy responsibility for the moving-picture industry, is to put that industry
fully behind the instrument of education. He has secured a large appropria-
tion whereby, with the aid of distinguished professors from two great uni-
versities, research will be carried on seeking to discover the best method
for the motion-picture industry to prepare professional film for use in the
schoolrooms of the nation.
Here is business putting up $150,000 for research, seeking to discover how
it may move into a contributing position to step up the educational process
whereby the technical capacities and the cultural appetites of the people of
the nation may be raised.
Many businesses have for long years had their own educational training
schools maintained 100 percent at their own cost. Why? Because their
respective businesses have been more profitably operated by a more tech-
nically skilled staff of workers. Perhaps this program will carry on for many
years in special cases. But general businesses must rely upon the public-school
systems of our several states to give general technical training to the youth
and to adults that come to the factory, the store, the office, the shop, the
transport, and the communication and other public services.
Generally too business must rely upon the public-school system to develop
cultural concepts among the rising youth in day school and the adults of the
night schools. There must be bred a yearning for better things that are today
within the reach of all who will accept training and apply the consequent
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 53
Business, seeing that education must pay better salaries and have more
and better housing, greater and finer equipment, if the skills and culture
essential to an expanding economy are to be developed, will readily pay that
cost. It mainly needs to discover and implement an equitable method of meet-
ing that cost related to the pro rata benefit that each employer will derive
from such a total expenditure.
The gasoline tax that supports our amazing network of roads, imposed
upon the beneficiaries who most profitably use those good roads, has proved
one of modern civilization's greatest boons. I commend to your study and to
the study of your localities and your several states consideration of a sim-
ilarly imposed tax for the building of good educational systems, to be paid
for pro rata by the primary beneficiaries. I believe that such a program can
likewise prove to be one of our modern civilization's most constructive
THE MODERN HEALTH PROGRAM
JOHN L. BRACKEN, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLAYTON, MISSOURI
Address at Newz York Conference
Health programs in America have reached many definite objectives.
Some accomplishments are outstanding.
The national death rate has been cut from 17.2 in 1900 to approximately
10.6 today. From 1900 to 1940 life expectancy at birth was increased from
fifty to sixty-five years. Infant mortality was reduced from 85 in each 1000
live births in 1920 to 40 in 1944. We have made remarkable progress in
combating specific diseases. The death rate from typhoid and paratyphoid
fevers and infant deaths from enteritis and diarrhea have dropped 92 per-
cent. In diphtheria the development of antitoxins and effective educational
campaigns concerning their use have resulted in a 97 percent decrease in
deaths. Smallpox is so completely under control that only those children
whose parents and communities are willing for them to contract the disease
are in danger of its ravages.
Our programs for health improvements, often opportunistic and without
effective coordination, have produced results which speak for themselves.
Yet it is true that our record is not outstanding among nations. Oppor-
tunities for health are not evenly distributed among the states or among
localities within the states. Many enemies of health remain to be conquered.
Before the war seven foreign nations had lower death rates than the
United States. Eleven countries had lower death rates for children, and
twenty had lower death rates for persons from thirty-five to sixty-four years
of age. Infant mortality rates among the states range from 29 in each 1000
live births to 97. If our national death rate were reduced to the lowest state
rate, three and one-half million lives could be saved in each decade. Death
rates from cardio-vascular causes, from cancer, and from nervous disorders
are increasing. Although the great White Plague has been checked, many
54 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
communities showed alarming increases in tuberculosis during the war
years, and tuberculosis still is the leading cause of death in the fifteen- to
twenty-five-year age group. Poliomyelitis is a dread and increasing scourge
on unsuspecting communities, and the common cold remains unconquered
and unsung. It is estimated that seven million persons are on the sick list
on an average day. The annual loss of production because of absence due to
illness is in excess of $10,000,000,000, and the loss which is caused by per-
sons who are not ill enough to stay at home but not well enough to do a full
day's work can only be conjectured.
Our advancement in health has come largely from improved medical
technics and more efficient sanitary practices. In some areas health progress
must await the extensions of knowledge which now are sought in countless
clinics, hospitals, and laboratories. In many other areas wider application of
known methods and technics would improve health and extend life. In the
public schools the primary responsibility is to bring available means of pro-
tecting and improving health to bear on the lives of children. This involves
providing health services, developing health education, and promoting the
integration of community resources.
The attitude of individuals toward preservation and development of
health definitely is improved. Self-medication still is practiced, however, and
proprietary medicines still are profitable to their dispensers. The medicine
men of the radio have an amazing following, and salespeople in drug stores
and drug departments are relied upon by many persons to prescribe among
the nostrums which they sell. Foot pads still flourish. Currently, spinach is
in the dietary dog-house, but other spotlighted foods inevitably will assume
its former position of primacy in nutritional regard. Vitamin bars profitably
feature drug stores, and now hormones begin to attract attention and dollars
from a credulous public. Hospital insurance fortunately has swept the
country and has given a feeling of security to which additional health pro-
tection might appropriately contribute. Popular thinking is evident in the
term "health insurance," which does not insure health at all but merely re-
places part of a worker's wages during illness. Ill health is dreaded more
strongly than glowing, radiant health is desired.
Communities represent the summation of individual ideas as to the value
of health. Cities, counties, and states typically are more willing to spend
money to help people regain health than to help them protect it. It is easier
in most communities to secure the passage of bonds for the erection of a hos-
pital than for building a health center. Laws providing for hospitals are
older and more highly regarded than those enabling health-protective
services to be established. A recently adopted state constitution provides for
the following special levies in the largest city within its borders: hospitals,
10 cents; library, 4 cents; playgrounds, 2 cents; museum, 2 cents; zoo,
2 cents; and public health, 2 cents. Appropriations for health often are first
to be eliminated in the event of budget stringency.
In 1941-42 the schools in 43 states reported an average expenditure for
health services of 78 cents a year for each child from five to seventeen years
of age. The range of expenditures was from 1.8 cents to $3.07. Nineteen
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 55
states reported expenditures less than 50 cents a child. These figures give an
inadequate picture of school health expenditures, for five state health de-
partments assume full responsibility for school health services. In 41 states,
however, responsibility is shared by health and education departments, and
appropriations obviously are inadequate.
The most frequently quoted reasons for improving school and com-
munity health services are drawn from statistics dealing with the draft.
Approximately 40 percent of the men from eighteen to thirty-seven years
of age were found to be physically unfit for military service. It may he
noted that 40 percent of registrants 28 years of age were rejected. The
percent is increased to 50 for the thirty-four-year group and to 60 for
those thirty-eight years of age. It also is significant that rejections of regis-
trants from rural areas were markedly higher than those of registrants
from urban districts.
It is estimated that about one million of the five million men who were
rejected could have been made fit for service if proper medical procedures
had been applied earlier. In many instances the defects which resulted in
disqualification were noted and filed away in records of school health exami-
nations which were not followed through. In others, the defects had not
been observed professionally. In one large sampling 18 percent of the young
men questioned said that in their memories they never had seen a physician
for examination or treatment. At the same time, 25 percent stated that they
never had received treatment by a dentist, and 75 percent of them at that
time were in need of dental correction. An army physician inquired re-
cently whether health instruction had been eliminated entirely from the
schools. His observation of soldiers' ignorance of the human body, its organs
and their functions, led him to the conclusion that they were innocent of
such instruction. It may be remarked that in 1943-44 only 20 percent of
the boys and girls in the last two years of American high schools were re-
ceiving any kind of organized health instruction.
In time of war health is recognized as a national asset; its preservation
and development become a problem which commands universal attention.
Fabulous sums are expended to improve health and promote physical fitness.
After the first world war our resolution to improve peacetime health
weakened. Our wartime fervor for making a better, healthier world de-
generated into a desire to enioy an easier, more comfortable world. In this
postwar period we have a golden opportunity to capitalize the health lessons
we have learned so recently and so expensively.
Health is an intensely personal concern; it also is a matter of prime
community interest. Cities, counties, and states inevitably prosper or suffer
on account of the health of individuals and groups. The desired end is effec-
tive health on the part of each individual. To this end government and
private agencies contribute. The modern health program is a straightforward
attempt to provide appropriate health agencies at national, state, and local
levels, and to integrate and coordinate the activities of these agencies. The
efficiency of a single agency depends not only upon the value of its own
56 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
contribution but also upon the support which this contribution offers to
the entire health program.
It is notable that, while many effective health agencies exist at all levels,
national organizations enjoy the greatest measure of mutual understanding
and cooperation. A case in point is the working understanding which has
been developed between the National Education Association and the Ameri-
can Medical Association. In 1911 these organizations formed the Joint
Committee on Health Problems in Education. The Committee has dealt
constructively with problems of policy and organization. Just now the
Committee and the parent organizations are deluged by requests for infor-
mation for local application. Details of clinic rooms to be included in new
school buildings, efficient arrangement of physical education facilities, and
exact assignments for school physicians and nurses are among items of
interest. The queries are practical and pointed. Helpful answers are forth-
coming, for medical and educational forces are joined on the national level.
Cooperation on this level is further exemplified by the commission which
prepared Health in Schools, the twentieth yearbook of the American Asso-
ciation of School Administrators. The commission was composed of eleven
members, of whom four were doctors of medicine. Another member was a
doctor of public health. A professor of psychology and a state director of
health, physical education, and recreation, together with four school admin-
istrators, completed the membership of the commission. Such representation
made it possible to produce a balanced volume which is referred to by health
personnel and school people alike for basic policies and specific suggestions
for technics, organization, and relationships in school health procedures.
An important current publication, Health Needs of School-Age Children
and Recommendations for Implementation, resulted from a joint conference
of national government agencies whose programs affect the health of the
school-age child. The subcommittee which prepared the statement included
representatives of voluntary agencies as well as government officials. This
compact, 8-page statement has been published in School Life and reprints
are available. It merits thoughtful attention from all who are interested in
the health of school children.
An outstanding example of integrated thinking and planning on the
national level is provided by the National Conference for Cooperation in
Health Education. The Conference is composed of representatives of some
forty of the national organizations which are concerned with the protection
and development of health. The organization serves as a reconciling agency
as well as a means of refining and stimulating health practices. Representa-
tives confer in general meetings with respect to common problems.
Influential reports, which are cleared by the constituent organizations,
are developed by special committees set up under the sponsorship of the
Conference. Notable among these reports is the pamphlet entitled Suggested
School Health Policies. This charter for school health is available from
the Health Education Council. Representatives from more than fifteen
national agencies in health and education cooperated in the preparation of
this 46-page booklet. The publication, produced in 1945, already has
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 57
achieved a wide distribution, and its effect upon school health practices
is destined to be far-reaching.
Another important report soon will be issued by the Conference. This
report will deal with the functions and the training of some of the
important officers concerned with school health. In its present form the
report deals with the school physician, the school nurse, and the school
administrator. The teacher has not been forgotten, and other school health
officials probably will be included in the final report.
These reports have been developed through conferences which balanced
types of health officers and gave effect to geographic areas. The report on
the school physician, for example, came from a conference of perhaps sixteen
persons, half of whom were practicing school physicians representing a
variety of local situations. The remainder of the conference was composed
of school nurses, administrators, and teachers. The report is significant,
both in its content and in the method by which it was formulated. In fact,
a conscious attempt to develop a technic which could be followed through
effectively on state and local levels was made.
Undoubtedly examples of cooperation on state and local levels which
illustrate similar integrating principles can be presented, but these examples
are not representative of the total situation. In states and counties depart-
ments of health and of education often have not clearly defined and inte-
grated their functions. In communities school health people have not
always kept members of the medical profession and public health agents
informed of school health objectives and the means employed in reaching
them. Members of medical societies and health departments have not always
taken the initiative in acquainting themselves with the health practices of
the schools. The members of each group need to know more about what
other groups are doing. If a conference between the state health department
and the state high-school athletic association were held in January of each
year, the state basketball tournament picture might be subject to change in
some of its details or perhaps appear in a new frame!
In speaking of health procedures across the country, generalizations are
easy and misleading. Organizations differ and practices vary. In some
instances the health department provides all school medical services. In
these cases understanding of school health workers can be integrated
effectively; the difficulty, if one arises, lies in integrating the health services
with the educational activities of the school. The source of the health
services is relatively unimportant; it is all-important that competent services
be provided and that they be integrated effectively.
The modern health program requires that public departments of health
and education agree to the principle of coordination of health programs
for school children, including the health program of the community and the
health aspects of school programs. This agreement is nullified if each agency
and profession does not respect the contribution of the others. There should
be further agreement with respect to detailed administrative plans for
efficient, cooperative direction of the various phases of the program and
supervision of the various types of professional workers so that they might
58 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
be permitted to perform the services in their respective fields for the best
interest of all the children.
