LUn~ier~it~y of Florida
THE COMPLETE WORKS OF
RESURRECTION VOLUME .
WHAT IS ART? 2 THE
CHRISTIAN TEACHING -
B' COUNT LEV N. TOLSTOY
Translaied from Ihe Orwiiinal Eu,.an and Ediled bL
LEO \\ IENER
Ai-,ltjr.I Pl'.'le .illa -.1 _i.., Ljancuj~,c a31 1-.i. 1.ad n.1 ll
BOSTON 2 DANA ESTES &
COMPANY 2 PUBLISHERS
EDITION DE LUXE
Limitd t... Onri ThoIusand Copies,
ot .' which thi, i>
C.: i-'v. 1,3,o.
n D ,'.., E Si C :r.].,r.,v
Colr.Il Inr,:: Flecrro p.:d :ind Prinred b,'
C. H Sn,.mod .c Cu., Bu.ton, MN.is U. S. A
PART TOE TUIRD .
WHAT Is ART? 5
THE CHRISTIAN TEACHING
P.ArT THE FI|?HT. THE ANCIENT RELIGIONS AND THE
NEW CONCEPT OF LIFE 35
P.ART Tn. SECOND Or sis 377
PART TIL TnIRD. OF (t FFE.Ct. . .
PART THE FOUtiTii. TILE DECEPTIONs OF F.ArITu AND
THE LIBERATION FROM IT 407
PA.T TInE FIFTu. LIBERATION FROM THE OFFENCES 4'-2'-
PART THE SIXTrI. THE ST:.IUG-,LE 'IT H S SINS -1.31
PART Tirf SEVENTu. OFr PRAYER . 451
PART Til: EIGHTH. CONCLU.'SION . 457
ELF I ;,3
1,FTTFn T. TrF. CriIEF OF Till. IRKi.lI''1 DISCIPLINARY
BATTA LION . 475
How TO READ THE Gt'o-PEL, AND W hA T IS ITS ES-
ENCE ? 4 1
TuI Arr oA.c OF rI : END 459
FAMINE ou No F.AMINE? 50.;
ON THE RELATION OF THE STATE
LETTER T- ECLGEN HEINRICD CBMITT . . 5
LF ITE L To TIIF LIB R L . .
LETTER TO THE ELDITO':R O"F THE DAILY CHRONICLE 5. 4
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
THE VIRGIN (p. .:0) .
A If LT L.F CONVICT- ON THE MARCH TO
Mhtosc.o Or'r:.\ noiE . .
SFE.3Fr.CD F-3FITINGN TlIE DRAGON .
AI'Am .:,, .
** POLLICE LR O .
PART THE THIRD
THE party to hibi::h MAIdcva belonged travelled about
five thousands versts. As far as 'erm, Maslova travelled
by rail and water with the criminals; but here Nekh-
lytdov succeeded La getting her transferred among the
political, -is Vyra h.gJdkh,'vski, who was of the party,
had ad vi-.ed] him t,. I ...
The journey to Permn w-as very bard for Maslova, both
physically and morally. Physically, on account of the
close |quarters, the uncleanliness, and the disgusting ver-
ruin, which didl not give her any rest ; and morally, on
an::oiunt o:.f the not l--' disgu.'t.ugrng men who, just like the
vermin, though they c::liuged at every stopping-place,
were always eq'uaUy persistent and annoying, and gave
her rn rest. Ietvween the prisonerrs, the warders, and the
guLards the ha-,it of a cynil -i deb.-auch was so firmly
establihehe that, ,evry v woman, especially if she was
young, bad to be eternally ni the hilookout, if she did not
wish to: mauke use of her position as. a woman. This
continuouS condition of fear arnd struggle was very hard
ti: bear. Maialov: was moi:re esp:cially subject to these
attacks onu account of the attractiveness of her looks and
IR EU R Rf SECTION
her well-kn,.jwn past. The p...itive .ipp..sition to the me n
V.Lho .aunoyed her wnth their attention prc.seutio. itself to
them .s peri ,nal atfiout, an..l pl.:ovoked.1, in addition, their
nmai i-e tov.ard her. Her p.:itiion in this respect was alle-
viat:l by bh:r narner--s tl.i FeRdi:;ya andi Tir:-s, who, havir .
head :oft the a tack- to which his w ife: wa s l..iji.:-ti., hba.l
him:eh' arrested., in older t: pI-[ite:t her, and tiavetll'J
fro': Ni.:hn i-N:'r.,:.,l as a prirs'.Ier with the :crnvi.-.th
The tranft', r t:, tb.: li".iioun ot the po:ilitii:al imiprovied
Mai :I t.;' ,:inhtrln in every respe,:t. Not ,n'Aly weie the
political; better hou'ed and f.,l, anl ul.ij,:i-t to I l-ss bru-
tahty, l.,ut al:, by M lv.i' tr-in-sfer to: the polhttial-s her
cOinditiO.:in vas further imipr:i\, d biecaieii all the [lerse,:u-
tionls ,.if the umen at iionce l*topped, a n.l shAe wa\ aslic to live
without biin.ir, ret inili:l i:very mi:,umnt if he:r past, which
she vwa trying t:, ft'orgiet. The *:hief ad.lvantaei? oif Lhi:
trrsufei, however, lay in the ta,:.t that Ahe l.ecai'e .1:-
quainte:l with certaiin l.peple who hail a ma:ost decidoe.l and-
benieticent ijutluen,:e upon her.
At the haltin.-p.la.:-s, M.iova wao, permitted to be
housed with the: political, but, being a strong woman,
she han:l to trav-iil ,.ith the criminal. Thus The journeyed
all the- way from Toimuk With her went, al o on foot,
twi.i political: Mlryra Pi'vlovna Sh!:hetinin, that pretty
girl with the -heep ey,:, w\ho had c,:, impressed Nekl-h-
lyiJdov duriu_' hik inter iew with Vyera Poli:ikh:ovski,
an..l a .*:rtain Siju:n'n, wh., was being >lepr':'te.d t the
Yakditsk Territory,- that swarthy, shaggy iuan with
far retienting eyes, whom Nekhlvyti.ov had notieivl .luring
the Fame iter iviet%. Mdrva avlvua went on foot, be-
cause h,: haI giv,:n up her place on the cart to:. a preg-
u:int crtitnin.ral SimiOn-si did so because he: regar.led it
unit to male ui-e A.if his class; plivile-e. All the other
p.liti:al-; left later in the ilav d :.n carts, but these three
started e:irly it the miorrnin-i with the Ci iminrals. Thus
it was als-. at the la:t haltin'g-place, before :i large ,:ity,
where a new officer of the guard took charge of the
It was an early stormy September Wn nuing. There
was D now s.. and Low raiu, with gusts of a ,:hill wind.
All the prisoners of the party four hundred men and
about lifty worn were already in the yard of the
halting-ple', 5..,w: of them were ,':rowdiug around the
coiimmissarry of the guard, who was distril.'uting plo-
vision money among th- fuoremien for t\o days, others
%\ere purchasing vi:'tuals from the hawking women, who
had been admitted in thie courtyard of the halting-pla:.e.
There w.as heard the din of the prisoners' voies, of
coirntin' money and. buying provisions, and the squeaky
voic:es ot the huc:ksters.
Katy.isha and li .arya Prvlova both iu long l.boots
and short fur :,coats, au.1 wrappt-d in ker,:hiefs-.a*nme
out from the building of the stop[ping-place anu walked
t.:.ward th'e hucketirs, who, sitting at the north wall of
the palisade, to prote,:t themselves against the wiud, were
vying with each other in olifring their ware?: fresh
white cakes, fish, n,:aodle, grits, li'er, beef, eggs, milk;
one of them had even a roast pie.
Simons.'n, in a rubber jacket and overshoes, tied over
his woollen sto':kings Ily meansi of twine the was a vege-
tarian and did not use the skin of dead animals.i, was also
in the yard, waiting for the party to start. He was
stand.iing near the porch and noting dowu iu hin diary
a thou.'ht which had o,:curred to' him His thouglit was
like this: If a bacteria were to observe and investigate
a man's nail, it wotill come to the l:Onc lunton that it was
inorganic matter. Similarly we, who have observed the
rind of the cart., have d ared the terirestial globe to be
iutnrgani., matter This is not correct. "
Having purcha;.-d some eggs, pret-els:, fish, and tresh
wheat bread, Mrislova put all these things into her bag,
and MIAryN L Pivlovua was settling her bill with the- huck-
sters, when the prisoners suddenly catnue into motion.
Everything grew -silent, and the prisoners began to range
thenselve-,. The otticer came out and made his lait.
arrangements before the start.
Everything went as usual: the prisoners were counted;
the fetterA were examined and the pairs that waLked
together were being hauDleutfed. But suideuly weie
heard the iruperious and angry \ o:ice of the officer, blows
on a body. and the cries of a child. Everything grew
silent for a ujoujent, and then a dull ujurmut ran thru'h
the throne. afislova and MArya Pialovna moved up
to the place whence the nuise proceeded.
