T i tt
/ O Ln,once.3
Bir4inghamt,Qhicago Damner Nic York
t rLo r Cur '.,c ,.. r
EL'C, W'I0..IL PEL RCf SLERi'C
&J." rhlngtor D C.
Bimninigham, Chicago, Deinve;, New York
JOSEPH R. FULK
LIBRARY OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Sweg: ht Cd.L4X.
THEAMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF
A Department of the National Education Association of the United States
1201 Sixteenth Street, Northwest, Washington 6, D. C.
Price, $1 Per Copy
3 '70. ,
I, N JUNE 1944, American forces established a beachhead in
F Normandy. By the end of August, France was liberated and
MlI] the lines of the Americans and their Allies extended from the
North Sea to Switzerland. Southern France had been success-
fully invaded through Mediterranean ports and the army which had
landed there was marching to join its comrades who had come from
Normandy. By mid-October, predictions of an early end of the war
in Europe came from the lips of those in authority. Plans for our 1945
regional conferences were well under way. Timely programs of un-
usual significance were in the making.
But before Christmas the scene had changed. In a powerful counter-
offensive, vonRundstedt's veteran troops had broken the American
lines and forced an enormous bulge. Lands only recently liberated
were reoccupied. Demands for more ammunition, more guns, more
food, and more supplies mounted from day to day. In the United States
an unusually severe winter crippled the transportation systems from
the Midwest to the eastern seaboard. The outlook was not pleasing.
Thus it came about that early in January it became necessary for
the government to curtail civilian activities. Conventions and confer-
ences were early casualties. On January 20, 1945, the regional con-
ferences scheduled by the American Association of School Administra-
tors were canceled.
Conventions and conferences have rlnma'po"wfriJ4 teAS'for stimu-
lating educational progress,61MRt suc 1atlin 1gs constitute but a single
phase of the activities of our Association. Research, yearbooks, con-
mittee reports, and, perhaps most important of all, active contact with
governmental agencies are among the services to the schools which an
organized profession should provide. The values in small group meet-
ings should not be overlooked.
Ere long, some of the boys who short years ago marched away to
the training camps will return. They will have seen many foreign lands
and had experiences such as have come to few of their elders. As they
come back matured men with worldwide outlook, they may reason-
ably expect those who have remained at home to have kept for them
a country worth fighting and dying for. Schools have no small part
in preserving for them and for posterity a homeland in which all may
find genuine satisfaction. In these days when the future of mankind is
taking shape, school administrators, as well as soldiers, will do well to
heed their country's call to duty. Perhaps this Official Report may
offer some worthwhile suggestions.
Addresses Prepared for the Canceled Conferences
The Great Task Remaining . . ....
An Educational Use Tax . . ....
Impact of Federal Agencies on the Schools .
Suffer Little Children . . . .
Problems of the Professional Personnel .
Administrative Problems and the Teaching Staff
The Returning Veteran . . .....
Education of All American Youth . . .
The Impending Problems of Youth . . .
Education Looks Forward . . .
A Year of Opportunity . . . ...
New Patterns in Educational Administration
New Insights into Educational Administration
Problems in School Administration . . .
The Administration of Public Education . .
The Teaching Staff . . ... . . .
Educational Planning and the Postwar Era .
After Taps Comes Reveille . . . ..
. . . .-Engelhardt
. . .--Boushall
. . .-Spalding
. . .-McFarland
. . ..--McDonald
. . .-Evenden
. . .- Bo . .
. . .-Kulp
..... . .-Kersey
. . -Wade .
. . .-Mort
.. . . .-Sexson
. . . .- Hill . .
. . . .-Lake
. . . .-Bracken
. . . .-Grace
. . . .-Benjamin
Special Studies Prepared for the Canceled Conferences
Training New York City Teachers and Supervisors in Service ...
Surplus War Materials . . . ... .--IFe'glein
Disposal to Educational Institutions ... . . ..-Alrves
Surplus War Commodities .. . . . . -Brown .
Surplus Federal Property-The State's Standpoint . .-Lancaster
Surplus War Materials-A Comment . . . . .-Hill
Educational Needs of Youth .. . . ..... . ..-Small
A Program for Youth Under Eighteen ..... . -Strough
Youth Over Eighteen Not Planning To Attend College .-Furney
Equal Educational Opportunities for Rural Youth . .--Getman
Providing Financial Support for a Youth Program . -Pillsbury
Significant Factors in Community Planning .. ... .-Kulp
Resource Education: A Tool for Regional Development . .--l.,ry
Radio in Education.. .... . . . ... .. -Lake
4 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF'SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
lJ'ork Conference Report
Educational Programs for Veterans . .. . . . . . 201
Officers 1944-45, 1945-46 . . .
Annual Report of the Executive Secretary . .
In Memorial . . ...
Report of the Auditing Committee. . . .
Certificate of List of Securities . . . .
Report of the Board of Tellers . . . ..
State Organizations of School Administrators .
Calendar of Meetings . . .
Committees and Commissions . . .
. . 252
. . . 253
S. . 272
. . 274
. . 275
. . 277
. . 279
. . 283
OUR POLICY-The American Association of School Administra-
tors endorses no individual or group of individuals or any sentiment
expressed by any speaker or other participant in its programs, except
by resolution or by motion approved by a vote of its members.
PrCepard for the CancleCd Conferences
THE GREAT TASK REMAINING
N. L. ENGELHARDT, ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK,
N. Y.; PRESIDENT, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Seventy-five years ago the American Association of School Administrators
had its origins. Only a few years earlier this nation was being wracked by a
life and death struggle based on principle. Just seven years before, Lincoln,
in the brief but clarion phrases of his Gettysburg Address, had presented
the basic issues before the nation. ". . these dead shall not have died in
vain . this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom . .
government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish
from the earth." These, he declared, constituted "the great task remaining
before us." It cannot be far from the truth to assume that the 1870 genera-
tion of school administrators had accepted these challenges and were earnestly
seeking their fulfilment.
Wars and depression have come and gone. Throughout, this Association
has carried on with an abiding faith in the educational processes and with
the conviction that, through education, conflicts in ideologies may be resolved,
power and wealth may be used for constructive human gains, opportunities
for individual education and achievement may be increased, and man's con-
quest and control of his environment may be assured. The remarkable record
of educational gains since 1870 cannot be attributed to fortuitous conditions
but reflects the cumulative dedication of a people to fundamental principles
such as Lincoln enunciated. Seventy-five years of annual programs of this
Association played an important part in the interpretation of these principles
and their widespread dissemination. Successive generations of American
children were taught to adapt them to new conditions. Confidence in the
American school system has expanded with the years. In the discussions,
debates, and addresses of this Association, through the decades, devotion to
the ideals of freedom and equality of opportunity for all underlies all.
There has been no equivocation, no denial of principle. On the other hand,
the annual programs give evidence of continued professional progress, of
awareness of emerging critical issues and of an unhesitating adaptation to
changing conditions. In the membership of this Association, leadership and
performance for what Lincoln defined as the "Great Task Remaining" have
been abundantly demonstrated.
In this year, 1945, the nation is still engaged in the most destructive war
in history. The material losses are beyond measurement. Countless homes,
unnumbered industries, and entire cities are being wiped out. The slaughter
of human beings is beyond belief. MIen are utilizing the accrued gains and
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
achievements of decades to destroy one another. Again the principle is at
stake, the age-old principle of freedom, with its varied applications. Our
fighting men, the youth of yesterday's classrooms are freely giving life and
limb that our nation may continue to exist with all its hard-earned freedom
and opportunity. The brave dead have already exceeded that of any other
war. Dedication of ourselves, the living, with even stronger devotion to the
principles for which they have fought is the inner purpose of every American
man and woman. Consecration of our institutions, our power, and our
resources to the maintenance of that way\ of life for which our dead so
valiantly sacrificed is our avowed objective. As this global war ends, the
"Great Task Remaining" takes on deeper and fuller meaning. Shibboleths
and slogans will not suffice. "You must" is the charge our dead have given us.
Good intentions must become realities. Ideals must be made actualities.
To-day's public-school administrators, who, approximately 6000 strong,
give strength, guidance, and character to this Association, have since Pearl
Harbor been confronted with new and unusual tasks. With pardonable
pride can each member point to the remarkable achievements of American
school systems in helping to win this war. This generation of school adminis-
trators has led the teachers and pupils of the nation through adaptations and
accomplishments with unfailing devotion to our national cause and with
amazing success. The reserves of strength in our public-school system have
been utilized without stint. Whether the problem was one of specialized
war training or food rationing, of curriculum change or materiel salvaging,
or of practicing democracy as well as teaching it, the needs of the nation
have been met. These past four years represent a high level of accomplish-
ment in school administration which may well be thought of as setting the
pace for the future.
No brief summary can portray fully the vast effect of the all-out war
effort upon our public-school systems. Extensions to the educational program
have been made as the need was felt. Adults have been trained by the thou-
sands for specific war jobs. High-school courses have been revamped and
condensed to make youth available earlier for war service. Realism has been
given physical training. The malnourished have been fed, the young have
been brought into nursery schools, and school buildings have been opened
wide for war and community programs. Not land alone, but sea and air have
been recognized in the teachings of the classroom. Curriculums have been
vitalized, globalism has penetrated into textbooks and, as never before, the
intent has been to follow democratic practices in the educational processes.
These are a few of the educational gains of wartime of which all will have
their influence on peacetime patterns.
"Education in a Contracting World" was the timely general theme desig-
nated for this year's canceled regional meetings. America's schools have
been devoting much thought to the full meaning of this term. The stu-
pendous advances in air transportation have made real the interdependence
of all world peoples. World health, world customs, world trade, world
money, world competitions, and world peace have unfathomable implica-
tions for oncoming generations of school children. Technological progress
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 7
brings new concerns about food, clothing, and shelter. Regional develop-
ments like the TVA, here existent and now projected the world over, will
have far-reaching national and international implications for human living
and political government. Sulfa drugs and penicillin are forerunners in
medical progress, which will give competitive strength to millions the world
over for whom adjustment must be made. Research in science and industry,
open to the world's initiative, will create new industries and new wealth
with which educational alertness alone can compete. The forty-hour work
week, with its probable further reduction, will play an important role in
the world's educational program. The character of future cities, the kinds
of homes, and the conditions under which man works together with greater
like-mindedness among peoples are important factors in the newly emerging
era. Dumbarton Oaks, Teheran, and Yalta are new place names in our
history. They symbolize man's intent to bring unity, neighborliness, harmony,
and peace into this contracting world, which all too long has defied man's
The postwar period will usher in a most stimulating and constructive
educational era. In the first place, the importance of education and the need
for its expansion will be more fully accepted by leaders in all walks of life.
The extensive plans, already advanced in other lands, support this prophecy.
T'he millions, who have fought, may be relied upon to seek through educa-
tion avoidance of future wars. Then the full import of the extensive social,
economic, and industrial changes of recent decades will be comprehended, as
world reconstruction begins. Millions also will seek new opportunities, will
require readjustment, and will have been inspired into continued acceptance
of fuller responsibilities for citizenship.
Extensive alterations in public-school organization may be expected. Some
indications are in the direction of expanded adult education programs, pro-
visions for early childhood education, reconstruction and extension of voca-
tional education, improvement of opportunity for the handicapped, ac-
ceptance of the school-camp idea, statesmanlike solution for the problems
of youth, expansion of the program in the thirteenth and fourteenth years,
and further secondary-school adaptations to meet the real needs of their
students. Organizational change will be accompanied by fundamental cur-
riculum adjustments, by improved methods of teaching, and by increased use
of audio-visual materials, with a direct bearing upon living and its expanding
The professional workers responsible for carrying on this program will
require training based upon a full recognition of the implication of the
changes which are taking place. The members of this Association have a
major obligation for guiding superior young minds into the profession. They
should also assume greater responsibility for defining the kind of training
essential for adequate service at all levels of the educational program. They
should stress the need for teacher-training programs commensurate with the
task to be done.
At no other period in American history has as great a responsibility been
placed before the school administrator as will be done in the new era now
8 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCIooL ADMINISTRATORS
definitely taking form. "The Great Task Remaining" will require stateman-
ship of a high order, well-grounded understanding of world problems, an
unfaltering faith in the improvability of man, and a firmly supported con-
fidence in education's role in the advancement of man's interests. The focus
of interest will be the individual, without regard to creed, color, or economic
or social status. The measure of performance will be the kinds of com-
munities that are created and the strength, character, and substance attained
in their families. Joint action with other agencies must assure the child a
protected infancy and a wholesome, happy childhood; the youth, opportu-
nities for exploration, education, physical security, and a planned induction
into citizenship; the adult, an adequate home for participation in constructive
family living, economic opportunity, avocational growth, and the continued
chance for further enlightenment; the aged, constructive living under reason-
able security. In the postwar era education must be an expanding force, aid-
ing mankind at all ages and offering stimulation for the highest achievement
of all. The thousands will have died in vain if limping tradition, limited
vision, petty financing, or any other road-block is permitted to prevent the
progress that their sacrifice sought to make possible.
The American Association of School Administrators has a great stake in
the results secured in the years ahead. It represents the combined thinking
and planning of all American superintendents of schools and their adminis-
trative colleagues. Its past conventions have highlighted the educational
progress of the nation. Its yearbooks have served as guides for nationwide
action in many educational fields. The future will, however, place heavier
demands upon the organization. The consolidated knowledge, skills, and
understanding of its membership should be expected to serve oncoming
generations even more successfully than heretofore. Opportunities for ex-
tended service abound. The new era may be expected to draft the leadership
that will provide the ways and means for bringing educational administra-
tion to new high levels of attainment.
The Association during the past twenty-five years has gone through a
creative and constructive stage. The period has witnessed an unparalleled
professional growth among its members, many of whom now take high rank
among the leaders of the nation. An unusually competent and faithful service
has been rendered by the secretary, Sherwood ). Shankland, during this
entire period. The demands on this service are daily increasing and should
continue to mount. The Washington office should be equipped and manned
to provide even greater service than its limited resources have made possible
in the past. A truly national association in educational administration should
have a center, where research in its field focuses, whose library in adminis-
tration is unexcelled, and whose timely bulletins or findings go monthly, if
not more frequently, to all its members.
Scores of special committees, working on world and national issues, should
be serving the Association. Self-education as well as group learning should
thus be processed. The reports of such committees, working together this
year, offer suggestions for further work along this line. Closer affiliations
should be established between each state association of administrators and the
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 9
American Association. Such relationships could assist in solving state prob-
lems, in spreading interest and knowledge about emerging problems, in
breaking down artificial state barriers in the advancement of members, and
in creating a better feeling of belongingness among the members of the
The Association has always maintained close relationships with the schools
of education which train men and women in administration. Mere superficial
analysis points to many ways in which these relationships can be made
mutually more helpful. Organized research programs, centralization of
research results and their dissemination, surveys of training programs, and
the extension of research coordinated with actual local needs may lead to
The future should welcome more frequent and continued conferences and
discussions with lay groups, especially with members of boards of education.
These should not be incidental to the annual meeting but should be a planned
part of the year's program as has already been worked out successfully on.a
state basis in several areas. Education is not just a function to be admin-
istered. It is a process of living and working together for which the major
association may well set the pattern.
The proposed new program requires additional support. A graduated fee,
making possible membership for all, whether on a low, medium, or high
salary, has been frequently suggested as a source of more income. The addi-
tional returns would not be great. The Association would be required to
find.new means for additional support. Such a responsibility should be given
a special committee to work out.
The "Great Task Remaining" will be a tremendous one as the postwar
era of education dawns. This is equally true for the individual administra-
tor as well as for his Association of steadfast, industrious, intelligent men
and women devoted to one of the nation's most important services. America's
youth, who have been winning the battles of the Bulge, of Manila, of the
skies over Tokyo and Berlin, were but yesterday in our classrooms. The
ideals for which these youth are fighting and giving their all were presented
and discussed in those classrooms. The American school administrator is
proud of those boys. In the spirit with which our youth have dedicated them-
selves to service, the school administrator rededicates himself to the "Great
Task Remaining" which these youth would have him perform.
All will join in carrying out the pledge written by the immortal Lincoln:
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the
right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work
we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall
have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan-to do all
which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among our-
selves, and with all nations.
10 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
AN EDUCATIONAL USE TAX
THOMAS C. BOUSHAI.I, PRESIDENT, THE MORRIS PLAN BANK OF VIRGINIA,
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA; CIIAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION,
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES
It was my privilege to address a section of the American Association of
School Administrators in Chicago in February 1944. There I proposed the
recognition and imperative acceptance of a partnership between education
and business. Such a reciprocal relationship seems requisite to the improve-
ment of the political and social well-being of our people through the expan-
sion of our economic activities. The upgrading of the technical skills of
youth and of adults and the broadening of their cultural appetites is essential
to thie development of their greater earning power and the stimulation of
their greater capacity of production in seeking to satisfy their expanding
The division of the responsibilities and activities of this partnership allo-
cates to education the development of a more marketable training by the
schools, greater emphasis on the discipline of work, efficiency, and acceptance
of responsibility. A more marketable education is called for through better
technical training and broader cultural and deeper character concepts.
To business falls the lot of affording an all but unlimited market for the
use of these better developed skills. There should be ample opportunity
fully to exercise their upgraded capacity with increasing pay for rising per-
formance. It is the function of business to provide a vast production of goods
and services, together with their ready distribution at constantly lowering
cost. To business also falls the responsibility to provide the money with which
education is to perform its part in this working program of partnership.
What I seek particularly to present is the question of this last responsi-
bility. Therein lies the crux of the issue-the funds with which education
may meet the urgent challenge to provide adequately marketable training
for the youth and adults of the country to make our economy function to the
full and advance the social well-being of our people as a whole.
The future of the American way of life in the United States depends
critically (to the point of potential tragedy) upon the ability of education
adequately to train and inspire the youth and adults of the nation to function
fully and freely in a continuation of our representative republic.
Can education create an unslackening desire for the full and free expres-
sion of the total capacity and ability of the whole people of this country?
Can education inspire a desire for the development of the full dignity of
each and every individual? Can education enable every last citizen to deter-
mine that he shall be the servant of no man nor of any state? Can education
fire the spirit of every child, each man and woman, to become the master of
his own soul, of his own destiny; beholden to none but the God who created
him free, equal, able, and divinely potential?
If education can and will accept these responsibilities and successfully
accept and fulfill this challenge, business will eagerly pay the cost. In sup-
port of this premise, I want to make four points clear.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
IMy first point is that up to now the education of American youth is not
as marketable as it should be. My second point is that education alone can
correct the defects we find in the organized teaching and training of the
people. The third point is that business is dependent for its very existence
upon the upgrading of the technical skills and cultural appetites of the whole
people in the postwar period. Fourth, I want to suggest the method by which
business can reasonably and equitably meet the cost of the essential and
proper training of the youth and adult population of the United States to
My first point, then, is the inadequate marketability of the education of
youth as it has in the past come out of our schools and moved on as adults
into our economy as producers and consumers and as citizens who in our
representative republic choose our leaders and legislators, which leaders in
turn give authority, validity, and integrity to our way of life as a people.
In the early colonial period of the North American development men
worked with their hands; bent their backs to the tasks of felling the forest,
building homes and tilling the soil, or sailing ships. Gradually we built a
small industrial layer on top of our basically agricultural country. Char-
acter, discipline, integrity of effort and purpose began to reflect themselves
in a continually widening strip of conquered land moving back from the
Atlantic Seaboard. Then came the war of secession when we separated from
England and repudiated the king we called a tyrant. We set up that great
experiment of a state functioning as the servant of man. The Declaration
of Independence was more fully an Emancipation Proclamation than was
Abraham Lincoln's famous document. It has served as a charter and guide
for the whole world in establishing the concept that all men are free if they
but have the vision and courage to declare themselves so and act upon that
conviction; if they but have the basic discipline to fight for and establish
that freedom ; if they have the appetite and character to maintain it against
all its foes, internal as well as external.
Against all external foes we have stoutly maintained our own freedom.
We have fought and won wars on our own behalf. We have challenged
the great powers of the world on behalf of weaker nations. When men in
foreign lands have dreamed of enslaving the world, or any appreciable part
of it, we have gone abroad and have defied these forces in the name of
liberty and in the name of the essential dignity of the individual human
being. We have believed that man can have no master other than his own
individual disciplined will to make the most of his inherent qualities and
capacities in that environment in which he finds himself.
But within our own borders we have overlooked more insidious enemies
of freedom. We have failed to develop concepts and disciplines, character
and ambitions, that stand ready to repudiate every effort to bring men under
the domestic yoke of our own state. We have allowed concepts to grow that
tend to make men servile to the will of a few. These few would invest power
in men to dictate and direct the daily lives of the whole-not to serve and
glorify the individual, but rather to make the state the supreme objective
for which every man must labor.
12 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
This tendency has come about in this country through an overweening
and careless confidence in our natural wealth and our exploitation of the
inventive genius of our people. Up until the end of World War I we opened
our gates to a flood of immigrants who came to this fabulous land of plenty,
as they sought to escape the maturing economies of Europe where unskilled
labor had no worthwhile market.
In the 1930's we came up against the fact that unskilled workers could
find few, if any, jobs. Unemployment among skilled people was relatively
low. Without carefully analyzing the situation, the philosophy was launched
that we had matured our economy just as Europe had seemed to do ahead
of us. We set out to divide among the total population what little work
could be generated. We reduced the work week to spread jobs, not to
create leisure or to lessen the effort necessary to earn a living.
Beneficiaries of a nebulous power and unexplained wealth of the state,
men began to surrender freedom for a semblance of security. They did not
stop to consider the price being paid in the utmost coin of the loss of
individual freedom and dignity. The article being offered was presented
under the false name of a paid-for and assured security, achieved through
the creation of governmental deficits.
We were a virile, strong, reliant people, educated to the discipline of
work. We had been educated to accept responsibility and to seek the fullest
possible expression of one's own capacities in a land of maximum freedom
and individual self-respect. We were a people who would defy any authority
that sought to set any state above the rights of man. Soundly educated men
and women would not seek to find security through arithmetical legerdemain.
They would rather seek these things through individual effort. They might
properly use the device of collective security, but only then when based on
sound economics and honest accounting to a people of character led by
statesmen of integrity.
Youth coming to maturity with flabby minds-undisciplined in thought
or the sacredness of obligation to fulfil assigned duties, or incompetent to
read accurately or do arithmetic correctly, and unacquainted with the harsh
realism of failure in competitive trials-can be readily led astray. They
can he constrained to support social and economic measures that have no
basis of soundness, no aspect of permanence, nor any final degree of integrity.
A whole people, competently trained in the basic requirements of character
and technical understanding, in the knowledge that competence and accept-
ance of responsibility are in demand and that these qualities command
increasing income, will eagerly move out of the schoolroom into a world
that is full of opportunity and reward. But flabby-minded, undisciplined
youth, with concepts that "the world"-whoever that vague entity may
he-owes him or her a living, regardless of the contribution made, is more
dangerous to a republic than its best armed external enemy.
This type of education has a low marketability in business circles and is
a highly potential source of danger to any form of democratic government
among any free people.
The second point follows as a corollary to the first; namely, that only
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 13
through our public-school system-elementary and secondary, supplemented
by the country's private schools-can the basis of the character of a
free people be properly established. There alone can habits of work, self-
discipline, and high regard for integrity of effort, efficiency in execution,
and competence in understanding the basic principles in our economy and
our society he inculcated.
Unskilled workers were a drug on the market in the 1930's. More and
more our schools must produce men and women, not necessarily expert
bricklayers, mechanics, electricians, painters, plumbers, or carpenters; but
more and more they must produce youths who have the capacity to adapt
their technical training to whatever tasks they may be assigned, and to meet
and master those tasks with more and more basic understanding and con-
The school must increase its attraction for youth to the end that it may
be held for longer years of better training by the magnetic force of the
promise that greater education affords, rather than be kept in the school
system through the force of law.
With the constantly rising efficiency of machinery in the field and in
the factory and with its increasing complexities, youth must stay in school
longer to be able to learn more how to operate this modern equipment
effectively. Over and beyond this consideration is the fact that technology
tends to reduce the number of workers required for adequate production.
There is increased demand upon the intelligence of those people who do the
work. Even with an expanding economy of undreamed proportions,- the
time is not far distant when more goods and services can be produced by
the total people at work than the total people can consume unless we first
find a correct answer to balance off this problem.
One important answer is that youth must be held in school for longer
years and come to the work area of life not at fourteen, fifteen, and sixteen,
or even at eighteen and nineteen years of age. Perhaps in time youth must
be delayed by the requisite need of training on into the ages of twenty and
twenty-one. A corollary to this proposition is that the age of retirement from
the work area may in time have to come down from seventy and sixty-five
perhaps to sixty years of age. The working population may have to be
narrowed into ages above the teens and below the sixties. Such conditions
may be necessary to assure competence of workmanship. It may become
necessary to remove the improper competition of immature youth and that
of the declining efficiency of those in the advancing age group. More per-
tinently, even, it may soon become necessary to delay the entry of youth
into the working group in order to give it the requisite time to equip itself
with adequate training and to provide men and women of the older ages
with ample time to enjoy themselves leisurely while they are still able to
rejoice in physical vigor and mental alertness. Otherwise youth may come
to work inadequately prepared and the older group may have opportunity
only to sleep out their last days in unconscious senility.
Active workers in the remaining age brackets would then be able to earn
enough to support their children while they are being adequately prepared
14 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
for life. The workers themselves would be able to earn enough not only
to provide for their own current wants, but they would themselves be able
to provide an income for their later years of leisure following retirement.
Education, adequate and competent, is the base requisite of these devel-
opments in working capacities, ages, production, and derived incomes.
Adequate education, too, is the base of maintaining an economy, a govern-
ment, and a society that enables free men to work for themselves under
sound fundamentals of national integrity and individual and national
solvency. It can provide for adequacy of income to meet current expenses,
pay off previously incurred debt, and set up reserves for future costs.
The validity of an expression as to the opportunity in the economic world
for competent youth can best be substantiated by the third point of these
remarks; namely, that business is dependent for its very existence upon
the upgrading of the technical capacities and cultural appetites of the youth
and the adults of this country.
If at least fifty-six million people are not for the most part privately
employed in postwar America, there will be an appreciable number of
unemployed people seeking subsistence or jobs at the hands of governmental
agencies-local, state, or national. They will be offered "made" or unneces-
sary work. It will be paid for out of deficit financing. Following'a war
and its huge debt with a consequent enormous federal budget, nothing
more dangerous can overtake our people. We cannot lower taxes while
creating deficits. If we do not lower taxes, industry will tend to spiral
downward. We will then develop more unemployed, more "made" work,
more deficits, and a whole succeeding series of deteriorating sequences lead-
ing to eventual chaos.
Business then seeks the opportunity to employ in private endeavor every
possible man and woman. Then lower taxes can be justified. Business can
be stimulated. Wages will be earned, and out of these wages the products
of factories and farms and the services of professions will be consumed and
used. Thus the upward spiral starts. When the first lush years of pro-
duction have met the accumulated acute wants of the world, the problem
of facilitating the consumption of an enormously expanded productive
capacity will face this country.
The one adequate answer is the lowering of price while increasing the
quality of goods and services. The only way this typically and truly Amer-
ican phenomenon can occur is by increasing the output capacity of our
already amazing mass production methods and machinery.
This is not feasible unless the adults already operating these machines
and carrying out these methods are upgraded in their technical capacity
to manage and operate even more complex units of production. Necessarily,
the youth moving out of the schoolrooms into the working group must also
be upgraded in their technical abilities.
Education is the rock bottom foundation of the whole connective tissue
of our economy.
Business is not fooling when it says to Education, "We avant the most
competent and adequate education the yo(tth and adults of this country
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 15
can be given." Business expansion is dependent for its very life blood upon
men and women willing, able, and anxious to work competently, efficiently,
and steadily. We urgently need men and women able to make such con-
tribution to the processes of production of goods and services that they
can be paid sufficient wages and salaries that will enable them to buy and
to consume the whole output of the country.
It is critically important that we all understand that technical training
of individual skills is essential but that this alone is not the full answer.