Such cooperation is based upon the supposition that health agencies,
both government and private, are available and that communities are pro-
vided with adequate medical service. Unfortunately this condition is not
universal. Evidence presented to a Senate subcommittee in 1944 indicated
that 40 percent of the counties of the United States lack full-time public
health services. More than 500 counties had more than 3000 people for
each active physician in private practice, and 81 counties were without
practicing physicians. Only 100 of the 2600 pediatricians in the country
were available to serve the needs of the twenty million children who lived
in small communities, while 1000 pediatricians were ready to meet the
needs of the four and one-half million children who lived in the largest
cities. More than 40 percent of the counties of the United States are with-
out a registered hospital. Under these conditions the problem of providing
adequate health services for school children becomes acute.
The Educational Policies Commission gives a terse description of adequate
health services for school children in Health and Physical Fitness for All
American Children and Youth, a brief booklet published in December 1945
in cooperation with the American Association for Health, Physical Educa-
tion, and Recreation. In the minimal health program advocated by the
Commission for every child in our country, whether in a large city, a small
town, or on the farm, featured provisions are a complete physical examina-
tion at least once in two years, with prompt and persistent follow-up to
provide all needed corrective and protective measures. These procedures
are the keystone in the arch of health protection and guidance.
The health examination, ideally performed in the elementary school in
the presence of the parents, should be thorough and unhurried. The "line
them up and march them past" type of "medical inspection" has brought
the school health examination into deserved disrepute. Eyes, ears, and teeth
should receive detailed attention. In the secondary school, testing for tuber-
culosis should be included. The examining physician needs a thorough
health history of the child, and a full record of the 'examination is essential.
The school nurse should assist in the examination which allows time for
discussion of examination findings and for establishing common under-
standings which will promote necessary follow-up. If the physician's time
is limited sharply, routine examinations may be spaced at greater intervals
so that attention may be given to children whose health needs cause them
to be referred by the teacher or nurse. Fortunately insistence on annual
health examinations is decreasing. Winning the race to complete a physical
examination of each child each year simply did not pay off. More time
now is given to cases which actually require attention, and follow-up is
coming to be considered imperative.
The health examination fails of its purpose if it does not result in
diagnosis and in the corrective procedures which are indicated. It generally
is agreed that protective, examinational, and educational procedures are
within the province of the school and that corrective measures are to be
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 59
applied by private physicians or by specialized public agencies. The responsi-
bility for corrective treatment belongs to the family. The school's responsi-
bility is to lead the family to secure diagnosis and treatment of the conditions
revealed by the health examination. When family means do not permit
this course, the responsibility devolves upon community agencies, both
public and private. Often the school must take the initiative in securing
needed action by these agencies and cooperation among them. If appro-
priate agencies do not exist, the school must take the initiative in their
development. With physicians in short supply, with nurses in overdemand,
and with community health and welfare agencies understaffed and fre-
quently lacking in funds, adequate health services may not be provided
for children in schools unless administrators make their case for them.
The health examination and its follow-up are highly effective instru-
ments of health education, but they require the supplementation of care-
fully planned courses in health education and in safety. Health belongs
in each year of the elementary school, and health courses should be re-
quired on the junior and senior high-school levels. Practical aspects of
both personal and community health should be stressed. Because health is
an essential common learning, it should be dignified in its own right;
health is debased when it becomes a casual elective or a rainy-day substitute
for outdoor physical education. At the same time, related subjects offer
many opportunities for health instruction. Teachers with specific training
for teaching health are needed. If a health coordinator is not available, the
organization of a school health council helps to correlate instruction and
to make use of school situations and practices as educational materials.
It is obvious that a poorly nourished child is likely to be a poorly edu-
cated child who may develop into a handicapped adult. The need for sound
nutrition is so great that the Educational Policies Commission recommends
that special instruction in diet be accompanied by at least one appetizing,
wholesome meal each day, even if it is necessary for this meal to be pro-
vided by the school. The' special dietary instruction should reach beyond
the walls of the schools; parents well may be included in this field as well
as in first aid, home nursing, and the health guidance of school and pre-
Physical education and recreation are closely akin to health education
and provide strong support for the modern health program. In physical
education the comprehensive school program balances each child's activity
budget as it promotes skill, vigor, and endurance. The school physician
works closely with physical education teachers so that activities may he
suited to children's individual requirements. Children are classified for
competitive activities. Adequate play fields and gymnasiums are needed,
daily schedules in physical education are advisable, and groups should be
small enough to permit individual attention.
Often physical education finds its most compelling motivation in competi-
tive athletics. Situations are common in which the physically favored few
receive expert training and coaching at the expense of the majority of the
student body. A helpful corrective is the development of inclusive intra-
60 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
mural programs, but in all candor it must be admitted that such programs
do not always provide stimulus equal to that which comes from varsity
competition. Just now the backwash of war has spotlighted interschool
athletics. The drum majorette has come into her own. Schedules are ex-
tended, long trips are made by teams which sometimes are accompanied by
practically the entire student body, and championship teams are over-
publicized. In some instances the public assumes considerable control over
schoolboy sports. Strong administrative leadership is essential in order that
varsity athletics may add to physical education programs instead of becom-
ing disruptive of their results. It should be borne in mind that the educa-
tional objectives of interschool competition are largely identical with those
of general physical education activities. These objectives are consistent with
the objectives of the health program.
Physical education develops recreational interests, but many school sports
cannot be continued in adult life. Modern emphasis is on recreational
activities which can be carried on at home, in the backyard, in the basement
shop or playroom, and in the field. The out-of-doors is receiving more
attention. Camping, fishing, gardening, and work experience provide valu-
able activities for children, particularly for those in the cities. Along with
back-to-nature adventures, the recreational aspects of school subjects and
extracurriculum activities are cultivated to promote interests which will
continue in adult life. Saturday and vacation months are filled with
diversified recreational programs. Schools are designed to serve as recrea-
tion centers, and flexible schedules, both as to hours in the day and in months
of the, year, make trained recreational and physical education directors
available when they are needed. The modern health program rates recrea-
tional activities higher than spectator sports and observer types of recreation.
The health examination and its follow-up, health education and nutrition,
physical education and recreation are specialized procedures of the modern
health program. The program requires adequate finances, trained personnel,
competent supervision, and coordination of all agencies which deal with
personal and community health. The program presupposes adequate housing,
health protection, and the development of school activities which promote
both the physical and the mental health of children.
Today hundreds of school districts possess funds derived from the sale
of bonds issued to finance the construction of new buildings. Superintendents
scan rising building prices and keep a weather eye on Washington lest the
first signs of an impending school-building subsidy be missed. The new
buildings which will result from this nationwide program require careful
planning from the health-viewpoint. Facilities which add to the effective-
ness of all health services should be refined in this new construction and
the new buildings should contribute substantially to healthful school living.
The location, design, construction, appearance, cleanliness, and upkeep of
school buildings inevitably are influential health factors. Despite extensive
building programs, most American children do not attend school in new
buildings. In some instances a building's antiquity becomes a virtue, and
discomfort long endured no longer is noticed. Many of our older buildings
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 61
require extensive improvement and modernization to bring them up to
modern standards. Regularly scheduled surveys of school buildings and
determined programs of replacement and improvement are necessary if
all our school children are to be housed healthfully.
Community and school health authorities are charged with the responsi-
bility of protecting children against safety hazards and the dangers of in-
fectious and contagious disease. Close cooperation in notification of disease,
in exclusion, and in quarantine is demanded. Protection of the children and
effective administration require that health examinations and health guid-
ance be provided for all school employees.
All of the health measures which have been suggested here are somewhat
beside the point unless the school recognizes and discharges its responsibility
for the mental health and the personality development of its children.
More than half the hospital beds of America are occupied by persons who
are unable to face the realities of life. It is reported that 200,000 of the
first million men rejected for military service were disqualified because of
mental and nervous conditions. Lack of adjustment to requirements of
normal living are evident on every hand.
The modern health program insists that all school conditions and activities
be evaluated with respect to their effects on the mental as well as the
physical health of children. The atmosphere of the school, methods of con-
trol, daily programs, assignments, and relationships with the home have a
profound effect on mental health and personality development. The modern
school health program assumes that children will be treated as individuals,
that their personalities will be respected, and that they will be given every
possible opportunity and assistance in developing into competent, successful
individuals who will contribute to the further development of their com-
American children have a right to look forward to such successful living;
that is the promise of America. Their chance to achieve this objective, which
is a broad statement of the aims of all our educational processes, will be
greatly enhanced if all school conditions are attuned to the development
of healthy bodies and minds and if essential health services are provided.
The schools deal continuously and intimately with children from early
childhood to the very threshold of adulthood. They occupy a key position
with respect to the development of health for children and for their com-
The modern health program is a ringing challenge to every school ad-
miles from 4t-
single block of
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 63
EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL WELL-BEING
OLIVER J. KELLER, EDITOR, PITTSBURGI POST-GAZETTE, PITTSBURGH,
Address at Atlanta Conference.
A short time ago when,GI's were staging mass demonstrations in all
parts of the world and the wave of strikes had already started at home, a
religious publication commented that both were manifestations of Amer-
ica's insolent complacency.
No other nation would have accepted visible evidence of the deterioration
of army morale and production paralysis without the gravest concern. In a
world struggling back toward peace, and power politics still very much to
be reckoned with, every effort would have been made to conceal or sup-
press what other powers might well interpret as signs of weakness.
We were not greatly disturbed because we did not interpret them as real
weakness. We were so sure of our strength that we paid little attention to
the warnings of admirals and generals, of economists or stabilizers. Hadn't
we just proved that we had "done it before and could do it again"? We
felt we could afford a let-down and still play a dominant role in world
Perhaps we could. But we were complacent about it-and complacency
is a dangerous state of mind. We were so complacent about it that the
editors of the Connnonweal termed it "insolent." It must have seemed
almost that to some of the nations that barely survived this holocaust and
were struggling with stout hearts but little else to feed their people, re-
establish their economies, and cling to their independence.
I have been asked to speak today on education for national well-being.
I am glad that it is a broad enough subject to let me wander almost where I
please. I would not presume to come down here and talk to an eminent group
of educators on the specialized problems of their field-or how to obtain the
end results that national well-being entails. But I am so convinced that
complacency is a threat to national well-being that I am delighted to have
this chance to discuss it with you.
Complacency is an intangible-a state of mind-and therefore not easy to
combat or remedy. It is a state of mind that we are slow to recognize in
ourselves. It isn't to be confused with pride or self-assurance, or innate con-
fidence-though they may contribute to it. It involves vanity rather than
pride, a depreciation of others, based on prejudices or ignorance, and sloppy
mental processes that jump to quick conclusions rather than think things
There are various ways to combat complacency. One is through fear.
One might imagine that that would work in connection with the atomic
bomb at least. But it doesn't work well. We may frighten people tempo-
rarily but if truly complacent they won't let their minds rest on it very long.
It isn't pleasant or comfortable to think about, so they think about some-
64 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
There is only one real answer to it and that lies in education. And when
I say education I use the word in its broadest sense. I am not speaking only
of schooling, although that is the foundation and cornerstone. I would in-
clude all forms of adult education as well and recognize that newspaper
editors and radio commentators and authors and public men have a share
of the responsibility too.
We must train our people for citizenship, not merely for American
citizenship but for world citizenship. We have played around with the
first objective a good many years but we haven't done half as good a job as
we have in teaching technical skills. And we haven't even made a start in
teaching world citizenship-in many sections we have been afraid, because
of political and other pressures, even to try.
When I say world citizenship I do not wish to imply any superstate in-
ternationalism. I want no apologies for America nor any deprecatory atti-
tude toward a loyal devotion to country. But we must learn to lift our
horizons. I think that if we are better world citizens we will be better
American citizens too.
We should have American history in our schools-plenty of it and well
taught. But let it be honest history, with our mistakes as well as our
victories and accomplishments. We have so much to be proud of that it is
silly and stupid to assume that we must conceal some of the less pleasing#
chapters of history. If we build up a youngster's faith on a fairy story we
invite a reaction when he learns that there is no Santa Claus. We didn't
treat the Indians well; we broke treaties every time we wanted more of
their land. Why not admit it? We waged a war of aggression against
Mexico. Perhaps we won't judge other nations as harshly if we have taken a
straight look in the mirror.
If you read the average American history textbook about the War of
1812 and then go up to Canada and read their account of the same events,
you may find it difficult to persuade yourself that it was the same war.
We concentrate on our little navy's achievements at sea-the "Constitu-
tion's" victory over the "Guierriere." If we find a reference to the Battle
of Bladensburg, it is just a footnote in small type.
Several years ago I spent an evening with Dr. Hambro, Norwegian
statesman who at one time headed the League of Nations Assembly. He
recalled that after World War I there was an effort to rewrite school his-
tories in Europe on a more objective basis. It was proposed that the
scholars of France and Germany get together and agree on basic presenta-
tions of the wars between their countries so that the Germans might know
that Bismarck framed the Ems telegram to force the Franco-Prussian War,
for example, and that the French might have a truer picture of Napoleon.
But they couldn't agree. Finally the suggestion was made that histories
in both countries have two pages facing each other-one giving the French
version and the other the German. Dr. Hambro suggested that there
should really be three pages on that basis-one for the French, one for the
German, and one for the truth.