Upros reaching the spott, Mryva Pivlovna and Katy sha
saw this. the othfficer, a stout man with a long, blond
moustacnLe, was frowning au..l with hbN left band rubbing
the palm of his right, which he had hurt in boxing a
pri-oner's ears. He did not stop uttering coarse, indecent
curses. In front of him stood a lean, ha.'gard prisoner,
in a short cloak and still shorter trousers-, one-half of
whose head was Shaven. WVith one? hban hbe was rubbing
bhi maul-d ani blee.i-ang f.ace, while with the other he
held a little girl who was wrapped in a kerchief and
I will teach you (an ind.:-ctent curse) "to talk !"
(Again a cur.e.f "Give her to the womenl criel the
:fticer. Put them on "
The oth.:er dJemande that the communal prisoner be
handcufLfedI. He was bein' deported, andi had all the
wvy been carrying a little girl left him :,by his wife, who:
hal dlie-d at Totis3k of the typhus, as the pn.io'ners said.
The prisoner'' rt-mark that he c:oulnl not carry his girl
while handcutlefI hbad excited th. otb:.cr, who was :ut of
sorts, whereupon he dealt blows tc. a prisoner, who did
not sIubImit at once.1
In front of the b:-atnu prisoner st,:.cd a soldier of the
guard and a thick-set, black-bearded prisoner with a
handcuff on one hand, gloomily looking up, now at the
officer, and now at the beaten prisoner and the girl.
The officer repe-ated his <:,:aomand to the soldier t: take
'iThis fact is described in D. A. Lirev's work, By tape -
SESU l:I- EL'TION
away the girl. Amun. the ,prisners the mnurnurung
became evei mr.:ie audible.
"He had Uo baudcuats on him all the way from T.rim k."
was heard a hi.ar e voice ite the back ranl:s. ** It is not a
pup, but a child."
"Wlht is he t.:. do with the child? This is against
the law," aiid somebody else.
Wh.e ha -.aidl that '" th.- officer shoiutedl, as tlih:ugh
stung, ruzhini. at the pris:'ners. I will -h,,w y:ou the
law. W\:: said it You ? Yu ?'"
All say it, I e:ause-" said a leroae-lhi,:uldere[t, stock:y
He did not fiuish his szcntenc:'e. The ofi,:-r eI:an to
strike his fate v.ith both his- haud.
"You mean to riot ? I will tea>h you how Lo riot I
will sh,:,,:t youi down like d,:gs, ar.i the aith(orities will
only thank re ftoi it. Take the girl:"
The throng .r'-w .-ilent. A .,ldier tore away the des-
perately ,:ryin_ girl; a iiithr bu1--gan to manacle? the prisoner
who sul.,uissively otiered his baud.
"Take her to,. the women," the otfi:cr i.tied] to the
soldier, adjusting the Swor,.i-banger.
The little girl triel tVo free her hand-s from the kerchief
and, with flushed ftice, whiiued without mtermis.siou.
Aldrya Pdvlovua stepl.pedi out itom the crowd and walked
over to, the soldier.
Mr. Offi:et, permit me to carry the gul!"
"Who are you ? '" asked the offh:er.
"I am a political.
Apparently, MA-rva Puvlovua's pretty face, with her
beautiful .ulg,,in_ eyes ihe had nticed her before, when
receiving the prisoners' had an eli: ct upon the :otftier. li
looked in silence at her, as thou:bh :considering something.
"It make no difference tc. me. ('arry her, if you %waVt
to. It is eadsy enou:ug for you to pity him ; but who will
be respounsile, if hi runs away "
How can he run away %with the girl?" said Marya
I have no inrin to discuss with you. Take her, if you
want t ."
1i May I give: the child to her?" asked the soldier.
i Come to We," said Mhi ., PAvlovna, trying to win
the ._irl over.
L.ut the girl, who, in the :.soldier's arms, stretched her
haul-: to,:wa.id her father, continued to whine and did not
want to :, to: M:iryat I':;vlon'v .
W" ait, I drya P.i\-lona She will come to me," said
M'isl.,va. taking a pretzel out of her bag.
The girl knew M:lilova, ind.l, seeing her face and the
pretzel, readily weut to her.
Everything grew quiet. The gate was opened and the
paity walked out mn.l drew up in rows; the soldiers
counted them once Lmore ; the bags were tied up and put
.way, and the: feeble were put on the carts. MAslova,
with the girl in her arius, stood with the women, at
FeJdUya's id.le. Siu:on-<',n, who had all the time watched
the proceeding. with large determined steps went up to
the oric..er, who had made all the arrangements and was
seating hiuiself in his tar.ant.ai.
Yo': have acted badly, Mr. Officer," said Simonson.
Go back to your plke It is none of your business!"
It is my baisinies to tell you that you have done
wrong," said Siouno.'u-u, fixedly looking upwards at the
ofttier, through hbis thick eyel.r:ws.
R" ready / The party- inarch !" cried the officer, paying
no attention to Sitnwo,(',n, and helping himself into the
tar-ints by taking h':'l.' of the shoulder of the soldier
coachAinn. The party started, and, spreading out, walked
inito the muddy, rutted road, which was ditched on both
sides aud ran through a denise forest.
AFTEr. the delbauched, luxurious, and effeminate life of
the last six years in the city, and ifter the two months
in the prison with the criminals, the life with the po:,lit-
i.als, notwithstanding all the diffi,.ult condition. under
whi.,h they were living, seemeni very pleasant to Katyidsha.
Marc-hes --t from twenty to thirty versts .1 day, with good
food, and a day's rezt after evei.y two days o:, the road,
phivsically bra,:-ce her; while her daily intercourse with
her new 'ompani':,ns opened up new interests ot life to
her, such .i- sihe ha.l never known before Such flrrming
people, as she expressed herself, as those were with whom
she was now marehin.':, she had never known, and could
not even have imagiLned.
. Hvow I wept at being sentenced !" she said. But I
ought to thank G-od: I have learned things I should not
have known in a lifetime." She very easily and without
eflit understood the motives which guided these people,
and, belonging herself to the lower masses, she fully
sympathized with them. Shie comprehended thitt these
people were with the masses against the masters; and
what particularly made her esteem them and admire them
was the fact that they themselves belonged to the better
classes and yet sacrificed their privileges, their liberty,
and their lives for the people.
She was delighted with all her new companions; but
more than all she admiired MAirya Pdvlovua. She not
only admired her, but loved her with a special, respectful,
and rapturous Iove She was surprised to see this belauti-
ful girl, the daughter ot a rich general, who could speak
three laugulages, couidu..ting herself like the simplest
w.:rking wai-rinn, giving away everything which her rich
brot:thr t' -nt her, and dressing herself not only simply,
but even po.:rly, paying not the least attention to her
I..,ks. This trait-the complete absence of coquetry-
particularly imipres_-d and enchanted Mislova. Mislova
,aw thit MSlry-t Prklovna knew, and that it even was
pl,:-asant for her to:, know, that she was beautiful, and yet
that sihe did not in the least enjoy the impression which
her 1..,oks produced .-,n men, but that she was afraid of it
and experienced loathing and terror of falling in love.
Her male conipar'n-'n, knowing this, did not permit them-
elve s to s-hiw -ny preference for her, if they felt them-
selves attracted to her, and treated her as an equal; but
strangers frequently annoyed her, and from these, she
said, ;hb: was saved by her great physical strength, of
which she %.as e-pecially proud.
"- Once," she liaughlingly told Katyusha, "a certain gen-
tleman annoyed ite in the street, and would not go away.
I then g-'ve him such a shaking that he was frightened
and ran aw- y."
She b.camn,: a re:.vi,,utionist, she said, because ever
since her childhoo:'d she had taken a dislike to the life
t.he master, led and liked that of the simple people, being
always scolded for preferring the maids' rooms, the kitchen,
the table, to the drai inag-room.
f- I always felt. happy with the cooks and coachmen, but
d.lull with our geritli-ruen and ladies," she said. "Later,
when I began t. comprehend things, I saw that our life
wa.i very bad. I had, no mother, my father I did not
lv., and %when I was nineteen years old I went away
from home with a friend of mine and became a factory
After working in the factory she lived in the country;
then shie came to:, th ': ity and lived in lodgings where
there w-ts i secret priutiung office, and there she was arrested
and sentenced to hard lIbi:.ur. Mai ya Pivlovna never
told this herself, but Katylisha found out t'fr,:m other-
that she was -ente:ed t'o hard labour for claiming to
have tired a bhot, which had, in reality, been fired by a
revolutionist in the .lark.
Ever since Kat ,.isba knew her, sihe saw that wherever
she was, and under whats,:eel eiri:urnstances, lihe never
ib.:.u_.ht of herelt, but was con:cerued al.:ut -erving randl
aiding others, in laige and in inall tlungL. One ,of her
u.,mipanions ot the party, Novedvi'.r:v by name, je tingly
iemarkeld of her that -he wa- addih ted to the sp-:rt of
benei' en-ee. And that. vwas the truth. Just as the
hunter is bent on finding game, so all the interests of
her life.. cinisted in finig an occasion to do so:me one a
good turn. Thit -port beUname a habit %\ith her aud the
business of her life. She did all this ,: naturally that
those who knew her no lunger valued it, but demanded
it as a matter .:4 course.