Cultural appetites must be developed to the end that the whole of our
people will seek to obtain the satisfactions of better and broader living on
wider horizons of geography and under broader concepts of philosophy.
They must want to travel more and farther in nicer cars, to live in better
homes with less cost of maintenance, to read more books, to see more plays
and movies, to worship in finer churches, and to visit more museums of
art. They must want to play more often, for longer periods of time, and
with more extensive and expensive equipment.
Too, they must be so anxious to do these things that they will seek that
training necessary to greater competence and consequent greater earning
power. With these larger earnings, they can then satisfy their ever-widening
If education can honestly accept the challenge to educate the people
adequately to these ends, business will for its own salvation set out posi-
tively and vigorously to supply the additional money education needs in
accepting its significant and tremendous role of preparing youth and retrain-
ing adults to meet these great and critical national demands.
The fourth and final point, then, is a suggested method by which business
can through its own initiation provide those added funds required to fulfil
these educational prerequisites for an expanding economy. Such an expand-
ing economy in the United States must in its very unfolding and fulfilment
bring an enlarging social well-being to all the people of this nation.
The Chamber of Commerce of the United States, through its Com-
mittee on Education, has made a careful study of the relationship between
educational status and economic level throughout this country. Too, it has
developed additional material in regard to these relationships throughout
the world. Its findings are, in the opinion of the Committee on Education
and the Board of Directors of the Chamber, sufficient to establish the fact
that rising educational status precedes increasing economic levels.
With this study published and distributed to chambers of commerce and
trade associations, educational authorities, and legislative bodies throughout
the country, the issue develops as to the means by which additional funds
may be raised with which to meet the greater costs required by educational
processes that would meet the conditions outlined in the three preceding
Purely on my own responsibility as an individual and without consultation
with or approval of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States or
its Committee on Education, I want to suggest a method by which the
necessary funds may be adequately and-equitably developed to meet the cost
16 AMERICAN AssocIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
essential to a broadened type of adequate education necessary to fulfil the
conditions here outlined.
The present largest source of income for education in American com-
munities is a local tax assessed against real estate in the townships, counties,
and the states. Real-estate taxes have reached a point in many cities where
they are depreciating values, ruining properties, and all but bankrupting
communities. Any appreciable increase in real-estate taxes in most com-
munities, particularly metropolitan areas, would have such serious economic
consequences that we can readily anticipate serious resistance to that end.
The educational authorities report that our total educational system
in this country costs us approximately two and a half billion dollars a year.
They tell us that the more adequate training of skills and development of
cultural appetites would cost an additional billion dollars annually.
Where and how and from whom can we find a billion dollars 'a year
for education that would be furnished with alacrity as a profitable invest-
ment, rather than being met with stiff and unyielding resistance as an
unneeded, stultifying, and resented assessment?
We must first look for those who would be the greatest beneficiaries of
an improved and adequate educational system. Upon such beneficiaries an
assessment or tax would lie most lightly and he received with least resist-
ance. In fact, if these beneficiaries be first fully informed of the program
and properly assured of the consequent benefits, they themselves might in
all likelihood propose the raising of these funds through the laying of a
tax or assessment.
We have in the foregoing points seen that business would be the main
or first beneficiary. We have seen first the danger of a deteriorating econ-
omy and a rapid slide into totalitarian methods if our people are unemployed
and dependent upon the legerdemain of governmental finances to sustain
our economy. Next we have seen that an expanding economy can only
come from upgrading the skills of the people and their cultural appetites,
that in turn create wants that only highly trained people can earn enough
money to satisfy.
Business, then, would want to pay for this modernized educational pro-
gram if a way could be found to place the burden equitably in direct
ratio to the benefit received.
Business-and in that term is included all those units of production of
goods and services in the nation, including farmers, industries, professions,
public services, and even individuals who are their own employers-employs
the workers of the nation, who in turn are the product of the schools.
Business is the direct beneficiary of the training given to its employees by
the schools. Assume a totally illiterate people and then reconstruct the
economy of America upon that basis. Assume again a totally upgraded
people and reconstruct the American economy upon the skills and appetites
of such a population.
The Chamber of Commerce of the United States is seeking to bring
that concept to American business.
Now, then, if we say to American business that to raise a billion dollars
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED) CONFERENCES 17
we must lay an annual use tax for education upon every employer for each
individual he employs, we would raise the requisite one billion dollars if
only fifty million people were involved in this tax program at the rate
of $20 per capital. This would leave out governmental employees (federal,
state, and local), college personnel and teachers, and a vast group that
might not be properly classified as engaged in business.
This means that the upgraded type of education would have to increase
the efficiency, or the technical capacity, or the work habits, or the accept-
ance of responsibility, or the integrity of output, only $20 worth in
three hundred working days of adult workers. These workers are literate,
trained, and inspired by the improved outlook that comes to a people and
to an individual to whom has been shown the greater possibilities of pro-
duction, of earning power, and of the satisfaction of wants, which wants
have been displayed to them through educational processes.
This means that in three hundred days, at $20 a year, there must occur
an increased productive capacity of only six and two-thirds cents a day.
This improvement may occur in reduced wastage of materials, or in greater
care of machinery, or in improved volume of sales, or accelerated production,
or in new short cuts, or in improved methods, or merely through a higher
consciousness of the integrity of work in earning and accepting a salary,
a wage, or commission.
The equity of the tax comes in the per capital charge. Here is a factory
employing 1000 people. It pays $20,000 a year and has 1000 chances every
day to improve its profits.
Here is an employer of only one person. His annual tax is $20. He has
but one chance a day to enjoy the benefit of better workmanship or the
integrity or efficiency of selling, servicing, or producing. The larger burden
falls where there is the greatest opportunity to benefit. Here is a farmer with
a new $500 tractor. If the operator of that tractor has had a year's technical
training in operating tractors, there will be a dividend far greater than
$20 in the use of that tractor in a year's time.
But over and beyond the greater capacity of the workers to produce
goods and services, to care for machinery, and to improve methods, comes
the greater and saving stimulus to the economy in the improved earnings
of the people and their capacity to consume the production of farms and
factories and the services of the nation.
One billion dollars spent on the education of our total working people
would stimulate the consumption of an annuallnminimum of ten to twenty
billion dollars. Business could hardly pass up an opportunity that would
come to it in such minimum ratios. With the cumulative effect of five or
ten years of such spiraling processes, the economy could additionally expand
by tens of billions of dollars in such a period.
We have, of course, a very happy, forceful, and proved precedent for
just such a tax that has justified itself to be probably the greatest investment
America has ever made with the highest annual recurring yield in history.
That precedent is the six-cent tax on each gallon of gasoline used in motor
transportation in this country. This tax, levied by the several states, is
18 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
used to build and maintain the highways and byroads of the nation. It
falls equitably because each user pays in direct proportion to the number
of miles he drives his truck, bus, or car over the roads provided and main-
tained out of this tax.
A great social and economic revolution has rolled happily across the
economy and society of the American people. Its description calls for a full
volume merely to give it outline. The gasoline or road use tax is an
eagerly welcomed investment and in no sense is an assessment on anyone who
pays it. It-not only directly benefits most the one who pays it, but every
American citizen is additionally the beneficiary of the stimulus to our
economy and the enormous increase in our whole social well-being that
has come out of the widespread and all but universal ownership and use
of automobiles in this country.
Here, with the prospect of a postwar world that calls critically for the
upgrading of the technical skills and cultural appetites of our people, is
another opportunity to provide a new investment of similar equitable
proportions that can equally create an economic and social revolution for
the people of the United States.
An educational use tax, levied upon employers for each employee, can
provide the necessary money to improve our educational system, make it
adequate to our needs, modernize it, and gear it into our increasingly
For education it holds great opportunity and immense challenge. For
business it offers an investment it cannot afford to refuse. It suggests a
pact of partnership between business and education that seems inescapably
imperative in the interest of each and of our nation.
IMPACT OF FEDERAL AGENCIES ON THE SCHOOLS
WILLARD B. SPALDING, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PORTLAND, OREGON
In discussing this problem of the relationships, happy or otherwise, be-
tween the various federal bureaus or agencies and the Portland public
schools, I hope my remarks will not be interpreted as anti-government or
anti-New Deal or anti-federal aid or just plain "anti."
I have no desire to imitate the blind mule who was seen butting his
head against a tree. The fellow who had bought him wanted his money
back, saying the mule was as blind as a bat. "\hat makes you think he's
blind?" asked the seller. "Why, he butts his head against every tree in the
pasture." "Oh, that!" was the answer "That ain't because the critter is
blind. It's just that he don't give a damn !"
Nor am I one of those about whom Stuart Chase writing in the December
1944 issue of the Survey Graphic says:
"We Americans, most of us, do not believe in governments-any govern-
ment, and especially our own government. We work for government, use
it, take its benefits, would be lost without it, but we do not believe in it."
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR TIHE CANCELED CONFERENCES
I do. I even believe in a strong government, capable in time of national
emergency to use all the resources and power of the nation to defend it
from foreign enemy or domestic breakdown. Even when the war is over
and we return to conditions we fondly call "normal," the complex nature
of modern society will doubtless require close interrelation between the
central government and the economic life of the nation. I have no hope,
and perhaps no desire, for the return of Jeffersonian democracy. The world
has changed somewhat since the days of Jefferson or of Adam Smith, his
Nor, in complaining of the contradictions and the bureaucratic tangles
which now complicate our relations with \ashington, do I mean to crit-
icize the many individuals who represent the federal government in its
contacts with local institutions or individual citizens. For the most part
these people are highly intelligent, devoted public servants. When they
step on each other's heels or get involved in delays, interminable discus-
sions, and administrative confusions, they are as much sinned against as
sinning. They and we too are the victims of a catch-as-catch-can policy
of meeting each new problem by setting up a new bureau and then per-
mitting that bureau to proceed blithely on its way without regard to
other federal agencies and without using the "know-how" of the local
governmental units concerned.
It may be that the war emergency has been a sufficient excuse for con-
fusion on the domestic front up to now, but there is no reason in the
world why the present Congress from now on should not overhaul the
entire machinery of federal administration and bring some semblance of
streamlined, nonduplicating efficiency into the picture.
AIly purpose is threefold. First, I wish to acquaint you with the present
situation in the public schools of this country, as it is affected by the ac-
tivities of the federal government. Second, I shall endeavor to point out
the causes for the present situation, as I see them. Third, I shall suggest
some remedies. It is my earnest hope that these remedies will appeal to
some of you enough so that you will wish to do something about putting
them into effect.
In describing the present situation, I shall talk about School District
No. 1, since I know most about it. What is happening in the public schools
of Portland, however, is happening in every city school system in America.
Differences are only differences in degree. They are not differences in kind.
Portland has received federal funds for the operation of some part of
its schools since 1919 when it first set up vocational classes under the
Smith-Hughes Law. During the last fiscal year it received about $23,000
from this source. This money is distributed through the U. S. Office of
Education, which comes under the Federal Security Agency, which is not
a department of the government headed by a cabinet officer.
Portland has received funds from the federal government for the opera-
tion of nursery schools and extended day care centers since 1934 when
these were set up under the WPA. It received $204,200 for these pur-
poses during the last fiscal year. This money is received through the Fed-
20 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION'-or Sciooi. ADMINISTRATORS
eral Works Agency, an independent governmental unit and not a department
of the government headed by a member of the President's cabinet.
Portland has received funds for the repair or construction of school
facilities since 1940 when it set up projects to construct playfields and to
repair schools under the WPA. During the last fiscal year it received
$341,178 for school buildings.and equipment under the emergency provi-
sions of the Lanham Act. These funds also are received through the FWA.
From this agency also came the sum of $306,000 for the maintenance and
operation of the regular school program. A further sum is due and is in
the process of negotiation, approximately $45,000.
The vast production of this area has been made possible to a large ex-
tent by the training program which the schools have operated. Over 200,-
000 workers have been trained for war jobs through the Portland public
schools. During the last fiscal year $1,838,109 was expended for this pur-
pose. These funds came through the U. S. Office of Education, which is
in the Federal Security Agency, which is not a department of the govern-
ment headed by a cabinet officer.
The individual schools of this District operate cafeterias. These cafe-
terias are not operated for profit and so are entitled to receive free food
from the War Food Administration. This agency is in the Department of
Agriculture, which is headed by a cabinet officer. The items of food which
have recently been available are peaches, onions, and powdered eggs.
When this country was plunged into war the schools were requested
to operate training courses for high-school boys which would enable them
to become better soldiers after they were inducted. These courses are
called preinduction courses. There are over two hundred classes in opera-
tion in our high schools today, enrolling more than one thousand pupils
per semester. The outlines of what is to be taught in many of these courses
are furnished by the Department of War, which is an agency headed by
a cabinet officer.
To care for the children of migrant war workers, the Federal Works
Agency constructed upon existing school grounds additional classroom
facilities at five of our schools. They also constructed and equipped the
building now known as the Guilds Lake School. In connection with the
five school facilities, the District had to deed to the federal government
the ground on which these units sit. However, when the War Housing
Administration set up a housing project in the Guilds Lake area, it was
discovered that no provision had been made for a school site. The District
had to negotiate with the county for a site, and after considerable difficulty
secured one that is far from ideal, but it answers the purpose temporarily.
Then the negotiations started for the building itself. These actually took
a year and a half, so that the buildings were not completed and ready for
occupancy until about a week or ten days after school opened.
In addition to these activities the schools, like any other business, are
affected by the OPA, the WPB, and the Solid Fuels Administration, as
they' endeavor to purchase the necessary materials for operating and main-
taining their plant. These agencies were set up by Congress to meet speci-
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR TIHE CANCELED CONFERENCES 21
fic needs and they are independent of any other administrative department.
The District is in the process of negotiating a contract for educating
disabled veterans. This contract will be with the Veterans Administration,
a separate government agency, not under any other department of the
Like any employer, the schools too must deduct for withholding taxes
and purchases of war bonds, activities which come under the Treasury
Department. We even have annual dealings with the Bureau of Indian
Affairs. Each year we have the problem of tuition for the few Indians
who come into our Portland schools. Last year we had six. To get the
tuition for these six Indians, a total of $520.84, we had to make a report
for each quarter of the school year, four copies, no carbons because the
federal report form is on extra-long sheets with spaces too small for the
typewriter. In each instance we had to list the degree of Indian blood
(after we found it), the age, the grade, the number of days attended
(each day separate), the number of days absent (each day separate). We
listed the dates that school was in session and the days it was not in session-
and for each such day, why. We listed the total number of student days
for the whole system, and the cost per student, grade school, high school,
and grand total. Accompanying this, we had to send a bill and a cover-
ing letter. Then we had to wait for the $520.84, which to date has not
yet been paid.
I could go on and mention more of the agencies of the federal govern-
ment whose activities impinge upon the schools, but I believe that the
complexity of the present situation is clear. I have already mentioned at
least twelve agencies with which the Portland schools must deal. The
sum of $2,689,827 was received from the federal government during the
past year with the $50,000 additional in process of negotiation, I mentioned
earlier. Let us look into the nature of the relationships which exist.
These relationships are characterized by (1) frequent conferences, (2)
many conflicting directives, (3) lack of authority on the part of those
persons from federal agencies with whom the schools deal, (4) frequent
visits by federally employed persons whose duties are defined poorly and
who attempt to exercise controls, (5) lack of agreement among the
agencies themselves, (6) failure on the part of the agencies to follow the
laws which created them, and (7) interminable delay and red tape. Let
me give you a few illustrations from nmy files.
The program of extended day care in this city has not been very large.
Parents have not taken advantage of this service. When schools opened
in September, a center was set up at fifty-one schools for a trial period
of three weeks. Fewer than fifteen children enrolled at forty-six of these
centers, and so they were closed at the end of this period. It appeared to
be desirable to employ a specialist to head up this program in order to
make sure that it would meet all existing needs. Adding this person meant
revising the budget estimates. This revision consisted of setting apart the
sum of $4000 for this purpose out of a larger sum already allocated for
supervision. This is a simple matter of five minutes work in the operation
22 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
of our regular program. In order to do this with a federal program, it
was necessary to write several letters and to hold seven conferences. At
last we secured approval on these terms:
As the result of a conference of the regional supervisor, field representative, and
the applicant, it was agreed to replace the present supervisor, who is actually a
business manager and is not an administrator, with a trained, experienced director
at an annual salary of $4000.
The School District had not wished to replace anyone. It had wished to
employ an additional person. At no time had the matter of replacement
or dismissal been discussed with anyone. This attempt to influence who
shall do what is clearly in conflict with the law setting up these centers,
No department or agency of the United States shall exercise any supervision or
control over any school with respect to which any funds have been or may be
expended pursuant to this title, nor shall any term or condition of any agreement
under this title relating to, or any lease, grant, loan, or contribution made under
this title to or on behalf of, any such school, prescribe or affect its administration,
personnel, curriculum, instruction, methods of instruction, or materials for in-
If this means anything, it means that the government furnishes the
money and the school operates the program without any interference.
There has been constant complaint from the patrons of the Portsmouth
and Peninsula Schools because there are no added facilities and so a
double-shift is in operation. Here is the record:
May 3, 1944-Notice was received of a contemplated relaxing of the 200 percent
War Production Board ruling.
May 9, 1944-Five copies of preliminary applications for schoolrooms at Peninsula
and Portsmouth Elementary Schools and Roosevelt High School were sub-
mitted and accepted by the Federal Works Agency.
May 12 to July 15, 1944-A number of letters and telephone communications were
received from the Federal Works Agency requesting various additional
information which was supplied.
August 14, 1944--A copy of a letter was received from Mr. Hirsh, chairman of the
Area Production Urgency Committee, relative to a meeting of his committee
and representatives of the shipyards indicating some skepticism on the part
of the shipyards as to the need for further building at this time.
August 23, 1944-A letter was received from the Federal Works Agency indicating
that our architect, Manson White, had been handed the formal application
forms. Up to this time we had been applying for an application blank.
September 26, 1944-Plans and specifications were received from Mr. White.
Financial data had been prepared by Andrew Comrie at an earlier date.
September 27, 1944-Six sets containing formal applications, financial data, plans,
specifications, letters furnishing supporting evidence for the need of addi-
tional buildings, and other requested information were delivered to the
Federal Works Agency office in Portland.
October 19, 1944-Information regarding architect services was telephoned to Mr.
Austin's office and we were informed by him that our application was in
the Berkeley office at that date.
November 11, 1944-Telegram sent to Senator Guy Cordon asking if he could
expedite action on this application.
November 21, 1944-Communication from W. H. Cheney, regional director, Fed-
eral Works Agency, Berkeley, California, in which he states funds are not
available at present time for school facilities.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
Last spring we received notice that we must convert our oil-burning
heating units to coal-burning ones. This order was given by the Petroleum
Administration. We applied to the War Production Board for priorities
for grates, for lumber for storage bins, and the like. The War Produc-
tion Board referred us to the PUC. I appeared before them and pointed
out that' we could not decide which material was most critical and that
we would convert if necessary, but that it was clear that something was
wrong as one agency ordered us to convert, another refused us priorities
without which conversion could not be carried out, and a third, the OPA,
had just sent us oil coupons for our winter's fuel. This was in IMay, as
I recall it. In October 1 received the following:
Ever since receiving your letter of July 28 I have been hounding officials of the
Petroleum Administration for War for definite information on their agreement with
the War Production Board, the War Manpower Commission, and the Office of Price
I still have not obtained copies of the interagency agreements but hope
to have them on hand if and when PAW resumes its activities in the
I mentioned previously that the schools received the sum of $306,000
for maintenance and operation of the regular program and that an addi-
tional sum was being negotiated. The Lanham Act reads in part as
The estimated expenditures must be reasonable in the sense that they do not
exceed to any substantial degree expenditures for similar purposes in the three
years next preceding . except to the extent . imposed by state law.
This District placed the sum of $74,721 in its debt fund out of a total
of $292,0.00 received for the sale of property which had been taken for
taxes. This amount had been levied for the purpose of debt retirement.
Our attorney had instructed us to place this sum in the debt fund. The
Tax Conservation Commission had directed us to do it. The Oregon laws
require us to do it. But the representatives of the federal government, in
direct contradiction to the wording of the law which sets them up, refuse
at present to allow this procedure.
One last illustration of what is now going on will suffice. I have men-
tioned the number and frequency of conferences as one aspect of the rela-
tions of the District with the federal government. The District can and
does send one person to such a conference with authority to act. Occasionally
the District sends two persons. On extremely rare occasions the District
sends three. The local representatives are always outnumbered. The man-
power shortage could be solved to a very large extent by allowing one
person to represent an agency at one conference. Apparently, however,
the government has embarked on a permanent policy of outnumbering other
conferees. Recently two persons came to the office of the deputy superin-
tendent of schools in order to get cooperation between the schools and the
recreation department of the city. Both we and Commissioner Cooper were
and are unaware of any lack of cooperation, but the federal government
apparently knows more than either party. These men were from the Divi-
24 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCiool. ADMINISTRATORS
sion of Social Protection, Office of Community War Services, Federal
Security Agency, San Francisco. Apparently the permanent policy of this
agency is that of sending two men to do one man's job.
I could give many more illustrations of the way in which local-federal
relations now operate, but finding fault and pointing out the ludicrous
aspects of conflict and incompetence may help to improve one's state of
mind but does nothing to help correct them. Why have these present
situations come to pass? What will correct them?
The Constitution of the United States is entirely silent upon the subject
of education..It contains neither the word education nor schools. It may
he that those who signed the Constitution were for the most part imbued
with the idea that education was not necessary for the common people.
They themselves were the product of a semi-aristocratic institution. As a
matter of fact, public education did not exist when the Constitution was
drawn, nor for many years thereafter. The right of a state to operate tax-
supported public schools through the high school was not clearly established
until nearly one hundred years after the adoption of the Constitution by
the famous Kalamazoo decision. The omission of any reference to education
To infer from this omission that the country as a whole has no right
to be concerned about the education of its children is not only logically
untrue, but is historically untrue. Beginning in 1787 when the Continental
Congress adopted the Northwest Ordinances for the territory northwest
of Ohio and included the clause, "Schools and the means of education shall
be forever encouraged," the concern of the nation has been expressed by
acts of the Congress. It set up West Point in 1802 and made its first land
grants about this time. In 1818 it first distributed money to the-states. In
1845 it set up Annapolis. In 1862 it set up land-grant colleges under the
Morrill Act. In 1867 it set up the Department of Education. In 1914-17
it set up its grants for vocational education. With the beginning of the
New Deal in 1933 it began emergency grants to education. The records
show that education has been of continuous concern to the nation and that
the Congress has expressed its concern both by regulatory acts and by the
provision of funds. Federal aid to education is old. Attempts by federal
agencies to control education at the local level, however, are new. I quote
from a- speech by Edgar L. Morphet, Director of Administration and
Finance of the State Department of Education of Florida.
The present tendency toward indirect control developed in 1933-34 when schools
in many sections of the country fared the prospect of closing because of the De-
pression. At that time federal funds were made available to aid in providing normal
terms for schools, but only on condition that teachers be paid relief wages and nol
standard salaries. Instead of making a direct appropriation which could be used
by the states in solving their problem in a constructive manner, the funds were
provided only on a relief hasis without any attention to the maintenance of teacher
standards and teacher morale. Those who accepted the money accepted the lowering
of teaching salary scales. Not even this practice was consistently followed.
An illustration of this was the establishment of nursery schools through the use of
WPA funds. Instead of making these funds available to the states for the establish-
ment and operation of these programs in accordance with educational criteria, the
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 25
nursery schools were operated directly by federal agencies. While the staff was
supposed to be on a relief basis, a large percentage of the personnel was non-relief
because of the need of some sort of executive ability. For that non-relief portion, the
federal government entered into competition with the local authorities, thus setting
tip a parallel school system.
Another illustration was the use of WPA funds for various types of adult educa-
tion. It is true that many real needs were met in this way, but instead of meeting
these needs through the trained personnel already in the school system, new per-
sonnel was employed directly by the federal government. State departments of
education were often almost completely ignored and federal authorities controlled
this branch of the local educational system.
The same thing is true of the NYA. Originally this was intended to provide funds
for needy youth trying to continue their schooling. Before many years had passed,
the NYA was developing schools of its own and these were beginning to compete
directly with local school units in setting up construction projects. When the local
authorities created difficulties or appeared unsympathetic to the program of federal
aid, the PWA went ahead with its own projects.
Since the beginning of the war most of the relief and construction funds have
been discontinued, but other developments have shown the same tendency. The
Lanham Act was passed by Congress to assist in providing necessary community
facilities in war critical areas. It was obvious that the federal agencies assigned to
this very necessary activity were composed primarily of engineers who had no-idea
of school needs or procedures. The problem of presenting and getting their school
plant needs approved and buildings actually constructed became a nightmare for
state and local school officials. The consequence was an approach to chaos.
Even worse situations developed in connection with the portion of the funds avail-
able for schools in maintaining their current school programs in war areas-the
"M. and 0." funds of the Lanham Act. These were supposed to be made available
when needed and on the basis of applications signed by the local school units. The
Federal Works Agency, responsible for administering this phase of the program,
changed its policies and regulations so many times during the year that no one knew
what to expect next. It would have been far better had the entire project.been
financed through the United States Office of Education which would then have
worked in conjunction with the state departments of education and local school
systems. Auditors representing the Federal Works Agency displayed their ignorance
of school conditions by attempting to impose impossible interpretations, as, for
example, when one of their rulings would have required separate light meters and
separate facilities of all sorts for defense-connected pupils.
The basic reasons for the present chaotic conditions lie in the failure
of both the local districts and the federal government to realize that the
education of the boys and girls of this country is of legitimate concern to
all of the people of the country. Once both the federal government and
local school districts accept this great truth, then sound policy can be
developed and pleasant cooperative relationships can be established. When
both are determined to work together for the improvement of the lot of
children, then that lot will improve much more rapidly than it has ever
done in the past.
The present record is that of conflict among a group of bureaucrats,
of which I am one, who stand for the protection of the vested interest of
local control and initiative on the one hand, and other groups of bureau-
crats who stand for a thousand and one different things as the whims of
their superiors lead them to issue a thousand and one different directives.
We bureaucrats of local school districts know where we are and what we
26 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
stand for. We do not know where federal bureaucrats are, nor what they
stand for. In fact we doubt that they know.
What is needed is a well-established basic policy which will arise out
of the careful thinking of the representatives of the people and of the
public schools of America, and which will be administered by and through
a single agency of the federal government.
Such a policy would recognize that the quality of the education of all
of the boys and girls of this country is of concern to all of the people of
this country. It is just as important to the people of the Northwest to have
good schools in Mississippi as it is to the people of M'ississippi. If every
penny raised for taxes of all kinds in that state in 1941-42 were spent on
education, the per pupil cost ($27.15) would be only one-fourth of what
it is in Oregon ($111.24). It is no accident that Huey Long and his Share-
the-Wealth movement or Gerald K. Smith and his dangerous movement
find their first strength in those areas of the nation where education is
financed least. Ignorance on the part of large numbers of our people will
always be of danger to the, country as a whole. A wise policy of federal-
local relations in the field of education would lead to the use of the greater
tax resources of the federal government to improve the education of all the
children of all the people.
The public schools of the country had an enrollment of 26,801,950 during
1938, the last normal prewar year. Private and parochial schools enrolled
about 500,000 during this same year; 1,350,905 students were in colleges
and universities; 1,095,173 persons were employed in all of these insti-
tutions; $2,233,110,054 was spent to keep them in operation. The total
population of the United States in 1938 was 130,215,000. About one-fourth
of the whole nation was either enrolled in or working in an educational
institution. This tremendous enterprise is represented in our national gov-
ernment by the U. S. Office of Education, which is in the Federal Security
Agency. It has no way to influence national policy directly or indirectly
through a cabinet officer. This country alone, of the major nations of the
world, fails to have an officer of cabinet rank to represent education. We
have seen the way in which the schools of Japan and Germany have been
used to produce people who hate others. As our armies enter Germany,
they are discovering that the children have been changed by what the
schools have done to them. One of. the major problems of the peace is
that of reeducation of these children and of developing a program of
education which will maintain peace. At a recent meeting of the allied
ministers of education this country was represented by a Congressman
and by the Librarian of Congress. Both of these men are capable men but
they do not represent education in the United States. A wise policy of
federal-local relations would lead to the immediate establishment of a
Department of Education which would be headed by a Secretary of Educa-
tion who could speak for this great agency in the councils of our President's
cabinet and in conferences between nations.