But in Scandinavia, where national jealousies were no longer so keen,
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 65
a successful effort was made in this direction. Norwegian, Swedish, and
Danish books all glorified their own national heroes and blamed the others
for all aggression. The historians of the three nations got together and
agreed on basic presentations so that the Swedish version differed little if
at all from that of the Norwegian or Danish. And as Dr. Hambro said, this
did not make poorer Swedes of the Swedes or poorer Norwegians of the
Norwegians. It made them better Swedes and better Norwegians and at
the same time gave them a better perspective on world events.
Teach American history by all means and teach it better than ever be-
fore. But don't stop there. If we do, it may tend to shrink rather than
lift horizons. Too long have we been taught that this country is aloof from
the rest of the world, that its oceans are impassible barriers, that Europe and
Asia can go on their mad and merry ways without much concern to us.
We have studied French or Spanish as mental exercise, with perhaps the
suggestion that we may be tourists some day or that a handful of students
may engage in foreign trade. But it has been superficial study and we
are a little condescending toward "foreigners" who are so backward or be-
nighted that they don't speak English.
Some schools have long given capsule doses of European history with
emphasis on Charlemagne, Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, and
England's defeat of the Armada. I am not quarrelling with that. But let's
give some attention to English history, particularly so far as its develop-
ment of self-government charted the course for us. And let us bring it
down to the present so that the school graduate knows the difference be-
tween a colony and a self-governing dominion. I don't care whether they
know the date of the Battle of Hastings or Magna Charta or the year
of King Charles' execution. But they ought to know what was at stake in
the battle between King Charles and the Parliament, and it might remind
them that among other things the principle of retaining the purse strings
in the hands of the people's elected representatives is important.
Let's take a look at Russian history too. I realize there are difficulties.
Even an objective review of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917-18 may
bring queries from parents as to whether their children are being taught
communism. We must keep it objective, but we can't dodge it just because
there are difficulties. I am not concerned whether they are taught the date
of the Battle of Poltava. But they should know that serfs in Russia were
only freed when we were fighting our War between the States. And when
Americans read in their newspapers that the southern half of Sakhalin
Island was given to Russia as a condition of entering the war against
Japan, they would not be so harsh in their judgments if they were aware
that this territory had been Russian until lost in Japan's war of aggres-
sion in 1905. If we had lost territory to an Axis power within our own life-
times and had an opportunity to reclaim it, do you think we would refrain
from doing so? I don't.
I wish there could be a study of previous efforts to control aggressor
states and outlaw war. It should include some of the major peace conferences
such as the Congress of Vienna and an analysis of the mistakes and pitfalls
66 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
that marked them. It should give a lot of attention to the League of Na-
tions-its strength and its weaknesses. It has not been a record of achieve-
ment but it would focus thought upon the desirability of the objective and
the difficulties which must be surmounted. A better understanding of that
history would make us more tolerant of the hesitant and halting start of
the UNO, and also make us more alert to spot fatal compromises or weak-
nesses as they arise.
We must strive to awaken a keener interest in international affairs and
we can best do that by making sure that our students are better informed
about them. The boys who are most interested in baseball are those who
play it; they may think golf is a silly game until they have tried it a few
times. Those who know a game are more interested spectators because they
know that picking up a hot grounder at third base isn't as easy as it looks.
How often have we encountered a boy who read a historical novel-
possibly about the War between the States-and liked it so much that it
aroused his curiosity to know more about a certain campaign or some
outstanding personality such as General Lee or President Lincoln? He
doesn't have to be ordered to do so many pages of reading.' And the more
he reads about it, the more interested he is in new books that come out on
the subject. As his knowledge increases, his interest mounts too.
I am not suggesting elementary training for youthful diplomats or states-
men. But I would draw a parallel with music appreciation courses that are
offered in many schools. The purpose is not to train musicians but to give
just enough training to awaken an interest in and appreciation of good
music. We do not develop violinists or pianists by such courses but we do
develop discriminating listeners. We need discriminating observers of the
national and international scene.
Our recent war experience gave us some startling statistics on the physical
condition of young America-the number of men rejected for military
service. But just as startling was the universal conclusion that of all major
armies ours had the least comprehension and was least interested in the
causes of the war, the ideologies in conflict, and the objectives for which we
Our GI's had been exposed to a lot more education than the British
Tommy. But the latter was much more likely to read and discuss what went
on at Casablanca or Yalta than the American soldier. The American
was too ready to let some one else back home bother about that while
he checked on the standing of the big league teams in his copy of Stars and
Stripes. And when he got back home, he was equally indifferent.
I happened to make a trip. to England in 1943, just as large American
forces were beginning to assemble for the invasion. We had a few edu-
cators over there studying the British orientation classes to make recom-
mendations to our army as to methods and scope of the program. They were
agreed that we were far behind and in greater need of such work than the
British. Among the English there was frank surprise that our men, so well
prepared and equipped in every other way, were so uninformed and unin-
terested in the causes of the war and our objectives.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 67
Recently a group of educators participated in a roundtable discussion on
the war and education and a summary of their conclusions was published
by the Public Affairs Committee under the title, We Can Have Better
Schools. On the first page you will find the following: "The Army found it
necessary to set up orientation courses to help the soldiers understand why
they were fighting. Millions of our finest men, young and old, were at a
loss when asked to explain'the meaning of fascism or the underlying causes
of the war. Worst of all, many seemed to be little interested even though
they were risking their lives to eliminate these evils."
Not interested-complacent-insolently complacent!
This same report added: "On the other hand, the speed with which the
graduates of America's schools were able to learn technical skills was at-
tributed to the underlying principles of American education." I would like
to question the use of the word "principles." There is no question of our
leadership in technical education but isn't there something wrong with the
principles of American education in the light of the first quotation; namely,
our lack of understanding and often lack of interest in the underlying
causes of the war?
Nor did the army succeed in filling this gap which our schools had left.
The army did a magnificent job training men to be soldiers, taking ad-
vantage of the sound technical training so many inductees had already
received. But its orientation courses were woefully inadequate. In a recent
article in the Atlantic Mfonthly a GI wrote as follows: "Directives out of
Washington urged the army and navy to inculcate democratic ideas in our
troops but the orders were either disregarded by regular officers who con-
sidered one hour a week orientation courses to be pure fiddle-faddle or were
turned over to inept officers whose sterile lectures were guaranteed not
to make a GI reason why."
When we talk about inculcating democratic ideas, we can't do it with a
quick once-a-week polishing, even if the polishing were in good hands.
How many of us have a reasonably good definition of democracy? Ernest
Bevin, British Foreign Secretary, recently said that the world was in need
of a new definition of the word. It certainly is, as it means entirely dif-
ferent things to different nations and to the people within those nations.
A good many Americans would probably conclude from a headline on
Russia's recent election in which 99,000,000 took part that the demo-
cratic processes were taking hold there. They must he more discriminating.
They must be enough interested to read beyond the headline and note that
there was only one candidate for each office, that the bulk of the people had
no voice in choosing the candidates, that the ballot was handed to them,
and unless they wanted to vote against the lone candidate whose name ap-
peared they didn't mark it at all. And if they wanted to vote against the
candidate, there was no provision even for a write-in ballot; they could
cross off the name hut had to make themselves conspicuous by retiring
to a booth to do so, whereas most of the people just walked in, were handed
their ballots, and meekly dropped them in the box as they had been handed
68 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
I have been emphasizing largely the challenge to lift our horizons to be-
come better world citizens. Let us return briefly to the education that we
need to become better American citizens.
It is shocking that cheap demagogs can get away with the clap-trap they
serve up in many campaigns. We go to a meeting or listen to a speaker
on the radio who promises to spend more for everything we might want
and promises to cut our taxes at the same time. We are to have much higher
social security, more generous unemployment compensation, great public-
works programs to provide employment, subsidies to raise producers' profits
and reduce consumers' costs-and it won't cost us a dime. On the con-
trary, this magic man will do all this with less tax revenue. He will cut
income taxes; remove the levies on furs, cigarettes, and liquor; and reduce
the load on business. And nobody heckles him; only a few classify him for
what he is in their own minds; his opponent isn't likely to challenge him
because he probably follows the same line. Some of the candidates are
pretty shrewd people themselves; they have a contempt for the public's
stupidity but follow the formula that has put others in office.
Some years ago we had the spectacle of a man running for the office of
mayor of Chicago on a platform of twisting the British lion's tail. What
had King George III or the present King to do with the affairs of Chicago?
But great crowds came to listen and to cheer. He was elected.
"Every man a king" was the slogan that made Huey Long dictator of
Louisiana. I contend that it is a damaging reflection upon our educational
processes, in school and in adult life, when great masses are swayed by that
type of individual and program. It is a challenge to all of us to do a better
job if our heritage is to be preserved.
You will probably say that I am asking too much of education-in
school or out of it. But what other answer can there be to the problem?
Democracy can function only with an informed people; otherwise we place
an intricate and skilfully fashioned weapon in the hands of a person who
hasn't been trained to use it and may kill his best friend or himself with it.
Labor unions are part of America's economic democracy today and they
are here to stay. I believe in them. I think it is impossible to deny that
they have improved the wages and working conditions of millions of work-
ers. They have tended to level off the economic peaks and valleys in the
country and that is a good thing. But many of them are run by a few men
on ruthless, undemocratic lines. The rank and file must be taught the
essentials of democracy before they join them so that they can battle for
the right to elect their own officers, to have an accounting of their union
finances, to make leadership- more responsive to the members and more re-
sponsible in their dealings with employers.
The lower the skill of a group of workers, the more likely are we to find
highhanded and autocratic methods at the top. The common laborers'
union had not held a national convention until recently for a period of
thirty years; the governing board perpetuated itself in power. And if an
individual here or there challenged the system, he was likely to find himself
expelled, without a card and unable to work.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 69
It seemed to me an abject surrender of principle when during the war
this government, fighting to preserve and promote democracy, not only
condoned but encouraged union practices, in the building trades espe-
cially, whereby in order to work on government projects men had to pay a
high initial fee and continuing monthly payments for a working permit.
They were not admitted to the union; they had no voice in its affairs;
when one job was finished and they moved to another, they had to pay
these fees all over again. It was essentially a matter of tribute to those
who had the power to give or deny employment. It enriched the unions who
gave nothing in return save temporary toleration of their presence on the job
because the unions lacked enough members themselves to meet the govern-
ment's wartime requirements.
Even in so well-organized and tested a union as the United Mine Work-
ers, there is but limited democracy. In order to assure a majority on the
international executive board friendly to the leadership, more than half
of the miners' districts have been classified as immature and therefore not
capable of choosing their own officers. In such districts the officers are
appointed by the international board, meaning the international president,
and when an Illinois local leader attempted to challenge the practice at a
national convention, he was expelled from the convention.
If the rank and file had a little better understanding of what democratic
principles are or should be, they would not tolerate this sort of thing. And
since the government has enacted so much legislation favoring unions
and securing their positions and influence, there is no reason why it should
not amend this legislation to deny these statutory rights and safeguards to
unions that do not extend self-government to their members.
We should teach more and better economics. I realize that in suggesting
so many fields for greater emphasis in our school program someone may say
that there would be little time left for reading, writing, and arithmetic. Some
of these subjects should be stressed in college or university years rather
than in secondary schools. But only after we have diagnosed some outstand-
ing omissions or failures can we consider how or where to apply remedies.
Millions of our citizens have become stockholders of corporations. In a
bull-market such as has been in progress the past year, the little investor is
told by somebody who heard from somebody else that a successful speculator
was buying Atomic Chemicals. So he buys a few shares of Atomic Chemicals
too with about as much discrimination as the fellow who goes to the races
once a year and blindly puts his finger on the race chart and comes up with
a two-dollar bet on Stormy Weather.
Under SEC and other regulations, corporations furnish a great deal of
information to each and every stockholder. How many can make head or
tail out of a financial statement, or are enough interested to try? How can
we stir that interest, fight that complacency?
A few years ago a retired woman school teacher caused quite a flurry in
our town when she went to the annual meeting of the stockholders of a
large corporation. The meetings were customarily perfunctory; nobody
dreamed that when the chairman invited remarks from stockholders any-
70 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
body would take advantage of the invitation. But this teacher got up and
said that she noticed the president of the company received a quarter of a
million dollars as a bonus each year in addition to his regular and not
trifling salary. She said she had no objection to bonus payments when out-
standing management had achieved important results for the stockholders
but she was disturbed by the fact that the company has lost money for three
or four years past and was omitting all dividends. Why the big bonus under
those circumstances? Her question struck home. Within a few months the
corporation had. bought out its contract with the president and fired him.
The directors were reminded unpleasantly that some stockholders at least
were not overlooking the incongruous situation into which they had gotten
themselves and they had to do something about it.