When A:idiva joined them, MAi ya P.vliovna experi-
enced a dlisgust anl lo:iathing for her. Katydsha noticed
it; but she also caw later that Maiya Pdvlovna made an
eH.rt over her-eli anid b.gan to treat her with exceeding
kindness. The kinlness fiom .,o 'nuiual a bein-z so
touched Mlilova that she currend.ilere herself to her with
all her soul, uun:oucs-:ioucly adopting Mdrya Pivlivua'-
views, and involuLntaril imitating her iu everything.
This devotion of Katy.iiha touched Mirya Pavlvna,
and slihe, in her turn, legan to love Katvy-iha. These
two women were also drawn to each other by that loath-
iug which hoth experienced for sexual love. IOre of
them despised this love because she had experienced all
its horrors; the other, %who had not experienced it.-
because Che l i.:oke npon it a- -omething in coniprehen-
sible and at the -ame time .iisgutting and insulting to
K.\TYS.HA submitted to the influence which Mdrya
P.ivlo\na exerted' over her It was due to the fact that
M.ildva. love. M arya Pdvlovna. There was also Simon-
asn' intlulencef over her. This originated in the fact that
Si,,niDn lojve,.l Katvds-ha.
All people live id.I act tpu1tly under the influence of
their own tho'ights, u,.Id partly under the influence of the
thoughts : others. (One ,of th. chief distinctions between
l-:pl- i JetterljiieJ y Ihow much they live according to
th,?ir own ideas or ac.corling to those of others: some
pt,:,,ple, in the majority of cases, make use of their own
thoughts is a eiijut'il toy, in.1! treat their reason as a fly-
wheel from whi,.h the iri-ving-belt has been taken off,
while in their acts they submit to thoughts of others,-
to ciist:rim, tra.hitlKn, la.w ; others again, regarding their
owi idle s as the prime movers of all their activities,
nearly always li-ten to thel promptings of their own rea-
snr, aind ai .rmit to it, follk'-wing only in exceptional cases
- .iii-. that, too, after due critical consideration the
dlecisionl o>if others.
SinroniIiu w vs ,uiih a man He weighed and tested
everything by re'?s,-n, anDi whvit he decided upon he did.
Having, while ;a zdleut at the gymnasium, decided
that the property acquire'.l by his father, an ex-officer
of the cim3umissariat, ha.il een wrongfully obtained, he
informed his father that he ought to give up his wealth
to the people When his father not only paid no atten-
tion, to hiim ult eveu Scolo.le him, he left his home and
stoppeil avtiihn' hinanelf of his father's means. Having
deided: that all existing evil waj due lt: the ignorance
of thb people, he, upon leaving the univeP sity, tell in with
the- Pouplists, aceptedl a teacher's place in a village, aund
hbolldly pre'c:hed to his pupils and lo th>e petLs.t; every-
thing which he thought right, and denied everything
which he efcukidered false.
IHe was arrest. aund trie:l.
IDuring his trial, he decided that the judges had no
riglit to' judge him. and he ,u told the ju.dges. Wh'ue
they did not agree with him and conutinaed the trial. h:-P
decided not t': answer any .nUettiou.s, ard riimair:d sileut
all the time. H'e was depr.rted t':- the Goveirnmwent ,.t
Arkhlia'ugelk. There he l:'trmhalteid a rihgiou oluc:-t riue
:for himself, and this formed the basi; of hi- whole aetiv-
ity. Acor:dimg to this do"trin-, ev-.rything n the w':.rld
is alive, there is uo inert I.:ldy, but alN the objects which
we- ret.,ard .:i- dead and inorgani'i are only p,'rt. of an
,normnou ,:urgarniti bdy. lv, whII:h we- c.IanDuot compreheuhnd.
aniId therefore the problem oA min, a1 a particle of this
hiju!e 'organi),in. ::'ounit in -ustaining the Lfre ot this or-
aniusm and all its living p'rts. Thereftore h conid,:red
it a crunime to destroy animal lift': he w', oppaC.d t, w.iu,
>-apital puuishIme t, and *:ll kiud& :t mturdr, unot oulv oi
miiin. but of ai im'ils as well. He had al ,.. a thheiory of Iris
own in re-_xrd to marriage, which wa5 to the effect: that
the. increase of the hum.in race was ouly a lower function,
and that a bhi.'her fun.mcti.'n ,ioun-ited in -erving all exist-
ing, li':. He f'oiund a conriirunti',n of this 1,le in the
presen.ue ot the phago:ytes in the blood. Unnianied
people, a::c''.rding to his the,.'ry, were juLt: .uch pha_,'oeytes,
whose purpose was t., aid Lhe weak and ailing parts ot the
organism. From th,- moment he had decided this, he
b:egau to- live accordingly, though in his early youth
he liad bI :- u disciipated. IHe regarded him et.lt, a a alo
vl;rya PavIlorna, as world phag ocyte-.
His love lor Katytisha did not impair this theory.
RES U IP.ECTION
since h.- loved h,:r rplatonkally, assuming that such a
love not only did not int:.rfere with his phagocyte activ-
ity :f social help, but even spurred him on to it.
He ot :only d:cl id,:d moral questions in his own way,
but alSo a great numbI.er -A practical questions. He had
his own theories ft'r all practical affairs. He had his
rules about the number of Lours he had to work, to rest,
to -at, to dress, how to make a fire in the stove, and how
to light a lamp.
At the same tim.,:, Simons6n was exceedingly timid
with pieouple: arl nmode-t. But when he made up his
mind for something., nothing could keep him back.
It was this man who had a decisive influence on
M'sl,:'va by diht of his lov:, for her. Maslova, with her
f'ettiniiL sense, soon Lbecauje aware of it, and the con-
slou:uSnes of being able to provoke love in so unusual
a man riied li her in her own estimation. Nekhlyildov
pr>:,pose..l to Liarrvy h,.r as an act of magnanimity and on
n.c'ouLit of what ijadl hl-rpp-ened; but Simons6n loved her
for what he wa-, and.I loved her just because he did.
Beilesi, hle:- felt that Sitonsna considered her an unusual
woruman, drllering from all the rest and having certain
Spe.-cal, highly moral qualities. She did not exactly
know hj-i-t qualities he a ,.rit.ied to her, but, in order not
to deceive him, she tried to rouse in herself all the best
q(laliti -I of which sh<. could think. This caused her to
endea'.'our to bl.c,.,e as good as she was capable of being.
T1is had beg-un I.vtn in the prison, when, at the gen-
tral interview of the p[:iliti,:al, she had noticed the pecul-
iairly stitiliorn look of his innocent, kindly, dark blue
eyes underneath his overhanging forehead and eyebrows.
She ha:;d not t-.L eve.en thI:t he was a peculiar man and
that he: looked in a pecuhli:r w-iy at her; she had remarked
the strange aIud striking com.inmation in one face of sever-
itv, lrou..lu.eIl by his to'..-riug hair and frowning eye-
brows, of childlike kijnduess, and of the innocence of his
place. In To'ik ch .. wasi tra-ir:fetred to the p.-liti.als,
and s:.hw.-:v. him Lagaiu. Although nut a ,wv'rd had been
Zlid between the-i, there was in the look, which they
ext:haiuge,.d, :a :i:'kn:,wVledgtent -f their rememLuering ea,:h
other anui O.f their mutual ti[p:'rtan :, Thre tiever was
any l1o' ,'-.'n\er:ati,_,n bet\Ween then een after that, l.ut
MI:l,'a felt that whenever he r.,'ke in her pre:ei:e, hil
p-.eeh vwaO meant for her, and that he -vwas; -pedking in
-ii':h a way as t'. I,. as intelligl.ile ats possible to her.
Their :],..er triend:hip began at the time when bhe
ntiar: hed with the criminlak.
FROM Nizhni-Nr'vgorod to Perm, NekhlyIdov succeeded
only t,% ice in seeing Katytdha: once in Nizhni-N6ogrrd,
I.efore the pris:,oners were placed .n a screened barge, and
the next time in Perm, in the prison otice.. At e*:ither
meeting he found her secretive and ill-nis.p:sed. To his
question whether she was comfortal.le and whether she
did not need anything, she replied evasively, in an em-
barrassed and what t(o him seemed ho-stile, reproachfal
way which Le had noticed in her bef:fre. This gloomy
mood, which in reality pro,-eeded from the perse.cutions of
the nmen, to which she was suljeted at that time. vexed
Nekhlytidov. He was afraid that unde:.r the influence of
the heavy and demoralizLng conditir-:ns under which -he
lved during her transp':rtatiiu.. he might a-,ain fall into
her old discontentiment and despair, when she wis pro-
voked against him and s.ni'ked more heavily and drank
liquor in order to forget herself. He was quite unable to
assist her because he had no chance, during this first part.
of her journey, of eeing her. Only after she was trans-
ferred to the. political, he ant only convinced himself of
the grouudle-ssness of his fears. but, on the contrary,
at every meeting with her unticed the ever more clearly
defined internal charge, which lhe had been %so auxious to
see in her. At their tirst meeting in Tomisk, she was
again such as she had been before her departure. She
did not pout nor become elh'arrassed upon seeing him,
but, on the contrary, met him joyfully and simply, and
thanked him for what he had done. for her, especially for
having brought her in contact with the people with whom
she now waI.