Such a department should include under its administrative control all
of the educational activities of the federal government. It should receive
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 27
and distribute federal aid to local districts upon a formula prescribed by
law and not by directives. All relationships with other federal agencies
should be settled at Washington through this department so that local dis-
tricts would have clear-cut and understandable statements of what to do.
Each local district would deal only with the Department of Education,
which would handle all relationships with other agencies.
A strong Department of Education and an adequate program of federal
support are the only assurances which we can have that there will not he
federal control of education. Alany persons have assumed that a strong
Department of Education and any system of federal financial aid to schools
would automatically bring federal control. The opposite is true. The
reluctance of the people of the United States to accept a comprehensive
program of federal aid is responsible for the very large measure of federal
control which we now have. The present tendency of existing agencies to
direct what schools can or cannot do in terms of implications which minor
bureaucrats give to the directives of major bureaucrats arises out of the
fact that there is no national policy and no national law to which the
local bureaucrat can turn for guidance. Control and interference are bound to
exist wherever clear statements of basic policy are absent. Federal control is
less wherever it is based upon Congressional acts rather than upon directives.
This does not mean that federal aid should not include some federally
imposed standards, if the aid is to be received. It should do this. The nation
should be sufficiently concerned about the welfare of its children to make
sure that each teacher whose salary is paid in part by federal funds is well-
trained, that class-size is such that not too many children are in one room,
and that similar minimum standards are met. The right to have poor schools
does not exist at any level-local, state, or federal. Above this minimum,
however, local resourcefulness can have its chance to develop better schools
for each community. WVith adequate federal aid it can begin to use the ideas
which have been kept dormant because of lack of money to carry them out.
Federal aid will encourage local initiative, rather than discourage it.
I have given you a picture of what is going on in the schools now. There
is federal control which rests on the basis of the personal directives of
bureaucrats. There is conflict among federal agencies. There is no uniform
point of view among them. There is continual interference with the
operation of federally aided programs within the ,schools. There is and
has been federal aid to schools for years. This aid is of many kinds and
administered in many ways. What does the future hold?
The end of the war means unemployment during conversion to civilian
production. The labor market will be glutted. Into this glutted .market
will come the 12,000,000 returned veterans. They will want and get jobs.
But what of the millions of youth leaving our secondary schools each year
in order to work? There will be few jobs for them. When millions of
young people are out of work this is a national problem and will be solved
on a national basis. The pattern has already been set. The recently abolished
NYA was an answer to this problem by the government. It was designed
to serve the worthy purpose of helping needy but capable youth to continue
28 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SciOOL ADMINISTRATORS
in school. The funds, however, were not allocated to the states to be admin-
istered by local educators. Instead the federal government set up its own
organization and, in time, even established, federally operated schools of
its own in which local students were paid to attend. This was federal
control and federal operation as well.
Compulsory military training is being discussed as part of the future
training of youth. As the President described it recently, it is not com-
pulsory military training, but a national school system with brushing the
teeth among the required subjects. This too will mean both federal control
and federal operation.
War workers must be retrained for the occupations of peaceful produc-
tion. This will involve the use of much of the present War Production
Training facilities. Will this too be federally controlled and operated ?
,What of rehabilitation of the veteran? What about nursery schools?
\Vhat about extended day care? Federal funds for public works? Vocational
education? The "G. I. Law"? What about all the other federal projects
and agencies which are now operating or financing.some federally spon-
sored program? WVhat will happen to the present program of deficit financ-
ing? Will we get both federal funds and federal operation? We probably
will unless there is immediate action. Again I quote.Edgar L. Morphet:
The only way to avoid future federal control of schools and to eliminate some of
the present control by non-educational agencies is to establish a definite plan of
direct federal aid. Through such a plan the states can know what financial resources
are available and if any tendency toward federal control should develop, the educa-
tional profession can meet the issue directly and successfully. Under the present
system of indirect and piecemeal support, the issues seldom come out into the open
where they can be made clear to the general public. Any system of direct federal aid
should meet the following requirements:
A. The funds should be apportioned to the states on the basis of an objective
formula written into the law and therefore not subject to special interpretation or
modification by any federal agencies or employees except the courts.
B. The funds should be made available to the various states to he used by them
in strengthening and improving their own educational systems in accordance with
the provisions of their own laws.
C. Each should be held fully responsible and accountable for the proper expendi-
ture of the funds in accordance with the objectives and standards written into the
D. The states should be expected and required to meet certain objective adminis-
trative standards that are'incorporated in the law. These standards should tend to
safeguard the interests of the children of the state, hut should not be of the type
that would subject the schools to any kind of undesirable control.
The people of America are definitely opposed to federal domination of the school
program. This is the greatest possible safeguard against such control. However, as
long as federal funds are administered through non-educational channels and used
indirectly for specific phases of the school program, it will he hard to combat this
increasing control of local education from Washington. If all the millions of dollars
which have been spent on the various educational functions through these non-
educational agencies of the federal government had been made available to the
states through a satisfactory system of federal aid for schools, our educational pro-
gram would have been far better, our local control of schools would be better
established and the obligation of the United States to give a satisfactory education
to all of the children of the United States would have been permanently recognized.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR TIE CANCELED CONFERENCES
SUFFER LITTLE CHILDREN
KENNETH MCFARLAND, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, TOPEKA, KANSAS
I am reminded today that five and one-half years have passed since Hitler's
Huns crashed across the Polish border to begin the most devastating con-
flagration this world has ever known. Little children born in America
that sad September in 1939 are now in school. The years which make up
the life span of this year's kindergarten children have been years of inter-
national tragedy, years in which the flames of war have spread from shore
to shore until finally they have engulfed the earth.
I often think that war represents a special kind of sorrow for people
engaged' in the business of education. We have dedicated our lives to the
task of preparing young people to live, and when we see the precious product
of our institutions exposed to the fury of modern warfare, it seems to
represent both a personal and a professional tragedy. No one knows better
than school people that there is no way to assess our battle losses accurately.
If our heroic dead could have devoted their great talents to peaceful pur-
suits, what magnificent contributions they could have made to the welfare
of the world.
Have you read that little poem of AMax Foley's called "The Five Per
Cent"? In that poem he says:
In battle plunged a hundred men,
'And ninety-five came out again-
Yes, they came out alive;
But still we find we're just as dead
As if a half the hundred bled,
Instead of merely five.
For we are those who died the day
You read that curt communique:
OUR CASUALTIES WERE LIGHT.
And we, like you, have thought it well
That we were but a few who fell,
While more live on to fight.
And yet, we had families, friends,
For whom at last all hoping ends
In tears through years to come.
OUR LOSSES HAVE BEEN LIGHT SO FAR.
Well, that depends on who you are-
Not very light for some.
No, to those who have nurtured the boys through the years to see them
stand on the threshold of full and useful lives, there is no such term as
"light casualties." Perhaps only those can truly love freedom who really
understand how much it costs.
And all those who pay the price of freedom are not found on the field
The wife who girds her husband's sword,
Mid little ones who veepp or wonder
And bravely speaks the cheering word,
Although her heart be rent asunder,
30 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
doomedd nightly in her dreams to hear
The bolts of death around him rattle,
Hath shed as sacred blood as e'er
Was poured upon the field of battle!
The mother who conceals her grief
While to her breast her son she presses,
Then breathes a few brave words and brief
Kissing the patriot brow she blesses,
With'no one but her secret God
To know the pain that weighs upon her,
Sheds holy blood as e'er the sod
Received on Freedom's field of honor.
If war just killed our fine men and broke our women's hearts, if it just
did that, it would hold the undisputed title of being the most damnable
institution ever known. But it does worse things than that-it ravages
the little children of the world. Premier \Iolotov was thinking of the mil-
lions of Russia's children who have died and the millions more who are
living on a starvation diet when he said, "It is not only important that
we win this war but it is important that we win it soon, lest the physical
fiber of our people be irreparably weakened." At Lubin on August 11,
25,000 Russian and Polish civilians held a memorial service for more than
300,000 of their countrymen who had been slain there through German
atrocity. The great crowd watched as the bodies of little children were
taken from an open ditch. But a reporter on the scene writes, "The people
did not cry. They had no tears left."
Leaders in liberated France report their country has suffered terribly
from what they call "the disease of defeat." Thousands of children in
Paris and elsewhere have come to live by the law of the jungle. Their
fathers have been prisoners of war in Germany for four years and the chil-
dren have had to subsist by any means possible. "These youngsters know
nothing of decency and honor," writes one Frenchman. "We must very
soon get our families reunited, all of our children in school again, and
our economic system functioning, or our defeat will be permanent."
The Polish government in exile reports that Poland lost the present war
during the last war when virtually all of its children under six years
of age starved to death. "Poland has been a battle ground for nine years
out of the last thirty," says this spokesman. "No nation can continue to
survive the loss of so much of its blood."
In Britain the government is mustering teachers out of the armed forces
in an effort to recoup some of the ravages which the war has reeked upon
the nation's childhood. Expressing fear that England will find itself with
a whole generation of what it calls "wild children," the London Times
declares, "It is too much to take everything away from our children and
leave them nothing but debt and destruction. The future of the empire
depends upon saving-the children now."
In his book entitled, They Shall Inherit the Earth, Otto Zoff points
out that the children of the world pay a ghastly price for this thing we
have come to call "total war." In no land are the children guilty of
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 31
making war, yet the bombs have maimed and killed them with the same
iron indifference in Hamburg as in Coventry. They starved in Leningrad
and Salonika. Children hiding in caves in the cliffs of Sevastopol were
buried alive by the bombardment from the ships. Children were torn in two
at their school desks when the German bombers blasted Bristol, and every
last baby was murdered in the extermination of WVarsaw's ghetto.
Yes, when war kills our men and women it blots out the sun for today.
But when it attacks the children it does a far more horrible thing-it
reaches out with bloody hands to hold back the dawn of a better day.
No wonder the Master Teacher said of the little children, "Whoso shall
offend one of these little ones, it were better for him that a millstone were
hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea."
Certainly if there is such a thing as retributive justice the arrogant warlords
of Germany and Japan will burn longer in hell for what they have done
to the children of the world than for anything else on the long list of
their monstrous crimes.
WAR CASUALTIES NOT LIMITED TO BATTLE ZONES
But there are millions of war casualties among children who have never
heard an exploding bomb nor the drone of a hostile plane. In our own
country there are untold thousands of children who are growing up with-
out the companionship and influence of their fathers. -These American
children are safe from air attacks and enemy armies, but they are not
safe from a thousand other dangers of modern war. They are not safe
from the effects of shifting populations and disorganized homes. They
are not safe, as Dorothy Thompson puts it, "from the constant sensational-
ism of war-from bloody films and fearsome headlines." They are not safe
from the constant tenseness and nervous tiredness which surround them.
Children, one writer says, "are like little receiving stations." When they
live constantly in an atmosphere of emotional strain, they absorb it with
their nerves even if their minds do not comprehend it.
I wish I could talk to you today about the tremendous need for personal
guidance counselors in the public schools, but I shall here merely point
out again that every American agency dealing with childhood has a colossal
job on hand to prevent another "lost generation" such as followed World
I think it is now apparent to even our enemies that we are going to win
this war. The products of our free American homes and our great school
system are defeating the regimented forces of darkness all over this planet.
Gene Tunney said it well: "America's secret weapon has not been a gun
or a new plane. It is America's magnificent youth. The way they have
risen to the occasion has astonished the world."
But we must start now to make sure that the war does not leave so many
scars as to rob us of the fruits of victory. We must start now to get a
big idea about the postwar world. We must start now to thinking of a
social order where first things shall be first, and human welfare is always first,
32 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL, ADMINISTRATORS
Through all the avenues of public information in recent months we have
heard much about postwar planning. MAany newspapers have carried a
worthwhile series of articles on this subject. These writers spoke mainly
of the physical improvements we shall need, and their contributions are
well worth the attention of all of us. But throughout all our postwar dis-
cussions I have personally wished we might talk more about the kind of
citizens we shall need.
PEOPLE ARE TIE "STUFF" OF WHICH COMMUNITIES' ARE MADE
I have often pointed out to civic groups that whereas over this land we
have thousands of civic bodies working to build bigger and better commtu-
nities, it is very rarely that we find such a group that has taken time even
to define what a community is. Now it seems to me that a community can
be simply defined. A community is a place where people live together in
considerable numbers. You can make a community anywhere. All you need
are some people. But the quality of the community will be determined by
the quality of the people who compose it, and the quality of the people will
be determined by Lwhat they think about a few great fundamental principles.
Incidentally, as Dr: Willis Sutton has pointed out, there is a striking
correlation between education and purchasing power. People of very low
educational attainments usually have very simple wants. They want simple
food, simple shelter, and simple raiment. Now you cannot build a great
industrial civilization upon demands so rudimentary as that. But as you
climb the ladder of educational attainments the wants of the people multiply
and the record shows their purchasing power increases proportionately.
There is only one way under the sun to plan for bigger and better com-
munities tomorrow and that is to grow them.
We cannot for a moment cease preparing citizenship for tomorrow.
Dorothy Canfield Fisher put it well when she said : "You can interrupt
the improving of a road and ten years later go on with it about where you
left off, but if you interrupt decent care for children and ten years later
begin again to feel responsible for them, you can by no means begin where
Vou left off. You find them irreparably grown up, and grown up wrong-
enemies and liabilities of their community rather than friends and assets."
Why, in the darkest hour of our American war between the states, Jef-
ferson Davis, whose southern Confederacy was being broken and defeated,
said, "To discontinue educational facilities in the least is the most insidious
form of grinding our seed corn."
So let us in 'our postwar planning stand upon a solid base of operations
and get a big idea concerning the scope of the problem. Let us follow all
policies that will improve human welfare and raise the standard of citizen-
ship. Let us support and improve our schools, churches, libraries, and sources
of information and spiritual inspiration. From such a program will come
all the human ability we need to solve our other problems. If we can spend
$300,000,000 a day to get our boys ready to die, we can spend $300,000,000
a year to get them ready to live. Bruce Barton has said:
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 33
"In times like these, invest in boys and girls. Men talk about buying
stock at the bottom. When you invest in a boy or a girl you are always
buying at bedrock. You are sure that the youngster is going up, and there
is no telling how far. I invite every man and woman in America to take a
flyer in childhood preferred. I predict a great future for this security. It
has investment merit combined with the most exciting speculative possibility.
You are sure to get a man or a woman, and you may get a great man
or a great woman."
Every man in every business should come to the basic realization that
the wealth of any community lies in a healthy, intelligent, and moral citizen-
ship. The individual who follows any other philosophy is not only stupid,
but he is pursuing a philosophy which would result in his own ruination
should the general public follow his lead.
Dave Anderson, the Barber-I used to have a neighbor who was a very
wealthy man. He could have bought and sold ie a hundred times, but I
never envied him. He made his money in bonds, stocks, and real estate.
He employed no men, he invested in nothing productive; he maintained an
office downtown, but no one ever went there except on financial matters.
He had no children, he belonged to no civic groups. He never helped any-
one but himself.
One June morning my neighbor came over to my house and said, "Dave
Anderson died last night." Dave Anderson was a barber in the town who
had a family of five fine children. His oldest son had just graduated from
our high school a few days before and left behind him one of the finest
records as a student, an athlete, and a gentleman that we ever had. And
that boy had never represented his school in a contest of any kind, at home
or abroad, that Dave Anderson hadn't been on the sideline to see him. None
of those Anderson children were ever in anything but what Dave was there
and proud as a prince.
And now he was gone. Dave Anderson wasn't an old man. He died
where manhood's morning almost touches noon. As Robert Ingersol had
put it, "He hadn't yet passed the stone on life's highway that marks the
highest point-the shadows were still falling toward the west." But that
night when Dave Anderson lay down in his bed, he was just too tired, I
guess, and he fell into "that dreamless sleep that kissed his eyelids and left
My neighbor said, "You see, there's nothing to it. Dave has slaved all his
life and he's leaving nothing to the town but a big family and he's leaving
the family nothing."
I said, "Well, suppose we go down to the Anderson home," and to my
surprise my neighbor consented to go. We drove down in his limousine
and he reiterated his oft-spoken philosophy that the only way to make it
in this world was to take care of yourself. When we arrived at the Ander-
son residence we found a modest house that was scrupulously neat and
clean. We found a mother who was stunned into silence by the sudden
disaster that had befallen that home. We found a hoy of about eleven and
a boy about thirteen who were crying their hearts out because their I)ad
34 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
was gone, and we found two smaller children who could not yet compre-
hend the finality of death. And we found Bob Anderson, the eighteen-year-
old son who had just graduated from high school.
After a little while when we were ready to go, Bob Anderson walked out
to the car with us, and I said, "Well, Bob, what are your plans now?"
He said, "I am going to forget about college and keep my job at the plant.
I'll soon be making as much money as we ever have had to live on and
the other kids can go to school. After all, if I can just be as fine a man as
my Dad was, that's all I can ever ask, anyhow."
My neighbor and I shook hands with Bob and drove back up town in
silence. Finally I said, "How do you feel about it now? Do you still think
Dave Anderson didn't leave anything to his family and the town?" And
my neighbor said, "He left plenty, didn't he?" Then he looked away with
a hopeless expression and said, "I'm getting old. What wouldn't I give
for a boy like that?" I said, "You can't have a boy like that. But you can
help that boy and his family. Through your school taxes, about which you
complain with such remarkable regularity, you are always helping thousands
of boys like that."
My neighbor used to say, "What is there to school teaching? You can't
make any money at it." He had not the slightest notion of a service concept
in life. My neighbor never had a man come into his office, shake his hand,
and say, "I'm a poor man and without influence. I can't ever repay you
for getting me that job. But I can carry your memory forever in my heart,
and that is what I'm going to do." My neighbor never had a mother come
to his office with tears streaming down her face, and say, "My house will
forever call you blessed for what you've done for my boy."
But my neighbor thinks he has lived. His single ambition in living seems
to be that he shall eventually have the distinction of being the richest man
in the cemetery. But what a great and happy man he could be if he would
only use of his talent and treasure to help his fellow men.
Burris Jenkins has pointed out that the Washington Monument is the
highest memorial ever built to commemorate the memory of an American,
and it was constructed to honor a Virginia farmer who gave up all comfort
and peace to serve his fellow men. Just across the way in our nation's
Capital stands the widest monument ever built for an American-and it
was built to keep alive the memory of an Illinois rail splitter who gave all-
even his life-to preserve the guarantees of life and liberty to all his fellow
men, both white and black. And I say to you today that some day when
they build that other monument-the monument that shall be the highest
and the widest-it will be built to honor some humble man who served
more than all the rest.
Teaching is a service profession, a noble profession; it has great com-
pensations, whether my neighbor understands them or not.
Mrs. Kelly's Essay-I hope in this postwar world we shall be big enough
and shrewd enough to support the things that are the life blood of a healthy
community. Up in Nebraska City, Nebraska, in 1926, a mother of five chil-
dren sat down in her home and from her heart she wrote a prize-winning
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 35
essay. I have never met this gallant lady, but I telephoned her recently
and told her I wanted to use her essay in this address and she gave her
consent. That American mother is Mrs. Charles Kelly. She had a neighbor
too, and her essay is entitled "lIy Neighbor's House." Mrs. Kelly says:
My neighbor has prospered. His home is the last word in modern architecture and
equipment. It is his hobby. He loves every board and block in it. He surrounds it
with grassy plots and shrubs and flowers, and adorns it inside and out according
to his sense of artistic grace and beauty. Not only is his home a source of pride and
satisfaction to my neighbor, but by its beauty and grace and general attractiveness
it sheds distinction and adds to the value of the property around about it.
Now my home is a modest affair. It needs paint and the roof does not cover it as
well as the mortgage. What is meant for a grassplot shows bare patches like the
exposed portions of a little boy's trousers. And, instead of graceful flowering vines,
my house is overrun by little rosy ramblers who clamber about scraping off the
paint and leaving muddy streaks in their wake. There are five of them, and all the
hard work, sacrifice, and care they mean to me is nothing compared to the pride I
have in their clear eyes, clean minds, and sturdy bodies. To the hope I hold in their
future the present struggle to keep them clothed, housed, and fed is a small affair.
They represent my family estate. To them I hope to leave an inheritance of char-
acter and courage. And to the world I shall bequeath, not large sums for charity,
schools, or hospitals, but a family of men and women equipped to take up the
problems of life.
But when my neighbor begins to talk about taxes I have an uneasy feeling that,
according to his way of looking at it, I should have drowned these dimpled babes
before their eyes were open. He has it figured out to a penny how much it is costing
him to educate one of my children. Now I am paying taxes, too, but for nine months
of the year my children are under the supervision of trained teachers, men and
women of unquestioned character and high ideals. It doesn't seem to me that they
are receiving exorbitant wages. But my neighbor has no children. To him school is
just a building that cost too much in the first place, is costing too much in the upkeep,
and doesn't give back a profit to the town.
I believe my neighbor is wrong. My children do have a monetary value to the
town. For their needs my earnings are spent. I buy from my neighbor such things
as he has to sell, thereby adding to his riches. I go farther. I am not raising pigs for
profit, nor cattle for the market, but raw material for the nation of tomorrow. They
are not mine alone; they belong to the nation as well. It is to everybody's interest
that they become fit and useful citizens. As they are trained, as they are educated,
they will develop. This community has a part in that development. My neighbor has
no more right to spread propaganda for cheap schools, a niggardly system that will
dwarf the future of my children, than I have to throw trash in his front yard.
When I telephoned Mrs. Kelly the other day, I said, "Mrs. Kelly, you
had your five children around you in your home when you wrote that essay
in 1926. Where are your children and who are they now, nineteen years
later?" She told me two of her sons are serving their country. Captain
Robert Kelly is with the armed forces in Europe. He was formerly London
correspondent for United Press, and Pharmacist's Mate Richard -I. Kelly
is with the U. S. Navy in the South Pacific. Mrs. Kelly's eldest son, Herbert,
is city editor of the Des Moines, Iowa, Register. And the fourth son, Charles
Kelly, Junior, I was pleased to learn, is in the farm machinery business
and lives at 2625 Fillmore Street in my home city of Topeka. Mrs. Kelly's
only daughter served on the editorial staff of Life magazine for a while
and is now Mxrs. Elizabeth Kelly Hutchings of New York City, wife of
an editor of Liberty magazine.
36 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
So today I want to say, "God bless you, Mrs. Kelly," for the great con-
tribution you have made to the wealth and welfare of this nation through
rearing such a fine family. I congratulate you for fighting for the things
that gave your children their chance in life. And I hope that in the better
world your sons are fighting for we shall all remember how very right you
were when you wrote that prize-winning essay nineteen years ago.
Today schools everywhere are faced with the greatest problems of their
history, and they are meeting those problems with limited personnel and
a host of other handicaps. This is not the time for the American public to be
supercritical of its schools. This is a time when the schools deserve sym-
pathetic understanding and the maximum in cooperation and support.
I should like to bring my remarks to a close by urging that while we
rejoice in the approaching victory in Europe, let us determine now that we
shall be as diligent in maintaining our hard-won victory as we have been
in achieving it. Let us not be tricked by any misplaced sentimentality when
we write the terms of peace. We owe it to our gallant fighting men, we
owe it to their mothers, we owe it to the children of the world to see that
the hell of modern warfare shall never be unleashed again. The Prairie
Flier recently printed a statement from an American soldier which suc-
cinctly states the situation:
AN, AMERICAN SOLDIER SPEAKS
Inside the rotten apple that is Germany today the worms have begun to twist and
squirm. The Herrenvolk, the Master Race, the men who would have ruled the world
are desperate men today, caught in a rapidly rising tide that sweeps upon them from
For five long, bloody years, they have taken the food from the children of Europe.
They have watched the stomachs of children bloat from hunger and the arms and
legs shrink to pipestems and the skin ulcerate.
For five long, murderous years they have built a forest of gallows over Europe.
They have watched the shadows of hanged men with their tongues out and their
necks broken and stretched. They have murdered and tortured and hanged. The
mark of their coming has been the smoke of homes burning. They have moved under
"a pillar of smoke by day and of fire by night." They have ravened like wolves
across a continent and the old and young, the weak and the strong, and the little
children have died for their pleasure.
And today they are afraid; they are desperate with a sweat of fear; they are
frightened before the hatred of a world and before the ghosts that they have raised
up to destroy them. And, each in his own way, the Ilerrenvolk are reacting to that
The pure Nazis, Himmler's men, the torturers and sadists and rapists were never
more dangerous than now. If they must fall they will try to pull down the world with
them. They screech like madmen. They scream threats of a blood hath, of the
universal holocaust that they will make. They will use robot bombs and gas. They
will use every weapon that they may command. They will kill, and kill, until they
die in turn. They are so afraid that they were never more dangerous than now.
The Junkers, the stiff-necked "old army" nobles would make peace as once before.
They have tried, are trying a revolt to throw the Nazis out. They want a peace
before the armies of the world move into Germany. They want to forget the millions
who have died and keep their uniforms and medals and go home to their Prussian
castles and sulk a while and build for Der Tag again. Their minds move in a stiff
pattern, in a frozen rut. They think they can surrender with full honors of war and
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 37
go home to get ready to try again. They despise the Nazi in defeat, but they are as
guilty as he. Like him they are more and more unimportant now.
The important man now is the German soldier in the ranks. On all fronts he is
being beaten, he is learning how to retreat and retreat again. He must know by now
that his generals are being shot for revolt, that his Luftwaffe cannot come out to
protect him, that his allies are treacherous and his enemies strong. He must know
better than anyone that his food and his gasoline and his ammunition are giving out.
He must be beginning to know that his leaders are afraid and their promises are lies.
Sooner or later he will realize these things completely and then his army will melt
away. "When that time comes," says this American soldier, "we will be able to
Let us remember these things when the boys do come home. It is well
to be charitable, to be forgiving, to be Christian. But let us deal out justice
to the international murderers and outlaws. There is wisdom in an old Chi-
nese proverb which says, "To be too magnanimous to our enemies is to be
cruel to our friends." No, we cannot profess to love children and let the baby
killers go unpunished. Ve cannot profess to love children and stupidly
resign ourselves to exposing every generation of them to war. We must
set up an international organization for maintaining the peace and then
dedicate our energies to making that organization work. Let us follow the
advice of Superintendent A. J. Stoddard of Philadelphia: "When this war
is over, let every citizen every day inquire, 'How goes the peace?' Let us
ask that question as often and as earnestly as we now ask about the progress
of the war. We must not stupidly despair of our hope for a warless world.
THE KEY WORD IN WORLD CONFLICT IS FAITH
The great divine, Dr. Daniel Poling, who has himself lost a son in this
war, has declared that "To say we should go back to the old way of living
and that our children's children must be called upon to make the same
sacrifices as ourselves, is a great lie. The Cross of Christ taught that life
is redeemable and we must, therefore, see that a new world is created, see
that old failures are not repeated, see that our men have not died in vain.
"The key word to this world conflict is faith, not despair. Winning the
war and winning the peace are one and inseparable."
By making this war a permanent and perpetual victory for humanity, we
shall be qualified to join with Owen Seaman 1 in saying:
You that have faith to look with fearless eyes
Upon the tragedy of a world at strife,
And know, that out of night and death shall rise
The dawn of ampler life:
Rejoice! Whatever anguish rend your heart
That God hath given you this priceless dower,
To live in these great times and have your part
In Freedom's crowning hour;
That you may tell your sons, who see the light
High in the heavens, their heritage to take:-
I saw the powers of darkness put to fight!
I saw the morning break!
Seaman. Owen. "Between Midnight and Morning."
38 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
PROBLEMS OF THE PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL
HOWARD MCDONALD, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH
What are the problems of the professional personnel? As we look over
the field we find they are legion. In this short discourse it will be impossible
to discuss all of them. I shall, therefore, limit myself to the problems of
most concern at the present time.