We need more stockholders like that. We would have better operated
companies if we had them. And we need a better understanding of basic
economics on the part of employees too so that union members will question
alertly a leader who tried to convince them that wages have little relation
to prices. It is so easy to stir up hate by talking of the big, rich corporation,
which may not be rich at all. And when a leader tries to peg wages at the
peak the most successful unit in an industry can pay, would it not be well
if someone within labor's own ranks asked what that policy might mean
eventually in closing companies not quite so successful and thereby reducing
As America's affairs, both political and economic, have become more and
more complex, the individual citizen has shown less and less interest in
them. In the smaller, simpler communities, everyone but the village idiot
took some part in town meetings and had some notion of what was going
on in the community and knew personally or knew much about those
elected to office. Circuit-riding lawyers seventy-five years ago went from
community to community and in the evenings, with local audiences added,
discussed politics and national issues. The crossroads store was a forum of
sorts. M/en whose fathers had fought for self-government prized it and took
an active part in it. There is something quite challenging in the picture of
the tremendous interest that attended the Lincoln-Douglas debates; that
was democracy in action.
As things have become more complex and more remote, we have come
too much to accept the easy theory, "Let George do it." A job on an
assembly line doesn't afford opportunity or inclination for much reflection
and when it is over, there are so many diverting ways to spend a pleasant
hour without exercising the mind. We have the movies and the radio, and
if anybody starts a serious discussion of atomic power at an evening's party,
he is quickly put down as a very heavy person to he invited infrequently.
We still take a keen interest, of course, in the most glamorous expression
of self-government-the choice of a President. But we can't be bothered
to find out much about candidates for Congress or the bench or the state
legislature. We have the haziest notions of the issues that are involved and
are inclined to vote a ticket even though some men on that ticket have little
or nothing in common with the head of it.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 71
VWe just don't care enough. We are insolently complacent-confident that
our resources are so great, our power such that we can muddle through
anything, and tell the rest of the world where to head in whenever it
How can we get people to care more-to take more interest? I know
of no way except a better informed public. It does no good to scold
people or try to frighten them. We must restore the sense of participation
and rid ourselves of the notion that we are mere onlookers.
We have the universal franchise. We are not going to change that. But
I am enough of a conservative to say that I wish it could be qualified with
at least the barest of literacy tests. With the opportunities for education that
exist in this country today, it is the least obligation of citizenship to learn to
read and write-to equip oneself to learn a little of what is going on in our
own country and the world.
But one can be literate without being intelligent or in the least discrimi-
nating. As civilization has become more complex, instead of abandoning our
interest to entrust it to elected representatives whom we hardly know, we
should attempt to prepare ourselves to play our part in democratic decisions.
Ve are approaching too closely to the totalitarian psychology. When our
troops first entered Germany they found that the standard excuse of the
population was, "WVe are only the little people. The Fuehrer decides every-
thing." We may he the little people too, but we have always prided our-
selves on that fact that ultimately we decide everything.
What specifically can the schools do about it? I do not pretend to be
in a position to give much advice on that score; I have merely tried to
sketch the need and urge that it be studied and measures taken to meet it.
But there is one comparison in the field of education that I believe is worth
Ve are proud in Pittsburgh of the Carnegie Institute of Technology.
We think it ranks as one of the best technical schools in the country. It
turns out first-class engineers. But recently the president and trustees have
come to the conclusion that the engineering courses are too specialized; they
develop competent engineers but untrained citizens-technicians but not
educated men. So they have brought to Carnegie as provost Dr. Elliott
Smith, former master of Saybrook College at Yale University, whose task it
will be to add to the curriculum minimum requirements in the liberal arts
to broaden the engineer to a richer understanding of life and a better
appreciation of a citizen's responsibilities. An engineering degree from Car-
negie a few years hence will mean the successful completion of such studies
as well as the higher mathematics, mechanical drawing, and other courses
that are prerequisite to his professional career.
I hope that our schools will similarly broaden their curriculums. Along
with the credits required to gain admittance to college or to complete the
home economics course or commercial or vocational training, it seems to
me that public education is failing in its duty to the public if it does not
attempt to do a more adequate job of training for citizenship.
What does this mean to the schools? It means a reorientation of emphasis
72 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
on the whole curriculum. It means that history should be taught not for
dates but for its significance; and that comparative histories must be studied
too. It means some attempt to appraise and appreciate other cultures. It
means more realistic economics and far better current events.
The latter should not be a chore attempted once a week by a teacher
whose main interest is in some other subject. And may I say-aloud-that
I think teachers' tenure has been carried to such extremes that it militates
against the most efficient teaching. That does not mean that I do not favor
tenure as a protection against political manipulation. But tenure should not
mean that because a teacher at twenty-two or twenty-three has passed ex-
aminations for a certificate he or she is thereby forever after a qualified or
competent teacher. Many may be content to let dry rot get the better of
them; they are products of the-horse and buggy era trying to teach boys
and girls of the atomic age.
Give them an examination every three years in current problems. Make
available refresher courses. Bring leaders in science, politics, information
services to them in lecture and discussion groups. Keep teaching the teachers
as well as the children. Assure the contacts that anyone needs-whether
educator, businessman, journalist, or what not-to keep pace with what is
going on around us in other fields.
If a teacher has enough initiative to get a summer vacation job in a radio
station, or the personnel department of an industry, or in a labor union
headquarters, or as a mail opener in a legislator's office, give him or her
some credit, some compensation, for it. The Ph.D. degree is the union card
for higher teaching today. I have respect for Ph.D.'s but I do not stand
in awe of them. And I think there is a tendency to promote aloofness-the
ivory tower attitude-when our school people need more rather than less
contact with the world of business and public affairs.
I realize that some of these things will sound visionary or impractical.
What does a newspaperman know about the problems created by school-
boards, the inertia and resistance to change, the danger of sticking one's
neck out? Well, I am not unaware of those factors and they are a drag on
the school system and its service to the nation. There are newspapers that
have been reluctant to adjust themselves to new demands, and a lot of them
are out of business and wondering why a competitor or a radio station has
won from them the public support and favor they once enjoyed.
Let me repeat, I do not mean to infer that this is solely a school problem.
It should be of concern to all individuals or agencies that have anything
whatever to do with adult education as well. But since my audience is made
up of school people, I have tried to sketch some of the challenges which I
believe confront them.
In conclusion, I was struck and touched by a news story a few days ago
regarding a young Marine officer. He was killed at Iwo Jma and just
before his death attempted to put into his will his thoughts-far from home
-of what this country lacked and needed. He had had the benefit of an
education in a fine preparatory school and Yale University. He had been
left $3000 and in his will he divided it as follows:
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
To the cause of labor-management peace 40 percent-10 percent each to
the CIO and A. F. of L.; 20 percent to the National Association of Manu-
facturers; to the Congress for research toward a far-sighted foreign policy
and better government for all the people in the country instead of government
by organized pressure groups, 20 percent; to his school, 20 percent; to his
university, 10 percent; to a favorite charity and his church 5 percent each.
These are the needs I have been trying to talk'about: labor-management
relations based on better understanding and genuine economic democracy;
a far-sighted foreign policy and a broader perspective on government at
home in the interest of the nation, not sections or groups or pressure blocs.
And as the agencies which can contribute most to these objectives through
preparation-20 percent to his school, 10 percent to his college.
I think even these ratios were well selected. Much of what I plead for
falls properly within the scope of college or university rather than secondary
school. But the role of the secondary school is given twice the importance
of the college and I would agree with Lt. Ben Toland, USMC.
TOWARD BETTER SCHOOLS
N. L. ENGELHARDT, ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
NEW YORK, N. Y.
Address at Kansas City and New York Conferences
Somewhere in the northeastern section of the United States an area of
approximately twenty square miles will soon be dedicated to mankind's
noblest and most exalted plan. In a beautiful countryside of hill and dale,
woodland and meadow, an international reservation is being established.
It bids fair to become the most influential and powerful spot in the world.
It will belong to the peoples of the world. Its buildings, now about to be
designed, will house the parliaments of man. Its ample airport will provide
direct connection with those of all nations. Its radio and communication
lines will make constant contact with all sections of the world. Here many
hundreds of men and women representative of all creeds, races, and ideol-
ogies will study, confer, and pass judgments on momentous world problems.
Never before in history has a task of this character and importance been
undertaken on such a scale and with such a large proportion of all nations
cooperating. In the early days of our nation's history a reservation dedicated
to the administration of our country was set apart and the District of
Columbia resulted. Today the United Nations Organization has chosen
the zone in which a world district of Columbia will be built. The center
is to be housed temporarily in Hunter College.
The UNO has made rapid strides since the days of its formation in
San Francisco. The eves of the world will be constantly focused on this
new international center. Here the problems of mankind will be discussed;
here world libraries will be built; and from here messages of guidance,
hope, and mercy will traverse the air lanes. It would appear that here
74 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
educational principles will be elucidated and educational policies will
emerge. Over the centuries the spearhead of educational progress has been
moving constantly westward and now it points directly to this limited
American acreage out of which the peoples of the world expect so much
good to come. This UNO plan marks the beginning of a new educational
era. In New York City recently Dr. Stoyan Gavrilovic, chairman of the
UNO site committee, met with a group of administrators and children
of the public schools. He has commented as follows:
One of the finest experiences I have had during my stay in this country as
chairman of the United Nations committee on the site was my reception by the
Board of Education of the City of New York on Friday, January 25. At that
meeting I was presented with a scroll on behalf of nearly one million children in
the school system of the City of New York containing a pledge that these children
will use their efforts to the fulfilment of the purposes of the United Nations
The presentation was made beautifully by a young schoolgirl. I was deeply
impressed, particularly as we are building the United Nations Organization
not for one, but for many generations. The authors of the Charter of the United
Nations did not only think of our generation, which has suffered so much from the
ravages of war, but of the future generations which we should save from new
recurrences of such human tragedy. The cooperation of the coming generations is,
therefore, vital in this task, and I was so happy to see that all these numerous
children in the New York area are fully alive to the possibilities which youth has
to build friendship and unity throughout the world.
I feel sure that the same feeling exists in the hearts of children everywhere.
There is no doubt in my mind that millions of children living in areas which have
been devastated by war will gladly pledge themselves to world friendship and
work for the same ideals.
In the era now beginning, the first and constant emphasis of education
should be upon the success of this unified world peace program. As H. G.
Wells has indicated, civilization is a race between education and catas-
trophe. During the dark months of World War II, it appeared frequently
that the race was being lost. In the hopeful days that lie ahead, education
in the fundamentals of human relationships and behavior must be so
advanced and so supported that never again will peoples shiver and wither
under the hideous fears that come out of war's holocaust.
Let's bear in mind that in the newly conceived world framework, educa-
tion will be represented in its own rights by the United Nations Educa-
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or, alphabetically, UNESCO.
Thus is assured a world educational mecca toward which all eyes must be
turned and to which all of us must make frequent pilgrimage to become
steeped in true world understandings and to learn to teach with apprecia-
tion of world problems.
That UNO's center is to be located in our country is no matter of
chance. It is a tribute to our sense of fairness, freedom, and justice. Assur-
ance of success and support determined location, as well as the assumption
of willingness to accept the attendant responsibilities. Only through better
schools can America meet this obligation. The impressions we have made
on the mind of the world must become realities. The hopes we have be-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 75
stirred the world over must bear better fruit in our own land. Every Amer-
ican must be given his right to learn under well-trained teachers, with
modern media of learning and in school buildings equipped to render the
most complete service. UNO's success in America is closely associated with
the educational power created in our people to support the peace programs
with understanding, good judgment, and the faculty of making fair
The frightful plight of children the world over cannot be exaggerated.
In country after country, allied as well as enemy, every shred of hope has
vanished for millions. They have no homes. Many have no parents. Food,
clothing, and medicine are lacking. Schoolhouses are in ruins. Many have
not even a pencil or a sheet of paper. Teachers, like the children, are physi-
cally and emotionally undermined. As a result, all commonly accepted
codes of human conduct are supplanted by the hard, cold code of the
struggle for mere existence. American schools, untouched by bombs and
shells, cannot ignore such world conditions. Better schools in America
alone will give no promise of world peace. The children of other nations
must be assured the opportunities for decent living and learning, so that
hope may be restored and normal human activities may be assured under
governments that respect the sanctity of the individual. Better schools in
America can build a stronger, a more resourceful nation but to what end if
hordes of children and youth in war-torn countries are again misdirected
in ideologies and purposes. Many years will pass before every child in
Poland and Greece, France and Yugoslavia, in Italy and Germany will
have a teacher, emotionally free and equipped to teach, without fear and
restrictions, on the basis of a curriculum in the formation of which, truth,
fairness, freedom, and individual needs have played important roles. Cer-
tainly the handicaps toward achieving that end in American schools are
trivial compared to those in many other countries. Our schools will be
improved to the extent that such handicaps are removed in our own land,
but we as a teaching profession must aid constructively the teachers of
other lands. Perhaps it is not beyond the realm of possibility for each
community in America to select a similar community of like size and nature,
in the Philippines, in China, in Greece or Poland, even in Japan or else-
where, with the purpose of exchanging ideas, giving assistance, and creating
understanding. The mutual gains would result in better schools, here as
well as there. The task is colossal. But it appears absolutely necessary for
world rehabilitation. America is no longer a smug provincial nation but a
world power with all its attendant responsibilities.