After two months with the marching party, the ihauge
which had taken place in her was also manifested in her
looks. She grew thinner and sunburnt, and looked aged;
on her temples and around her mouth wrinkles appeared
she did not let her hair haug over her brow, but covered
it with her kerchief, and neither in her dress, nor in the
manner of arranging her hair, nor in her address were
there left. the previous ; iguns of coquetry. This change
which had taken place and was still in progress con-
stautly roused an exceedingly plea-suable sensation in
He now experienced a feeling toward her that he had
never experienced before. It. had nothing in common
with his first poetical rapture, and still less with that,
sensual love which he had experienced later, nor even
with that consciousness of a duty performed, united with
egotism, which had led him after the trial to decide to
marry her. This feeling was the simplest sensation of
pity and contrition, which had come over him for the
first time during his- interview with her in the prison, and
later, with renewed strength, after the hospital, when he,
curbing his disgu-st, forgave her for the supposed incident.
with the assistant, which was later Lleared up ; it wns the
same feeling, but with the ditierence that then it had
been temporary, while n':w it Lbecame constant. What-
ever he now thought or did, his general mood now was
a feeling of pity and humility, not only in re-pect to her,
but to all people.
This fueling seemed to have revealed in Nekhly'ldov's
soul a stream of love, which formerly had had no issue,
but now was directed toward all men with whom he
came in contact.
Nekbhlvddov was during his whole journey conscious
of that agitated condition when he involuntarily became
affable and attentive to all people, from the driver and
soldier of the guard up to the chief of the prison and the
governor, with whom he had any business.
During this time, Nel.hlydlov, by Mislova's transfer to
the political, had occasion to become acquainted with
many political, at first in Ekaterinbuirg, where they en-
joyed great liberty, beiug all kept together in a large hall,
and later on the road, with the five men and four 'omeu,
to whom Maislova was added. This acquaintance of
Ne:khlyddov with the deported political entirely changed
hi; view of them.
From the very beginning of. the revolutionary move-
ment in Russia, but especially after March 1st, Nekh-
lyudov was animated by a hostile and contemptuous
feeling for the revolutionists. He had been repelled
above everything else by the cruelty and secrecy of the
means used by them in their struggle with the govern-
ment, more especially by the cruelty of the murders
committed by them; then again, their common feature of
self-cunceit was disgusting to him. But, upon seeing
them, at close range and discovering that they frequently
suffered innocently from the government, he perceived
that they could not be anything else than what they
No matter how dreadfully senseless the torments were
to which the so-called criminals were subjected, a certain
semblance of lawful procedure was observed toward them,
even after their judicial sentence; but in respect to the
political there was not even that seml.blarce, as Nekh-
lyudov bad noticed it in the case of Miss Shdstov, and,
later, in the case of very many of his new acquaint alces.
These people: were treated as tish arre when caught with a
seine: the v.-hole catch is thrown out onu the shore; then
all the large fish that can be used are picked out, and the
small fry are left to die and dry up on the land. Just
so, hundreds of men who, apparently, were not only inno-
cent, but who could in uno way be dangerous to the gov-
eruniment, were arrested aiLd frequently held for year, in
prisons, where they became infected with consumption,
or grew insane, or o:Immitteld suicide. They .:ere kr-pt
in these prisons) only because there was no special reason
t.fr releasing them, where:.n-, by keeplug them in jail, they
might be of use in order to clear up certain questi.-_t s at
the inques-t. The fate of all theve cpe,:ple, who frequently
weie innocent even from the government's stand:lpont,de-
penided on the atbitrariuness. leisure, andl mood of the other
of gendarmery or police, of the -Ipy, prosecutor, examining
miag.istr.ate. goveruo, minister. If such au o'tncial got
tired and wanted to dihtiunguih himi-elf,. he iadle arrests
and held the people in pri.6,u n.,r relev.seld them, according
to the moo:d he ot the authorities happened t:, Ie in.
The higher oh..er again, according to whether he must
lditinguish himself, '.,r in what relations he wv. with the
minister, sent them to the end of the world, or kept them
in s'.lit.ary uoufiuement, or seuteuced them to dep'..rtati.'Un,
hari.l labour, or calpit:l punitish-,ent, or releasedI them,
if a li y a ked himt t,., ,Io so.
They were treated -.is men are in war, and they, natu-
rally, empl'.,ye'.l the same me.ms wLic:h were used against
them. Anud just as the military always bhe in an at-
mosphere .-,f public opimonu which not only conceals the.
criminality -..f the dleedsI committedd by them, but even
represents them as heroi., -- s, there existed for the
political a fav:oural.le atmo:splhere o:f puhll opinion in
their own circle, by -lint of which the .tuel acts 0com-
mitteld by them, at the risk of losing liberty, life, and all
that is dear to uman, preseutel themselves to them not as
blrl -1e.ds but, as act- of biav.ery. Ouly thu3 could Nekh-
lytilov explain the rem.irkable phenomenon that the
meekest pe,:,ple, who were not able to cause a living
betingt any plaii. 'or even to lo'..k at it, catily prepared
themselves to kill people, and that nearly all considered
in certain cases murder, as a means of celf-defence and of
obtaiAiing the highest degree of public good, both lawful
and just. The high esteem in which they held their
work and, consequently, themselves naturally flowed from
the importance which the government a teribed to them,
and from the cruelty uf the punishments to which they
were subjected. They had to ha"e a high opinion of
themselves in order to be able to bear all they had t.o bear.
Upon knowing them better, Nelkhlyd'lov convinced
himself that they were neither the unconditional villains,
as which they presented themselves to some, nor the
unconditional here, such as others held them to be, but
ordinary people, among whom there were. as everywhere
else, good and bad and mediocre individuals. There were
among them sorue who held thlemtielves in ,luty bound to
ctrug-le againrtt the existing evil ; there were also others
who had selected this activity from celfih, vainglorious
motives, but the uma.ority were attracted to evolution by
a desire for clanger, risk, and ernjoyument of playing with
their own lives,- feelin.es which are common to, all ener-
getic youth, and which were familiar to Nekhlyddov from
his milit-ay life. They differed from other people, and
that, too, was in their favour, in that their requirements
of morality were higher than thoue current in the circle of
common people. 'They regarded as. oblig.:tory riot only
moderation and severity) of life, truthfulness, and unself-
ishness, but also readiness to sacrifice everything, even
their lives, for the common good. Therefore those of
them who weie above their average stood very high above
it and represented rare examples of moral excellence;
while those who were below the average stood much
lower, representing a clacs of people that were untruthful,
hypocritical, and, at the same time, selt-confident and
haughty. Consequently Nekhlvyddov not only respected,
but even loved, some of his new acquaintances, while to
others he remained more thau ini.lifl rent.
NEEHLYriDO took a special liking to a consumptive
young man, Krylt.,v, who wi l. 'ewg deported to hard
labour and was travelling with the party that Katyduha
had joined. Nekhlylidov had met himr for the ilrst time
at Ehateriinl.irg, :..l later be had seen him several times
on the road. and had .conver-'ed with him. On,:e, in
summer, when they halte-d for i 1 vly, Nel:hlytidov pra-sed
nearly all that day with him, and Krylt-6v. bIu:eLuingL
communi.,tive, toli. him hi; whole history, how he had
turned reviolutio:nit. His story previou- to the pri.:on
was very simple. Hi: father 1 rih lanIdowuer of the
southern Go,-veramenits, h.d dliE.l while hb wma till a
child. He wa: an only son, and his mother I.brought him
up. He learned well ioth in the aymna.ium anu in the
univei-ity, and gi:tdhnted at the heai.l of the list in
the nrithemrnti._-l depatituient. He was oftferd a place
at th, nuiv-erity and wai- to receive a travelling fellow-
ship. He hesitated. There wa- a girl whom he loved,
and he w.i con-idering in arri ige and retirement to the
country. He wanted everything ind could not mak- up
his mind for anything in particular. Just then his
schoolmaites isked him for a contribution to the common
good. He knew that this common good meant the rev:-
lutionary pirty, in which he *a.';as not at all interested at
th, time, but he give them money from a feeling of com-
rade.hirp au.I vanity, le.t they -hould think he was afraid.
Thoce %who hoid c-lilected thle miJ'ney were c-tught ; a note
was found. Ivy whic..h it was disLOvered that the money
had been c,:,ntributed by Krylti6v. He was arrested and
contiain-d, at first in the pl-ihc jail, and then in prison.