World War II has changed the picture most drastically. Just previous
to the outbreak of the war the problem of teacher supply was of little con-
cern. Thousands of well-qualified teachers were making application for
teaching positions in the offices of the various superintendents of schools.
With the decrease in school enrollments, these teachers found it difficult to
secure teaching positions. Hundreds of these fine men and women were
forced to take jobs outside the teaching profession in order to make a living.
Many parents of boys and girls on whom large sums of money have been
spent to educate them for the teaching profession had come and pleaded
with superintendents that their sons and daughters be given teaching posi-
tions. What could superintendents do? The great depression through which
the country was going made it mandatory that they curtail expenditures
wherever possible. Even many needed services had to be discontinued.
As soon as the United States entered into the world conflict, the entire
picture of teacher supply was changed. War industries sprang up over night
with good salaries for those who desired to work. Many teachers were called
into the armed services of their country because of their specialized training
in fields closely related to the war effort. Others were taken into the employ
of private companies. These men and women have contributed greatly in
the field of research. The Army and Navy were in need of instructors.
Where did they go for their teachers? They came to the various super-
intendents with the request, "We want your best teachers of physics, mathe-
matics, chemistry, physical education, and industrial arts." What did the
superintendents do? They released their best teachers for these important
What did this do to the home front? By this time thousands of teachers
had either enlisted in the armed forces or had accepted jobs in war indus-
tries at salaries far above those which superintendents of schools could
afford to pay under the budgets set up for educational purposes.
The superintendents appealed to the teacher-training institutions for help.
They could not render much assistance as their enrolment for teacher
training had dropped. The salaries paid in the teaching profession did not
attract students to train for the profession. In one state, which is a typical
example of the situation in all states, the condition was as follows:
In 1940 the total number of teachers trained by the three teacher-training
institutions of the state was 736; in 1941, just before Pearl Harbor, 729;
in 1942, just after Pearl Harbor, 584. In 1943 the number dropped to 378,
and in the spring of 1944 the figure went down to 190. To make the
situation more difficult, not all of those trained for teaching positions
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 39
entered the profession. They found other jobs more desirable from a salary
point of view.
,Another problem closely related to this one is: "Are we attracting into
the teaching profession the persons most suited for teaching, or are they
selecting other fields such as medicine, law, architecture, engineering, and
dentistry which give them a more adequate opportunity to maintain a
home?" Horace Mann described the type of person who should be employed
in the schools as follows: "A young man or a young woman, whose education
is sound; whose language is well-selected; whose pronunciation and tones
of voice are correct and attractive; whose manners are gentle and refined;
all of whose topics of conversation are elevating and instructive; whose
benignity of heart is constantly manifested in acts of civility, courtesy and
kindness; and who spreads a nameless charm over whatever circle may
be entered. Such a person should the teacher of every common school be."
Do our teachers of today meet these qualifications? Yes, many of them
do but, sorry to say, some of them do not. In many of our school districts
throughout the United States, teachers are forced to obtain supplementary
jobs to maintain their homes and educate their children respectably. Teach-
ers who teach under such conditions cannot give the full measure of their
devotion to the boys and girls whom they teach. The superintendent is
confronted with the problem that such teachers come to school "crabby"
and ill-tempered because they have not had sufficient rest.
Well, what are we going to do about the problem of teacher supply?
One teacher-training institution is giving free tuition to all students who
will train for the teaching profession. This may be an initial incentive but
it does not solve the problem in the final analysis. The canceled tuition
will not go far in buying a home after graduation, furnishing a home, or
purchasing food, clothing, and the necessities of life. The solution will not
come until the people of the United States are willing to pay the teachers
salaries comparable to salaries paid to people in other professions with equal
training and experience.
In this problem of teacher supply, we shall ever be grateful to the great
number of married women who were discontinued as teachers because they
desired to assume the responsibilities of married life, but who have graciously
returned to the teaching field to help in this war emergency. Many of them
have been reluctant to return because they have not maintained the standards
and the knowledge of teaching technics so much needed to be efficient
teachers. Many of them have not taught for fifteen or twenty years. The
demand since 1941 has been so great that superintendents have welcomed
anyone who could and would go into the classroom.
The number of married women who have returned to the classroom has
not been sufficient to meet the demands. Even boys and girls with no train-
ing beyond the high school have been employed as teachers. This condition
is most deplorable and will be a scar upon the education of our youth for
years to come. Businessmen are forever criticizing the schools for not
turning out better prepared youth, and at the same time they will spend
thousands of dollars to fight any move to finance the schools adequately.
40 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
Not only do we need well-qualified teachers but we need sufficient text-
books, supplementary and reference books in the school library, sufficient
building upkeep, and Auditory and visual aids so useful in modern teaching.
Many other needs could be mentioned if time and space permitted.
Today there are certain persons seeking teaching jobs who should never
be employed. Some of them have been released from the armed forces
because of their acts. They are those who are classified as perverts. Superin-
tendents must ever be alert to this problem especially at this time of teacher
shortage. These men often have an appealing way toward boys and girls,
and if the superintendent is not on guard, in his anxiety to fill certain jobs
he will employ such individuals before they have first been thoroughly
investigated. This is a time when superintendents must be honest and fair
to the teaching profession. These perverts must not be just told to get out
and never come back to the school system, but their state teaching credentials
should be revoked. We are better off without any teachers than with such
men to lead and direct the lives of our boys and girls.
MIany women teachers married men in the armed forces and traveled
with them from camp to camp until they were shipped overseas. These
women had little to do during the daytime as their husbands would be off
duty perhaps only a few hours each week. They, therefore, desired to teach
in the local community where their husbands were located. Superintendents
were glad to hire them even though their residence in the district was un-
certain. Many times orders would come over night for the transfer of the
husband to another camp. The teacher would leave immediately with her
husband. Some of our classes during the school year 1943-44 had as mans
as ten and twelve different teachers. No wonder many mothers became
panicky about the welfare of their children. During the school year 1943-44,
temporary teachers of the above type from every state in the Union were
employed in the city of San Francisco. Perhaps San Francisco had a great
many of these teachers because it is a port of embarkation for the South
Pacific war area.
The great influx of temporary teachers, former teachers who were dis-
continued because of marriage, and those coming from all parts of the coun-
try, has multiplied the problem of "in-service training." The teacher-training
institutions have been most cooperative in scheduling courses for these teach-
ers. But the problem has been beyond the power of the institution of learning.
The great burden has been placed upon the shoulders of superintendents,
assistant superintendents, supervisors, and principals. The courses offered
by the teacher-training institutions seemed to be too remote to the problems
at hand. These teachers met daily problems with which they needed help.
The extension courses were held perhaps once each week throughout the
school term. The new teachers had taught, in many cases, six months before
their difficulties in the classroom had been discussed. These new teachers
needed individual and immediate assistance. To whom could they go? The
logical person was the principal. If the principal happened to be one who
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 41
did not know the philosophy of education and the psychology of subjects,
it was just too bad for the bewildered teacher and the children whom she
Not only were the new teachers having a problem of staging a comeback,
but permanent teachers had been deprived of many phases of in-service
training available to them in prewar days. For instance, in prewar days
many of our teachers availed themselves of the opportunity for study and
travel, including that in foreign countries, under rules and regulations
pertaining to "sabbatical leave."
Some teachers found rich experiences in exchanging positions with teach-
ers of other school systems throughout the United States. Some also had
the privilege of exchanging positions with teachers in foreign lands.
Since these opportunities are not as plentiful now as in prewar days,
other means have been developed for in-service training which are proving
to be of great value. The Commission on Teacher Education appointed by
the American Council on Education has given valuable suggestions to
superintendents in the report of the cooperative study entitled Teacher
Education in Service. This book has been prepared by Charles E. Prall and
C. Leslie Cushman, both of whom were field coordinators on the staff
of the Commission. The Commission invited a representative group of
school systems, urban and rural, to cooperate with selected colleges and
universities in a study of teacher education. From 1939 to 1942 these
cooperating institutions made a special effort to assist their educational
personnel to increase their competence and effectiveness as teachers. The
hook gives a detailed account of the problems discussed and the method
of approach in each school system. This volume is recommended to those
who are endeavoring to improve the standards of instruction in the schools.
Dr. Cushman and Dr. Prall have put into book form not only their own
ideas but the combined activities and ideas of hundreds of school people,
superintendents, assistant superintendents, supervisors, principals, vice-
principals, and classroom teachers.
Many of our boys and girls enrolled in the schools are going through
experiences and periods of nervous tension not experienced by children
in times of peace. Fathers, brothers, and relatives are in the front-line
fields of battle. Those who have to deal with these pupils must not only
be skilful in the subjectmatter to be taught, in the technics of teaching
methods, but they must have a warm response and a real love for young
people. This love for young people must be supported by an understanding
of boys and girls. They must use good judgment in their dealings with
children in the unnatural situations into which they are thrown today.
By careful observation many a child may be adjusted to the processes of
learning by the endeavors of a wise teacher.
As I stepped one day into the classroom of a third grade, the teacher
was berating a little Italian boy, Tony. When the teacher realized that
a visitor had stepped into the room she turned to me and said: "Tony
42 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
is good for nothing. Please take him out of this room. We do not want
him here any longer. Get him out. He is good for nothing." Little Tony
stood there before the class with his jaws set and his little fists clinched.
He said nothing. But it was evident from the expression on his face what
was going through his mind. Not only did this episode have its effect
on Tony but it produced a wave of distrust toward the teacher which
swept over the entire class. At that moment she destroyed her effectiveness
as a teacher. The harm done could not be repaired in weeks-perhaps in
the minds of many, never.
We want in our schools schoolmen and women who feel as William
Lyon Phelps felt when he said: "I do not know that I could make entirely
clear to an outsider the pleasure I have in teaching. I had rather earn
my living by teaching than in any other way. To my mind, teaching is not
merely a lifework, a profession, an occupation, a struggle. It is a passion.
I love to teach. I love to teach as a painter loves to paint, as a musician
loves to play, as a singer loves to sing, as a strong man rejoices to run a
race. Teaching is an art-an art so great and so difficult to master that
a woman or a man can spend a long life at it, without realizing much
more than his limitations and mistakes and his distance from the ideal.
There never has been in the world's history a period when it was more
worthwhile to be a teacher than in the twentieth century; for there was
never an age when such vast multitudes were eager for an education or
when the necessity of a liberal education was so generally recognized. It
would seem as though the whole world were trying to lift itself to a higher
plane of thought."
IMMEDIATE ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS IN
CONNECTION WITH THE TEACHING STAFF
E. S. EVENDEN, PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA
UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, N. Y.
The expression "as is the teacher, so is the school," while obviously not
the "whole truth" is certainly more than a "half-truth." Everyone knows
that the effectiveness of any school depends also upon the abilities and
backgrounds of the children; such physical facilities as buildings, play-
grounds, libraries, and instructional equipment; the adequacy of the sup-
port for the educational program; and the public's attitudes toward the
schools. Nevertheless, the teacher is unquestionably the most important
factor in determining the quality of the school program. One evidence of
this is seen in the fact that, for the country as a whole, at least two-thirds
of the budget for current expenses goes to pay teachers' salaries. The teach-
ing staff is at once the largest area of responsibility for administrators
and the area in which the administrative problems are likely to be most
numerous and most "immediate."
I shall present only a few of the more pressing problems and discuss
them so briefly that the reader may easily mistake brevity for dogmatism.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 43
It is hoped, in spite of this limitation, that any publicity given to these
problems will increase public interest and perhaps facilitate faster and
For convenience, they are arranged in two groups-those that are quite
directly war-caused and those persistent problems that may have been
aggravated by the war but are not directly caused by it.
IMMEDIATE ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS--WAR-CAUSED
1. How can the tragic shortage of teachers throughout the country,
especially in the rural areas, in the low-salaried schools, and in some of the
special fields, be relieved?
Various research studies of the National Education Association have re-
peatedly shown us the results of the war and war conditions upon the
teaching personnel. Such facts as "280,000 teachers have left the profes-
sion since Pearl Harbor," "One in ten is holding an emergency certificate,"
"Nearly 10,000 schools were without teachers in October 1944," all show
too clearly how tragically we are repeating our errors of the First World
War and handicapping a generation of children. If we could fully realize
the incidence of this handicap, we would put forth efforts comparable to
our war efforts to avoid it. Steps should be taken as quickly as possible
to relieve the present shortages of qualified teachers. The problem cannot
be solved without the aid of federal equalization grants. If, until the war
is over, it is necessary to employ teachers with standards below those of
the prewar period, these teachers should be employed on emergency per-
mits that will not be renewable without additional preparation.
2. "What methods can be used to replace below-standard teachers who
have been employed during the war by qualified teachers as rapidly as these
can be secured?
Some of the states have taken elaborate precautions to insure that "tem-
porary" certificates or permits are in reality temporary. Some of the emer-
gency teachers ef the war of 1917 are still teaching. We should not make
this mistake, no matter what others we make, twice in the same generation.
This does not mean that teachers who have gone into teaching as a patriotic
service should not have our gratitude for doing the best they could, but
our gratitude should not cause us to forget the result upon the boys and
girls, who year after year are receiving instruction from less than the
best. Neither does it mean that many such teachers would not be retained
in teaching service if they undertook a program of preparation that would
upgrade them to at least prewar standards as rapidly as can effectively
be done for teachers in service.
3. fWhat steps should be taken at once to provide appropriate reem-
ployment of teachers now in the armed services?
Qualified teachers in the armed services should, as was recently sug-
gested by Dr. William C. Bagley, have priority in being released from
military service and returned promptly to this country, if they have been
44 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SC IOOL AD.MINISTRA.TORS
serving overseas. Special efforts should be made to welcome these teachers
back into the profession. They and their points of view will be needed
in education if the teaching groups are to be truly representative of the
These returned teachers will help solve the problem of replacing teachers
holding emergency certificates, but their return to teaching is not so simple
as to plan to give them their old positions and dismiss or relocate the
teachers who have been substituting for them. In the first place, the old
position in many instances will have changed with new materials, methods,
and emphases. Secondly, the teacher-veteran has certainly changed and,
while he may think he wants nothing more than to get back to his old job,
he may be most unhappy and ineffective in it. And, in the third place, the
substitute teacher in some cases has done an efficient and patriotic job and
may be a lost resource for the schools if forced out of teaching. The careful
handling of this problem will he of great importance to the schools during
the next decade.
4. WhTat concerted efforts can be made to restore the prestige of teach-
ing and teachers that has suffered such setbacks during the war?
The sharpest blows have been financial. Teachers' salaries, too low in
many places before the war, have either not been increased or have increased
less than the cost of living. National Education Association Research Divi-
sion estimates indicate that nearly 30,000 teachers in the United States
receive less than $600 a year and that approximately 200,000 (over one-
fifth) receive less than $1200. Many of these have from two to five years
of educational preparation beyond the completion of high school and yet
receive less than the beginning wage for large classifications of clerical
government workers and beginners in industrial plants that were open
to persons with only a high-school education or less.
Almost, if not quite, as hard for teachers to take as the financial loss
is the fact that, in the minds of the average citizen, work in a government
office or an industrial plant carries more public approval than teaching.
Better salaries for teachers will undoubtedly help in regaining the
esteem of the American public, but will not completely solve the prob-
lem. Systematic programs of educational publicity concerning the work of
the schools and their essential role in the safeguarding and perpetuating
of our democratic form of government must be carried on until our public
schools are considered one of our important "front lines of defense."
5. HIow can the teaching staff of our American schools best be prepared
to carry a heavy responsibility the bi t lding and sustaining of our na-
tional morale during the difficult years of formulating a tlorld peace?
The role of the United States in world affairs and in the making of a
permanent peace is going to he an important one.. That role, however,
is going to be played in the midst of rivalry, jealousies, distrust, suspicion,
and misunderstanding, mixed with some little gratitude and admiration. The
task of keeping our ideals clearly in mind and our attitudes friendly and
cooperative during those reconstruction years will fall in no small meas-
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR TIE CANCELED CONFERENCES 45
ure upon the teachers in our schools. If this task is not successfully met,
the consequences mayi easily be a repetition, on a global scale, of the mis-
takes of the "reconstruction period" following the First World War with
the resentments, bitternesses, and seeds of future wars that resulted from
the nationalistic and selfish solutions that were enforced. This task of the
teachers, and of the schools, then, is of tremendous importance and one
that cannot be entrusted to unqualified teachers nor even to teachers quali-
fied for their regular work, but who have not given special thought and
preparation to this large area of interpretation.
IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS--NOT DIRECTLY WAR-CAUSED
1. l'hat effective means can be used to help all teachers to revise their
attitudes and their teaching materials in order to make immediate and
direct contributions to:
A. The building of democratic attitudes and habits of behavior that really work
satisfyingly in our relationships with others.
B. The development of understandings of the cultural and political backgrounds
and ideals of other countries that will provide a basis for cooperation in planning
for a world peace.
C. The changing of our ideas of time and space and economic relationships that
are necessary in moving farther into the air-age period, of the world's development.
At first glance, these three objectives may appear to be separate and not
too closely related. A moment's reflection will show, however, that they not
only are related, but so closely related that one cannot be attained without
the others. Further thought will also reveal that these goals are not the
special responsibility of the teachers of social studies and geography, but
rather of every teacher and every field. It will be extremely embarrassing
to any teacher who cannot find in his work and in the subjects he teaches
ways in which he can make real contributions to these three objectives.
2. How can teachers as groups be encouraged to be more articulate in
the discussion of matters affecting the educational well-being of the com-
munities in which they work?
They should be encouraged to assume leadership in such discussions with-
out being accused of promoting selfish interests. They should be protected
in their attempts to assume such leadership without feeling that it is nec-
essary to align themselves with noneducational and political groups which
represent factions of the community and not the community as a whole-
the group served by the schools. One aid in the solution of this problem
would be a definite strengthening of teachers' organizations and their par-
ticipation as organizations in cooperative endeavors to better the whole
Along with the strengthening of professional organizations of teachers
should go the promotion of the idea that teachers are also individuals
and should be allowed, in fact expected, to live the same kind of normal
lives that other leading citizens of the community do and to take part in
the same types of civic, social, political, and religious activities as other
citizens. Some communities are not accustomed to such teachers, and su-
46 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
perintendents of schools will frequently have to defend the desirability
and the rights of teachers to be happy, well-adjusted, normal persons.
3. What measures can be taken to recruit and retain more men as
teachers in the American schools?
The desire on the part of many parents and educational leaders to have
a larger proportion of men in teaching positions is in no sense a reflection
upon the work of women teachers, nor does it imply that the work of the
men would be superior. It also does not mean that men teachers are de-
sired, just to have some men. They should be the equal of the women in
ability and preparation in order that the boys and girls in school will come
under the influence of able women and equally able men.
A slight gain was being made on this matter in the year preceding the
war, but it has dropped to a probable all-time low by this year and will
require vigorous measures to regain the losses, let alone increase the
4. How can teachers be made aware of the fact that much of their
instructional material can and should be intimately related to the every-day
needs of the boys and girls
The holding power of our schools must depend upon something more
constructive than raising the age for compulsory attendance and enforcing
the laws. Boys and girls will want to continue in schools and parents will
make it possible for them to do so as soon as they realize that the facts
learned and the skills acquired in school actually make a difference in the
way they live. As soon as problems relating to health, food, purchasing,
housing, clothing, recreation, character, home and family relationships,
and civic responsibilities find their way into the various school subjects that
can contribute to their solution-just that soon will the public's attitude
toward schools and their support change for the better. This problem
must be met by special study facilities for teachers already in service. It
must become one of the important educational challenges for all institutions
of higher education in which teachers for the elementary or secondary
schools are prepared.
5. WJhat immediate steps can be taken to develop a professional spirit
among all of America's teachers? 1
Such a spirit would immediately demand more and better preparation
for all teachers-elementary and secondary-so that teaching obviously
will rank as one of the learned professions. Also it would almost certainly
result in an attitude toward education and its responsibilities to society
that would cause teachers to think about proposed changes in terms of
the effect of those changes upon the services rendered by the schools and
not upon themselves. The criterion, "What will be the immediate and long-
term effect of this upon teaching rather than teachers?" will do much to
1 Many helpful suggestions for the solution of this problem will be found in Teachers for Our Times,
a report of the Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education, Washington,
D. C., 1944.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
clarify the thinking of professional groups on educational questions. We
need not expect the acceptance and use of such a criterion, however, by
teachers so long as large numbers of them are unprepared transients, with
inadequate salaries and no career ambitions in the field of teaching. Such
teachers are aware that they are being exploited and exploitation is not
a favorable foundation for the development of the ideals of "service to
others" that are fundamental to the building of any profession. On the
other hand, adequate salaries, higher standards of certification, and more
public interest in and approval of the teachers and teaching will make pos-
sible the recruiting and holding of able professionally minded teachers.
Such teachers controlling their actions by the criterion mentioned above
will undoubtedly enlist stronger support from the public and be able to
shift to the citizens of America (where it should be) responsibility for de-
manding better and better schools, and of waging the fight to get them.
THE RETURNING VETERAN
WARREN E. BOW, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PRESIDENT, WAYNE
UNIVERSITY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN
The primary objective of every American today and until victory is
won should be to train, equip, and supply adequately and completely the
young men and women of our armed forces. There are, however, im-
portant matters related to other phases of America's war effort which need
attention. A review of the demobilization procedure after World War I
and its attendant difficulties and problems reveals that certain mistakes
should not and need not be repeated. The problem of demobilization was
not acted upon by Congress until September 1918. When the Armistice
was declared one month later, the planning and organization necessary
to provide for the rehabilitation and readjustment of the veteran was hur-
ried and resulted in some confusion. History should not, and from all
indications, will not repeat itself.
Most states and communities are at present giving serious constructive
thought to the return of the veteran and the impact of his return upon
civilian society. Leaders in education, industry, labor, business, government,
churches, social agencies, and servicemen's organizations are pooling their
resources and coordinating their efforts to provide necessary personnel
and services to meet the needs of the thousands of veterans now returning.
They are also contemplating the expansion which will be necessary when
the millions of other veterans follow. In some quarters there is some
concern that preparations have not proceeded apace. Be this as it may, one
thing is still certain-no state or community can or will escape its obliga-
tions and responsibilities for aiding its returning veterans.
Colonel John N. Andrews of the National Selective Service System
stated the problem clearly when he said, "If a country can recruit a man
from the school, factory, mine, farm, or college, give him physical and
vocational examinations, train him at great expense for many months,
48 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
supply him with the most expensive equipment, and then send him forth
to fight, that same country ought to be able to develop a comprehensive
program to reconvert that individual into a productive, peacetime civilian."
The federal government, through the passage of Public Law 16, the
Rehabilitation Act, and Public Law 346, the Servicemen's Readjustment
Act, (popularly known as the "G. I. Bill of Rights") has already as-
sumed a far greater share of responsibility for the proper adjustment of
veterans than it assumed after the last war. Present legislation provides aids
and benefits far in excess of those provided in 1918 and greater than those
provided by any nation at any time for its returning warriors. A few
examples should make this startlingly clear. The base pay of the private
now in service is $50 as compared with $30 in 1918. Allowances for the
family are greater, including such new features as maternity and infant
care. Mustering-out pay now ranges from $100 to $300 as against the
$60 bonus paid after the last war. Unemployment compensation of $20
per week up to fifty-two weeks is now provided. No such provision existed
after World War I. The veteran now has a claim to his old job. This
was not true in 1918. The new laws broaden the scope of vocational re-
habilitation. Education and training at government expense are new bene-
fits. Compensation for service-connected disability has been increased over
the amount paid in 1918. Those veterans who are single and are totally
disabled receive, at present, $115 per month as compared with $30 re-
ceived after the last war. Benefits now paid for nonservice-connected dis-
abilities are $50 to $60 per month as compared with the $20 to $40 paid
at the end of World War I. Veterans' preference in federal employment
is now being maintained and even broadened. Such provisions as loans
for the purchase of homes, farms, or business, through federal guarantee
of 50 percent of the loan, not to exceed $2000, is a new feature of the
current law. These provisions clearly show the intent of the nation, and
certainly coincide with Colonel Andrew's suggestion that rehabilitation
should be thorough and complete.
The provisions of the acts also indicate, at least roughly, some of the
major needs of those returning to civilian life. They would seem to signify
that the basic need of most returning veterans will be security. Security
for most of them will be provided through jobs and permanent employ-
ment. For some, it may mean gaining additional training or education
with a view to increased intellectual and economic well-heing.
There will, however, he an undetermined number who will encounter
difficulties of a different nature. Their needs will be varied and in some
cases, complex. For many there will he the need for hospitalization; for
others there will be need for social and personal adjustment, as well as
for educational, vocational, and recreational planning. All of the personal
and social maladjustment apparent after World War I will probably again
exist. In fact, since many individuals will have been in service for four
or five years rather than one or two, it may be more acute.
There ;Ire those of us who have intimate knowledge of such cases from-
our experiences in World War I. The return to normal family living, to
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 49
civilian occupations, to civilian responsibilities presents problems of adjust-
ment to an entirely new environment. It means that the veteran must
now plan his own life and make his own decisions in every phase of his
activity. This will be a freedom which will seem strange after an extended
experience of military discipline. The veteran may yearn for his service
buddies. He will be glad to be home, but at times he may wish he could
return to his old "outfit." That "outfit" had faced death together; there
was understanding there. He must renew old friendships and make new
ones. He may observe changes in his closest friends or even in members of
his family. He may be disappointed in finding his home, his home town, and
his community in reality much less ideal than the sentimental picture he
formed in the foxholes and camps of far-off Europe or Asia. Civilian life
will lack crowds, excitement, rumor, and critical action. The one mean-
ingful purpose to be found in the armed forces will be lacking. The new
civilian purposes and objectives may seem dull by comparison.
Those men who return physically handicapped and disfigured will pre-
sent an especially delicate problem. It will be difficult for the men to
maintain a proper attitude toward themselves and become reconciled to
their plight, for which in some instances there may be no possible correc-
tion. Physical disability may result in self-consciousness which ultimately
may lead to peculiar complexes. Here particularly, tolerance, sympathetic
guidance, understanding, and patience are absolutely essential. The social
adjustment of these veterans will depend in great measure upon the treat-
ment accorded them in their own home town by appreciative, friendly well-
intentioned citizens ready to help over a period of years. If such under-
standing is forthcoming, many such persons will undoubtedly carry on as
effective citizens after a brief adjustment period.
Fortunately, most of the returning veterans will return in fine physical
condition, eager to go to work. Whether the civilian economy can satisfy
adequately this need depends, of course, upon employment opportunities.
Because of the innumerable and lucrative job opportunities available at
present, most veterans are now seeking and taking jobs as soon as they
are discharged, thus foregoing the benefits provided by law. However, when
the war ends, this condition may change and of necessity the veterans may
be forced to make new plans.
Many of them will desire and will have the right to return to their
former jobs. There will be, however, severL. million for whom this right
will not exist since they were not regularly employed when they entered
the armed forces. If, at the time of demobilization, employment oppor-
tunities are limited, this group may present a most critical problem. In
such an event, many will very likely take full advantage of federal grants
for education and training. A highly efficient program of counseling and
guidance will be necessary to cope satisfactorily with this task.
Recently a study of five hundred Michigan veterans was made by the
Occupational Information and Guidance Division of the Michigan State
Board of Control for Vocational Education in cooperation with the MAich-
igan Selective Service System. It was conducted to discover what problems
50 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
veterans face, to consider possible effective solutions, and to find clues that
might have meaning for educational, rehabilitation, and counseling services.
It was found that 90.2 percent were faced by one or more problems re-
quiring counseling and guidance, and that many were not aware of the
need for counseling. It was also reported that the younger group who had
not graduated from high school had the most problems. The greatest
interest shown by this latter group as well as by those with limited educa-
tional backgrounds was in vocational training.
There are many agencies now established on federal, state, and local
levels ready to counsel and serve the veterans. Some of these are the Vet-
erans Administration, the United States Employment Service, the War
Manpower Commission, the state offices of the Selective Service System, the
State Office of Veterans' Affairs (the Michigan State Office of Veterans'
Affairs is a good example), local councils of veterans' affairs, veterans'
information centers (such as the Detroit Veterans' Information Center),
servicemen's bureaus, servicemen's organizations, the American Red Cross,
councils of social agencies, the churches, boards of education, and many
others. The key to the success of the programs of these organizations lies
in their ability to integrate and coordinate their activities effectively.