It is a striking phenomenon of our civilization that even as war is de-
stroying the priceless legacies of centuries of scholarly and artistic en-
deavors, man rises to new heights of achievement. This axiom needs no
further proof as far as World WVar II is concerned. The impact upon
education of startling achievements is always difficult to predict. Analysis
of our own living by each one of us would result in acknowledgment that
somehow or other the bases for our thinking, our planning, our teaching
are changing rapidly. Changes in communication, in transportation, in so-
76 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
cial values, in personal and civic responsibility, and in professional obliga-
tions are closely interlocked. A jet-propelled plane, traveling in 4 hours,
13 minutes, from coast to coast raises havoc with our sense of time. A
radar impulse, moving the 235,000 miles to the moon and back in 2.4
seconds, stimulates new thinking about the universe. In this new era human
progress seems unlimited. Atomic energy is promised for innumerable ap-
plications to the peaceful pursuits of man. Research in medical science has
uncovered cures and corrections where none existed before. Electric current
has become more than human in its applications. New materials are being
made out of the production discards of yesterday and man moves feverishly
ahead in other areas to improve on the food, housing, and clothing of the
world. International trade will take on new dimensions and the luxuries of
one nation will become the everyday necessities of others. Out of the Nurem-
berg and similar war trials, a new international justice is being molded
and a nation's obligations to fellow nations are being given definition as
never before in history. Out of labor-management conflicts of today, new
industrial forces are emerging in our own land. Advanced codes of social
welfare are being accepted and the intangible concepts under which man-
kind lives are being clarified to the end that the masses may profit from
their intelligent interpretation. In all aspects of living the impact is felt
of the more widespread application of scientific research, the extension of
the fields of communication, and the explorations into the confusing areas
of human relations. The years directly ahead of us hold great promise of
finer living for oncoming generations. The amount of such growth and
desirable change depends, in a large measure, upon the opportunities pro-
vided in education, the modification of education in meeting new needs, and
the knowledge, skill, and application of the teaching profession in promoting
a program equal to the demands of the new era. Our great reservoirs of
unselfishness, professional devotion, and consecration to freedom must be
fully drawn upon to this end.
Never before has this country witnessed a great popular upsurge in edu-
cational demands like that sweeping this country. The universities and col-
leges are turning away thousands. Adult education programs are coming
into their own. Nursery schools are in many places acknowledged as essen-
tial parts of our school systems. Grange and labor unions, industrial plants,
and commercial centers are multiplying their educational offerings. Junior
colleges and technical institutes are increasing in numbers. Education is
moving ahead on all fronts. In this forward movement success is assured
to the extent that the needs and capacities of the individual are intelligently
and constructively met. Befter schools will result as the teacher molds and
modifies self to serve the individual whether in kindergarten, high school,
Current criticisms of education stress the failure to build strong char-
acter into our young, the lack of world understanding, the proclivity toward
juvenile delinquency, the general education and broad cultural needs of a
large proportion of our students, essential preparedness for a livelihood,
the continuity that education must have for successful living, and the re-
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 77
quirement that a society select its highly intelligent and provide assurance
for their education in the areas of their special abilities. These and many
other criticisms the educator does not desire to turn aside lightly. He is
fully aware that education must be a dynamic force ever-changing to meet
new conditions and to adjust to new problems as they rise. The task
immediately confronting every American community is the analysis of its
present educational offerings in the light of the stirring challenges now
being made to American leadership in this world. Educators in their re-
spective communities must assume active responsibility for making their
communities-large and small-intellectual strongholds in which the poten-
tiality of every individual is encouraged to ripen into constructive accom-
The strength of American education is the sum total of the values to
be found in the many communities. A nation grows as its individuals and
its communities grow. Isolation of school from community has no place in
modern education. The community's advancement is related directly to the
worthwhileness of the school's program. To get the greatest return from
the local education program, a number of questions should be raised. Is
the program a traditionally standardized one or has it actually been adapted
to the needs of the community served? Does the program offer wide oppor-
tunity for all, adults and children alike? Do the offerings result in every
individual's reaching his highest potential in all areas of citizenship? Does
entrenched privilege, in any form, control curriculum, teachers, teaching
method, or the financing program? Let educators and other community
leaders gather about a roundtable and democratically answer these ques-
tions. Out of such discussion will come better schools, for such, are the
devotion and ambition of the American people.
Such community leaders might find it advantageous to prepare the out-
line of what the new community educational program should be like. No
doubt they would include many of the following objectives: the develop-
ment of superior intercultural understanding; opportunity for learning
about the music, art, and literature of all peoples; creating understanding
about the foods, the clothing, and the houses of the world; giving ready
and constant information on the advancements in science and medicine;
giving access to books and motion pictures on sociological, economic, and
political world developments; instruction and display in the field of geo-
politics; the development of new vocations and guidance therein; a pro-
gram of consumer education; the problems of labor and management; in-
formative conferences on the current local community problems. Another
group of topics that would meet local needs would include: parent educa-
tion, home planning and building, vocational rehabilitation, the cooking and
sewing arts, training in making household repairs, opportunities for partici-
pation in the musical and dramatic arts, and other particularized courses to
meet common everyday needs of citizens. Discussion groups for keeping
informed on the national government, the United Nations Organization,
current literature and music and recreational offerings of many kinds would
also be listed. A community school providing extensive opportunities like
78 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
these for adults and corresponding offerings for neglected out-of-school
youth as well as regular school attendants would be making citizens skilled
to carry on the problems of citizenship and the family and also competent
to render service and to voice opinions in the larger realm of world rela-
tions. Building facilities planned to meet these needs would represent con-
siderable variations from traditional conventionalities with their auditoriums,
gymnasiums, and library stereotypes. The school building should permit and
encourage the accomplishment of what society needs today for the prepara-
tion of thinking, alert, adjusted, skilled, well-rounded, and emotionally
stable citizens. The desirable redefinition of our traditional concepts of what
constitutes a school is taking form. Extracurriculum successes are being
merged with the curriculum; health and nutrition programs are moving
toward their desired goals; guidance, based on adequate psychological, soci-
ological, and psychiatric knowledge has had wide recognition as one of the
most significant of school functions; and work-experience is being integrated
with the classroom studies. Better schools are in the making due to the
pioneering, exploratory attitudes of teachers and administrators in all levels
and facets of the educational service.
In the struggle against American provincialism, much remains to be done.
The pronouncements of our leaders on freedom, justice, and economic op-
portunity for others have not been accepted as idle words the world over.
A maximum share in world leadership has become our responsibility. To
make that leadership real, pur nation must make possible a more extensive
and intensive educational program for all, the most competent as well as
the less privileged. Public opinion and public decision in our country must
rest upon sound, well-diversified, and thoroughly substantiated educational
backgrounds. This applies equally well to every geographic section, to
every race, and to all economic levels. The wide variations in educational
opportunity in this country constitute a national disgrace. The world obli-
gations which our nation has assumed certainly require the educational
strengthening of the long neglected, low economic areas of our own country.
This can only be brought about through federal aid to public education.
The need has long existed and further postponement of such provisions will
not be for the best interests of our nation.
Better schools in America will only result as more adequate salaries are
paid to educational workers. Teaching positions paying less than a living
wage, as happens altogether too often in our nation, will not entice those
who can carry the responsibility for tomorrow's program. Teachers are not
missionaries nor should they be treated as such. They are entitled to family
life, to a good home, to opportunity for further professional training, and
to freedom from unnecessary economic strain. The teaching profession
should attract the best of our young men and women on the basis of offer-
ing them adequate rewards for high professional service. The leading
nation in the world must provide every means for improving the status of
its teaching profession. Exploitation of the partially trained, niggardly
programs of pay deductions for absence when ill, attempted dictation of
the teacher's social life constitute not only a disservice to the teachers but
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 79
to the cause of education as a whole. In this winter of labor's discontent,
let communities give new and constructive consideration to the problems
of teacher status. As is the teacher, so will be the school. A discontented
teacher will find it difficult to provide the leadership America's better
America has many excellent school programs, fine, well-equipped teachers,
splendid buildings, and stimulating ambitious student bodies. That Amer-
ican education has served our nation well is proved conclusively from the
glorious record of our youth moving directly from school into war ranks.
No one doubts, however, that American schools can do a better job than
ever before. They must provide safe and sanitary housing for all. They
must encourage curriculum expansion. They must extend the school pro-
gram to meet the needs of all youth. They must provide as satisfactory
equipment to the schools as was provided to meet the educational needs of
the armed services. They must encourage the most capable of their sons and
daughters to enter this national service. They must provide the funds so
teachers may live comfortably and advance reasonably. Better schools in
America will mean that no area and no youth are neglected. Such schools
will help tremendously to assure continuity of world leadership for our
nation. They will aid materially in making the better world which man-
This desired achievement requires courage, taxes and skill, and must
draw upon the inventiveness and imagination of us administrators. Each
of us should take from these meetings a disturbing discontent with our past
accomplishments. For better schools we are required to raise our sights,
to draw upon our latent powers, to remold our professional thinking, and to
instil a new force into our educational programs. The school system that'
stands still during the next twelve months will have failed the nation.
The administrator, unable to conceive and redefine his new responsibilities,
can count himself a straggler in the forward march. America needs today
valiant souls and intelligent minds, unafraid and undaunted. You, members
of the American Association of School Administrators, constitute the lead-
ership upon which the destinies of many peoples rest. WVhat will you do with
your new stewardship? Medals and ribbons will not be yours but may you
enjoy the satisfactions that come from a service which you know is well
Grand Stairway of the Stevens Hotel leading
to the meeting hall of the Chicago conference
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 81
EDUCATION AND BUSINESS
ERIC A. JOHNSTON, PRESIDENT, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE UNITED
STATES, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Address at Chicago Conference
This is a moment I thought I had been waiting for ever since I was nine
years old. Finally, I thought, I'm going to get a chance to tell a lot of
teachers what I think of them. At about the age of nine that was my life's
ambition. There was a slight difference of opinion between me and one of
my teachers. We compromised, of course. That is to say, she had her way.
She had her way, but I said to myself: "Just wait. Someday when I'm
grown up, I'm going to tell teachers what I think of them." I would have
added "and but good," except that the phrase had not then been invented.
So now I'm grown up, and now I'm here, and for the life of me I can't
remember what it was I was going to scold about. All I can remember
are the nice things teachers did for me. I'm willing to bet it's that way
with most of us.
A very wise man once said that because God couldn't be everywhere, he
created mothers, and I'd like to tack an amendment to that thought. I'd
like to say that because mothers and fathers can't do everything that's
why we have teachers. There are thousands of us who can honestly pro-
claim that what we are or what we hope to be we owe to our teachers as
well as our parents.
Owe our teachers? The debt of America to the profession of education
is astronomical. But for a number of years, it seems to me, we didn't even
acknowledge that debt, much less make any effort to pay it.
I think times have changed. I truly believe that there is more interest
being shown in education by laymen today than ever before. We in busi-
ness sense that. Business is learning and learning fast that education is
We're learning that good education is good business. Ideally, I suppose,
we should be interested in good education without regard to its value as
an investment and without regard to the returns we get from it. But that
isn't the American way. We Americans play everything to win. The
secret of our success is our innate urge to approach everything from the
practical standpoint. It's a good way, because it seems to create an ideology
of idealism as it goes along.
As a matter of fact, there's no truth in the old story that the best poetry
is written by starving men in chilly garrets. On the contrary, the best
poetry seems to have been produced by men in reasonably comfortable
circumstances who had a strong streak of practicality in them to match
their flights of fancy.
Our Committee on Education in the Chamber of Commerce of the
United States is composed of practical businessmen, you may be sure. The
chairman is \Ir. Thomas C. Boushall, a banker from Richmond, Virginia.
I think I am thoroughly justified in saying that Mr. Boushall and his col-
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
leagues on his committee have made a tremendous contribution to educa-
tion in the last few years.
In 1944 the Committee began to feel that business and education had
grown too far apart. It felt that this was a bad state of affairs because
both are integral parts of our economic structure. They need each other.
Business needs trained workers which only education can supply, and edu-
cation must have operating funds which business can provide. It seemed
imperative to the committee that a better understanding was definitely
The Committee launched a study to see if there was any positive rela-
tionship between the economic status of people and the educational level.
What it found out was highly interesting, highly informative, and highly
useful. It compared a number of countries throughout the world and it
found that high income and high standards of living inevitably accom-
panied high levels of education and technical skill.
It discovered that even in countries which are short on natural resources
but abundant with good education that the living standards were high.
And the same pattern held true in a comparative study among states and
cities in the United States.
Wherever higher incomes prevailed, they were inevitably hand in hand
with high levels of education. People in areas which are strong educationally
paid higher rents; they made more per capital retail purchases; they sub-
scribed to more magazines; they had more telephones. And fewer men were
rejected by the Selective Service. They were healthier.
The net result of all that is this: Education can contribute hugely to our
expanding economy by increasing the productive capacities of people so they
can earn higher wages. An ever-expanding economy is what we've got to
have if we expect high levels of employment, reasonable prices, and general
prosperity. This means more consumers, and more consumers consuming
more things. The only way to get more consumers and to have more con-
sumers consuming more things is to train them into those wants and to
educate them to earn enough money to fulfil those wants.