In the prison, where I was lIocked up," Krylts6v told
Nekhlyiidov (he was. sitting with his suuken chest on a
high sleepiug-,ench, leaning on his- knees, and now and
then looked at Nekhbhlylidov with his spqlrling, feverish,
beautiful :eyes), there ws no special severity. We not
only cnver-,d,:l with each their r L-y %ilai-naq of knocks, but
imt in the ectrridois, talked.l t:. :ach ,oth-?i, shared our
pr:'visi:s au..l t.bac .c, and at evening even sang in
chi,irq. I had a gooil voice. Ve-. If it had not been
for my t.:.ther, she pin:d away for me, I should
have beetn sat istie.l in p ision,- iev, ythinu wtas pleasant and
very interesting. t'er I becaw-ne aquainted, amungothers,
with th- famous PI-'trv lie later cut his throat with a piece
,of -"lasq in the ftortres) andi vith others. I was not a
revoluti.tlniqt. I als.:. ht,:came ac:.-uaintid with two neigh-
bours t.:, my c:ell. They wrt:-. ,:aught in the -same affair,
v-ith mine Polish proclimatiins, anid ;.err under trial for
hav-ing tried toi escap froun the .guar.l a they were being
':l t,:, the rahdicadi station. Ornte -:f them wa.; a Pole, Lo-
ziuski, and the, other a Jew, Rtv'ski by name. Yes.
Ro-,cski was uothiug but a boy. He said he was seven-
t -n, but lie idid not !ook more than fift'en. He was
small and lI:n, with sparkling eyes, lively, and, like all
Jew.q, very musical. His viic, wa~ -Htill unformed, but
he sang beautifully. YI's. They wert- led :.It' to court
while I was in pris.on. They left in thrn morning. In
the evening they returned. anid sid that they had been
condenined t capit.-il puniishment. Nooi..dy had ex-
pe.:t,.- it. Their :ase was so unimportant : they had
merely tried to get away from the guard, and had not
hurt anybody. And then it seemed qu unnatural to
execute such a boy as l:ro.vski wa1. All of us in the
prison decided that thiis was only to frighten them, but
that the dleerre v.would never be cunfrumed. At. first all
weie stirred, but later they quieted down, and life went.
on as : olohl. Yes.
i Oine evening' an attendant came to my door andl my--
teri:ouly infrime.l me that the: cairlp.nters had come to
put up the gallon,. At GiL; I did not ud.leratand what
he meant. what gallow- lie was talking about. But the
old attendant was so a,-ita.tedl tha-t when I loo::.ked at him
I uniderst:,oo:d that it. Wa.- for our two men. I wanted Ito
converi-e L)y taps with iny i:'rmpa.nii:,n,. but wa afraid
that tb:.y might hea:r it. My co:inp.iD:iotis were Silienjt, too.
Apparently everyb.:.o.ly knew of it. There was a dead silence
in the corridor and. in the cell-. all the evening. We
did na:t talp nor cing. At al,,:ut nine o'clock the attend-
ant aainu came up to my door, a.nd iniforujed me that the
hangm:an had been I brought ,.hl:wn from Mo',s:oow. He
said think and went away. I hegan to eall t., him to come
back. Suddenly I heard Ro,.:vki call to me ai:-rosi the
corridor froiil his cell: 1What is the matter V Why do
you call him ?' I told him that Le had br.:*ught mie. come
tobacco:., but he s..eemed to Quess what it wa;, and con-
tinue.l a.dking me why we did not sin,,, ad.1 why we did
not tap. I do not rememlter what I told him ; I went,
away as soon as I could. sci ac r,:t to talk to him. Yes.
It was a terrible night. I listened all night lon to, every
sound. Suddenly, towardl mornin-', I hea..i them open
the door of the corridor, and a nulb.:r of people walking,
in. I stood at the wiudo:.w of my door.
"A lamp was Lurning in the corridor. First came the
superintendent. He vwa. a stout maan, nd1 Seem-ed to be
self-condfident and determined. He was out of couute-
nance: lie looked pale and 'nloomiv, as though fri-.htened.
After him came his .asqistanut. soling. w-th a deter-
mined look ; then followed the _u.ards. They passed b'y
my door and st.:ipped it the one next to me. I heard
the ;asletant calling out in a strange voice: Lo.-inski,
get up anil put on clean linen !' Yes. Then I heard the
door creak, and they pas-ed in. Then I heard Lozinski's
steps. and he weut over on the other side fi the corridor.
I c:,uld see only the superintendent. He stood pale, and
was buttoninm, and unbuttoning his coat, and shrugging
his shoulders. Yes. Suddenly he acted as though some-
thing had frightened him. It was L-zins.ki, who went
past hini and stopped a;t my door:. He was a fine-looking
youth, of that exquisite I'oli.h type: brLoad-chested, a
straight forehead with a head of Llond, wavy, fine hair,
and beautiful blue, eyes. He was such a blooming,
healthy, vigorous ryoun' man. He stood in front of my
door so that. I could see his whole face. It, was a terribly
drawn, gray fac:e.
*,* Kryh-ltv, have you any cigarettes? I wanted to
give him some, but the assistant, as th,_u!h fearing to be
late, took out his ciiarette-holder and 'otered it to him.
He took a cigarette, and the assi-tant lighted a match for
him. He l.gru to sn:l.e, and seemed to be musing.
Then he looked as th,_ouh he had recalled something, and
h'- began to [speak : It is cruel and unjust. I have com-
urtte'd no crime. I- Soimethin quivered in his
youthful, white throat, from which I could not tear my
eyes away, and he stopped. Yes. Just then I heard
Poj:'.'vki calling out something g in the corridor in his
thin. .Tewsh viice. Loz.iusl:i threw away the stump
(f his c:ig.arette and went away from the door. Then
,Pozvski could be seen through the window. His child-
ish face, with its moist, black eyes, was rd and sweaty.
He, too, waA clad in white linen, oni hi- trrwuscr were
to,.: wide fur him, aud he kept pulilinug thn u u ith both
hik hands, and was trembling all the while. He put his
pitiful face to riy window:
"' Anatc1il Petrvlich, is it not so:? the doctor h.a1
ordered mie to drink pectoral tea. I am not well, and
I will drink sume.' Nob.ody answered him, ind he looked
questioningly now at me, and now at the inspector. I
did not understand what be meant by hi? words. Yes.
Suddenly the a-sistaut looked stern, and again he called
out, in a wheezy voi.:'.: 'Don't be jesting Come!'
R'::'vski was apparently unable to, undlerstaLnd what was
awaiting him, and went hurriedly along the corrido.:r,
ahead uf them all, almost :n a run. But later be stood
back, and I head his pieiciun voice and weepihn. They
were busy about him and a thud u ste.ps was heard. lie
wars crying and whiuing in a penetrating manner. Then
farther aud farther away,-the dl:,,,r uf the corridor rang
uut, and all was quiet. Yes. They hanged them. They
choked their lives uut At them with rope:s.
Anu,:the attendant saw the hauging, aud he told me
that Lodnuski offered no resitaunce, but that Roi,'vki
struggled for a long while, so that he had to be dragged
t,- the .gall' ws and his head had to Ie stuck through the
n':'o:se. Ye. That atteundaat was a stupid fellow. I
was t'ld, sir, that it was terrible. But it is noD't. When
they were hanged,:, they moved their Thc'ulders 'only twice,'
- he showed me hbow the shoulders were raised convul-
sively and fell. 'Then the hangman jeiked the rope .:'
that the nu:oe should lie more tightly ,on their necks,
and that was all: they did uot stir agaiu. It is unt at
all terrible,'" KryltsILv repeated the attendant's word',
and wanted to: smuile, but iuntead burst uut int'. sobs
He was for a lung time sileut alter this recital, breathing
heavily and swall-w.,ing the subs that ruse to his throat.
SSince Ithl-n I. have been a rev'olutiknist. Yes," he
said, c:dmiung down, and then he Cinished his stry in a
few v., 'Id-. .
He belonged to the party -of the Popular Will, and was
the head of a disorganizing group, whb.:O.e purp.:.e it was
to terrorize the government, so that it might it.elt al.di-
cate its p<,-wer and ,'all the people to assume it. For this
purp..ae he travelled, n:ow to St. r'etersbuig, nuw abroad.
01 to Kiev, to CO..lc-a, arid be was everywhere successful.
A man on whom he fully relied betrayed him. He was
arr,-sted, triod, kept two years in prison, and sentenced
to,: capital pruu.hrment, which was commuted to hard
labour for life.
In prisu hbe developed consumption, and now, under
the conditions s of his life, he had evidently but a few
months left to live. He knew this, and did not regret
what be had dcnie, but said that if he had a life to live
over he would use it for the same purpose,-for the
diistructi-iu of the order of things which made possible
what he had seen.
This man's history and the companionship with him
made many things intelligible to Nekhlyiidov which
heretofore be bad not understood.
ON; the day when, at the start from the balting-place,
the conflict, over the child had taken place between the
otlcer of the guard and the pri loners, Nekhlytidov, who
had praised the night at an inn, awoke late, and for a I:.ung
tine wrote letters, which he was .ettinu_ ready to mail
from the capital Af the Government ; he t::co'niequently left
the int later than usual, and did n.-it :atch up with the
marhin..;' party on the road, a? he had doue tn previous :
d:,ys, but arrived at eveuinj tv.ilight at the village, near
which a half-stop waq mLade. Hr\-iig changed his wet
clothing in the inn, whih:b was kept by an elderly widow
with a white neck of extraordinary .i.e, Nekhly)dov
dranu tea in the '.lean u-est-roin, which was adurrned
by a lariLe number ot itia'ue .and picture., and haltened
to the haltir,.-plac:e to a : the otfier's permission for an
At the six preceding halting--plab-es the oflceiz of the
guard, although several .ihange.' had been Dnalde, all
without exception had refused Nel:hlyvd.l'v' aidli.-sioun
to the plisou eni-losure, So that he had not seen Katyid-ha
for more than a week. This severity was caa.u-ed by an
e:x:pe-ted: vi-it iro:m an imporrtant prisun chief. Now the
chief had passed.l. without a- Luuch Ia lo:,.king at the halt-
ing-place, and Nekhlyvidov hoped that. the othicer who had
in th>e morning. taken har f the party would, like the
previous officers, permit him to see the prisoners.