Many communities are attempting such a coordination by establishing
local and countywide veterans' information centers financed by local funds.
Here the veteran may bring his problems and receive friendly and effec-
tive assistance through counseling and guidance or by referral to the
proper agency dealing with a particular problem. These veterans' informa-
tion centers collect all data and information relative to the facilities and
services available to veterans and are frequently staffed by personnel from
the cooperating agencies. Problems presented usually fall in the following
broad general categories: loans, employment, claims, housing, health, in-
surance, review of discharge, mustering-out pay, legal aid, emergency fi-
nancial aid, income tax payments, priorities, personal problems, vocational
and educational training or experience.
Every precaution must be taken to avoid giving the veteran the so-
called "run-around." Since its inception last fall, the Detroit Veterans'
Information Center has rendered service to approximately one hundred
veterans per day, and it is now planning means of expansion to care ade-
quately for the increased load.
There are several considerations which make comprehensive planning
for veterans education and training opportunities difficult. Foremost among
these is the lack of accurate data concerning the number who will request
such service. The second difficulty revolves around the question, "What
kinds of educational or training experiences will be in demand?" Very
few data to guide educational planners are available in these two areas.
The opinions, estimates, and statistical reports that are available are some-
what conflicting and in some particulars even contradictory.
In October 1944, Brigadier General Frank T. Hines stated, "There
is no way of estimating exactly how many returning veterans will avail
themselves of the educational opportunities and benefits. . ." However,
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 51
he estimates that there are five million persons in the armed forces less
than twenty-six years of age-the age group which is presumably most
likely to take advantage of available educational benefits. Analyzing the
situation further, he reports that 36 percent of all service personnel (about
four million) are eligible for higher education, and aboat four million have
had their education interrupted by the war.
On February 8, 1945, the Veterans Administration reported that, of
the one and one-half million World War II veterans, about 13,000 were
attending school under the provisions of the federal law, and that, as
of January 1, 1945, approximately 37,000 had madeapplication for educa-
tional and training benefits. Of the 13,000 who are at present enrolled,
81 percent are working at the college level, 16 percent are in trade schools,
and 3 percent, or 386, are in other schools, including those at the secondary
Perhaps these figures do not present a true picture of the situation. The
most obvious implication may be that many veterans are postponing their
acceptance of educational and training benefits in order to enable them to
take advantage of present favorable employment opportunities and at the
same time contribute directly to the nation's war effort on the home front.
It may be, too, that the veterans are not aware of these benefits or that
they are waiting to determine the exact nature of the opportunities pro-
Another study recently reported by the Information and Education
Division of the Army'Service Forces estimates that the number who enrol
in schools will be one, or possibly one and one-half million, depending upon
the type and quality of education or training available, as well as upon
current employment opportunities. Fourteen percent of the men now in
the Army have had some college training. Three of the 14 percent are
college graduates. Fifty-two percent have had some high-school training,
of whom approximately one-half are high-school graduates. The remaining
34 percent had education before the war only through some of the elemen-
tary grades. Parenthetically it may be said that these data compare favor-
ably with the figures of World War I which listed 80 percent at the
While the estimates, reports, and enrolment statistics are conflicting,
there are several important considerations which must enter into school
planning for building a veterans' education and training program. In the
past, it has been possible to meet the educational needs of veterans with
only minor changes in school organization. If early estimates of demand
materialize, this may no longer be possible. Those servicemen and women
who wish to be graduated from high school will probably stress the urgency
for doing this in the shortest possible time on the basis that their time
for educational pursuits is limited. The request for an accelerated educa-
tion or training program at the secondary-school level will require the
development of a flexible program with special emphasis on counseling. It
should be possible to operate the program through a long school day or even
through the evening. If the program is in reality to be accelerated, it may
52 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
be necessary to provide highly individualized instruction. As the demands
for its services fluctuate, provision must be made for possible rapid expan-
sion or contraction. These considerations and the likelihood that veterans
will welcome segregation may lead to the establishment in urban com-
munities especially bf separate or special schools.
The colleges and universities will have great need for carefully planned
counseling and guidance programs. There will be little need for segrega-
tion except in cases where refresher courses may be necessary. Since most
schools of higher learning have for some time offered accelerated programs,
such programs will meet the needs of veterans.
The great and tremendous task, faced by every community, is to assist
the veteran so to readjust himself that he may find security through em-
ployment; that he may satisfy his desires and needs; and that he may become
quickly and satisfactorily a constructive part of the community, the state,
and the nation. In this endeavor, education is presented with an unusual
challenge and opportunity to take a place of leadership and to cooperate
in the tremendous task which all the resources of the community, the state,
and the nation recognize as urgent, and in which all have a vital stake.
We must not-we dare not fail.
EDUCATION OF ALL AMERICAN YOUTH-
RECONVERSION OF THE PROGRAM
WILLARD C. JACKMAN, SUPERINTENDENT, ELMHURST ELEMENTARY
SCHOOLS, ELMHURST, ILLINOIS
Today education is geared to a wartime basis. Every educator has seen
the schools of our country shift suddenly in methods and interests from a
nation at peace to a nation at war. This sudden change has had its effect
on all levels of education. It is only logical to assume that the thought of
the postwar period should lead every educator to speculate about the future
of education. For as surely as the educational system changed when our
nation found itself at war, there will be a corresponding change in edu-
cation when the nation moves back into a world of affairs that is struggling
to build a peaceful world.
It is this certainty of change to accompany the postwar world that chal-
lenges every educator, for the extent and quality of the change in education
has much to do with the establishing of sound educational procedure.
Sound educational procedure means establishing the type of program
that will benefit our nation and lead all of us in our nation and in the
world to a higher cultural level.
As a first step in preparation for this reconversion, every teacher must
see the necessity for and be willing to formulate and implement a
program of education that will be declared the best. Our determination to
find the best will constitute the success of our reconversion program.
Furthermore, the success of the program cannot be won without one
predominant attitude among all educators and that is the determination to
ADuDRSSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 53
give a superior degree of strength and service to achieve the essential goals.
No one in our work, if he contributes to the change, must expect to do it
easily. It will require continually his best in honest and intelligent service.
It is apparent that our postwar problem, according to the research and
experience of the past, is to correct a situation that existed before the war
and also to adapt completely our educational program to a postwar world.
Inadequate financing of schools, inequalities in educational opportunities,
poorly designed buildings, and incomplete curriculums existed before the
war and they still exist. The encouraging thing about all of it is the fact
the war reveals the bad spots and makes it more evident to the laity that
not all is as it ought to be.
The inequalities in salary levels within the teaching profession and be-
tween the teaching profession and other groups give a very complete picture
of our failure to provide for and fortify education when the nation suffers
from stress and strain. More than one-quarter million teachers have left
the profession and have taken with them their talents and influence that
cannot easily be replaced. This condition was not caused by the war. The
war exposed a defective place in the foundation of educational support.
Like a poorly constructed building, the weakness is not revealed until the
With this irrefutable evidence at hand those who believe in public educa-
tion must, in the postwar period, demand and work out a system of coopera-
tive local, state, and federal financial support that attracts capable teachers,
makes possible the construction of modern, attractive buildings, provides
adequate equipment, and makes possible an expanding and evolving educa-
tional program that keeps in step with time and every phase of national
This, obviously, is a fundamental thing in our reconversion program.
Regardless of what may be done to propose a better way, nothing can be
done until provision is made through a willing and informed populace who
are willing to make an adequate program of education possible through
adequate financial support.
Inequalities in educational opportunities comprise a complex problem.
The postwar school must provide opportunities for every American boy,
girl, and adult. There must be a place for everyone regardless of aptitude
and ability. The educational program should be planned to include general
education essential to the mental, moral, and social well-being of everyone
in a democratic society. It should provide vocational training for individual
and civic competency.
The proposal for such a comprehensive educational program should be
studied now in every community and planned so completely that it will
be easily understood by the majority of citizens and readily established
when the postwar period arrives. The curriculum must be enriched and
along with it must come a well-designed physical plant so as to provide
a place for the expanding educational program.
The details of this need not be presented here except to say that along
with accepted traditional school practices that have been found reliable
54 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
there must also be provision for more extensive use of modern instructional
means such as the radio, visual-aid materials, television, and libraries. The
war has proved conclusively the effectiveness of these modern instructional
materials and equipment. Wise adaptation of them will enrich and activate
the learning program on all educational levels. The possibilities have not
been fully developed.
There is still much to do if our health program is to be truly functional.
The war has exposed another bad spot in connection with our educational
program. Health in the future must be a comprehensive program of health
practices that establish health habits, prevent illness, and build strong,
vigorous bodies. Every community has the responsibility of providing a
better health program. There is no doubt but that postwar health instruction
must be more functional than it was before the war.
The postwar period will soon be upon us. If every educator will keep
in mind that the future program must be the best made possible, because
it is based on a knowledge of how we can improve present weaknesses and
on a determination to make an educational program more completely fit
the needs of everyone, then reconversion will take place wisely. This can
be done by comprehensive planning and by making education a community
effort and responsibility underwritten by the state and federal government.
The important thing is to start now in every community. The vast majority
of educators are able to meet this problem locally and solve it. Within
the next six months through cooperative effort every community ought to
have a completely prepared plan to guide it in the reconversion program.
By such a method the future will be faced with a reliable educational
blueprint and education should emerge more dynamic and complete than
at any time in the history of the world.
THE IMPENDING PROBLEMS OF YOUTH
CLAUDE L. KULP, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, ITHACA, N. Y.
On the eve of possible victory in Europe and at a moment when the tide
of battle in the Pacific seems to be turning definitely and irrevocably in
favor of our military forces, it is none too early to consider the impending
problems of'youth-problems which were familiar to yesterday's youth
and which will press urgently for solution in the reconstruction period.
By youth it is assumed that we mean the young men and women of the
upper high-school years, those out of school for several years, millions of
the younger members of the armed forces, and other millions of young
people on farms, in industry, and in other types of service. Roughly classi-
fied by age, we may safely designate youth for the purpose of this discussion
as those young people in the late teen age and the early twenties, without
attempting to draw sharp lines between age groups.
In the very beginning we wish to avoid the mistake of assuming that
the many agencies interested in young people before the war, and the many
and varied programs designed by public and private agencies for the solu-
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 55
tion of youth problems, achieved their purposes and satisfied the needs of
the young men and women of yesterday. All of the youth projects of the
prewar period touched only a small minority of the boys and girls who
could have benefited from participation in such agencies or programs. Even
in our more fortunate communities, large numbers of young people were
not enrolled in any of the numerous programs provided by the many public
and private agencies. We can judge the effectiveness of the services pro-
vided for youth in any community only by the extent to which the young
people utilize such services voluntarily. Few, if any, American communities
were able to interest a majority of their young people in the combined
programs of social agencies, schools, churches, and organizations designed
for, and often operated by, youth.
Despite the lack of complete success in meeting the problems of youth
in the past, it is possible that the impending problems of our young people
may be solved in larger measure by existing agencies, if the young people
themselves are encouraged to accept a larger part in the formulation of
policies and in the providing of services in these agencies. Young people
do not so much wish to have things done for them, as to have a voice in
deciding what program shall be offered and to have an active part in
making the program serviceable. Whatever the final verdict may be with
reference to the "teen-age clubs" in many American communities, these
organizations have proved that boys and girls will work hard to make
such an enterprise succeed, provided that it is their club. A minimum of
adult sponsorship is usually required after such an organization really
begins to function.
Recognizing then that the efforts of the many agencies which provide
programs for youth have not enlisted the support and interest of as large
a number of young people as we might wish, we turn to a consideration
of the impending problems of youth.
Probably the most intensive studies of the problems of youth which
were ever made were those studies of the American Youth Commission
in the late depression years. These surveys were especially significant because
they were based upon hundreds of interviews with young people. Most
educators and social workers.agreed with the opinions expressed by the
young people. War and periods of prosperity tend temporarily to solve some
of these problems, ofttimes by means which we regret, but in the main it
is believed by many that these problems are of a permanent nature and that
each generation of young people faces them for itself sooner or later.
With almost monotonous regularity the young people of the depression
years said that their greatest problems were these:
1. Jobs. More economic security.
2. More education, but not of the type with which they were familiar. They wanted
education which would help them in their present circumstances.
3. Better opportunities for adequate social life, better opportunities for wholesome
recreation of the noncommercial type.
4. Education for home and family life.
5. Guidance and counseling-vocational and personal.
56 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
With some variation and with slight differences in emphasis due to the
war, these needs are undoubtedly those which young people will experience
again in the postwar period. Health needs will loom large for many, and
spiritual needs will be felt by nearly all young people at times, even though
not fully recognized nor expressed.
It is safe to assume that the millions of youth in the armed forces, in
industry, on farms, and those about to leave our schools, will expect our
society to provide ways and means for them to meet such needs as those
named above and that they will welcome an opportunity to help provide
for these needs of all youth. Above all they will not wish a dole, but
rather an opportunity to help solve their own problems even though plenty
of hard work is involved. Our present generation of young people, once
called "soft," have proved the hardness of their physical and mental fiber
in the stress and strain of conflict and of work in industry and on the farm.
The sobering effects of war, necessitating united community and united
national effort, have reached into the secondary schools of the nation, with
a resulting seriousness of purpose on the part of most of our high-school
students. These pupils have realized, as a generation before them often
failed to appreciate, the value of their educational opportunities in meeting
future, but not far distant, needs in military service or occupational life.
Even though state and federal assistance may be required to help finance
some of the educational, health, recreational, and vocational opportunities
needed by our young people of tomorrow, just as such needs are being met
in part by such assistance during the period of the war, the responsibility
for the ultimate success of any program established to meet the problems
of youth rests in each local community. It is in the local community that
each young person is known for what he is; it is there that he has his
home, his friends, his church, his social connections of various types. He
knows the people of his town and is known by them, except in the larger
cities, and even there the neighborhood is his center of orientation.
There are certain critical issues which must be solved in part at least
if our communities and nation are to avoid a wholesale return to the youth
problems of the prewar days. In fact these issues are so interrelated with
the oft-expressed needs of youth as to be a reciprocal phase of the impending
problems of youth. Briefly stated, with the recognition that they are not
all-inclusive in character, some of these critical issues are:
1. High-school "drop-outs"-Larger numbers of American boys and girls must
be encouraged to remain in high school until graduation. This implies a more
flexible curriculum and greater adaptation of that curriculum to individual needs
than we have ever known before. It suggests a wider use of combination school-work
programs after the end of the war; opportunity to work for wages while still attend-
ing school. We know from our wartime experience that this is possible for many
boys and girls and that school work does not necessarily suffer under such an
2. Counseling servires-Present inadequate counseling services must be improved
to give more adequate assistance to boys and girls of high-school age and of post-
high-school age in the further planning of their educational and occupational inter-
ests. Counseling in the area of home and family life, including marriage problems,
should be made a part of this service.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 57
3. Recreation-Wholesome recreational opportunities ranging from the physically
passive kinds, such as reading, study, radio, concerts, and forums, to the physically
active types, such as games, camping, hiking, swimming, skiing, bowling, and similar
activities must be made available in increasing amounts by our communities. Social
agencies, city recreation departments, and schools should coordinate their efforts in
campaigns to enlist larger numbers of our young people in such programs. If our
young people of high-school age and slightly older have abundant opportunities for
wholesome recreation in which they have developed an interest as a result of school
or other experiences, a long stride will have been taken in the direction of the
solution of our delinquency problems.
4. Physical fitness and military training-It seems probable and reasonable that
the best examples of present preinduction programs in physical fitness will be re-
tained in the postwar period. Such programs need careful examination, however, to
insure the fact that claims made about their efficiency are not exaggerated. The best
features of such programs should be combined with sound programs in health educa-
tion. It is believed that more than physical fitness is required to make men ready
for the strenuous program of military training. Attention to mental fitness should
not be overlooked. And who shall provide military training after the war? Some
seem to think that the schools should assume responsibility for this training, but
high authorities in the military services and many public-school leaders believe
that, if necessary, such training should be provided by the Army and Navy. Unless
this issue is faced squarely at once, the schools may find themselves confronted by
the necessity for providing military training which they are poorly equipped to give
and which should be turned over to our military establishment.
5. The returning veteran-The returning veteran is with us. The number of vet-
erans of World War II in most communities is relatively small at present, but, with
the services discharging men at the rate of 60,000 per month, it is not too soon to
provide for their needs. The schools share the responsibility for services for vet-
erans with many other agencies, but surely the major responsibility for providing
high-school programs for those veterans who wish such training rests with the
public schools. Vocational courses, both industrial and commercial, together with
counseling services for veterans, as well as academic courses for those who need
such work in preparation for higher education can and should be provided in the
schools. This public-school education for veterans (and war workers who need
retraining) should be given in classes established especially for them, and whenever
possible taught by teachers who have been instructors in the services or who are
skilled in teaching adults. Just any teacher can't teach these boys who have become
men almost overnight as a result of experiences in war. Schools known as "Veterans'
Schools" might be established in existing plants, with classes meeting during late
afternoon or evening hours and on Saturdays. In order to help these veterans
conserve the benefits which accrue to them under the so-called "G. I. Bill of Rights,"
high-school work should be free. State-aid for a veteran over twenty-one, on the
same basis as that provided for his younger brother who is still in high school,
would enable most communities to establish tuition-free programs. This in turn
would make it possible for veterans to use all of their time and money credit for
education above secondary-school grade.
It is at once obvious that while these critical issues, so much a part of
the impending problems which face youth, must be met on the local com-
munity level, they cannot be so met in many instances without material
assistance from state and federal sources. While encouragement may come
from such agencies, the success of the program will however depend in
no small measure upon the vision and effort of the local community and
upon the degree to which young people themselves are encouraged to
participate and to assume responsibility. Experience has shown that the
58 A.AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
following general principles tend to operate in connection with a successful
youth program on the community level:
1. Each community should study its own youth problems.
2. Each community must have a positive approach to its youth problems.
3. The starting point for the study of youth problems should be the social situ-
ation of which youth finds itself a part.
4. Basic problems of youth, almost permanent in nature, are vocational guidance,
work experience, use of leisure time, health education, and social training.
5. Even in times of stress, youth problems should not be approached too much
from the crisis point of view. It is an ever-present series of problems, aggravated
perhaps by war, depressions, or prosperity.
6. The most important specific youth problem is "getting a job."
7. The local youth program must be flexible. It must change with changing con-
8. Conflict in leadership within the community must be avoided. Agency-minded-
ness is often a great obstacle to real community service.
9. Sometimes a community council or a coordinating council proves successful in
pooling the resources of the community for youth services. Included in such an
organization should be the representatives of private agencies, public agencies, labor,
industry, business, and above all, youth itself.
10. We should work for and with youth, rather than attempt to do things to and
11. Those who serve on a community council should be unselfishly interested in
the problems of youth, not in the advancement of the interests of a particular
12. The community council is an advisory group, not a directing body.
13. Youth must do for itself whenever possible. This is most important.
In summary, we might well justify even this brief and rather superficial
consideration of the impending problems of youth in the midst of a world
war, by a quotation from that well-known study of the American Council
on Education, Youth and the Future. "Why think, speculate, plan for
things as they were, and are no longer?" And the answer, "Because the
situation of yesterday, so altered today, will almost certainly be again one
day, the same as it was yesterday." And continues the Council: "Never
was there a better time to consider what the real situation of American
Youth is, was, and creatively might be than when we see them snatched out
of that situation of yesterday with its wonderful but neglected and unex-
plored new possibilities for richer life and thrust into the war. We now
gladly vote vast sums to feed, clothe, train, teach, discipline, and occupy
youth that they may protect the nation from danger. The nation was also
in danger before the war because we failed to make sure that youth were
adequately fed, clothed, trained, and occupied. If only we could have the
chance to do it over and do it better!"
Perhaps we shall have the chance to do it over, with firm resolution to
do it better, especially in our schools, instead of waiting for some federal
super-agency to tackle the job right next door to our schools in communities
throughout the length and breadth of the land. In all of this the secondary
school should play a prominent and helpful part, reshaping its program
as conditions necessitate to meet the needs of youth in'school and out of
school. In the smaller communities the best available leadership in the com-
munity is often found in the school, as far as youth problems are concerned.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 59
It would be a mistake, however, to assume that any or all agencies could
solve these problems without the aid of the young people themselves. It
would be short-sighted for community leaders to assume that youth cannot
make a real contribution to the solution of the impending problems of
young people, or that they are not interested in doing so. Youth should
be invited and expected to take over much of the responsibility for the
necessary planning of youth programs and should be invited to provide
many of the needed services. Out-of-school youth has demonstrated its
ability to do just this in its organization and supervision of programs
for secondary-school youth in the teen-age centers now operating in so many
,Ve have often been most undemocratic in our attitude toward youth
without intending to be. Youth will welcome a chance to work with adults
and will assume a surprising amount of responsibility if given the oppor-
tunity to learn how our complex society really functions. The school should
advocate the idea that our young people shall really be given a chance to
belong to the society in which they live.
EDUCATION LOOKS FORWARD
VIERLING KERSEY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
The pattern of education today must prevision the pattern of living
tomorrow in all of its social, political, and economic aspects. Many develop-
ments, current or potential, demand a make-ready of planning on the part
of school leaders. During the next five years, education in the United States
of America must meet certain positive and assertive demands.
1. Education must make a constant and continuing contribution to win-
ning the war. All other considerations must be held secondary. Every con-
structive war-winning attitude for every youth must be clinched for life.
The war has taught us precision, exactness, accuracy, timeliness, and the
absolute value of achieving results. Anything less than these in the future
will be a hazard to democracy. What education has done to help win the
war is worth doing with like emphasis as it may contribute strength for peace.
2. Every educational need of returning veterans must be met by the
schools. This type of student will be quite different from that to which we
educators have grown smugly accustomed. Men and women, more mature
than their years measure, will fill school classrooms. They, inured to hard-
ship, developed in initiative, accustomed to responsibility, returning from
intimate acquaintance with thousands of miles of global geography, will
demand and will patronize only schooling different from that to which
we are and they previously were accustomed. Perhaps more than five years
from now we will find that these veterans will demand a different education
for their children, for their younger brothers and sisters.
3. Immediate preparation must be made to meet those acute problems
which will attend peace, military and industrial demobilization, and future
construction and reconstruction.
60 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
4. Education must be a leading factor in the development of a "total
youth program." Twenty-four hours of constructive living shall be provided
for every child, every day. Home, school, church, and community must
constructively fill out twenty-four hours of balanced good living for every
day. No agency can completely take the place of any other of these agencies
in balanced child life. Yet the next five years will make education respon-
sible for more of the direction and more of the time of all youth. Likewise.
when the regular program of schooling is terminated, the school system
must provide continuing opportunity for the learning mind to be construc-
tively served. Unless good planning and adequate funds are made available
to provide and promote constructive living, surely destructive, anti-social,
and civically irresponsible living will follow.
5. Education takes place mainly through teaching. Upon the quality and
quantity of teachers depends the achievement of our educational objectives.
Upon the teachers of today and the teachers of tomorrow rests the respon-
sibility for the development of operative democracy. Our experience during
these trying war years has shown that the morale and ability and the
spiritual stamina of the teaching profession have been far beyond the mini-
mum standards which we have sometimes ascribed to them. Staff require-
ments in every aspect of public education present a most significant prob-
lem during the next five years. This problem must be met in order to
keep schools open and in order to provide trained teachers for the all-time
future of public education. Adequate personnel, satisfactory induction into
service plans, and proper improvement in service programs are a current
6. Teaching must take place in a suitable and adequate environment.
Physical facilities-grounds, buildings, equipment, and supplies-each of
these must be planned for and adequately provided in terms of anticipated
needs. War retarded programs, restricted priority expansion, and new
frontiers in education serve to indicate the scope of this demand. Plans
for this catching-up program as well as readiness to finance can now be
7. Community attitudes which are right for education must be devel-
oped by education. If school services are right, good community attitudes
may be assured. The graduate of tomorrow must be taught that serving
in a democracy may many times take place without pay and always with
the thought of the common good in mind. He must know and practice
that when we produce, conserve, and consume wisely, there will always
he enough for all. The war has taught us that we must "do for" as well
as "get from" our country. The war has taught us teamwork. Youth
leadership must be developed among youth. Home ties must be strengthened.
The home should sponsor child membership in desirable youth activities-
church, scouting, camping, and others.
8. Isolationism no longer exists, either internationally or in the com-
munity. Today's child will be an American citizen tomorrow in the inter-
related new world about which he must know more. He must know our
allies, present and future. He must know our history and must be able to
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 61
project our future in terms of that history. He will know what and why
we are now fighting in World War II. He wiH help to develop postwar
plans and ideals which are practical.
9. The conflicting and confusing attitudes concerning the values of
compulsory military training must be resolved. We must never again find
ourselves as unprepared for attack as we were following World War I.
The schools must assure that every young citizen is prepared for an iden-
tified and socially-desirable occupation for which he is fitted by intelligence,
personality, interests, and training, and that he is prepared and ready to
defend and fight for the freedoms we cherish. Every pupil must be prepared
to take his place in this great democracy and to defend it, if need be, on
the firing line, in industry, and at home.
10. Wartime gains have been made in education. They must be evaluated
and continued. The disciplined personality will provide and guarantee
positive, dynamic Americanism for every pupil. It will manifest the results
of emphasis on the moral and spiritual, as well as on the mental, physical,
cultural, and vocational values of life. Total fitness for tomorrow must
include discipline, spiritual values, and high-grade learning. Precision learn-
ing, acceleration, complete physical and mental fitness, knowledge of work
from realistic work experiences, marketable skills, and reestablished stand-
ards in the basic fundamentals of learning are but a few of the wartime
gains made in education which must be continued.
The long-term view ahead demands of education today that it meet
the needs of the pupils, of the productive forces of the land, of the patrons
of the schools, and of the country. It is for us in the classrooms to think
constantly about the coming period in American history, "the time after."
What education provided yesterday, what it provides today, must be even
stronger for tomorrow. As teachers, we must everlastingly strive to develop
our nation's greatest resources, the character, personality, ability, and
knowledge of American youth. The America of tomorrow is the steward-
ship of our schools today.
A YEAR OF OPPORTUNITY
JOHN E. WADE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK, N. Y.
A year of opportunity! You may well ask if this title would not be more
appropriate at a time when school conditions are at their best-when
there is an ample supply of teachers, when instructional materials of all
kinds are available in sufficient quantity, and when budgets are adequate.
Can this be a year of opportunity when many of the nation's schools are
closed for lack of teachers, when supplies are becoming more costly and
more difficult to obtain, and when it is extremely difficult to obtain the
materials and labor necessary to keep the school plant in proper physical
condition? Can it be a year of opportunity when people are constantly
tense and when the all-absorbing emphasis is upon the winning of a
global war rather than upon the important but more intangible problems of
62 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
History shows us that progress frequently occurs when man is confronted
with new and unusual major issues. Critical periods create opportunities
for individuals or groups to rise above the trivial or routine. Normal con-
ditions make for contentment without creativeness and may tend toward
retrogression rather than progress. The difficulties between the colonies
and England created an opportunity for groups of clear-thinking men to
write the Declaration of Independence. The Battle of Gettysburg gave
Lincoln the incentive to rededicate, in immortal words, our nation to its
basic purposes. The economic depression of the last decade created an
opportunity for Americans to become more definitely aware of how their
fellow Americans lived. Out of this came great social change culminating
in protective and ameliorative programs of far-reaching import. If, therefore,
times of stress and strain create opportunities for progress, the present times
are truly teeming with opportunity.
Educators of today have an opportunity, even a duty, to address them-
selves to some fundamental problems, the solution of which will make
the present era outstanding in educational history. What are some of
Without doubt of major concern to all school executives is the solution
of the many issues associated with youth in the age ranges of sixteen to
twenty and over. Our education systems have been working assiduously
in this area, but many baffling problems remain for solution. Of especial
concern are the out-of-school youth, namely, those who have concluded
their formally organized school programs. Some questions to be raised are
1. To what extent are educational authorities responsible for out-of-school youth?
2. What kind of informal educational program can be organized to facilitate the
youths' induction into substantial citizenship?