We have only to look at our own figures to see that our economy can be
greatly expanded. If we lift incomes and increase wants, the economy is
bound to expand, and education is the answer to the question of how to lift
incomes and increase wants. The greatest natural resource of any nation is
the capacity of its people to be educated.
In our study of educational levels in foreign countries we found some
amazing contrasts. Denmark, for instance, is practically devoid of natural
resources. But Denmark, from a per capital standpoint, is actually better
off than the United States, rich as we are in natural resources. Switzerland
has no oil, no coal, no minerals, no productive forests, and little tillable
land. What land it has is mostly up and down. But the Swiss have an
economic status which matches our own. Both Denmark and Switzerland
have high levels of education.
Then we turned to some countries overflowing with natural resources.
Colombia in South America, for example, teems with rich forests, rich
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 83
mines, rich soil. It has nature's own power lines in the form of waterfalls.
But rich Colombia is poor-pathetically poor in per capital wealth and
individual income-and Colombia's education level is very, very low.
Wherever the Committee cast its lines for facts, it found the same story,
the story of high living standards hand in hand with high education levels.
And, always the reverse of it too-low standards of living, low education
Naturally, the Committee did not make its comparisons between nations
with any thought of pointing scornfully to those with low standards. It
merely wanted facts and it got them. It wanted the facts to check its find-
ings in this country. Its essential interest was this: What can we do here
in our country to lift the standard of living in those sections where it is
now much lower than it ought to be?
What would it mean to us to have a fully developed economy at home?
That is our fundamental economic interest. We want and expect to seek
foreign trade, of course. I think we will have a greatly expanded foreign
trade in the next few years. It will be profitable to us and profitable to those
with whom we trade. But expand foreign trade as we will, it is still the
frosting on the cake. The solid slices with the real nourishment for the
ever-hungry economic machine are found right here at home.
We talk a lot about the things we have. We like to recite the fascinating
figures of how many telephones we have, how many cars we have, how
many iceboxes, and how many bathtubs. And that's well and good. But
we don't always talk so gayly about the thousands of Americans who don't
have telephones or refrigerators or radios or even enough to wear and an
I am inclined to think that most Americans who don't have those things
really want them. They know about them. That would not be true in some
countries with low incomes per capital. There are hundreds of thousands
of people in this world who never heard of a refrigerator, much less have
ever seen one. We here, on the other hand, can be pretty sure we can look
toward expanding our economy in a setting of people who want advantages
and conveniences and know what they want.
Mass advertising on the radio reaches even those who don't own radios
hut who hear them in corner stores and at neighbors' homes. Mass radio
advertising and mass billboard advertising, plus mass magazine advertising
abundant with pictures, reaches those who can't even read, telling its story
in word and sketch and photograph. We will anticipate little trouble drum-
ming up wants.
One want leads naturally to another. Look at the icebox. It was mother's
pride and joy for many years. The idea of having somebody deliver ice
every day looked like a small piece of heaven to her. She practically purred
because the butter didn't melt and leftovers didn't spoil. Then came the
mechanical refrigerator. Refrigerators didn't need a ration of ice. There
was no messy pan of water to empty and no iceman to clean up after.
But behold the refrigerator. It is almost incomplete these days without
a deep freeze unit so we can keep frozen foods. What's the next step in
84 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
the refrigeration line? Whole meals conveniently frozen solid, ready to
be thawed out and served at once.
Now that we're in an ice mood we might touch on air cooling and air
conditioning, too. True enough, it is probably odd to think in terms of air
cooling when there are too many homes without adequate heating facilities,
but more and more people are wanting air conditioning units. The time will
come when a home without air conditioning facilities will be regarded as
quaint as one where the only heat comes from a fireplace.
All of which means what? Only this: The capacity of our own people
to consume hasn't even been halfway fathomed. The power of the people
to consume, however, is limited, and we can check its limitations from
year to year. The power of consumption is limited to the current income
from personal effort or from invested funds.
If we want to increase the power of the people to consume, we must
increase the income. The question is how? How in the world can we in-
crease incomes when every now and then somebody invents a machine which
does the work of a hundred men? How can we have a constantly expand-
ing economy if we have recurring sieges of unemployment? Haven't we
become slaves to the machine and made the machines our masters?
Look at the American farmer. He's a case in point, some people will say.
During the war our farmers greatly increased their production and did it
with far less help than they had before the war.
That is all very true, and farming isn't going back to methods outmoded
by a more extensive use of machinery. That means farming can't absorb
more and more workers.
Is this something to be frightened about? It is not. It just sounds that
way. It sounds a little frightening to recall that a man with a bulldozer
can move more earth in one hour than twenty men can move by hand in
one day. What becomes of those other nineteen men?
Industry-our economy-absorbs them, and the strange law of economy
finds more men working at vastly increased rates of pay and for shorter
hours where there are more bulldozers than there are picks and shovels.
The housemaid in a well-equipped home, the farm laborer on a mechanized
farm, the very street sweeper, indeed, earn more today than their harder
working predecessors of yesterday.
But to get along in this age of ever-increasing complex machinery, our
workers must be trained to handle it, educated to handle the machines and
themselves. We are by no means up to where we ought to be, but the edu-
cational level of our people has risen tremendously since 1900, and so has
our income. In 1900 our total earnings were sixteen billion dollars. In
1930 it was eighty billion-five times as much, but our population had in-
creased only 30 percent. And in 1945 the national income was one hundred
and eighty billion-twice that of 1930. All along we have been developing
new machinery, but as we developed new machinery, we have developed
new skills, a better trained population-a better educated one.
The two factors go together like an ax head and an ax handle. Neither
one is much good without the other.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
I have talked a lot about technical skills-so much, perhaps that you
may suspect I want a nation of mechanics with no other interest except
running some noisy machine. But that isn't so. Businessmen though we may
be, we are not overlooking the cultural side of education. Again, it's be-
cause the cultural side is good business too. Suppose we could teach a given
number of workers how to earn more money than they ever earned before,
hut in the process we failed to teach them the desire to want anything but
the creature comforts? It's cultural education which fosters the desire for
more travel, for more books, for more theater-going, for more music, for
better churches, for more artistic homes. And the production of all these
things is highly important in our economy-just as much so as the produc-
tion of gadgets in some factory.
It seems important to me that the process of raising technical skills and
cultural appetites must be brought to the whole people and not reserved for
a chosen few.
Even among our so-called liberal thinkers of a few generations back, there
was a concept that only the prospective leaders of the people should be
educated. The broad mass was to remain ignorant and expected to be bliss-
fully happy in their ignorance. This was supposed to be a good economic
argument too. Out of the broad and unenlightened mass, the leaders found
But how thin that argument looks today. Today's businessman knows
that the worker-the producer-is also a customer. The shoe factory
owner in this day and age who doesn't reflect on the fact that his own work-
ers buy the very product they make and are his customers as well as his em-
ployees ought to go back to making moccasins. If all labor were cheap, who
would do the buying?
But you can throw all of this right back at me, I know.
You can point to a long and dreary list of places right here in America
where the amount spent on education is absolutely pathetic. You can point
to underpaid teachers, to schools which are nothing but shacks. You can
point to communities which seem absolutely satisfied to keep their educa-
tional levels down to a standard appropriate perhaps to two hundred
How are we going to arouse the whole people of today that education is
the best investment for a prosperous tomorrow?
We aren't going to do it by passing a string of laws. Laws never ac-
complish that which the will of many people is against. We can't choke
education down craws which have no appetite for it. Compulsion never ac-
complished anything in this country or anywhere else-particularly here.
The way to improve the educational level in this country is by educa-
tion. That's your job and it's my job. It's a job of salesmanship. Over and
over and over, we have got to tell the story that a high level of education
means a high standard of living. Over and over and over, we must teach that
prosperity and an informed, intelligent citizenry go hand in hand. Seven
times seven times we must teach that education is good investment.
Does this sound like an impossibly idealistic program? I don't think so.
86 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
We start with this fact: Everyone-even if the interest is casual-has an
interest in schools. The man without children remembers his own school days.
The man with children lives them over again-frequently twice if he lives
to have grandchildren. If he takes no other interest in education except to
compare the modern trend unfavorably against the way it was in his child-
hood, at least he has an interest. He's ripe for a good argument and he'd
probably enjoy one. Make a convert out of any critic and you have created
the strongest colleague you could have.
But let's be specific. Let's approach this process of educating the country
on the value of education with all the scientific viewpoint of the public
relations man. That's what it is-a job of public relations which in its turn
We need to put a little more "oomph" in education. It is a field packed
with the dramatic and glamour too, if you like the word.
I hope, for one thing, that you and all other educational groups will
invite more and more businessmen, professional men, farmers, labor leaders,
and housewives to attend your gatherings. Let them criticize if they want
to. They'll like you if you do that. It's the first step toward understanding.
Let's see if we can get some fiction writers interested in wrapping some
words about plots laid in schools with the characters teachers and school
administrators. Let's play along with the men and women who write maga-
zine articles, remembering always that these people, like the novelists, have
got to have a story. That means meeting their prying questions with honest
answers, refusing to take offense at their occasional jabs and jibes. That
means laying the facts right out on the table and holding back nothing.
And let's keep our story simple. Let's tell it in language people under-
stand. I don't know that there is, but if there is any gobble-de-gook in the
trade of education, get rid of it. Let's take a little lesson from the comic
strips. They count their readers in the umpty millions. A catch phrase
created today by Milton Caniff in "Terry and the Pirates" or another by
Fred Lasswell in "Snuffy Smith" and "Barney Google" is tomorrow's pet
expression. MIeanwhile, the allegedly erudite journals count their readers
in small numbers.
Let's not kid ourselves that we can sell the value of a high level of educa-
tion without getting down to the level of the man in the street. This takes
level thinking. Look at the Community Chest movement. For its charitable
and social welfare purposes, it takes in many times over what individual
agencies used to get by individual solicitation. Somebody with a good sense
of human nature sold the idea that people would he more apt to contribute
if they were bothered only once by a solicitor who represented all agencies
instead of by fifteen. And it worked.
And 1 think you can count on the motion-picture industry to do its
part. I am rather new in that business but I have been impressed at the
tremendous strides in the field of the so-called "educational film." Naturally
one thinks first of all about motion pictures in terms of entertainment.
But the motion picture is also a vehicle of communication through which
education is inevitably imparted, I think there will be more and more of
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 87
this as we go along. The value of the motion picture to education ought to
be magnificent. Alone among all the mediums, it has the power to reenact
and recreate events which otherwise cannot be recaptured. Here, for ex-
ample, is the story of the French Revolution. In film, you hear it; you see
it. There is the story of the Custer Massacre. You see the Sioux as clearly
as the ill-fated Mark Kellogg saw them; you hear the rattle of musketry,
the triumphant shouts of' the attacking Indians; and at last you see
Comanche, the surviving horse, plunging riderless across the prairies, carry-
ing with him only a story he couldn't tell.
I am not here to sell you the motion-picture industry. I mention it only
as an example of the dramatic appeal which must be combined with a
practical approach in the solution of this riddle of how to sell education.
To my mind, there is a great story in education-a succession of stories.
I think education is dramatic. It has everything in it to make it so: struggle,
pathos, triumph, competition, good humor, and interesting people. Just as
business needs more customers, education needs more enthusiasts. For my
part, I'll buy it, and what's more I'll bet we can sell the story.
THE CONVENTION EXHIBIT
JOHN J. KRILL, PRESIDENT, ASSOCIATED EXHIBITORS OF THE NATIONAL
Address at New York and Chicago Conferences
In this momentous period of reconversion, the attention of the entire
nation is focused on the school. For America now recognizes, more than
ever before, the vital role of education in the social, economic, and indus-
trial life of our nation.
The Associated Exhibitors with you and all of America are profoundly
grateful for the blessings of peace. WVe are grateful that we can again
meet and work with you according to our God-given American way of life.
WVe appreciate your great responsibility in the educational program, the
enormity of your task, and the many difficult situations now involved in
the peacetime program of school operations. We welcome the privilege and
the opportunity of collaborating with you in your great work of directing
the country's most important business by way of providing the material,
equipment, and supply requirements of education.
During the war school administrators and the instructional forces met
every wartime demand placed upon the schools and school facilities. In this
the educators have the gratitude of the nation for the magnificent contribu-
tion made to a common cause.
The war-training program involving the preparation of twelve million
adults and youth for new war jobs established a close working relationship
between schools and industry. The contribution of our schools to the armed
services, in trained personnel and through facilities for specialized training
and service, is the world's most noteworthy educational achievement. Recog-
88 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
nized early as an indispensable war instrument, our schools provided a greater
variety of services than in any previous period in American history.
And now as the peacetime program is getting under way, as a result of
the services and accomplishments of our schools, the whole country is turning
with favor to education as the most certain means of establishing and main-
taining a sound national economy and a permanent peace.