The hoste-ss otTred Nekhly idov a tarantis to take him
to the halting-place, which was at the other end of the
village, but Nekhlyfidov preferred tu walk. A youun,
broad-chested, powerful-looking lad, in immense boots
freshly smeared with tar, offered himself to take him
there. It was misting, and it was so dark that whenever
the lad separated himself from him for three steps, in
places where the light did not fall through the windows,
Nekhlyuidov could not see him, but only heard the smack-
ing of the boots in the deep, sticky mud. After passing
the square with the church and a long street with brightly
illumined windows, Nekhlytidov followed his guide into
complete darkness, at the edge of the village. Soon, how-
ever, they saw, melting in the fog, the beams of light from
the lamps which were burning near the halting-place. The
reddish spots of light became larger and brighter; they
could see the posts of the enclosure, the black figure of
the sentry moving about, the striped pole, and the sentry
booth. The sentinel met the approaching men with his
usual Who goes there ?" and, finding that they were not
familiar persons, became so stern that he would not allow
them to wait near the enclosure. But Nekhlyildov's guide
was not disconcerted by the severity of the sentry.
What an angry fellow you are!" he said to him.
"You call the under-officer, and we will wait."
The sentry did not answer, but called out something
through the small gate, and stopped to watch intently
the broad-shouldered lad as in the lamplight he cleaned
off with a chip the mud that was sticking to Nekhlytidov's
boots. Beyond the posts of the enclosure was heard the
din of men's and women's voices. About three minutes
later there was a clanking of iron, the door of the gate
was opened, and out of the darkness emerged into the
lamplight the under-officer, wearing his overcoat over his
-bh:ulblers. He asked them what they wanted. Nekhlyid-
dov handed him his previously written card, asking the
oLlicer to admit him on some private matter, and begged
him to take it in. The under-officer was less severe than
the sentry, but more inquisitive. He insisted upon know-
ing what business Nekhlyddov had with the officer, and
who he was., apparently scenting a prey, and not wishing
to miss it. Nekhblydov said that it was a special busi-
ness, and asked him to: take the note to the officer. The
under-otl'er took it, and, shaking his head, went away.
A little while after his disappearance the door clanked
again, and there came out women with baskets, with birch-
bark boxes, c lay vessels, and bags. They stepped across
the threshold of the door. sonorously babbling in their
peculiar Siberian dialect. They were all dressed not in
village but in city fashion, wearing overcoats and fur
coats; their skirts were tucked high, and their heads were
wrapped in kerchiefs. They eyed with curiosity Neklyd-
dov and his guide, who were standing! in the lamplight.
One of these women, obviously happy to meet the broad-
should':.rd lad, immediately began to banter him with
You wood-spirit, the plague take you, what are you
doing here: ?" she turned t.:. Lim.
I brought a strau:eer here," replied the lad. What
have you been carrying here ?"
",lMeats, and they want me to come back in the
Did they not let you stay there overnight ? asked
MNay they squash you, you fibber," she cried, laughing.
"Won't you take us all ba,:k to the village?"
The guide said something else to her, which made
laugh not *:nly the women, but also the seutry, and
turned to Nekhlyidov:
Well, can you find your way back by yourself
Won't you lose your way ?"
I shall find it, I shall."
BeyoInd the church, the second house after the one of
two stories. Here you have a statf," he said, giving Nekh-
lyddov a long stick, which was taller than his stature,
and which he had been carrying, and, splashing with his
immense boots, disappeared in the darkness with the
His voice, interrupted by that of the women, could be
heard through the mist, when the door clanked again,
and the under-officer came out, inviting Nekhlyuidov to
follow him to the officer.
THE hali-top was situated like All the other half-stops
and full stops along the Siberian road : in the yard, which
was surrouuided by pointed pal-e, there were three one-
story buildings. In one of thece. the largest, with lat-
ticed windows, th,' prisoners were placed ; in another, the
cuardil of the guard; and in the third, the other and
the chancery. In all three house. tfres were bliruiug.
which, a- always, especially here, illusively picunii:ed
something go-dl and coy within the lighted walls. In
front of the entrance steps of the houses limips were
burning, .ln there were live either lamps along the wall,
illuminating the yard. The under-oth,.er took Nekh-
lyido\v over a 1.board walk to the steps of the smallest
build ing. Having mounted three steps, he let him pass
in IrouLt of him into an iute.chamb:'r whi,:h was lighted
Iy a small lamnip emitting stilliug fumes. At the stove
stood a soldier, in a coarse shirt and tie and black trou-
.ers ; he hal on only one hoot, with a yellow bootleg,
and, ending over, was fanning the aimovir with the
other boot. Upon seeing Nekhlytidov, the soldierr went
away ftror th,:' 4.a-iov('r, took otf Nekhlyilidov's lether
coat, and went into the inner room.
'* He has arrived, your Honour!"
Well, call him in," was heard an an.ry voice.
Go through the dloor." a.id the soldier, and inmwediltely
began to buIs hirnj-elf about the amnov-.ir.
In the next, room, whih was lighted by a hanging
lamp. an other. with loug blond rmouistache and a very
red face, (lre~sed id an Austrian jacket, which closely
ritted over his li.road chest and shoulders, was sitting at a
tall covered with remnants of a dinner and two bottles.
The warim ,oomu smitlled not only of tobacco smoke but
alS,: of some, strong, vile perfume. Upon noticing Nekh-
lyi'l':.v, the ouitcer half-raised himself and almost scorn-
fully and si.pici'iiisly fixed his eyes upon the stranger.
** What doY, yiu wih ?" he said, and, without awaiting
a reply. called through the door: "B4rnov, will you ever
get the Sanim.:wr raady ?"
- Right away "
"I will givw you such a right of way that you will
remember me," cril the officer, his eyes sparkling.
I am bringing it '" cried the soldier, and entered with
Nekhlydd:,v waited until the soldier had put down the
samovar (the officer followed him with his small, mean
eyes, as though choosing a spot on which to hit him).
When the samovar was down, the officer began to steep
the tea, then he took out of a lunch-basket a four-
cornered decanter and Albert cracknels. After he had
placed eveiythiig on the table, he again addressed Nekh-
So wh-:t can I do for you ? "
I should like to have an interview with a lady pris-
(-uer," said Nekhlyiddiv, still standing.
A political ? That is prohibited by law," said the
She is not a political," said Nekhlydidov.
i But .lease be seated," said the officer.
Nekblyddov sat down.
She is not a politi:,l," he repeated, "but at my re-
quest she has been permitted by the higher authorities to
go with the political:-"
"Ah, I kw," thi, olhc:r interrupted him. "A small
brunette i';s, you may. Won't you have a ciga-
rette ? "
He handed Nekhlytii,,v a box with cigarettes, and,
propeI ly 1lling tw .-',lasce ot tea, put onue down before
If you pleatVe.." he iaid.
I thank you. I should like to se( -
--The night is loing. You: will have plenty of time.
I will haxe her called out."
Could I not bu admijittted to thvir loom, without call-
ing her out .'" aid Nekhlyt'dov.
To thw poLti:al ? That is against thhe law."
** I have b'e.-:i admitted :evrail tiin-s. It thr-- is any
fear that I might tiiunsiit soluething to themu,- then
you must not for.yt that I oul ,1, -l so t vn. through her."
No, not at all. She wil blie examined," said the
officer, with an un[pl:a;sant laugh.
Well, you may examiuwn me."
i Oh, wi will get along wi-thout loi_,ng o," -:"aid the
otfi.:"er. taking the unicoi kld d:l,:auter to Nekhblyidod's
gl0- -. MIay I pour iu Sou mt W\ll, ais iyu ple :ze.
Onc, tcl- so happy Lto meet an t-duiluatd man here in
Sil::ria. Our t'at, you kuow yo urself, is a very sad oDe.
It is Laid v-when a man is u.sed to somthmine ,?e. There
1- an opinion buad tha t :an ot.er of the guard ulst
1., a :oare ,man, without any ,edu,:ation. They u.\er
:onsid,-r that a man may have bet.,n Lorn for ?ornmthing
The: red fat:e ot this officer, his perfume, hi! ring, but
more especially his disagreeable> laugh, were quite repul-
-ive to Nkhl.iidov; Lbut ou that day, as d(uiing his
whole jouLrneyh, hI was in that attentive and Srejio Lu, ooid
whu he did not allow himicelf to treat any person frive-
lou-ly :1 c,:utemIptu:Nously, and wh,-u h.- cinsidcred it
netc'e.-ary to -- let hini-elf looS ," :1s he d.inueil this rela-
ti:n of his to other peopl-. Having listened to the
oth'::1'- words and considering his mood. he remarked,
.- I think that in your ui.::upation you can find consola-
tion by aleviating the ,iif-lring of the people," he said.