3. What service or work experience situations, municipal or commercial or indus-
trial, can be devised which will provide youth with a realistic understanding of
these areas of the adult world, without infringing upon the legitimate labor market?
What steps should be initiated by boards of education to obtain the cooperation
of other agencies, such as labor unions, governmental services, and business
4. To what extent have our programs of guidance been effective? Do our school
counselors have available the latest information in regard to occupational trends
and developments? The latest labor market reports? Should counseling and guid-
ance services be available to out-of-school youth which would facilitate the transition
of the young adult into the more mature life of the community?
5. How creative can the school become in stimulating the opening of new areas
of employment? This is asked on the assumption that man is always creating new
fields of service in which human beings can be employed.
6. What program should be developed by public education to detect and explore
the sources of the undesirable attitudes of many of our youth?
7. What can the schools do to reduce the conflicts that exist between theory and
practice in our social, economic, political, and ethical life? What are the effects of
these conflicts upon the young adult?
8. Should counseling centers be established which could aid both youth and the
older adults in reducing family tensions?
9. How can support he secured for needed expansion of educational services for
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 63
Expansion in adult education is inevitable. With the increased respon-
sibilities resting upon our nation due to our rise in world leadership, educa-
tional opportunities on all adult levels must be provided. The meager offer-
ings of the past must be supplemented with courses which will give knowl-
edge and understanding concerning the economic, social, and political
problems that are emerging out of this contracting world. Our society's
needs will include extensive programs for vocational rehabilitation and
educational opportunities for recreational and avocational development of
our people. An exceedingly important aspect of adult education will em-
phasize citizenship education for those who have not as yet become full-
fledged members of our society. This program in citizenship training will
not only provide for speaking, writing, and reading the English language,
but will also include instruction which will help in unifying the people
of this country.
The entire program of adult education is closely interwoven with the
development of our schools as community centers. In such centers, parent
education will need to be stressed. Provisions for creating better under-
standing among America's many racial groups must be made. Every effort
should be applied toward maintaining the character and the wholesome-
ness of our local communities which makes for strength in democracy.
Problems growing out of the war have created new interest in the educa-
tion of children at the prekindergarten and nursery-school levels. School
systems cannot ignore the progress which has been made in child psychology
and the understanding of the needs of young children.
Nursery schools can contribute much to the future educational success
of boys and girls. They take children during a pliable period of learning
and build proper foundations in personal habits, in social understanding,
and in general social behavior. If every American child could have the
privilege of nursery-school education, a decided gain would be made in
eliminating cultural and racial barriers that have been created all too fre-
quently in American life.
The school administrator should welcome the controversy which has
been waged on the subject of the health and physical condition of American
youth. Army statistics indicate that from 20 to 50 percent of the draftees
are being rejected for military service because of physical or mental dis-
abilities. At the outset I want to state that I am not one of those who be-
lieve that the schools are to blame, or largely to blame, for this condi-
tion. The schools cannot replace injured limbs, lost fingers, or punctured
eardrums. The schools cannot give sight to the blind, nor hearing to the
deaf, nor are the schools responsible for handicaps developed after the
youngsters have left school. Many young men were rejected for defective
teeth, but these same young men may have had good teeth when they left
school. Furthermore there is much to be said for the opinion expressed
by James F. Byrnes, Director of War Mobilization and Reconversion,
who questions the physical standards used by the armed services which
result in the rejection of so maqy men who continue to be stars in the
professional athletic world.
64 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
The nation seems ready at this time to improve greatly the opportunities
for getting our youth into good physical condition and for keeping them
at that high level. To assist the nation in formulating its physical advance-
ments in this field, the school administrators working with their staff and
local community would find it advantageous to canvass thoroughly the
presentday existing facilities for health and physical education, the train-
ing and vision of the teaching staff of health and physical education, and
the kinds of opportunities and programs which should be initiated.
The program of health and physical education permeates all courses of
instruction. It is associated with conditions of living, of school housing, of
recreation, and of work itself. The sanitary conditions within our schools;
the provision for lighting, heating, and ventilation; the installations for
hand-washing and for drinking facilities; and the rooms for rest and rec-
reation are all phases of school administration which must have renewed
emphasis. Equally important is the nutritional program for boys and girls
and the conditions under which they eat in school cafeterias and lunch-
rooms. There is no city in the United States in which decided improvement
cannot be secured in many of the areas enumerated above.
More extensive playgrounds with adequate equipment and expanded
gymnasium facilities are needed if our school children are to be given
thorough-going programs of physical education which are expressed not in
terms of one or two hours a week, but in terms of a period a day under
competent instruction. In times of emergency the nation desires to rely
upon all its youth. In normal periods the nation should strive to the utmost
to keep its youth at a high level of vigor and physical attainment, and should
adjust its educational program in terms of such needs.
In this year of opportunity the educator should not be complacent about
the methods of instruction that are being employed. There has been much
helpful discussion on the teaching technics used by the armed forces with
the purpose of securing definite results quickly and effectively. The armed
forces have had available in teaching devices the best that money could
buy, and a highly selected group of instructors trained in the schools and
colleges of America. These men no doubt have much to bring back out of
their war experience. For instance, military authorities have demonstrated
that it is possible to develop a speaking knowledge of a language in several
months of concentrated study. In the schools it has been customary to spread
the study of a language rather thin over a long period of time. The basic
aim in most schools has been to develop a reading knowledge rather than
a speaking knowledge. Is this aim the right one and can we learn some-
thing from army methods? Perhaps this is the opportunity for language
teachers to analyze anew the programs in which they have had confidence,
and to alter them in terms of more meaningful objectives.
Army and navy instruction to develop skills has been aided greatly by
the use of all kinds of visual aids and by individual instruction in small
classes. Although military instruction is more costly than public education,
is the resulting gain worthwhile? In the past the schools have tended to lag
behind when modern invention made possible instructional gains. This has
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 65
been true with the radio and the motion picture. In both of these fields many
educators have been indifferent to possibilities or have been unwilling or
unable to make adjustments in spite of the greater gains that are possible.
The teaching of history, geography, the physical sciences, and many other
subjects without the use of the motion picture seems to place the teacher in
the same category as the individual who would refuse to ride in an auto-
mobile because a horse-driven vehicle proved more satisfactory. Instructors
in the military scene have used visual instruction to a maximum degree.
The schools should no longer be lagging behind. It is also reported that
television will open up new possibilities of instruction as the peace era
begins. Let it not be said two or three decades hence that the school ad-
ministrators of this country ignored in its early stages the educational
possibilities of television. It would increase the stature of the educator
if it could be said that he was in the vanguard of those who realized the
significance of television in broadening educational opportunity and in ex-
tending the bounds of understanding of our people.
The absorbing problem of new curriculum developments carries with it
incentives and inspiration growing out of the world changes which are
taking place constantly. The school curriculum is ever in the making. The
degree to which adequate curriculum adjustments are being made today to
world change is a measure of America's potentialities in world leadership.
There is no phase of the curriculum which has not been feeling the impact
of recent economic, social, and political change. The present day offers an
opportunity for curriculum reconstruction which should be welcomed by
all teachers. Such reconstruction may even affect the organization of our
schools. Other world peoples and the geography of their environments take
on new meaning as time is accelerated and distance is diminished. The
hopes of world leaders expressed in the Atlantic Charter, at Dumbarton
Oaks, and at Yalta strengthen the foundation upon which the school cur-
riculum of the future is being built. It is safe to assume that no school
system can be considered progressing satisfactorily in this day of rapid
change unless it is contributing adequately to a curriculum development
.in consonance with our nation's expanding needs.
During the wartime period the schools of the nation seized every oppor-
tunity to render a victory service. When such mechanized tasks as issuing
ration books or salvaging paper or scrap were assigned, the schools secured
superior results. The story of the schools' contribution to the planning,
production, and preparation of foods is most heartening and indicative of
what can be accomplished through group instruction and group action.
During the war teachers throughout the land have rendered service far
above and beyond the call of duty. Let me give one illustration from among
the many services rendered by the teachers of New York City: Early in
the war a small group of teachers organized the Teachers Voluntary Serv-
ice Organization. This group opened a canteen for servicemen, and, in
addition to providing a lounge room, recreation room, and meals, the teach-
ers offered instruction in English, mathematics, languages, typing, or any
other field for which a serviceman expressed an interest. They met every
66 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL. ADMINISTRATORS
request. l'his center has become so successful that the teachers have opened
four additional centers. A recent report indicated that as many 'as 1947
servicemen and women received instruction in these centers in a single
It is true that the service record of American teachers and school admin-
istrators is a remarkable one and deserves full recognition when the history
of victory in World War II is written. The period which lies just beyond
will offer challenges to our profession of no lesser merit. They are the
challenges of readjustment to peace times, and of the readaptation of millions
of fighting men and women to the constructive service which their victory
will have made possible. Every city like New York City is engaged now
in reorganizing educational programs as well as testing and guidance
programs to take care of the millions who seek speedy return to normal
living. The immediate adjustment made for this youth as they return from
victory may not be enough. Our schools must be sufficiently alert to provide
constantly for adjustment. They cannot be merely localized institutions,
but must teem with world interest. The emphasis must not be upon method
or discipline, but upon developing broadminded and capable men and women
free of bias, strong in intellect, and equally courageous to face emerging
economic and social problems as those of the beachhead and the battle front.
The world is experiencing a great upheaval. The material wealth of
centuries is being destroyed. The sacrifice of human life is beyond all rec-
ords of history. Out of this earth-wracking struggle man hopes for better
conditions for all mankind. Such betterment will come only to the degree
that man educates himself. The schools of America offer the greatest oppor-
tunities ever found in this world for the improvement of man. The school
administrator's task is to develop schools which will never cease offering
such opportunities. These opportunities are those of individual growth,
of adjustment to change, of stimulation to create, and of provision for
growth into spiritual, moral, and social human beings. The degree to
which the year ahead is one of opportunity will depend upon the vision and
the consecration of American school administrators to the challenging needs
appearing above the horizon.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
NEW PATTERNS IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
PAUL R. MORT, PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA
UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, N. Y.
During the past quarter century administrative practice in city and county
school systems has outrun organizational theory. Many prudential or
democratic variations from the line and staff theory have been thought of
as adaptations of that theory. Other aspects of the operation of a school
have never been aligned with the line and staff theory.' We have now
reached a place where schools suffer from the lack of a more encompassing
theory, one that will have a positive place for obviously needed variations
in practice and will in and of itself stimulate the further adaptation of
administrative structure and operation.
The application of the home rule concept to constituent parts of a school
system having several schools seems to provide the positive factor now
missing in the organizational theory of local school systems. Here is a
concept of long and honorable history, widely understood. It is the concept,
in fact, in terms of which the state legislature, responsible for the school
system of the state, has delegated powers to boards of education to be
exercised for all the people of the state and with the full force of the
authority of all the people.
It is proposed that city and county school systems be organized in terms
of a theory built on two concepts for the fanning out of powers held by
schoolboards-the line and staff concept and the home rule concept. This is
proposed as a substitute for the present practice of using line and staff
theory as far as it can be used, making exceptions in terms of empirical
evidence alone. The need is particularly great in the huge city school
systems in which approximately a fourth of American children receive
their education. But there are indications that the application reaches down
at least to school systems of 50,000 population and perhaps down to those
of 10,000 population, thus encompassing the school systems that serve a
large majority of American children.
There follows a statement of this proposal in greater detail. This in
turn is followed by descriptions of two sets of conditions that appear to
make imperative such a shift in organizational theory. Finally there is a
brief statement on the problems of treating home rule unit.
PROPOSED USE OF THE IIOME RULE CONCEPT
The proposal in brief is that schoolboards should modify their policy of
considering all authority flowing down from them through the adminis-
Four studies.in recent years have brought out a number of these puzzling characteristics; two of
them deal with schools in New York City, one with schools in St. Louis, one with schools in Newark:
Cillie, Francois S.. Centralization or Drcentrili-ation? New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1940, 105 p.; Hicks, Alvin W., A Plan To Accelerate the Process of
Adaptation in a New York City S'hool Community (Manuscript in Teachers College Library); Ebey.
George W., Adaptability Among the Elementary S hools of an Ameri an City. New York: Bureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1940. 74 p.; The Report of a Survey of the
Public Schools of Newark. New Jersey. 1012, Chapter II. New York: Bureaun f Publiration-, Teacherl
College, Columbia University, 10,12.
68 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
trative line. Instead, they should, by legislative act, legally recognize that
certain ultimate control powers are now of necessity vested in the school
personnel and, to lesser degree, in the lay public, of geographical areas
within the local school system. Such powers should be reviewed and per-
haps extended. In this they would simply be following the ancient home
rule principle according to which their legal parent, the legislature, has
operated in the creation of school districts and in the vesting of ultimate
power in them, not over all educational policies, but over many educational
policies subject to such legal metes and bounds as the legislature has seen
fit to define. While the state legislature has delegated the vast majority of
educational powers to schoolboards, reserving comparatively few to central
line officers, the schoolboard as a local legislature would doubtless reserve the
vast majority of powers for exercise through the administrative line. Again,
whereas most legislatures have delegated taxing powers to the school dis-
tricts and placed the responsibility for raising a large part of the support
on the school districts, it is proposed here that this power be retained' by
the board-that the home rule principle be used only with respect to aspects
The following guides are suggested:
1. The power of ultimate decision on educational policy should rest in the repre-
sentatives of a group of people no larger than which will be sufficiently representa-
tive of the interests of all the people to provide reasonable protection of the inter-
ests of the state (all the people).
2. Local administrators (principals) should be given no escape from being held
responsible by the public for decisions that they now by custom exercise; the scope
of the present ultimate authority of local operators should be made clear by board
rule so as to avoid blaming central authority for steps taken and using the fiction
of "no authority" as a reason for failure to act. This should be made clear to the
public. Sharing of the authority with a local board would promote the desirable
3. City boards of education and central administrative officers should be freed
from the feeling of personal responsibility for untoward happenings within the range
of responsibility and authority of local operators; their attitude should be more
akin to that of the state legislature and state department of education toward such
occurrences in local school districts. Such happenings should only raise the question
of the general wisdom of the assignment of authority to local operators or of the
fitness of particular areas to exercise such authority. This counsels the establishment
of some sort of local advisory board, perhaps made up of parents, other laymen, and
4. Communities in a city should not necessarily be treated alike.2 Some should
have wide powers; some perhaps less than they now exercise. The fact that prin-
cipals have been selected as line officers to carry on a merely ministerial function
may mean that many of them would not embrace the opportunity of home rule.
Interest of local principals is therefore a useful criterion in selecting communities
that are to have their home rule extended. Similarly, certain demographic and
sociological factors condition the ability of a community to exercise home rule.
There are some indications that the favorable factors are highly correlated with
community interest. Accordingly, the selection of communities to which home rule
is to be extended appears to be possible in terms largely of the public and staff
2There is precedent for this in state-local organizations in the varied treatment of different types of
school districts. The extreme case is the operation of school' directly by the state department of edu-
cation (complete line and staff) for children in unorganized territory in Maine.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 69
5. Provision should be made for the opening of channels to the public mind. The
local board suggested (No. 3 above) should be designed not only as a sharer of
responsibility for local acts, but as a channel for expression of the public mind,
particularly within the area where the local unit has ultimate powers.
EFFECTIVE USE OF STAFF
There are two sets of conditions that counsel such a change in organ-
izational theory; one centering around the school staff, the other around
the lay public. Either of them by itself would seem to provide adequate
justification; together the implications are compelling.
First let us assess the forces that resulted in the line and staff organiza-
tion of school administration. One of them was the legal conception of
responsibility and power. The school district is created by the legislature
and delegated the power to act for the state, subject to relatively minor
limitations and directives. The school district's chief instrument for action
is the schoolboard. Whatever the method of selection-popular vote, ap-
pointment by the mayor, appointment by the courts, appointment by the
governor, or self-perpetuation-it finds itself vested with large state powers
as a state legislative and administrative body. Formerly, and still in small
districts, this power operated directly on the teaching staff. As its task be-
came more complicated, the board employed liaison officers-school super-
intendents and other administrative, supervisory, and inspectorial officers.
The charts always placed the classroom teachers at the bottom of the
power line. The army line and staff pattern was thus a natural device
for charting the flow of power and for keeping the various agents in align-
ment, one with another. The classroom teacher was the buck private in
the rear rank.
With the organism nicely set up legally, we now see it get in motion.
Administration represented by the board and the various administrative
heads employed by them immediately becomes a target for all sorts of de-
mands for doing things differently. Administration's ideas of "policy, like
oysters, are fed by cross currents of loud demands from the world with-
out; relatively silent demands made by growing insight into the nature
of learning by new views of society and by invention in the realm of meth-
odology; less silent demands made by those whose business it is to scan the
procession of economic and social statistics and call out for the redress
of wrongs by political action or by changing the habits or attitudes of
the people themselves through education; and more artful demands made
by those whose business it is to purvey new kinds of blackboards, or floor-
ing, or heating devices, or lighting systems, or textbooks. All these and
myriads more is administration required to assess, make decisions as to
change in policy, communicate the decisions through the line to the buck
private in the rear rank, provide supplementary services, and check up on
the results through the staff specialists, supervisors, and inspectors.
All of this assumes, approximately, that the buck private, also the ordinary
citizen and the student, had few, if any, ideas worth much in shaping
policy; or if they had, that they could be adequately assessed by the line
70 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHooL ADMINISTRATORS
and staff officers chosen primarily as one-way channels of flow of authority
from the center.
In the process of this development, administrators made some decisions
that were eventually to be disturbing to their peace of mind. They de-
manded and got persons to staff the schools who had more training. At
first this training took the form of study of subjectmatter teachers were
supposed in turn to purvey-review courses in history or in arithmetic,
courses in methodology of reading, instruction courses in handwriting.
Finally, however, the teacher-training institutions got off the reservation.
They began teaching these persons criteria for judging courses of study
and facts about the nature of learning and of society. The result was that
all the big administrative oysters became, unknown to themselves, sur-
rounded by little oysters feeding from the same currents. In other words,
the school system developed sensitivity below the administrative level.
Now anyone who has been a buck private in the rear rank knows that
there is a great deal of time when the sergeant is not giving orders or
is not around to see what is happening. As a result, some talking back is
likely to develop from the most vociferous, and some action without the
benefit of authority is likely to slip in. Administrators were not. much con-
cerned with the latter because they did not recognize it. But they gave
attention to the former. Among other devices they developed teachers'
councils as safety valves. Some few superintendents even went farther and
developed curriculum study groups in the fields of specialization. Few ad-
ministrators seem to have sensed the fact that a great many of these special-
ists had become broad persons capable of thinking outside their specialties.3
Naturally, the schools that had recruited larger numbers of superior
human beings as teachers found it necessary to give rein sooner. Some
made real headway in developing a new organization. First let us deal with
some of the results of the work of these independent spirits.
One of the interesting results of having brilliant classroom teachers in
the cross currents of demands on the schools was that there was brought
into the defacto, policy-forming group those who were in firsthand contact
with boys and girls. They did not need to generalize ih terms of the
child, the youth. They dealt with John and Mary, Susy and Tom, Angelo
and Concita. They saw things to do and did them. They thought they were
exercising common sense. Actually they were exercising unusual insight
and highly educated sense. If we look into the schools that have an unusual
number of these superior persons working under either liberal or be-
wildered administration, we will see educational developments never
dreamed of by persons remote from the educational process.
This last year it has been the writer's privilege to stand on the sidelines
and watch 250 persons from sixty-five relatively favored communities work
at the job of finding the patterns that have developed in their schools-
patterns that, to a large extent, have developed by individual teachers
without the benefit of either administrative or professorial blessing.
SFor an analysis of administrative sensitivity to alert personnel, see Raymond L. Collins (Ed.D.
Project-manuscript in Teachers College, Columbia University, Library).
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
Changes made by administrative act are readily observable, accretive
phenomenon. Those originating from within are hard to distinguish, intus-
susceptive changes like those in a growing organism. Administratively ini-
tiated changes take the form of specialists and bureaus, and special teach-
ers, addition of new courses and curriculums rather than modification of
the old, and departmentalization ; at its best it is characterized by a modern
high school-a great mosaic, fit together by careful hands. Change from
within tends to shelve many of these specialists, to militate against depart-
mentalization, to leave bureaus active a dozen years ago without useful
work to do. It is characterized by our best elementary schools.
Space will not permit the presentation of the details of the study referred
to above. Accordingly, the following observations appearing in the introduc-
tion to a recent document summarizing 101 patterns of.educational practice
observed in sixty-five relatively favored school systems must suffice:
1. The least favored American schools emphasize the teaching of knowledge and
skill. They concern themselves only incidentally with the other factors to be
2. Somewhat more favored schools, accepting what on the surface appear to be
exactly the same objectives, are more concerned with making the knowledge and
skills more meaningful and useful than they otherwise would be by taking into
account past experiences and immediate environment and mental maturity of children
and young people in the educational process.
3. Probing somewhat deeper, or at least into a different type of soil, still more
favored schools carry along a definite parallel interest in discovering special apti-
tudes of individuals in dealing with our environment and in providing opportunities
for the growth of these aptitudes. In other words, these schools are not only con-
cerned with what adults believe to be the most useful knowledge and skills to teach
pupils but are also interested in discovering what lies within the individual human
chrysalis that will respond to discovery and cultivation.
4. The most favored schools reach into a very deep substratum which seems to
give to the quality of their fruit quite a different flavor. They are concerned with a
third facet of growth of children and young people: with the growth in those more
slowly developing patterns of behavior which we speak of as intelligence (used
in the popular sense), character, citizenship, and personality. These schools draw
sustenance from the other substrata which we have discussed above but their tempo
seems to be determined by this deeper, richer substratum.
If we are to stimulate the internal sources of such powerful educa-
tion, it would appear that we shall need an organizational theory that
will capitalize it rather than discourage it. Hence the recommendations for
an organization that will give certain ultimate powers of control to smaller
units than those represented by city schoolboards.5
4 What Schools Can Do-One Hundred and One Patterns of Educational Practice. Metropolitan
School Study Council. 525 West 120th St., New York: Bureau of Publications. Teachers College,
Columbia University, November 1944.
G It may be said also that these results, highlighting phenomena that every administrator Must have
noted here and there, seem to challenge a number of other administrative concepts such as scope of
considerations in teacher selection, age of beginning tenure, equal pay for equal work, departmentali-
zation of instruction, single salary schedules, and employment of specialists; seem to throw further
light on the present trends toward preschool and parent education, organization of supervisory services,
and small classes; and seem to suggest continued attention to growth in the "gross behavior patterns
.beyond the high-school years," and certainly fortify the arguments for the development and conservation
of "lighthouse school districts."
72 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
EFFECTIVE USE OF THE PUBLIC MIND
One of the surprising discoveries from the early adaptability studies was
the relation of the community to the quality of schools. Such factors as
the heterogeneity of the population, the percentage of the population born
outside the community, the public understanding of the developments in
education during the past quarter century, and the educational level of the
public were found to be reflected in the quality of the schools. This holds
when, as in small communities, there is an opportunity for public influence
to be brought more or less directly to bear on the schools. The influence
of the community on the schools in large cities, however, has not been so
readily observable. The implications are that whether or not the school
authorities in small independent communities make any particular attempt
to utilize the public mind they cannot entirely escape it, and that the devel-
opment of school districts in which the legal authority to act is remote
from the public, as in large cities, has resulted in the isolation of the schools
from the powerful forces inherent in community autonomy.
This has important implications for school districts of all sizes: in
small independent communities for more careful procedures for working
with the public; in large school districts for the decentralization of at least
some of the important powers controlling the character of the school. Just
at what stage there is a need for a breakdown of powers according to the
home rule pattern has not been determined. There are indications, how-
ever, that in compact communities as small as 10,000 population and in
large, sparsely settled areas with less population, the deterioration of effec-
tive home rule has begun. Probably what happens is that as we go up the
size scale the advantages more than outweigh the home rule losses until
we reach some point either in population or geographical spread where the
loss of home rule effects rapidly accelerates, the result being a large loss
in efficiency that outweighs the advantages of size. Casual observation indi-
cates that this point has been passed by communities of 100,000 popula-
tion, and by many county school systems.
If this analysis is sound, it means that even smaller city school systems
may reap distinct advantages by restoring a measure of home rule to geogra-
phic areas within their borders. There would seem to be no reason to argue
that because a school district with a population of 25,000 has advantages
from size that outweigh its losses from deterioration of home rule it should
not seek to maintain the advantages of both.
One of the misconceptions that has retarded thinking in this area is
that the forces we are discussing are somehow a function of a unique
phenomenon called a community. The indications are that it is not a mys-
terious power of a community but can rather he reduced to understand-
ings gained by individuals interested or potentially interested in public
education. It appears that it can be greatly influenced by raising the under-
standing of a relatively few key persons. It must have machinery for ac-
tion; this we associate with community.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
When this misconception is coupled with the notion that a community
is or is not, and nothing can be done about it, we have a hopeless situation.
As a matter of fact, there are strong indications that communities don't
necessarily just happen. Given any group of human beings living in a
geographic area certain groupings appear-clubs, real-estate associations,
block societies, churches, and service clubs. If there is some strong force
that operates over a given area it amalgamates these social groupings into
a "community." Such a force is that which comes into operation when a
municipality or a school district is laid out. The voluntary groups then
become cells of a larger group. The interest of the larger group comes into
play in the bridge clubs, commuters' trains, women's clubs, lodges, churches,
and service clubs. In other words, if there is a way by which these social
(symbiotic) groups can bring their influence to bear, we have a community.
Accordingly, within any area of a city there is a potential home rule com-
munity. All that is needed is a common interest with geographical metes
and bounds-such as a school attendance area-and a realization that those
working in the area can have some influence on what goes on without appeal
to some remote authority. The essentials seem to be an area served by
one or more schools and a recognized body such as school principal and an
advisory board, or school principal, a few teachers, and a few chosen leaders
from the community, some parents and some nonparents with power to take
final action in some important phases of the school program. From there
on, the opportunities for developing and using the power of the public
mind is the same for any one of these areas as for a superintendent in a
small independent school district.
With this arrangement, creative teachers and the more farseeing prac-
tical laymen can set up that state of "collusion in the work of the Lord"
that seems always to characterize advance in education, without impairing
the obvious advantages that come from having many functions, some authori-
tative and some of a service nature, exercised by the central administrative
staff in line and staff relationship with the individual communities.
REFINEMENT OF THE THEORY WE LIVE BY
In conclusion, let it be understood that this paper deals with a theory-
a projection of a tentatively held mental picture of reality. Its purpose is
to stimulate observation and experimentation leading to the development
of that most practical of all practical matters, good theory. Studies now
being carried on by the Metropolitan School Study Council in New York
suburban communities ranging from 2000 to 120,000 population, and in
communities within New York City ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 popu-
lation, will provide some testing of the goodness of this theory and, at the
same time, will result in machinery for its use in practice to the degree
that it proves in tune with the realities. But there is need for observation
and experimentation by many persons under a wider range of conditions.
Let those who have been troubled by any impracticalities in the theory
we've lived by in the past few decades use the exceptions they have noted
to test this proposed modification. Let them test the theory in practice.
74 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
NEW INSIGHTS INTO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
JOHN A. SEASON, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PASADENA, CALIFORNIA
It is a commonplace, but one often overlooked, to observe that the office
of school superintendent (school administrator) is peculiar to and unique
in the United States. The writer can discover no comparable official in
connection with any other phase of local, state, or national government or
in the list of officials operating under any other form of government. There
are, certainly, schoolmasters-persons holding head positions in schools
and school systems-in every country in the world, but in no other instance
can one find the duties, powers, responsibilities, and obligations peculiar to
the office of school superintendent as it has developed in America in the
last half century.