Just recently the Chamber of Commerce of the United States and the
National Association of Manufacturers expressed the dependence of business
and industry on education in resolutions calling for the betterment of our
school systems and for adequate support so that this could be accomplished.
This dependence and responsibility of education establishes our schools as
vast public service centers integrated with our social, economic, and business
life, and operated to develop the full utilization of this nation's vital, factual,
and material wealth.
The impact of World War II on our country clearly outlines the essential
educational services the postwar school will be called upon to provide in
order to meet the country's needs and demands.
Your professional efforts as school administrators are dedicated to the suc-
cessful accomplishment of this vitally important service to America. You
are here in convention assembled to formulate a workable plan of action
for the peacetime program of school operations. You will not miss the respon-
sibility and the great opportunity all of this imposes upon your professional
You are invited to visit the exhibits. Spend as much time as you can with
the exhibitors. There are over 150 exhibits staffed by people experienced
in servicing the interests of the schools. Secure the benefit of the facilities
and experience so conveniently available to assist you in solving your product
and service problems. Many new and improved products are on display. You
should see without fail all that is now available and inform yourselves of
what is in the making in schoolhousing facilities, educational equipment and
supplies, textbooks and related text material; in fact, in all the essential
tools of education required in this new era of school operations.
Again, may I express the greetings and good wishes of the Associated
Exhibitors and our sincere appreciation for the opportunity of serving the
educational interests of our country under your professional leadership.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
PERSONNEL PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN EDUCATION
EDGAR G. DOUDNA, SECRETARY, STATE BOARD OF REGENTS OF
NORMAL SCHOOLS, MADISON, WISCONSIN
Address at Kansas City Conference
This topic is inclusive enough for a book, or perhaps a library. For the
record I want to say that it was not my choice of subjects, but one that I
accepted as an assignment which might be limited to thirty minutes. We
have many precedents for a sweeping and comprehensive treatment of edu-
cation. The title of one of the first books on pedagogy to be published in
America got us off to a good start. In 1808 Joseph Neff, an immigrant
disciple of Pestalozzi, published in Philadelphia the theories of that reformer
in a book with the uninhibited title, Sketch of a Plan and M1'ethod of Educa-
tion Founded on an Analysis of the Human Faculties and Natural Reason,
Suited for the Offspring of a Free People and for All Rational Human
Setting up a problem or problems is the usual method of attacking an
educational subject, but problems frighten me. I have an impulse to run
away from them, rather than rush in to conquer while spouting, "I am the
master of my fate; I am the captain of my soul." I compensate in other
ways. This feeling of inadequacy is probably a Freudian complex derived
from my youthful struggles with the problems of Robinson's Progressive
Practical Arithmetic. I can still get a nightmare from the problem of measur-
ing a post which stood 4~8 feet in the mud, 3% feet in the water, and 62
feet in the air. Why anyone but an idiot wouldn't have measured the post
before setting it, or why he needed to know about its length, was my real
problem. I perspired over the poor fish that couldn't tell how much of himself
was head, body, and tail and which the inquiring Mr. Robinson requested
us to allocate, divide, measure, and total. Rooms had to he plastered, papered,
painted, and carpeted-the author must have foreseen the housing shortage.
There were fearful and wonderful problems involving complicated fractions,
decimals, percent, ratios, and proportions, to say nothing of the horrors of
square and cube root. No wonder spiritless and uninterested children con-
sidered themselves mathematical morons. Those problems were juvenile
tragedies, inventions of the devil for the torture of the arithmetically blind.
Another reason for my aversion to problems is the problem method, one of
those educational patent medicines promoted at conventions, institutes, and
summer schools, and guaranteed to correct all of the failures resulting from
outmoded and traditional procedures. Teachers took this one to school, re-
organized their lesson plans, and gave the kids the works. When the craze
was at its height I saw an attractive little travel book on a teacher's desk.
Picking it up to see what the children were reading about Europe I found
it had been adapted to the problem method. The first sentence was a question.
"How would you like to go to Paris with Miss Agnes?" How could I tell;
I'd never seen Agnes, and anyway I was married. Now there was a problem!
90 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Children accept this sort of thing as adult hypocrisy and slide over the peda-
gogical jargon to read about Paris. The method has its points, but it's not the
answer to a teacher's prayer.
At this point I had better state my problem more explicitly. It is really
this: What educational problem isn't in the final analysis a personnel prob-
lem? Education deals with persons, those individuals who collectively are
the people. Their likes and dislikes, their repulsions and attractions, their
abilities and their deficiencies so often lead to envy, jealousy, animosity, and
conflict. People are not abstractions derived from carefully planned and
statistically verifiable data. They are more alike than different, that's true,
but even so they are always blowing bubbles and forever making troubles.
One of the uncounted personnel problems is enough so I shall discuss only
teaching and teachers-the basis which determines the success or failure of
the educational process. Almost everything that can be said on this subject
has of course been set down endlessly. Perhaps that's why Emerson a century
ago lamented that, "It's ominous that the word education has so cold, so
helpless a sound. A treatise on education, a convention on education, affects
us with a slight paralysis and a certain yawning of the jaws." All that I
can do is to rearrange and shift the emphasis.
When a half century ago educators discarded philosophy and took science
as their guide they started an educational revolution. Objectivity and statis-
tical measurements shifted attention from the personal and subjective and
everything that did not yield to such study was unorthodox or merely on the
borderline of respectability. The extremists, called "measuring-worms," by
the unrighteous, asserted with unscientific dogmatism that "Whatever exists,
exists in some amount, and whatever exists in some amount can be measured."
Ergo! Much of the research which followed was significant and added greatly
to the efficiency of the schools. A great deal was glorified busy work and in
some areas failed completely.
This movement led to absorption with the quantitative side, of school
administration which concerned itself with problems of finance, building,
administrative organization, and the like. Consideration of fundamental
values, of the human side of education, and of the imponderables of personnel
adjustment were passed over or treated casually and cavalierly. Such studies
were two-dimensional only. Almost never was the quality of teaching recog-
nized in educational books and on convention platforms. Teaching compe-
tence was assumed to be directly proportional to work done in achieving or
acquiring credits and degrees. Those who held that teaching was an art could
not make reports with the kind of impersonal and objective evidence which
had become almost sacrosanct; they did not get a hearing. To get on, to be
a real educator, one must do research, no matter how shoddy; write, no
matter how obscurely; i.e., produce something physically tangible that could
be measured, counted, and charted even to the neglect of "the weightier
matters of the law."
Now happily a counterrevolution seems in the making. Values are again
being considered, persons are again central, and the statistical man, the eco-
nomic man, even the mysterious common man, and other generalized abstrac-
ADDRESSES AT TH E CONFERENCES 91
tions are less talked about. Teaching may possibly become almost as respect-
able as research, publication, and administration. Again Emerson-"Happy
is the natural college built around every natural teacher." There is an
implication here that great teachers are born, not made; and of course to
a degree it is true. But with a proper recognition given to teaching as an
art, a fine art, many potentially great teachers could be drawn to the schools
instead of taking their talents into other fields or using teaching as a
steppingstone to something lower. Schools and colleges will never do what
they should until teaching draws into its ranks more men and women who
can light the lamps of learning and kindle in young people a zeal to live,
at least part time, in the kingdom of the mind.
Teaching is at its best a fine art, but like acting, dancing, and singing, it
is an impermanent art. Great teaching makes impressions that are vivid,
deep, lasting. The activity is transient, the effects permanent. In great
teaching there is activity on the part of both teacher and learner, and the
result is more than entertainment. The actor, dancer, and singer perform
for an audience, the teacher works with a class and with individuals in a
class. This difference emphasizes the difficulty and the challenge of teach-
ing as an art which incites members of a class to individual activity directed
toward achievable and rewarding goals. There are thousands of individual
goals as well as the collective objectives variously called general education,
citizenship, and the like. These may be fused, organized, and integrated into
an infinity of combinations transforming the learned from what he is to
what he becomes. The process and results are generalized as "education";
the activity which produces it is "teaching," the least publicized but most
richly rewarding of the arts.
The personnel problems arising from the desire to raise teaching to the
level which we would all like to see are not to be solved overnight by aca-
demic appeals or by success formulas. First, and most difficult, is how to at-
tract and hold the kind of teachers necessary to make effective the educational
ideals to which we subscribe. In fact, if we could surmount this hurdle it
would be relatively easy to educate and train teachers and much easier to
administer a school system and supervise a teaching staff. No matter how
platitudinous it may sound the school is what the teacher makes it, or in the
older formula, "As is the teacher, so is the school."
In his annual report on enrolment at colleges, as reported in School and
Society for December 29, 1945, President Walters of the University of
Cincinnati shows a loss in public universities of 22.5 percent, in colleges
of liberal arts 14 percent, but in teachers colleges 40.8 percent. For all
higher institutions the decrease was 21.7 percent. Young people are not
turning to teaching. In both number and quality the teacher shortage will
become greater. This is an educational tragedy about which the public is not
greatly concerned and the profession most apathetic, complacent, and in-
different. The recruiting of the profession is Personnel Problem Number
Unless we can change the public attitude, teaching will be what it has
too often been, a depression job, a marginal occupation, a confession of
92 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
inability to do something to which society awards its honors and emolu-
ments. Teachers will be recruited as Ben Franklin advised, from "the lesser
sort.">What then is to be done?
You may accept as dogmatic, emotional, rational, or wishful these self-
evident propositions. Teachers will have to be paid at least double what
we have considered to be adequate salaries. Americans believe that they get
what they pay for. The number of pupils per teacher will have to be reduced
to a point where a high level of teaching is humanly possible for the ma-
jority; a small minority will do, have done, and are doing the impossible.
Ways will have to be found to free teacher and pupil alike from the bondage
of credits, grades, and a barrage of organizational directives. This demands
of teachers an increased personal responsibility, which accepted and carried
out is the highest reward of every self-respecting person.
Above all there needs to be an understanding of the hard reality that
America will survive only if its basic ideals are understood, taught, and
practiced. No need to repeat the Wellsian conflict between education and
catastrophe. We all feel that and have faith in our ability to interpret the
This day, the birthday of George Washington, is an appropriate time to
recall that the men of his era formulated our basic law. Of him we can say,
"Verily let it be remembered too that had he not been, the law would have
been forgotten in Israel." These fundamental laws the people will learn
only through incessant, persistent, and unflagging teaching. "Thou shalt
teach them diligently unto thy children and shalt talk of them when thou
liest down and when thou risest up."
While Washington was not a college man, he was highly intelligent,
well-informed, and a synonym for integrity. He presided over the men who
in convention formulated our constitution. Of these men, De Tocqueville
wrote in 1835, "This convention contained the choicest talents and noblest
hearts that ever assembled in America." They were educated men, for
twenty-nine were graduates of colleges and universities-Princeton, Har-
vard, Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Oxford, Glasgow, and London. The
"father of the Constitution," little Jimmie Madison, had studied the
classics, history, politics, and theology at Princeton under President John
Witherspoon, a great teacher, preacher, and statesman. He was" at home
in the literature of the world, his knowledge of all experience in demo-
cratic government was encyclopedic, and he had "a very handsome wit."
Presiding over this group through the long, hot summer, George Wash-
ington, without making a single speech, brought the convention through
to a triumphant conclusion. Out of the best knowledge, wisdom, and ex-
perience of the past, the Constitution had been distilled by this group of
educated men. I emphasize educated because it is often forgotten that the
foundations of our political structure were made by educated men adapting
their learning to a new situation.
This was true of all our early history. Scholarship was effective every-
where; scholars were respected, they accepted leadership without academic
smugness or scholastic isolationism. The explorers, leaders in settlement,
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 93
and ministers were all educated. Education is woven into the economic,
political, cultural, and religious pattern of the American Dream. "The
Americans," said St. John Crevecoeur, "are the western pilgrims who are
carrying along with them that great mass of arts, sciences, vigour, and
industry which began long since in the East."
WVho then is to be the carrier of this educational heritage? Who but the
teacher? A story in the Hebrew tradition says, "Several learned men were
once sent from Jerusalem to establish schools and promote instruction
wherever needed. They came to a town where they found no traces of
tuition whatever. Indignantly they summoned the citizens and asked them
to bring before them the guardians of the town. But only magistrates and
politicians made their appearance. 'These are not the protectors of the
town, they are the destroyers,' they exclaimed. 'Who then?' inquired the
citizens with astonishment. 'The teachers,' was the laconic reply." The
story does not tell us whether they found the teachers or whether the
people accepted their verdict, but it illustrates the belief of Ancient Jewry
that the teacher had the greatest responsibility, the highest social standing,
and that he was looked up to, almost with awe. The highest name that
the greatest of them took was "The Great Teacher."
With a mission like this ahead shouldn't we too believe that with the
possible exception of the ministry, teaching is the highest of callings? If
Americans really understood and consciously accepted that they will be
just as good as their schools, we should have an upsurge of faith which
would make the nation and the world safer than all of the armies that
could be recruited. That's the social goal of education and the inspiration
of great teaching.