N* What icttrLf[g ta They are a terrible lot."
'" Not at all terrible," said Nekhlyddov. They are just
like the rest. There are even some innocent people among
(- Of course, there are all kinds. Of course, I pity them.
Others would not be le-s rigorous for anything, but I try
to wake it ea.ieer for them whenever I can. I prefer to
sulfer in their places. Others will invoke the law on
et ,-ry oc.,2a-,n, and arn iven ready to shoot them, but
I pity them. Will you have another glass ? Please," he
said, tilling his glass again. What kind of a woman is
the ..-ne you want to s- '" he asked.
.. It i ano uni'fortuni- t', uoran who found her way into a
house ot prostitution, and there she was accused of poi-
soning, but she is a good woman," said Nekhlyddov.
The officer shook his head.
Yes, these things happen. In Kazdn, let me tell you,
there was one, they called her Emma. She was a Hun-
garian by birth, but her eye- look,.d like those of a Persian
wLuanlu,' te no:utinued, InaMlle to i1e-SS a ,mile at the
re'colleition. She was as e.le .an t as any countess-"
N':khly-i'.lov interrupted the or'ffie'r and returned to his
former :conv':r'ation :
I think you ian all'viate the condition of these peo-
ple whil- they are in your power. I am uLre that if you
did so, you would: experience grt.-'t joy.'" said Nekhlyddov,
try ing to speak as l-;dtctly : plosible, just as Oune speaks
to a stranger o:.r a child.
The ofti-'er looked at Nekhlyidd,:,v with sp.rkling eyes,
and ap'paievUtly was impatiently waiting for him to get
through, so as to give: him a ':hiAnc. to continue e his story
about the IlHuginman wom-,n with th-e Perci.in eyes, who,
evidently, stood out vi\-idly before, his imagination and
absorbed his whole atte:nti,.n.
Yes, thnt is s('. I w.ill admit," he said. -' I amu ?sorry
for thiEr; but let me tirush wy -tory about this Emma.
So this is what 1he ,,lid "
"This d::,eS not int-eret mie." ?aid Ne-khlyiid'-v. and let
me tell you outright that. although I formerly was dlif'ei-
ent, I now despise sZuL-h li-lati,,is with womien..
The c(:thcer looked in a terriftid way at Nekh]yddhv.
"Wou't you take another glass? he said.
"No, thank you."
"E 'rnov!" l:tied the, officer. take the gentlememan to
Baikdlov and tell himu to admit him to the Spebial roo iM)t
the ptoliti:-als ; the gentl-eman may stay there until ioll-
ACCOMPANIED by the orderly, Nekhlyidov again went
out into the dark yard which was dimly lighted by the red-
"Where are you going ?" a guard, whom they met,
asked the one who was guiding Nekhlyddov.
"To the special room, Number 5."
"You can't go through here : it is locked. You will
have to go through that porch."
Why is it locked "
The under-officer has locked it, and himself has gone
down to the village."
"Well, then, let us go this way !"
The soldier took Nekhlyddov to the other steps, and
went over a board walk to another entrance. Even from
the yard could be heard the din of voices and the motion
within, such as one hears in a good beehive which is get-
ting ready to swarm, but when Nekhlyfudov came nearer
and the door was opened, this din was increased and
passed into a noise of scolding, cursing, laughing voices.
There was heard the metallic sound of the chains, and the
familiar oppressive odour was wafted against him.
Tli',se two impressions-the din of the voices combined
with th"- clanking of the chains, and that terrible odour
- always united in Nekhlyuidov in one agonizing feeling
.,f mral nausea passing into physical nausea. Both im-
pre:ssions mingled and intensified each other.
Up.:'a entering the vestibule of the half-stop, where
sto. "d a n immense stink-vat, Nekhlyfidov noticed a woman
sittini- ou the edge of this vat, while opposite her stood a
man, with hib s pancake--haped :ip piaed i.lewise on
hi, -have.?u head. ThyV were talking al..out sioiuethinu
When the prisoner noted Nekhlyddov. he linked and
sa id .
-. Eten tht Tsar could not retain his water."
The woman pulled do:wu the -kirt of her cloa,:k and
From the vestibule ran a cornridor. into whit h ,:l-ned
the 'dlrs of cells. The br-t was the family c'ell ; then
f:.l:k.vel a largt e i :ell fl'r iintuarrneit per.s:on and at the
enl Iit the corriidor, twv. small r":.. :iou were res.rved i,:.r
the political. The interior of the halting-place, which,
a.tho:,uh inteuie:l for 1.'0 pri,: ners, h l.l 450i, wa- --
clow-wdled that, not Itein- able to find places in the cells.
tlheyv killed the corrid,.:r. Some -at r nlay :,n the floor,
while other-rs mru.--ted up and do:.wn, carrying tlil .:,r empty
teapots. Among the latter was Tards. He ran up to
Nekhlytldiv and exchanged a pleasant greeting with him.
Taris'; kindly fac-.-e was dlistigl'irel] by purple dii:olcraitios
on his nQo-e and un.lder hi- eye-.
What is the matter with oiio a-ked NekhlvYdov.
We had a tight." said T:rai. smiling.
They aire bghtiung all the timee" the guard .aid, con-
tem ptu:u sly.
"' Un a:cco:unt ot the woman." added pris':ilner, who was
walking behind them. He had a cet-to with Fe'i ka the
H. How ik Fed.dsyn a" askd Nekhlyuidov.
"All right. She is well. I am taking thi. hailing
water to her for tea," said Taris, ente'ting the family
Nekhlilti':1o l,-iked into the door The whole cell was
full of womeu and men, bIoth on the .sleepiiin,-tnclthes and
underneath them. The room was bGlled with the evaporn-
tions ot wet clothes getting dry, and there was heard the
incessant squeak ot feminine voices. Th.e nest door led
into the >:ell of the single peicor,. This room was even
fuller, and t-en in the doui am.,l out in the doorway stood
a nuisny crowd t:if prisoners in wet clothes, dividing or de-
ciling something. The guard explained to Nekhlyiidov
that the f...rewma was [paying out to: a gambler the pro-
viiton money whi,.h had 1.,een lost or won before by
means of small tickets made out :of playing-cards. Upon
i..ti.t.ug the under-oft..er and the gentleman, those who
sto I.. nearest grew silent, hustilh-l e.yeng them. Among
tlih't w h. cere dividing up, Nekhlyidov noticed Fed6rov,
thL, hard labour ..,:a i:t ..f Li-. af.quaintance, who always
kept at hi side a miserable-l':'king, pale, bloated lad
with ar.:hiug ye.bri\s, and a repulsive, pockmarked,
ui:seless vagai.,nud, :of wh,:m it was said that during an
es,.ape into the Tayga he had killed his companion and
eaten his flesh. The vagabond stood in the corridor, with
his wet cloak thrown over one shoulder, and scornfully
and boldly looked at Nekhlyi.dov, without getting out of
his way. Nekhlyuidov went around him.
Although this spectacle was not new to Nekhlyuidov,
althliouh he had, in the last three. mouths, frequently
seen these four hundrA'd criminals in all kinds of situa-
ti:,u.s,- in heat, iu a loud of dust wvhi,.h they raised
v.ith their feet diag.gig the chains, and on the stops
alO.. tlihe road., and in the yards of the halting-places
during warm weather, where appalling scEuen of open
imm':ioality took place,-he expenen,.ed -i1 agonizing
feehlg of shame and a .,i'usciousness :f guilt before them
every time he went in awin.,ng them-i aud felt their atten-
tion dire,.ted t: hiunelf. Most oppressive f.r him was
the fact that ari irrepresib]: feeling of loathing and terror
ming.led with thi sensation of shame and guilt. He
knew that, unIder the :onditi.ns in whi.h they were
Ilaced, they could not be anything else than what they
were, and yet he could not simpprsc hia_ feeling :of loath-
ing for them.
"They have ain easy time, these hangers-on," Nekhlyd-
d,':v, as he approache- the iloor of the p:,hticals, heard a
hoarse voice ;say, a a.1.ling an iunlcent ,uIsr.
There was heard a hl'stile, sL-:.rriful laughter.
As they passed the cell of the unmarried prisoners,
the under-officer, who accompanied Nekhlyuidov, said to
him that he would come for him before the roll-call, and
went back. The under-officer had barely left when a
prisoner, holding up his chains over his bare feet, rapidly
walked up close to Nekhlyddov, wafting an oppressive
anid acid smell of sweat upon him, and said to him, in a
Sir, please intercede! They have roped in the lad
by giving him to drink. He called himself Karmanov
to-day at the roll-call. Please intercede, for I cannot, -
I shall be killed," said the prisoner, looking restlessly
about, and immediately walking away from Nekhlyuidov.
What this man informed Nekhlyudov of was that
prisoner Karminov had persuaded a lad who resembled
him, and who was being deported for settlement in Siberia,
to exchange places with him, so that the one who was
to go to hard labour was to be deported, while the lad
would go to hard labour.