Positions of leadership in government and in connection with all human
projects are of many kinds. They are described by many titles somewhat
indicative of their character. For instance, there is the executive whose
duties and responsibilities are those of following orders and following the
law-carrying out or putting into effect that which has been predetermined
by a law-making agency or by an order-issuing body. School administration
has to do in some part with following the law or following the orders or
rules of a board'of education, but this is not the essence of the job.
Then, there is the manager whose duties call for economy, frugality,
efficiency, and the setting up and enforcement of routine. School adminis-
tration includes some of these, but here again, they are not of major im-
portance. Such aspects of the job are commonly delegated to business mana-
gers or to subordinates dealing with important but secondary routine. The
title, "city manager," has a widely different connotation from the title,
"superintendent of schools." The functions of these two officials are so
obviously different that the distinction need not be drawn.
There is also the supervisor whose implied duties are inspectorial and
whose purpose is, by implication, to produce conformity. There is likewise
the commissioner whose title implies limited authority; the governor whose
title implies exclusively political powers. One might continue indefinitely
within the limits of our own governments or within the political systems now
functioning anywhere without finding an official whose position, powers, du-
ties, responsibilities, and obligations are comparable to those exercised by the
school administrator in America. A part of the uniqueness of the position
lies in the fact that in almost no states are the powers and duties of the
school administrator prescribed by law or even inventoried in the rules
of the employing board.
To summarize-school administration is public service at its best. It
has to do with the exercise of political power and authority, but it func-
tions almost exclusively by consent. It has to do with public service, but it
has the unique responsibility of determining both the quantity and the
quality of that service. It rests on a political base in that the constitutions
and codes of the several states provide for the service and its financial
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 75
support, and set up the essential machinery of operation; but school ad-
ministration is concerned with social, religious, political, and economic
problems as well as with educational problems, and the school administra-
tor may, and often does, hold a position of commanding influence in many
phases of community life.
The late Dr. Jesse H. Newlon was among the first to attempt to itemize
the broad powers, duties, functions, responsibilities, obligations, and oppor-
tunities of the office of school superintendent. In Part VIII: Report of
the Commission on the Social Studies, American Historical Association,'
Newlon characterizes school administration as "an applied social science,"
and he stipulates that the qualified school administrator must be a com-
petent, qualified, trained scientist, applying scientifically devised, laboratory
tested principles and'formulas to the problems involved. "It is he (the
school administrator) who must interpret the technical processes of the
school to society and the wishes and needs of society to the schools. He
stands between the technic of the schools and the practical requirements of
the adult world; between the idealism of the classroom and the realism
of the board meeting. The measure of his success lies in the skill with
which he discharges the functions. He may be buffeted about by both or
he may rise to a position of leadership in which both find their finest
To the writer's knowledge, no one has better described the unique and
almost limitless responsibilities, functions, and opportunities of the school
administrator. Numerous situations may be cited wherein the school admin-
istrator has failed ignominiously-where he has neither sensed nor appre-
ciated the opportunities all about him-situations in which insuperable
obstacles have thwarted the best efforts of competent and farseeing admin-
istrators; situations where there has been neither vision nor progress. These,
on the other hand, may be snowed under by citations of those situations
wherein the school superintendent has transformed community life in all
its phases through the instrumentality of a public school pointed to a broad
program of community betterment, and moving forward on a broad front
to improve every aspect of community life and every phase of individual
and group life.
One need only review the history of national development, the history
of the growth of our democratic institutions and way of life, to see what
school administrators have contributed to our national well-being. For
example, we have gone a long way toward the perfection of the machinery
essential for making public education for all children and youth essentially
universal and free. This is distinctly the work of an illustrious line of
school administrators working in the several states-in the cities, communi-
ties, villages, and neighborhoods-testing in the laboratory of community
life the formulas proposed for legalizing, setting up, operating, and main-
taining the agencies and institutions of public education. The list is too
1Newlon, Jesse H., Educational Administration as Social Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's
Ilbid., p. ix. (From Preface by A. C. Krey.)
76 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
long to be itemized, but here are a few: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard,
V. E. Chancellor, Ellwood P. Cubberley, A. S. Draper, James 3I. Green-
wood, William H. Maxwell, Paul R. Mort, George D. Strayer, Nicholas
L. Engelhardt, Jesse H. Newlon.
These men have dealt with those phases of our problems of public educa-
tion that have arisen in our effort to set up state and local systems of schools
and to finance, administer, operate, and maintain them. Their educational
services have gone far beyond the classroom, far beyond issues of curriculum
and method. They have been concerned with broad aspects of social policy,
with principles as well as details of political organization and machinery,
with investments of the social income, and with fundamental modifications
of our national way of life. These educational administrators have dealt
with the problems of technics and procedures essential to the handling of
the business of education on a nationwide scale, with problems of housing,
and with supplying materials of instruction for the nation's educational
institutions and agencies. They have been public relations ambassadors
plenipotentiary. They have built public opinion in support of our national
ideal of universal, free public education; of equal educational opportunities;
and of adequate educational services for all children and youth.
As we survey the scene that confronts us today as well as that which
will likely confront us as the fury of the war effort subsides, it is fitting
that we seek new insights into the problems of the school administrator.
I refer to the official who accepts the thesis that the school administrator
holds a unique position; that his responsibilities, his obligations, and his
opportunities are many and significant; and that he may, within the frame-
work of his office, become a mighty force in shaping the tomorrow of his
pupils, his teachers, his community, his state, his nation, and his world.
It is of prime importance that the public-school administrators of this
nation realize now that we are but fairly embarked on this national com-
mitment to establish and to maintain an essentially free, universal system
of public education, providing something roughly approximating equality of
The 1940 census reveals that among 74,775,836 persons twenty-five
years old and over: 3
2,799,923 ( 3.7 percent) had less than one year of schooling
7,304,689 ( 9.8 percent) had 1-4 years of schooling
8,515,111 (11.4 percent) had 5 and 6 years of schooling
25,897,953 (34.6 percent) had 7 and 8 years of schooling
11,181,995 (15 percent) had 1-3 years of high school
10,551,680 (14.1 percent) had 4 years of high school
4,075,184 ( 5.4 percent) had 1-3 years of college
3,407,331 ( 4.6 percent) had 4 or more years of college
1,041,970 ( 1.4 percent) were not reported.
By the earliest criteria of educational fitness, established when this
nation was in its infancy and requiring only that our voters be able to reid
3 According to the U. S. Staitistical Abstract as reported in the Journal of the National Education
Association, February 1945.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
and understand the issues upon which they voted, 19,940,097 of the voters
had less than sixth-grade education. Based on the facts published by the
National Commission for the Defense of Democracy Through Education,
this group exceeds by more than two times the pluralities by which can-
didates for the presidency were elected in the decade 1920-30, and con-
stitutes a large margin by which the number of those who are poorly
educated exceeds the plurality usually expected in our election contest.
Disregarding problems of curriculum, method, personnel, all vital and
important, it suffices to say that in no state in the Union is the existing
educational structure strong enough to bear the load that the correction
of this deficiency would impose. School administrators now face and must
face, as their colleagues have faced for more than a century, these problems
of devising, testing, and implementing educational structures strong enough,
flexible enough, and efficient enough to meet the barest minimums of ade-
quate educational services.
This statement does not cover the immediate problems of strengthening
the existing structure, turning existing machinery, and complementing exist-
ing personnel to where our nation can make good on its promise to render
to our veterans of World War II those educational services essential for
their return to satisfactory civilian status; or to retrain the thousands of
workers in war industries who will be displaced when the war is over and
they must be reemployed in the production and distribution of civilian goods.
It does not attempt to explore the problems of preschool education, of
adult education, of occupational training to meet the continuous shift in
our industrial practice; or the now emerging problems of totally different
types of educational services for millions of women who are faring forth
from homes into the intricacies of our complex economic, industrial, busi-
ness, and social welfare systems.
It does not attempt to analyze the ramifications of the proposed universal
service or universal military training or universal conscription plans, esti-
mated costs of which will run toward three billion dollars annually and
will constitute a heavier burden of support for the training of this one
age group than we now expend for the total support of our entire system
of public education.
It does not explore those modifications of organization, structure, method,
equipment, and policy necessary to provide acceptable, not to say equal,
educational services for the 12 percent or 13 percent of our children who,
due to defects existing from birth or very early age, cannot profit normally
from an educational offering devised to meet the needs of normal children.
These children have special physical, mental, and emotional needs. They
deviate seriously from what is considered average or normal in child life.
Yet public schools, generally speaking, have not accepted responsibility for
their care, their education, or their welfare. However, until their needs
are discovered and served, we do not have, cannot have, free public educa-
tion for all children. The formula admits no exceptions. These admitted
exceptions are chargeable in part to administrative neglect or administra-
tive unawareness that education is not education until it is suited to the
78 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
needs of the individual. Education that hands a blind child a book is a
misnomer. Education that places a deaf child in a classroom with normal
children and exposes him to the methods devised to serve normal children
is absurd. The following table shows estimated figures regarding this group: 4
Group Number no served Percentage
Blind and partially seeing...... 67,208 14,745 21.9
Deaf and hard-of-hearing ...... 504,060 28,151 5.6
Crippled ... ... .... ....... 336,040 25,784 7.7
Delicate (of lowered vitality) . 504,060 26,792 5.3
Speech-defective ............... 504,060 126,146 25.0
Mentally retarded ............ 672,080 120,222 17.9
Epileptic ..................... 67,208
M mentally gifted ............... 672,080 3,255 .5
Behavior problems ............ 840,100 39,586 4.7
VWe are fighting a war that has something to do with our concern for
minorities, for the weak, for those unable to defend themselves from preda-
tory enemies of great numbers and strength; but we are a bit unrealistic
about our own accomplishments on our home front with reference to the
well-being of groups in our midst whose plight under our previous policies
is but a shade removed from that of many we are fighting to protect. It's
an age-old battle. MIan has faced it from the dawn of civilization. Nations
have differed widely-some contending that weaklings cannot be tolerated
and applying a policy of extermination; some contending that, the world
being what it is, no nation can afford to use its resources for the care of
these exceptional individuals; some contending that at best life is a "sur-
vival of the fittest." We in America have slowly decided that every in-
dividual is precious; that he possesses some trait that can be developed
for happiness and service; that, being human, he rates security; and that
it is the birthright of all children to be so served that they may function
to the limits of their possibilities.
We have done much as a matter of charity. We have gone some distance
toward custodial care in homes, institutions, and asylums, but only recently
have we awakened to a growing realization that among these handicapped
individuals we shall find exceptional talent, intellectual brilliance, and
assets of inestimable worth to them, their relatives and friends, and to
society as a whole.
These are the present challenges to the power, the intelligence, the
influence, and the scientific efficiency of those who have dedicated their lives
to administration in a democratically designed school system. These are the
challenges to those administrators who have taken a solemn oath to point
the way to a maximum educational service through the agencies and institu-
tions of education, initiated and implemented by our nation in pursuit
Adapted from Tables I and 2. Planning Schools for Tomorrow. U. S. Office of Education, Leaflet
No. 74. Washington. D. C.: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 1944.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 79
of an ideal first phrased by those believing in the sacred worth of human
personality and handing down this belief from generation to generation
in the land of the free. We have faltered, we have failed, in whole or
in part, at one time or another, but we have made progress. To point out
our unattained goals, to lift our eyes to new heights is not to condemn
ourselves or the past. It is not to admit or confess discouragement. It is,
rather, to accept the truth that we can, if we will, sharply influence the
course of events; that we can, if we will, improve and make more efficient
a system of public schools that has given America the best workmen,
soldiers, statesmen, citizens, fathers, mothers, and friends the world has
ever known. As Guy Stanton Ford has said, "Democracy and its greatest
American creation, a free public school system, are linked today in the
great adventure of preserving themselves and the worthiest of our national
ideals under conditions that will apply new standards of social utility to
institutions and ideals that we have held sacred and permanent." 5
May I close with a quotation from my dearly loved, highly respected,
and greatly admired friend, the late Jesse H. Newlon: "The task set is
not an impossible one for the administrator who conceives his major respon-
sibility as that of releasing and coordinating leadership inside and outside
the school. He will eagerly seek wisdom and knowledge in every direction,
invite the assistance of all who can aid him, and bring to their suggestions
a trained, informed, and judicial mind."
PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION
HENRY H. HILL, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PITTSBURGH,
Since problems connected with personnel and federal-state relationships
are to be presented by others, I shall confine my attention chiefly to prob-
lems in school administration having to do with other fields and to a con-
sideration of the expanding responsibilities of school administration. Institu-
tions expand because of inside pressures and desires or because the public
served demands the assumption of new duties and responsibilities. In either
case there is pressure for expansion, and school administrators need clear
perspective to distinguish between wise and unwise expansion.
As school administrators we must understand that the tremendous quan-
titative expansion in the public-school systems of the United States during
the past generation has come chiefly on account of the new resources made
possible by science and industry's development of the assembly line and
other technics of mass production. At the turn of the century teen-age
boys and girls were still needed on the farm, in the shop, store, and factory
to produce manufactured goods or foodstuffs, and at home to assist their
parents. But in 1939 we could produce more of goods and food than people
s Ford, Guy Stanton. "Who Administers Our Schools?" An address delivered before the Department
of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction at Minneapolis. 3linnesota. March 1. 1933. Educational
Method, Vol. XII, p. S.
80 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
could buy and if necessary without the labor of a single boy or girl below
The human institution known as the public-school system found it
necessary to expand in order to meet this situation unparalleled in history.
I am taking some pains to emphasize that on the whole our school system;
have been forced to expand by outside conditions and only secondarily
because of the leadership in our profession. Naturally there have been
alert and forward-looking educators who have seen the impact of an indus-
trial age on society in general and on the schools in particular, but average
laymen, and some schoolmen for that matter, do not to this good day see
that business and industry forced the schools to expand beyond all known
precedents in order to provide a place for unneeded youth of a peacetime
There have been some in these latter years who have thought that the
schools could reconstruct society. I agree that the schools may increase
the rate of social progress or slow down the rate of decline somewhat, but
I believe the schools must always be, to a large degree, the reflection of
the aims, aspirations, necessities, beliefs, and prejudices of the adult world.
In a democracy the schools cannot be otherwise.
I conclude my introduction with my theme song of the past three years:
there are many things right with the American public-school system and
the general conduct of young men and young women during this genera-
tion. To the youth of today, who have perhaps been criticized more than
any other generation during the past century, I offer my tribute that there
has been no finer generation in history. The young soldier of today is a
better man physically than was his father in 1917, and his sister is better
.physically than her counterpart of 1917. The present generation of youth
is better educated than any generation in our history, as revealed by the
fact that nearly 70 percent of our armed forces have attended high school or
college, more than three times as many as in the First World War. Certainly
youth today is patriotic, just as his father was in World War I. He loves
his country, and I think at least part of this comes from his school experi-
ences. And very important for the future, youth is ready for the air
age, equipped to be part of the new generation of air pioneers.
And now what are some of the problems in the administration of the
American public-school system?
As indicated in the introduction, the school, and especially the public
school, cannot, if it would, escape the impact of the times. Since the depres-
sion, and particularly during the war years, employee groups throughout
the nation have become more influential in determining their rates of pay
and working conditions. With most of this we are sympathetic.
In our schools tenure rights have been secured by hundreds of thousands
of teachers, and in some cases teacher groups have become, more important
in fashioning state legislation than perhaps either boards of education or
school administrators. Just how rapid has been the growth of teacher
unions is not known to me, but as the older professional organizations
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES I1
have grown in numbers and influence, it can be assumed that the newer
teacher unions have grown also.
From the point of view of the school superintendent, the problem is
not how to get back any authority which formerly accrued to the super-
intendent or the board of education to a greater degree than at present,
hut how to develop and maintain a broader sympathy toward teachers and
other employees and to maintain patience in the midst of some disposition
of teachers to claim privileges without commensurate acceptance of re-
sponsibility. To the everlasting credit of teachers, actual strikes by teachers
even during these difficult times have been almost nonexistent, but there
have in some cases been pressures exerted by teacher organizations without
too much regard to the general welfare of the children served or to the
best professional interests of the whole teaching staff. We need to under-
stand the teachers' just grievances, and to satisfy their reasonable demands
as far as possible. but also to persuade teachers that teaching is, or may
become, a profession and should not become anything less. Conversion of
teaching from a profession into a business of daily and hourly wages would
in the long rur be a disservice to both the children and the general public
whom we serve. On the other hand, moves to prevent teachers from organ-
izing or opposition to their having greater consideration and more influence
in the settlement of their own personal and professional problems than they
used to have is hardly desirable*
The best way to avoid the extreme methods of newly organized teacher
or employee groups is to remove the causes for just complaint so far as
it is humanly possible, and to explain again and again the conditions and
reasons which prevent us from remedying all complaints. At the same time
teachers must not forget their basic reason for existence as a profession-
the willingness, desire, and competency in serving children and their parents.
A superintendent of schools is able to see clearly the necessity for greater
expenditures for education, but he does not always see quite as clearly the
hard fact that the public in the final analysis determines how much will
be available to spend. While balanced budgets do not always mean well-
educated children, yet an unbalanced budget will ultimately destroy to a
great degree the confidence and goodwill of the taxpaying public. Becoming
critical of the ability or willingness of a tax-supported institution to manage
affairs in a reasonably businesslike manner, they become equally critical of
the other things done. I believe that no superintendent of schools should
recommend improvements which put the school district in the red finan-
cially without first exhausting every resource of leadership to prevent such
Perhaps some of you read in the July 1943 issue of Fortune a very clear-
cut article entitled "Ferment in Education." Since Fortune is not in the
business of education but rather represents business and industry, I think
you will permit me to quote just one paragraph from this article, which
I think ought to be read in full by all school administrators:
Some of the schools may have done too little because they have tried to do
too much, but, by and large, the schools have done too little because they have
82 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCIIOOL ADMINISTRATORS
had too few funds. There is no use arguing the right education for democracy
if it is impossible to secure it for the majority of our children. The schools are
constantly beset by pressure groups who want to see the tax rate lowered. They are
suffering-as they always suffer in wartime-the attacks of those who want to
see either a wartime moratorium on education or a total conversion to war courses.
Too few public leaders have insisted on the importance of maintaining the schools.
And too many educators have gratified public whims: some have appeased the
more noisy taxpayers by making unwise economy slashes; others have kept their
schools in turmoil by adding on every new course that anyone thinks up.
The remedy for too little money is leadership, aggressive and determined,
an awakened public-but not an unbalanced budget.
States will probably continue to assume an increasing proportion of the
total cost of public education. The measures devised for this frequently
work some hardship on local districts which have been fortunate enough
to have the better programs in the state, quite unnecessarily so from my
point of view. At least in the wealthier states, there is enough money to
continue good school systems and make the weaker ones stronger. I am
reminded of the farmer who employed a half-witted boy to thin corn in
the early summer. At the end of two days the farmer found it necessary
to discharge the boy abruptly because he discovered that, in his sympathy
for the thin and underprivileged stalks of corn, he was pulling up all of
the hale and hearty ones!
I believe in a wise foundation program'for all the children in a state.
I believe it is unnecessary to pull down the better school systems in order
to pull up the poorer ones.
Those superintendents who work in rural communities and in under-
privileged communities may on the whole expect greater sums of money
during the next few years. One of their chief problems will be to see that
at least some of this money purchases additional services for children and
improves the amount of supplies, textbooks, library books, and teaching
materials available, or extends the term. The local pressures are increasingly
in favor of spending all new money for the salaries of employees. Quite
justly, teachers and other employees should have some reasonable recom-
pense for the increased cost of living, but a school system was originally
established for the benefit of children, and if all the money is spent merely
to have well-paid employees and not to have at the same time well-provided
children, it shows some lack of perspective on the part of leaders. For ex-
ample, if a state had a million dollars additional to spend on schools,
three-fourths of it might well be devoted to teachers' salaries on some just
professional basis, but the remaining one-fourth I would reserve to add
services to children and to adults.
During the next decade the larger cities will probably see a rather
slow but steady decline in enrolment despite some temporary reflection of
the increased birth rate from 1938 on. Certainly when the 2,935,000 babies
born in 1943 become six years of age, we shall have in the United States
more children enrolled in the first grade than when the 2,081,000 babies
of 1933 became six years old in 1939. Yet most of this increase will show
up in the smaller towns and suburban areas, and will probably he followed
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
by a rather sharp decline in birth rates a few years later. Probably the
percentage attending parochial schools will be somewhat increased.
"Walled-in cities," that is, those which have suburban neighbors who
are determined never to become a taxpaying part of their parent city, must
of necessity face the difficult task of reducing intelligently the physical size
and scole of an enterprise equipped for a much larger number of children.
There are superintendents and boards of education who can play a good
winning game of school operation but who play a correspondingly poor
losing game. Those qualities of promotion and expansion which make a
board of education seem good during boom times when the enrolment is
rapidly increasing and the assessment rolls are expanding are not the same
qualities needed when the assessments are declining steadily and the en-
rolment is going down each year. Yet that status must be the lot of many
boards of education and superintendents during the next decade.
Superintendents in expanding rural areas, small cities, and growing com-
munities may well borrow a leaf from the experiences of those cities which
overbuilt during the boom days of the 1920's. Once I knew an increase of
fifteen children in the first grade over a period of five years to be hailed
by the citizens of a given community and their real-estate friends as suf-
ficient reason for a new and much larger building! It is better to resist
the pressures for unwarranted new buildings than to repeat the mistakes,
understandable but regrettable, made by many cities which overbuilt in
the 1920's and 1930's.
It has been said facetiously that school administrators come and go but
the curriculum goes on forever. Of necessity, some kind of curriculum must
go on forever if we are to have schools, and the kind of curriculum offered
is a primary responsibility of the superintendent. The Number One prob-
lem in this field is to make popular education functional. Of necessity, only
that which is learned and used is functional. Therefore, the basic cur-
riculum must consist of that subjectmatter and those experiences which
can be learned and used. I am referring to perhaps 90 percent of our public-
school population who will never under any stretch of the imagination
One of the clearest insights into the basic purpose of the American
public-school system is presented by the British scholar, D. W. Brogan,
in his recent book entitled The American Character. I want to quote two
passages from it:
It is true that the teachers are relatively badly paid and have an inferior
social as well as economic standing, insecure tenure and politics making their
condition worse. More money spent on men might get better results than more
money spent on buildings. But it is easier to get the materials for buildings
than the materials for teachers ....
The political function of the schools is to teach Americanism, meaning not merely
political and patriotic dogma, but the habits necessary to American life. This
justifies the most extravagant items in the curriculum. Since the ability to play
bridge is one of the marks of Americanism in a suburb, it is reasonable that there
should be bridge clubs in schools.
The main political achievermnt of the high schools and grammar schools is
84 A.MERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SciHOO ADMINISTRATORS
to bring together the young of all classes and all origins, to provide, artificially,
the common background that in an old, rural society .is provided by tradition, by
the necessary collaboration of village life.'
(I do not advocate bridge clubs in schools because I believe that nor-
mally bright boys and girls will learn all the bridge they need to know
outside of school-and a great many other things!)
Of great significance on November 7 was the amendment adopted in
California raising the mandatory state appropriation for each child in
California from sixty dollars annually to eighty dollars annually. This is
only the state's contribution and not the total investment in each child to
be educated. Recently North Carolina became the first southern state to
pay white and Negro teachers equal salaries. Missouri adopted an amend-
ment accepting responsibility of the state for children from age one to
twenty. Certainly we are on the threshold of great possibilities for public
schools, but obligations assumed by states and the additional expenditures
will be only as good as educational leadership permits them to be.
You recall Mr. White's brilliant story They llere Expendable. Our
difficulty has been that we have for too many years regarded our under-
privileged citizens as political and economic expendables. Today this is
not a fact, for more and more the hitherto submerged groups of our popula-
tion are becoming, rightly or wrongly, a dominating force.
There is almost unanimous agreement that we should have better educa-
tion. The schools' severest critics would heartily endorse this idea even
while they are pointing out our many weaknesses and defects, but they
have too simple a remedy. They want high-school graduates who are honest,
capable, efficient, of good character, and who can read and write and
figure competently. Who doesn't? But they overlook the fact that these
simple goals are the most difficult to achieve and will not be achieved by
poorly paid teachers with crowded classes nor by lip service to public
education on the part of the man on the street.
Perhaps you smiled with me when you read of the college graduate em-
ployed by the housewife to supervise certain operations on her estate. Once
when he failed to carry out an assignment properly, she chided him, saying,
"All it takes to accomplish what I asked you to do is common sense." "I am
sorry, madam," was the retort, "but I have only a technical education."
These simple virtues, which America in the so-called "good old days"
never possessed to the degree some of our nostalgic classicists believe, rep-
resent ideals never completely attainable, but they can be more nearly attained
by better educational opportunities.
And now I would like to point out some specific improvements which
our public schools may undertake in cooperation with business, industry,
labor, and agriculture. Sane leadership in undertaking these improvements
is a compelling problem of school administration.
1. The present good programs of physical education and health educa-
tion which exist in favored areas must he extended to all youth by state
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
or federal assistance. Good programs can and should be made better. We
must remember, however, that the presence of physical defects resulting
from inadequate opportunities is only more spectacular-not more im-
portant-than the functional illiteracy of hundreds of thousands of soldiers
resulting from inadequate general education programs. Money alone won't
solve all our educational problems, but it is unrealistic and almost witless
to deplore conditions without taking the first step of establishing a na-
tional fiscal foundation of public education below which no single school
district or state may go.
2. Our public schools have the immediate job of making it readily pos-
sible for a discharged soldier to return to high school and complete his
high-school education. In our larger school systems this may well mean
the organization of a separate high school for the training of discharged
soldiers in order that they may be associated with groups of their own
age, maturity, and needs. Completing their high-school education at the
earliest possible moment will be more readily possible in a special high
school for veterans, one which may serve other purposes when needs of
veterans have been met. In smaller systems afternoon and evening courses
will help materially.
The development of regional or area schools under local and state leader-
ship, and perhaps with some federal financial assistance, is a possibility of
great potential value, not only in the proper education of returning veterans,
but in the expanding concept of an adult society which needs continuous
3. According to leaders who ought to know, our American soldiers have
lacked the political maturity and serious interest in world problems which
have characterized the less well-educated soldiers of England and perhaps
Russia. Now that we must by necessity abandon isolation, there must be
provided a more serious approach to world problems either in the last
years of high school or through adult education after high school. To be
a world citizen requires a maturity and vision beyond that which we
Americans have had in the past.
4. I believe American youth in general are not intolerant or inclined
to be hostile toward racial or religious minority groups, but, if in the
postwar years we are to develop and maintain better intercultural under-
standing, there must be wise and conscious effort in this direction by all
public and parochial schools.
5. The present time is appropriate for rethinking the concept that
religious education is either impossible or impracticable in a public-school
situation. Some program must be considered by society which will to
a greater extent recognize and restore the spiritual foundation on which this
nation was built. Either the churches or the schools, or both, have the re-
sponsibility of restudying this whole problem.
6. 'The public schools must formulate programs which will include work
experience. The nation has been critical of many things done by the Na-
tional Youth Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps. Fair-
minded persons, however, admit that in the programs of these two organ-
86 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
izations certain definite values were provided for youth during a period
of unemployment. After the war, we must see that these values are not
ignored or forgotten when the days of ready employment are past.
And here I would like to urge each of you, both as a citizen and school
administrator, to study carefully and take some part in the pending ques-
tion of compulsory military training or compulsory youth service of some
other kind. Had we attempted in 1920 to plan the worst possible mess
we could think of for 1945, I do not believe we could have thought up
what we now have. To do worse some twenty years hence it is necessary
only to reject one by one every proposal which represents in America some
departure from tradition. I am for some kind of reasonable experimenta-
tion with national youth service. But whether we are for it or against it,
we should form our convictions after careful weighing of the evidence
for and against, not upon the basis of political affiliations or emotional
prejudices or sheer .weariness.
7. Industry and business must challenge their topranking research and
personnel departments to create new kinds of jobs for the common laborers
of the past generation, those who are most difficult to absorb in a tech-
nological age. There can be no "economic expendables" in the postwar
age ahead of us. In cooperation with the schools, industry and business may
make it unnecessary to restore WPA. Unless this is done, we shall cer-
tainly have the recurrence in some degree of the conditions of the 1930's.