There is another and more obvious reason for affirming our faith in
great teachers-the personal influence for good which a teacher exerts
through her personality. Here is a homely illustration. WVhen Big Tom
Sullivan was leader of Tammany and a member of the New York State
Senate he cast the only democratic vote for giving women the ballot. His
reason was his affection for a teacher who believed in women's suffrage.
This is his story:
"It was way back in 1873 and a boy named Sullivan was going to the
Elm Street School, and there was a Miss Murphy who was a teacher.
This boy had an old pair of shoes, and one day she asked the boy to stay
after school. He thought some other boy had done something and put it up
to him and he was goin' to stand for it. So he said, 'Miss Murphy, if
I've done anything let me know because I want to get away and sell
papers,' and she told the boy he hadn't done nothing, and gave him an
order. That order was to Timothy Brennamen, brother of a big Tammany
leader, and he gave me an order for a pair of shoes. I needed them shoes
and I thought if I ever got any money I would give shoes to them that
needed 'em and I'm goin' to buy shoes for people just as long as I live."
As an illustration from a totally different man, we find this in Thomas
Jefferson's autobiography. "It was my good fortune, and that probably
fixed the destinies of my life, that Dr. William Small of Scotland was
94 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
then professor of mathematics, a man proficient in most of the useful
branches of science, with a happy talent of communication, correct and
gentlemanly manners, and an enlarged and liberal mind."
But I think the finest tribute ever paid to a teacher was that of Stephen
Vincent Benet to William Lyon Phelps. Benet wrote a review of the
autobiography of Phelps for the "Books" supplement of the New York
Herald Tribune. In it he says:
"In my mind, teaching is not merely a life-work, a profession, an occupa-
tion, a struggle: it is a passion. I love to teach. I love to teach as a painter
loves to paint, as a musician loves to play, as a singer loves to sing, as a
strong man rejoices to run a race." Well, there is the recipe, young candi-
dates for Ph.D.'s. That is what you have to have first-and the most
scholarly thesis on the minor works of Hannah More or the rhyme-endings
in Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Sonnets won't do it for you.
The art of the great teacher is, in one sense, as impermanent as that of
the actor-it cannot be reduced to print, not even by Billy Phelps. But it
leaves an impress on the minds of those who have known it. The popular
Phelps course, in my day, was "Tennyson and Browning." But it might
have been "Meredith and Hardy" or "Beowulf and Galsworthy"-the
classrooms would have been just as crowded. For, behind any method of
teaching is the personality of the teacher himself. And I think we knew
what we were getting. The alert enthusiasm, the informal manner, the
handsome, unmistakable presence, the open and generous mind, the pas-
sionate interest in both subject and class as living organisms-these were
some of the things. But there was something else, and I fear the only word
for it is character-a character of singular sweetness, not without salt.
It has made him beloved by the generations he has taught.
Problems of teacher personnel will always be with us as we try to make
better schools. As one is solved complexities increase and more difficulties
arise. There can be no ease in Zion. With adequate salaries, reasonable
enrolments, responsible freedom, and social recognition of teaching as a
profession, we may expect better schools, better teaching, and a better
world. But the divine spark can be kindled only by a great purpose, which
dreams of a great future for all of the people, and for the humblest of them
a share in achievement and in service. Teaching, which can do this, is the
highest of the arts. Without high purpose it can degenerate into the
sorriest of trades. Whatever else we do to.promote education through
adequate schools, great teaching, artistic teaching, must always be the goal.
And great teachers are great persons teaching.
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES 95
BRITAIN'S GREATEST ASSET-HER CHILDREN
MABEL STUDEBAKER, SCIENCE TEACHER, GRIDLEY JUNIOR
HIGH SCHOOL, ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA
Address at Atlanta Conference
This past year a member of the British Embassy and Dr. E. WV. Jacobsen,
president of the University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, were dis-
cussing ways and means of promoting better understanding between the
peoples of the United States and the United Kingdom. This conversation
occurred at a social function and was something like this.
"Don't you believe that we must have more exchange teachers in our
Dr. Jacobsen agreed that was one way, but continued the thought by
saying, "If we are truly interested in promoting understanding, an effort
must be made in the elementary school with boys and girls many of whom
never attend universities. At present the impressions that the majority of
our children receive are from a few pages in a geography text. This usually
is a factual presentation concerning climate, products, and industries, none
of which seem very vital to young people. Also their history books empha-
size the story of the American Revolution and the War of 1812 after telling
why the colonists came to this country."
A few weeks later an invitation was extended to Dr. Jacobsen by the
British M/inister of Information to visit the schools of the United Kingdom
and to bring with him three American teachers who were teaching boys
and girls. Plans were made by the Ministry of Information and the Minis-
try of Education that schools of all types be visited. This included all ages
from the nursery school to the university. The objective was not to see
howv schools were operated but rather to understand children. During a
month's time each of us had the opportunity to talk with administrators,
teachers, parents, and hundreds of children. Teachers and headmasters
often said, "Our children are shy and reserved; they probably won't talk
with you." In every instance a group was soon eager to tell of games, books,
collections, and to ask many questions about America.
Ve found that most of their impressions of us had come from our films.
Eighty-five percent of the films shown are American so they expected us
to live in skyscrapers and to know many gangsters and cowboys. We all
chew gum and live a life of speed and violence. One girl in Newcastle on
Tyne asked where a family would sit if you have central heating and no
fireplace, as a fireplace is so much the center of the home.
It has been a fine thing that so many of our soldiers have been stationed
in Britain because they have been so friendly in their relations with
children. They have visited with them and shared tile PX supplies, espe-
cially gum and candy bars. "Have you any gum, chum?" has become a
national question with children to the embarrassment of their elders. Also
the people time and again have told us stories of the ingenuity of the
soldiers. In one place we were told of the incident of two GI's and a truck
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
which was loaded to a height two inches more than would pass under a
bridge. Looking over the situation one of them walked around the truck
and proceeded to deflate all four tires. He cheerfully called to the other
to drive ahead. Then they pumped air into the tires once again and were
on their way in a few minutes' time. In another town where the water
supply was destroyed an engineering unit drilled deeper than had ever
been drilled before and in four days' time had water available to the com-
One expects to see noticeable physical differences in children whose lives
have been under war restrictions for six years. There was little to indicate
this. Older people say they do not have high resistance to colds and flu but
they appear well fed and healthy. The government is to be credited for
the fact that early in the war they planned for a cooked meal at school
each day. In some schools this was prepared at school; in other places it was
prepared in community kitchens and delivered to the schools. Many of the
schools did not have dining halls so each day students and teachers arranged
tables and chairs in a gymnasium or assembly room shortly before the noon
hour. However, this extra work did assure one cooked meal a day to each
child at a very low cost to supplement the scanty home rations. Also during
the school day each child had one-third pint of milk. Thus they tried to
give as complete menus to children as were available. Since Britain depends
upon imports for much of the food, it seemed monotonous to us to be without
fruits and varieties of vegetables. I saw one orange in six weeks and it was
dry and shriveled. It was in a nursery school on display so that they might
recognize that fruit. They use the term "sweet" for dessert, as dessert is
uncooked fruit which has seldom been available during the past six years.
The sweet served in the school meal was usually a steamed pudding or a
tart with custard.
Another reason we believe that Britain realizes the importance* of
the next generation is the fact that in 1944 during the war a new education
act was passed in Parliament, improving the support of the school services
to include another year to the age of fifteen by 1947 and eventually, as
teachers and equipment are available, to the age of sixteen.
It is difficult to compare their schools with ours at the present time. In
the first place, we have forty-eight state systems so what may be true in
one state is not in another. Since their tax-supported schools are under
the direction of the Ministry of Education they differ less from one com-
munity to another. There is a group of His Majesty's Inspectors, HMI's,
to supervise the programs and curriculum. These are appointed for life
by the King. They have been former headmasters or headmistresses of
schools. The majority are Oxford or Cambridge graduates who try to bring
standards of all schools to a high level.
The greatest difference we noted is the separation of students as they
enter the Secondary Schools after six years in the Primary Schools from
age five through eleven. At that time they take qualifying examinations
which determine the type of education they will have from age twelve
through fourteen. The upper 25 percent enter the Secondary Grammar
ADDRESSES AT THE CONFERENCES
Schools while the vast majority attend the Secondary Modern Schools
and a few go to Technical Schools. Those who enter the Grammar School
take an academic course and may prepare for the High Schools and Uni-
versities. About 10 percent of the Grammar School students continue
their education beyond age fourteen. None of those attending the Modern
Schools and only a few from the Technical Schools continue beyond that
age. A few in the Technical Schools are now continuing one day a week
after being employed. The term "Multilateral School" was applied to
our schools which accept all students from the elementary grades and
offer them a diversified curriculum within the same social situation.
One teacher asked the top class of the primary school how many wished
to enter the Grammar School the following term. Almost every hand was
raised but only the upper 25 percent of that class would have the opportunity.
The Modern School emphasizes handicraft and homemaking for the
girls and shop and woodwork for the boys. In Modern Schools, where space
is available, gardening is part of the science work. School gardens are de-
veloped and cared for by the boys. Transplanting and grafting of trees,
as well as growing vegetables and flowers, are done by students under the
supervision of the teachers. Care of bees, poultry, and rabbits is also a part
of their class work. The produce is frequently used in the cooking classes
and, in some cases, for the school meals. Also some of the newer schools,
built shortly before the war, have large grounds and buildings which are
becoming community centers for night classes and youth clubs. Classes
are offered in sewing, art, music, dancing, shop; and young people are
returning in the evenings to use the school as a center of their social activities.
Cooking classes have learned to use wartime substitutes. "Reconstitute an
egg" is a frequent direction in recipes.
The courtesy and restraint of the boys and girls were noticeable. The
relationship between faculty and students is more formal than in most
schools in this country. The patience with which all people wait in queues
for buses, trains, food amazed us. Voices are usually lower. Differences in
accent vary as much from one section of the country to another as they do
in this country. Less slang is used by young people when talking with older
persons than by our young boys and girls. Perhaps it is due to war shortages,
but I felt it characteristic, the absence of fads and bangles so characteristic
of our teen age.
The schoolrooms are kept at lower temperatures than usual here, partly
due to fuel shortages and partly custom. Fifty-five degrees was the goal,
not seventy. Students do not wear uniforms as they do in many of the fee
schools but some follow the custom of jumpers for girls and blazers for
boys. Few of the children have out-of-school employment but they do help
with home tasks and stand in queues to do the family shopping.
We noticed that they played fewer war games and seemed to care less for
war toys. War was too real to be duplicated as play or art. Many of them
belong to Scout and Girl Guide Troops. Hiking is a favorite Saturday
pastime-likewise games. Emotionally they seem little disturbed by the
trying experiences of war. Even those \ ho had been transferred from one
"98 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
community to another seemed to accept it as a normal procedure. Com-
pulsory billeting was the order of the Authority in some safer communities.
If you had extra room in your home you took others in. Most of the
children have now returned to their own homes. In Doncaster two hundred
Dutch children are at present receiving better food and care than they
could receive in Holland. They have come with teachers and a chaplain.
Many of these have been separated from their families by war and have
survived by their wits the past years. They show malnutrition and need
guiding in ethical living after lives where scrounging was the order of life.
When a nation does its best to give children good food, homes, and
schools, and even shares with its less fortunate neighbors at a time when
normal living is most difficult, that nation has a true sense of values and
realizes that the greatest asset is the children.
LEADERSHIP OR ADMINISTRATION?
JAMES L. HANLEY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND1
Address at New York Conference
The absence of Commissioner George D. Stoddard, the speaker originally
scheduled for this meeting, is striking testimony of its fateful character. At
this moment, he and twenty-nine others of our number are in Tokyo, guiding
the beginnings of an educational system designed to produce a race of free
men. If they are successful, what a magnificent contribution they will have
made to the peace and happiness of mankind! And we in New York, and
in other regional meetings, are meeting to discuss "The Unfinished Task."
Both groups, in Tokyo and New York, are discussing the same task. And
it is unfinished if the task be to secure a peaceful world. This morning's
program brought out very forcibly the kind of world in which we are living.
Mrs. Dean called it "A World in Chaos," and Dr. Carr described "Educa-
tion for World Citizenship." The two topics, with no comment or amplifi-
cation, describe the problem and suggest the answer. Truly a world in chaos,
with education the only permanent solution.
There has been presented a vision that fills us with a sense of duty and a
desire to devote ourselves wholeheartedly to its performance. We admin-
istrators realize the urgency of the crisis. We have heard the speeches and
will read the reports. We can do our share, however, only through the
teachers in the classrooms. -We can serve only by leading our teachers to
their highest effectiveness. We must build a morale in our teachers, and
through them, in our young people.
It is hard to define morale. It is the state of mind that makes a teacher of
a class of slow-learning boys refuse a promotion because she does not know
1 At the last moment Superintendent Hanley took over the assignment on this program of New York
State Commissioner of Education George D. Stoddard. Shortly before the New York conference Dr.
Stoddard departed for Japan with a group of A'merican educators appointed to consult with General
MacArthur on the future of Japanese education.