Surely there is little wisdom in having high schools and vocational schools
train youth for jobs which exist only in theory.
8. Legislation has now been passed to provide education in our higher
institutions for veterans who want this opportunity. I endorse this, but I
also believe that provision should be made at federal or state expense for
scholarships or subsidies to bright high-school boys and girls who would
otherwise be denied the education society needs them to have. Half our
brightest boys and girls do not go to college, a specious luxury we cannot
afford in the next generation, especially with the tragic loss through war
of many of our finest young men.
No state can advance without devoting more money, study, and energy
to her system of public schools. Every state needs her ablest laymen to
devote more of their time to the cause of education. All states need better
teachers and principals and superintendents, and it takes more money to
attract and keep them. But money alone will not attract the competent
personalities we need. It will take a conscious effort on the part of busi-
ness and industry and agriculture to recognize and lend prestige to our
profession, for human beings starve everywhere, not so much for food or
even vitamins, but for want of a feeling of some importance and value in
the world in which they serve.
Recently I heard a personnel director of a large department store discuss
what employees in his store wanted. This man deals with eighteen separate
unions in his one store, and yet he sees more clearly than do most politicians
or even labor leaders what is the thing above all which each laborer wants.
His list is so good that I want to pass it on to you.
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
1. Treatment with fair and equal consideration.
2. Credit when credit is due.
3. A share in plans and results.
4. Opportunity for advice and counsel from superiors.
5. A chance to learn more about the job-opportunity for advancement.
Those of us who are superintendents of schools and are therefore person-
nel directors may very well keep this list on our desks and in our minds
if we would set the example of that spirit which I am asking business to
show toward us.
Perhaps laymen get a bit discouraged at times because apparently we
who belong to the profession of education are never completely satisfied
with status. It reminds me of the question supposed to have been addressed
upon a certain occasion to Dr. Nicholas MIurray Butler, the president of
Columbia University. "Do you suppose, Mr. President," he was asked,
"that education will ever catch up with ignorance?" "I doubt it," said
Dr. Butler, "for each day there are more things to be ignorant of." In the
language of Alice in Wonderland, we still have to run very fast even
to keep up.
These able laymen may take greater courage if they see the dual nature
of the problem. First, it takes a lot more money merely to hold the schools
where they were at the outbreak of war-for reasons quite obvious.
Second, there are now and will be demands on the schools for increased
services-veterans' education, adult education, nursery schools, community
centers, health and recreation. These services, whether entirely new or
merely expansions of present small efforts, cost money. Perhaps an increase
in quality of education offered is the greatest single need-and the most
As educators we must maintain and improve the services rendered the
public but we accept no hat-in-hand position of inferiors when we ask
the public to see that teachers shall not be squeezed between rising costs
and lagging salaries until they are forced to choose between subsistence
and leaving the schoolroom. The American public is, I think, fairly just in
these matters, once it takes the time and effort to become informed and
In broad summation, I believe that we have in America today the natural
and human resources and the skills of science and industry with which
to create a veritable material paradise on earth had we but the wit to im-
prove our human beings and the will to forget some of our vested interests
and inherent selfishness. Greed, which is only one particular.form of selfish-
ness, has always been the stumbling block between man and his ideals. In
the present instance, however, it seems to me that even enlightened selfish-
ness shows that if we are to retain some of the freedoms of what is known
as "the American Way," we must see to it in some way or other that
the potential blessings of a scientific age are diffused generously among our
peoples and shared generally with the other nations of the world.
Challenging our ability to do this is the idea of communism on the one
hand and fascism on the other, both alike representing man's surrender
88 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
in the face of the difficulties of real democracy. Neither Russian Com-
munists nor German Nazis will ever overturn our economic or political
democratic world. We alone can do that. We can do it merely by refusing
to face the tough problems having to do with labor and agriculture and
government. After the war we shall again be able to make more things
than people can buy and raise more food than people can pay for, and we
shall be able to do it without the labor of teen-age youth or sixty- and
seventy-year-old adults. What then shall we do with teen-age youth and
sixty-year-old adults? How can they make their best contribution to a
world which is theirs as well as that of the productive workers between
twenty and sixty? How shall we use productively hundreds of thousands
of additional workers in the personal services occupations and professions?
Certainly it seems inconceivable that we can continue to employ all workers
at our traditional occupations of agriculture, manufacturing, and mining.
This offers us a tremendous opportunity to expand services for each other,
to develop our outdoor lives, our leisure-time reading and study, our
enjoyment of art and music and their general diffusion and development.
If it is at once the most difficult and in some respects the most terrifying
age in the world's history, an age when some think all the finer values of
human living may be destroyed, it is also the most challenging age in the
history of the world. Certainly I would like to live long enough to see how
it turns out. Certainly I hope you get the main thesis of my argument,
namely, that in the midst of these difficult and challenging problems, more
baffling than any perhaps in the history of the world, we must provide more
and better education for all persons, both young and old. I am not saying
that education by itself can solve any of these problems, but I am asserting
without fear of contradiction that none of these problems can be solved
without education. That education must be the best we can afford and the
best we can produce.
In 1920 in Pittsburgh there died a man who started out as a humble
mechanic but who became internationally known as an astronomer and as
a builder of lenses and telescopes. In the face of many difficulties he and
his wife devoted a lifetime to studying the stars and awakening an interest
in astronomy among a host of people both young and old. Both were great
humanitarians. His name was John Brashear, familiarly known to thousands
of Pittsburghers and Pennsylvanians as Uncle John. It should not sur-
prise you then that there appears in the Allegheny Astronomical Observatory
a tablet to Uncle John Brashear and his beloved wife. Inscribed on this
tablet at his request is one of the beautiful epitaphs of the world.
WVe have loved the stars too fondly
To be fearful of the night.
May we also love the stars so fondly that we shall never be fearful of
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION
IN THE UNITED STATES
CHARLES H. LAKE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLEVELAND, OHIO
In the years that I have been engaged in the work of public education
I have observed a number of conflicts of varying degrees of intensity over
questions of finance, methods, content, and organization. Most of these
conflicts have been adjusted in a friendly manner as the years have passed
to the definite advantage of our work in education. Some of us still remem-
ber the arguments that we have had over such questions as the "problem
method," "child study," "the junior high school," "progressive education,"
and "pupil classification." Recently there has been some considerable dis-
cussion, which at times has reached the conflict stage, about the relative
values of the "liberal arts" and "occupational studies." It seems to me
that it is waste of time to argue that in our civilization the arts and
sciences can be other than correlative. They supplement and strengthen
each other. There can be no actual conflict between humanism and mate-
rialism in our system of education. Both are interwoven in our pattern
of living so intimately that we cannot do without either.
Recently I have attended a few meetings of educators where there
seemed to be developing a belief on the part of some that there should
be a more definite segregation of vocational education at the secondary-
school level and a belief on the part of others that already there was too
much such segregation and emphasis. Again, in this secondary-school area
of education I say that any such conflict seems to me to be without justifi-
cation. We all are concerned with the development of our young people
to "live a good life and also to make a good living." If for administrative
purposes it seems advisable to develop specific curriculums to a greater
extent in one school than in another, well and good, but there can be no
place in our educational plan which develops one area of education to the
exclusion or sublimation of the other. We always shall be concerned with
the problem of training and teaching men to live together cooperatively
and to do their part as producers in terms of goods or services.
It is the purpose of education in a democracy at all times to help its
people to adjust as satisfactorily as possible to conditions which are im-
posed upon them, to fit them to know what improvements should be made
in these conditions, and to give them the working tools and the driving
power to effect these improvements.
A question that often is raised is: "Why with the best educational sys-
tem in the world have we failed to eliminate many of the social and economic
evils which have been with us for so many years?" It is quite evident that
training the mind is not enough. In some way or other, such a mind must
be got into action. A trained mind is not a cultured mind until it acts
to produce some positive results. Spiritual values do not exist until they
result in direction of thought and action.
Education as an essential factor in a democracy cannot be a hurried
process, nor can it reach its peak of achievement on a compulsory basis.
90 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOi. ADMINISTRATORS
Democracy is something that must be earned continuously throughout our
lives and the right to a continuing education as a factor in democratic
living also must be earned by those who would be of most value to society.
Our education and our civilization probably have been measured too
much by utilitarian objectives. No one will question the value of technical
and occupational studies but with such studies it is of first importance
that we acquire a critical sense of values which results in an awakened
intelligence and an idealism that becomes the driving and directing power
for our work with each other.
Education in a democracy which includes a wide range of communities
with varying social, industrial, and political backgrounds will be very much
influenced by local points of view. It may represent in these communities
in varying degrees our emotions, prejudices, and intelligence. Pretty
generally, in our past history it has reflected the best in our American
traditions, but not always. Democracy as a form of government is peculiar
in that you may have it only so long as you appreciate its meanings and
are worthy of it.
As a people we exhibit a marvelous alertness of mind in matters that
are of immediate interest to us and a rather complacent, smug indifference
to other matters. We have a remarkable ingenuity in making things and
a remarkable ability to do difficult jobs. At times we are not very thorough
-we skim, we scan, we listen in, and as a result our information on many
subjects is likely to be meager. We would rather think on our feet than
make careful preparation for our work. We like to do things on a big scale
-commercially and socially. We are attracted by big enterprises-big
businesses, big conventions, big parades, big buildings, even big bank failures.
We have some difficulty in holding our attention to the everyday humdrum
work in our field and must be stimulated at times by the "so and so" plan.
We have a great deal of difficulty in appreciating the good things that are
done by the wrong person or group of persons. However, no matter what
you may think of the American temperament, it is ours and we must live
with it, understand it, and build on its strength if we are to be effective
in our work in education.
During the past few months we have had much discussion of new con-
cepts of time, space, and distance. In general, these are physical concepts.
Time, in terms of distance to be covered in communication and travel, has
been effectively shortened. World space has been almost annihilated by
the development of aeronautics and radio communication. The social dis-
tances, however, between peoples and nations are still formidable. Peoples
separated by a few hours of flying time still often are separated by centuries
of social backgrounds which complicate the problem of a world cooperative
social organization to a very great degree.
The reconstruction of the world will be a slow process and can be accom-
plished only through leaders of the people in those countries where the
reconstruction is to become a reality. Economically we are a very powerful
country and probably we can give material aid to many other peoples.
Some of these peoples will not want such aid and will prefer to develop
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
their own national systems of economy. We have developed the begin-
nings of a very satisfactory way of life-"the American Way." It is the
expression of our own historical backgrounds and experiences molded by
a heterogeneous people under conditions which are decidedly American
There exists today, and will continue to exist for many years, a wide
diversity of social structures, national governmental preferences, and in-
herited forces which have their roots in great historical experiences and
backgrounds of peoples. We are willing to cooperate, but cooperation on
this grand scale means compromise. We have our own interests to protect
as do other nations. The individual self-interests of these nations constitute
definite limitations to our self-interests and the use of our power. In educa-
tion, probably our best contribution will be through furnishing an example
of a plan that works and provides the opportunity for the expressions of
a free people in ways which satisfy the innate desires and needs of human
beings. On such fundamental human desires and needs our educational
system must continue to be built.
It has been the history of all wars that while a war may cure or amel-
iorate one ill, it also produces other ills which require serious attention and
years of adjustment. This war will be no exception. There will be serious
local questions in many countries to be answered-questions of empire
limitations, inherited race antagonisms, the economic and social adjustment
of the Americas, questions relating to the Near and Far East, and so on.
We of course cannot solve all of these problems through our educational
practices and procedures, but we can help in the solutions of these problems
of our expanding environment through teaching which will enable our
people to understand what the questions are that must be answered.
There are in our communities many postwar committees. The members
of these committees all are anxious to do something constructive. We, of
course, should capitalize on these desires. There is only one place, however,
from which to start to do something for the postwar period and that is
from where -we are. There may be a danger in having too many and too
comprehensive goals for this period. We can have our heads in the clouds
and still keep our feet on the ground, but it is a difficult position to maintain.
This war will not change human nature. The familiar forms of human
selfishness will still be with us when the war is ended. Prejudices will
reassert themselves and our program must be to keep our direction toward
a better world but one which is not a dream world..In education we shall
work to develop better men and a better understanding among men. Our
conduct of world affairs will never be much better than the men and women
who are represented in its population. Our efforts to end the recurring
orgies of mass murder called war cannot be successful except through the
development of a widespread respect for human life, the elimination of
hate as a stimulus to brutality, and the sublimation of selfishness and greed
in the interests of the common welfare. I have mentioned the fact that
there is now much planning for peace. The assumption sometimes is that
once we have a plan, the rest of the program will be easy. This, I fear,
92 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
is far from the truth. The rest of the program will be very difficult.
Where do we begin ? Right at home. We cannot all participate in the recon-
struction of this battered world but we all may participate in the improve-
ment of government at home, in the betterment of our communities, in the
development of a healthy sense of right and wrong, and in the promotion
of a wholesome respect for the simple virtues which make everyday life
for us worth living.
We all are agreed that there must be much planning for the postwar
world. If we are to erect a building, we must have plans. In such a case
the plans are made by a person trained for the work. The builders must
be able to read the plans and bring them into reality. The illustration
applies, to some extent, to postwar world building. It is a purpose of
education to teach people to "read the plans" and develop these people
into postwar builders. It is a program which must continue for generations
Education must have had much to do with the very rapid development
of this nation to the position of prominence and power which it occupies
today. The growth of the United States of America is the "wonder" of
modern history. The ideals which we have kept before us must have been
worthy ones or they would not have survived the tests to which they have
been subjected. With this growth to power as a nation have come ever
increasing responsibilities to ourselves and to the other nations of the world.
Political isolation is no longer a possibility for any country of world impor-
tance, nor is political control of one country over the others a possibility.
Anyone who contemplates the present situation with regard to education
will be impressed with the extraordinary opportunities for education that
are available to the youth of the United States as compared with the oppor-
tunities available to the youth of other countries.
At the beginning of this school year some 25,000,000 young people re-
turned to their classrooms in schools located in all parts of our country.
The thought never occurred to them that they could not nor would not
return. We have been able to keep such thoughts away from them. They
are going to school now under conditions which are far better than those
in any other large country. Young people all over the world are growing
up under conditions which offer little opportunity for the kind of training
and educational development which must be considered absolutely essen-
tial for the future prosperity and happiness of the peoples of the world.
Education has been comparatively easy to get in this country. Is there
some way that we can bring our youth to have a keener appreciation of
the unusual advantages that are offered to them in the United States through
the free pursuit of learning? I think that we have made some real progress in
that direction since the beginning of the war. More and more of our young
people are returning to their classrooms and we are getting reports that
there is a seriousness of purpose now prevailing which is most encouraging.
Our schools should operate to prepare young people to live with con-
fidence and happiness in a representative democracy and to accept all the
responsibilities which must be associated with its freedoms. There is no
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 93
threat, external or internal, to our national integrity which may not be
averted by the intelligent use of our resources in men and women and
materials. We have become, through our democratic plan of education and
government, a peace-loving people. I believe that the peoples of the world
will become peace-loving through the extension of a program of education
which encourages thought and deals with the truths concerning man and
Men do not think effectively without practice in thinking; they do not
act with maximum effectiveness without experience. Our schools should
give as much of this practice and experience as it is possible for them to
give in the years that our pupils are in school. Democracy, as a form of
government, is not on trial, but the citizens of any democracy who are
responsible for its operation must be continuously diligent in planning and
working for the ideals which characterize democracy, if it is to succeed.
In our generation we have had much experience with war. We have
learned that, as our scientific world has developed, each succeeding war
has been more horrible than the last and has affected the lives of more
and more people. This war is seriously affecting the economic and social
structure of nearly all the nations in the world. The accumulated wealth
of the ages is being diverted to wage this war. The human resources of
many of the nations of the world are being sadly depleted as the war con-
tinues. The spiritual resources of people, however, can never be wholly
destroyed. It has been true that through the ages the great historical expe-
riences of peoples never wholly lose their power with these peoples. The
Revolutionary War and the Civil War, for the people of the United States.
were such experiences, and thought among us is still influenced by those
experiences. The present war is also a great historical experience, not only
for us but for other millions of people on the earth. The one result that
we all are hoping for now is a peace that may extend for all time to come.
Such a peace cannot be developed through wishing for it. It will take years
of thought and work to arrive at a peace that can be maintained throughout
the world. Education in our generation and in each generation following
-it will be concerned with teaching the principles and practices of peace.
But the teaching for peace will have to follow a more definite program
and be more realistic than such teaching in the past.
There, of course, is going to be at the close of this war another unusual
opportunity for statesmanship, an opportunity to put into operation plans
upon which a stable and permanent civilization can be built. But our
political statesmen must have the support and encouragement of a people
who realize the scope and importance of the problems confronting them,
and education has a responsibility for developing such people. Ve pay for
the opportunity to have peace with blood, tears, money, and comfort, but
the peoples of the earth never yet have been impressed with the necessity
of paying the price of peace in terms of intelligent planning, work, coopera-
tion, and sacrifices in time. money, and immediate personal interests.
There, also, is going to be an opportunity for statesmanship in education.
Education throughout the world is suffering from this war and the United
94 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
States is no exception in this respect. There are many fewer pupils in school
than there were three and four years ago. Some of these pupils have enlisted
and are in the armed forces; others are working in war industries. Many
excellent teachers have been drawn away from the classrooms. Many young
pupils are not receiving the care in their homes that they should be receiving
because their parents are working many hours. There can be no more worthy
aspiration for the teachers of this generation than to work to strengthen
our program of education for constructive service in the postwar period.
The shape of things to come is more definite with each passing week and
day. The main problem before us, as a people, is to discover how to recon-
struct our own life and to take our proper place in a world of people who
also are reconstructing their lives. It seems almost too big a problem to
tackle, but our part in it isn't too big for us. Education is well organized
in the United States, and we shall not be found lacking in resources to
meet this new challenge.
The schools of the United States are somewhat unique in the history
of the world in that they have developed from the people up and not from
a central government down. Our Constitution encourages education but
does not set up a controlled plan for education in the several states. Plan-
ning for education is in itself a part of our system of education and one
of its great sources of strength. People grow through experience and prac-
tice, and our experience will be of great value in whatever reconstruction
is desirable in our own system as well as in the reconstruction of education
in other countries. However, we must not take the position that we have
been appointed to tell the other countries of the world just what their
plan of education is to be. Human beings cannot be developed in that way.
Our best work will be done through improving our own program of
education and will include:
1. The elimination of all illiteracy in our country.
2. Better teaching of the fundamental processes which are essential to further
education and to any satisfactory human associations.
3. A better understanding of the world in which we live through the study
of world literature, the languages, the arts, the natural sciences, and the social
4. The promotion of better mental and physical health through training and prac-
tice based upon accurate knowledge of man's physical and mental characteristics.
5. The development of an intelligent idealism which will give direction and
strength to the purposes of education.
6. Education and training for doing the work of the world, with emphasis on
training for governmental and civic services.
7. Education and training for the intelligent utilization and conservation of
our natural and human resources.
8. The development of character as an attribute of all the activities in which
9. The cultivation of a respect for human life and the development of an appre-
ciation of human values.
Improvements in education for the postwar world involve all departments
of our organization.,We may better our understanding of our world through
the study of almost any subject in the curriculum. Mathematics, the sciences,
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES 95
and the arts, including industrial arts, are in a sense universal languages.
The study of them, along with the study of literature, languages, history,
and geography, is certain to give us a better understanding of our neighbors
in other countries and a better understanding of ourselves.
To sum it all up: Postwar improvements in education will come as the
result of a restudy of our objectives to determine which have vitality and
validity, revitalized and better materials, and better methods. What changes
are coming as a result of the war? No one, of course, knows all the answers,
but no group is better prepared to get the answers than the teachers of
the United States working in cooperation with community agencies and
persons interested in our future. A few of the questions that must be
considered in education are:
1. What social and economic changes shall we experience in our com-
munities during the next five years?
This question calls for a study of population trends, economic developments,
reconversion problems with their attendant social readjustments, demobilization
problems, community resources, employment readjustments and resources, housing
conditions, and even taxes.
2. How well is our present educational program suited to the commu-
nities we shall have in the next five years?
In answering this question, we would list our present educational resources
and then those activities and facilities that should be added to complete our
3. Wherein lie the wastes in education?
This question involves the whole study of materials, methods, and the varying
abilities of pupils. What do you teach and to whom? How do you teach it? And
where do you reach the point of such rapidly diminishing returns in the educa-
tional process, with pupils of certain abilities in certain fields of study, that
further effort is inadvisable?
4. How do we organize to do the job in the best way, in the shortest
time, and to the satisfaction of those most vitally concerned?
I have every assurance that we can solve our problems satisfactorily through
committees of teachers, supervisors, and administrators working on specific ques-
tions relating to finance, teacher personnel, nursery-school education, adult educa-
tion, pupil personnel, the extension of secondary education, the school plant, gov-
ernmental relationships, and the organization of education.
We have a great opportunity to have a major part in the reconstruction and
redirection of our world through doing better the work we have accepted as ours
96 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
THE TEACHING STAFF
JOHN i.. BRACKEN, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLAYTON, MISSOURI
Viewed from any angle, the present teacher shortage is disturbing. Esti-
mates indicate that some 200,000 teachers have left their positions since
Pearl Harbor. Despite the return of many former teachers to the classroom,
undermanned departments, understaffed schools, and schools closed for the
duration have become commonplace. The prospects for recruitment in the
years which lie immediately ahead are not bright. Providing a competent
teaching staff gives promise of continuing to be one of administration's
Every school gladly has yielded members of the staff who have been
called to arms or who chose to associate themselves intimately with work
connected directly with the prosecution of the war. It has been galling,
however, to witness the defection of teachers lured away from the class-
room by the insistent call of higher salaries and other attractions in work
of less social value than that of the schools. In many instances no phe-
nomenal salary was necessary. With approximately 200,000 teachers serv-
ing at salaries less than $1200 a year, the schools offer to business and
industry a substantial group of underpaid employees for exploitation. With
brief training on the job they often are able to undertake employment at
salaries considerably in excess of the income to which their extended train-
ing and their experience in the schools entitle them.
The loss of teachers varies with regions and with types of schools. The
centripetal forces of war generally have brought the greatest personnel
handicaps to marginal situations. This pattern often is followed: A teacher
leaves the Forks to succeed the teacher who has moved on from the Junction
to replace the instructor who was called in to fill the wartime vacancy in
Metropolis. One-room schools have been closed by the hundred. A boon
to education in the long view, this situation has brought hardships to the
present generation of school children, particularly in isolated areas and in
others where transportation presents problems insuperable in wartime.
Even the schools which are best situated with respect to personnel are
changed greatly as compared with conditions five years ago. Standards
for employment of teachers have declined. The high-school teacher-training
course and the refresher course have been relied upon to bring teaching
staffs up to full wartime strength.
This year an estimated 85,000 teachers have floated into classrooms on
the magic carpet of emergency certificates. Among this number 'ire ni ui
teachers who have proved remarkably successful in adapting themrrlr'.-
to changed conditions and to modern requirements. The number of possible
appointees has been so limited, however, that administrators have found
it impossible always to relate effectively an individual teacher's qualities
to the requirements of a specific, situation. This has been true especially
in cases where superintendents have found it necessary to appoint in a
single month many more teachers than formerly were required in an
ADDRESSES PREPARED FOR THE CANCELED CONFERENCES
The difficulty has been accentuated because vacancies which formerly
were expected to occur at the close of a school year now typically develop
within the year, when replacement teachers are under contract elsewhere
and are not available for appointment. Servicemen's brides who, with every
good intention, have remained in their teaching positions in some instances
have canceled out the advantage of their services by the celerity with which
they have abandoned their positions when it became possible for them to
rejoin their husbands.
The rapidity of teacher turnover has broken the continuity of instruction
and has complicated administrative problems. In one instance, which prob-
ably can be duplicated many times over, a small school came to the end
of the 1943-44 school year with a third set of teachers. At least two teachers
had left each teaching position within the academic year, and it may be
noted that it was the third superintendent who presided over the June
graduation! In an extreme case a superintendent reports that one day
recently he enjoyed the services of a temporary substitute for a permanent
substitute who replaced the replacement for an emergency teacher who
succeeded the successor of an instructor who had taken over the work of
an experienced staff member who now is serving in the European theater.
Even if replacement teachers are equal in ability to their predecessors, they
often must be employed in such numbers that the character and the direction
of school systems are changed.
MAiddle-age is described as the period in which a man says, "O well.
in a few days I'll feel as well as ever." Some superintendents and hoards
of education are inclined to believe that, with the war finally behind us,
the personnel situation will revert essentially to prewar status.
Just now there is little evidence to support such optimism. Sources of
supply include prospective teachers now in training and former teachers
who may return to the profession. Teachers colleges report hardly more
than 50 percent of prewar enrolments. In a number of schools the enrol-
ments include students not enrolled primarily in education. The gravity
of the situation is pointed up by the imbalance in one state teachers col-
lege which recently was reported to have fifty-three faculty members and
fifty-two civilian students. The spotlight definitely is not on teaching; the
rising generation has other objectives in mind.
The number of former teachers who may return to the profession can
only be estimated. Those in industry have not been consulted on a wide scale.
On the other hand, studies dealing with former teachers who now are in
the armed forces have shown as many as 90 percent who do not wish to
return to teaching unless they are compelled. If the present situation is
to be corrected, the correction will come from forces which as vet are not
Yet the effect of these forces is known to every administrator. That
effect is to make teaching an attractive, desirable lifework-so desirable
that it is chosen and developed despite surrounding competition. Basic to
this desirability is the opportunity for teachers to order their lives in pro-
fessional security and with freedom to develop professionally as part of their
98 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
normal living. Competent, well-adjusted, growing teachers are the best
recruitment attractions. Teachers who live thin, bleak, frustrated lives
which are dominated by school authorities and their communities inspire
no enthusiasm among possible recruits. If teachers are to lead happy, attrac-
tive lives they should participate in democratic school organization which
is implemented with effective personnel procedures.
An important result of the present teacher shortage is a definite increase
in teachers' salaries. In its initial stages this increase usually took the
form of a wartime cost-of-living bonus: admittedly, the increased salary
was paid on a temporary basis. Now there is a noticeable trend toward
drawing part or all of the wartime salary increases into the basic salary
schedule. This procedure has ample justification. If the present price
levels continue, or are raised, it will he necessary for the wartime salary
additions to remain in effect. If the economic tailspin predicted by the
prophets of doom materializes in postwar years, then additions to the basic
schedule may be expected to persist longer than cost-of-living bonuses.
If the additional salary remains in effect for some years after a possible
reduction in price levels begins, the teachers' increased payments will com-
pensate only partially for the salary lag during the period of mounting prices.
These salary increases have had a salutary effect upon members of hoards
of education and upon communities. Teachers were discovered not to he
a race apart, capable only in instructional situations; rather, they proved
to he persons whose services are desirable and valuable in other fields.
For once, teaching and other types of work came squarely into competition.
Members of boards of education accustomed to approving perfunctory
salary increases have taken pencil and paper, applied industry's method of
computation, and discovered the insignificance of customary increases in
teachers' salaries. In many cases the lip service which long has been given
to "better pay for better teachers" has been transformed into practice.
Communities have seen their schools in peril. Many citizens realize that
fair rates of payment are determined not only by the requirements of
teaching but also by the possibilities of other types of work. In some
instances it has been recognized that modern education deserves a greater
share of the wealth of a community than it formerly was assigned.
This situation is not universal. Some boards of education have been
quoted to the effect that there is no reason to increase payments to teachers.
These boards hold that the schools will survive the war in some fashion
and that eventually economic depression will force great numbers of persons
to resort to teaching as a livelihood. Unfortunately, this may prove to be
the case, but if American education is to be under the direction of teachers
scourged to the classroom by economic necessity, if the classroom is their
last, disconsolate haven, then buoyant, vigorous teaching will be rare in
Insecurity always is a threat to teaching effectiveness. Even at points
where hospitalization insurance and prepayment forms of medical practice
are in effect, illness and want are specters along the path of the teacher
wiho makes her own war; their portent is more evil when dependents ;Iar