Nekhlyudov knew of this affair, since this very pris-
oner had informed him of the exchange a week before.
Nekhlyuidov nodded in token of having understood him
and of his willingness to do what he could, and, without
looking around, passed on.
Nekhlyddov had known this prisoner all the way from
Ekaterinbiirg, where he had asked him to get the per-
mission for his wife to follow him, and his act surprised
him. lie was of medium size, about thirty years of age,
an. in no way differed from an ordinary peasant. He
wa- being deported to hird labour tfo.r attempted rob-
lbeiy and murder. Hi-, name "is M Ikdr Dyvvkin. His
crime wv.as a sing ulai, ue. He told NekhlyLidov that
the crime wats not lii, M.:kii:h'-, but h/., the evil one's.
He .said that f travelhlr sttopped at hiZ father's, from
wh.:mr he hlured a sleigh foi tw. rnouble- t.o take him to a
village forty ver'.sts di-taut. Hi- father t.:.ld hirn t,: take
the traveller there. Maki"r har nesse' the Lorse, dre-si.d
hiniiself, ianid di ink tea w-ith the traveller. The tra eller
told him it tei that he wa;s .u his w-ay to oet married
and thint he had with him ftive funded iul.ules, whi:.-h he
had earned in Mo.-'-:',w. When Mal.kr herd thi,. he weut
into the yird and iput his ;e iu the strawv *:.f the leigh.
I d:, U.:tL kr'ow myself wihy I tiook the :me .do.ng," he
told Nekhlytid:v. S..:.methirng tAol me tu take the axe
with 1me, and ,:, I We -ted t we
wni t. I entirely fir.:.t. about the nxe. There were about
six veIsts l-.ft to the village. From the :'r-iss-ro'd t.:. the
highwlv the rind went upi-hill. I .lrmbed do,,n and
wixlked b':k of the sleigh, but hit kept v\.hi-rring. tio me:
* What is the mintter with you When y:iu g ,'t into the
high, y, there %ill :I e p:iople, ind then comes the villLige.
He vill get away with the woney. It anything is tu. be
do:ue, it must hbe done now.' I l:.eut down to the ;l'-i.h,
as though to fix the str iw, and the axe hirndle ieined to
jump into n my hind. IHe lo.:ked around Whit do : you
ie.m ,' srys he. I -Wing my a:xe anrd wanted to b:,aug
at him. but he was qui.:.k, and so he jumped down from
the sleigh and caught, ue by the hiud. -What are you
d:tinu, y:ou villain ?' He threw me down on the snow,
and I di.l unt even stiu-,gle, but gave myself up. He
tied my ariu, with the belt and threw me int. the sleigh.
He took me straight to: the ruri l ,tfie I was i.:.ked in
jail aud tried. The Coimmune t.esitifie, to mry ,ood ret-old,
and that nothiy 1...:i had been noti.:ed in me. The
p.,eople with whim 1 was bvlin- said the same. I hid Lit
money to hire a ,lawyer," aid Makuir, "and so I was sen-
teLj-ed to four year-."
It was tins mian who was trying to save his country-
man. although he knew fill well th tt he was risking his
life in the attempt. If the' pri-s:une: had found out that
he had given away the te..ret to Nekhlyidov, they would
ertaliuly have strnugled him.
THE at::O1mwod-itioun of the political COuLsistd ot t WO
amfall cell, the do.:.rs fri:rm which opened, into :a I arred-off
part of the coinmdir. UI.pu euteinig this part of the
corridor. the hirst per--':,n n:'ti:ice by NMkhliyudov wa-s
SiLtanin,.n, ,ir', '-"l in rhi jacket, and luatting with aI
billet .,f pinie wood, in trout :t the *:iuive- inug stii e ,.kr.
whi.ih wa. drawn in I:by the current in the brightly b.urn-
Up':'n seeing Nekhlyitiov. h,? l,,ukd up, thr.'ugh hi-
veii hi.aiung eVLbroiws, witho.',it rising tro'm his squlatting
pr:ition, aijil gave him his haid.
I am glad that yo'u have coime. I have si-'m'?thinz to
s:,y to .:lu," he sad;: with a -iouiii.nt look, gazing straightt
What is it ?" a.keil Nekhly vddov.
Later. No:.w I am liu-y."
Siwm._us.'u again legan to attend to: the 'tve,. which be
fired a:.:o''.'rdig to his O:\wn the-ory of the miniimum wa It
ot heat energy.
Nekhly6d,,v was onu the point of going into the hrit
do,:,r, when 1\.i-lo,:i caine out ot the otheL, bending >.lwu
.Ind holding a bath-broom in her hand, loving up with
it a lirg.e ma- of dirt and duct t.o:ward the st'ov,?. She'
1'ha,:u :i white- b:dice, a tuii,:k.d-up skirt, Ind 'stockings.
Her head wa: wr.pp.t-l aoain:t the d,.uit with a kerchief,
which re-i.ched d,:iwn tI:' her bro.,ws. Upon notit-iniig Nekh-
lyvdi.ld the uul:.eut hereelt, aud. all red and :aitatel. put
.do'.vn the lbroom and. w-i.in cff her hands with her skirt,
'toppel'd straight in tront of hin).
"Are you fixing up your apartment ?" Nekhlyiidov
asked, giving her his hand.
"Yes, my old occupation," she said, smiling. There
is incredible dirt in there. We have been doing nothing
"Well, is your plaid dry ?" she turned to Simons6n.
"Almost," said Simons6n, looking at her with a pecul-
iar glance, which surprised Nekhlyddov.
Then I will come for it, and will bring out the furs
to get dry. Our people are all there," she said to Nekh-
lyiidov, going into the farther door, and pointing to the
Nekhlyiidov opened the door and went into a small
cell which was dimly lighted up by a metallic lamp stand-
ing low on a sleeping-bench. The room was cold and
smelled of unsettled dust, dampness, and tobacco. The
tin lamp brightly illuminated those who were around it,
but the benches were in the dark, and quivering shadows
were also on the walls.
In the small room were all, with the exception of two
men who were in charge of the provisions, and who had
gone off to fetch boiling water and victuals. Here
was Nekhlyidov's old acquaintance, Vy6ra Efrdmovna,
grown more thin and yellow, with her immense frightened
eyes and the swollen vein on her forehead, dressed in a
gray bodice, and wearing short hair. She was sitting
over a piece of newspaper with tobacco upon it, and, with
a jerky motion, was filling cigarette wads.
Here was also Emiliya Rdntsev, who, so Nekhlyuidov
thought, was one of the most charming political. She
had charge of the external housekeeping, to which she
managed to give a feminine cosiness and charm, even
under the most trying circumstances. She was seated
near the lamp and, while her sleeves were rolled up over
her sunburnt beautiful arms, with agile hands was clean-
ing cups and saucers and placing them on a towel which
was spreadl on a bench. Eni'hya Raintev was a plain-
lookii' wo,[man, with an iutelliL'-ent and gentle expiesSi:on
of her face, which posse.,-ed the property of suddenly, du -
ing a smile, transforming itself :aid becoming metry,
lively, anud en: hating; she even now met Nekhlytidov
with such a smile.
S\'We thought you had gone back to Russia," she
Here also, in a distant corner and in the shade, was
Mi'dya PRivlovna, wh,;, wac d..ng something to the flaxeu-
haired httle girl who kept lisping in her sweet childish
How good of you to have tome! Have you seen
Katyish '1" -she asked Nekhlydidov. "-See what a guest
we have!" She showed': him the guil.
Here also was Anat-li Kryltsuv. Haggard and ipale,
with his legs, v.rapped in felt boots, bent under himu, he
,at, stooping and tiembliu.g, in a father corner of the
sleeping-1.'enches, and, putting his hands in the sleeves of
his sh:,rt fur .'c.at, he looked at Nekhlytidov with feverish
eyev. Nekhlytidov wanted to go up to himi, but on the
right of the dooti sat a curly-headed, red-haired wan in
:-pectacles arid a rubber jacket, conversing with pretty,
.miiiling Miss Clrabit.%. This was the famous revolution-
1st Novodv.rov, and Nekhlytid:iv hastened to exchauge
greetings with him. IHe was parti-ularly in a hurry to
do this because of all the political of this party think one
min wauis disagreeable to him. Nov,:dve'rov fl -shed his
Ilue eyes though his glasses upon Nekblytidov and,
frowning, gave him his narrow hand
- Well, are vou having -: pleasant journey ? he said,
apparently with irony.
Yes, there are many interesting things," replied
Ne'khlyid,:,v, lo:okiug as though he did not see the irony,
but received it as a pleasantry, and weut up to KiyltSiv.
Nekhlyiidov's appearance expressed indifference, but
in his beart be wa' far from being indifferent to Novo-
,lvIrov. Th,-se words of Novodvdrov, his obvious desire
to say andi d.c ,onething unpleasant, disturbed the soul-
ful nmoo:d in %hikh Nekblyidov was. He felt gloomy
and ;ad. .. Well. how i your health ?" he said, pressing
Kryltshv's col and tr,-mbling hand.
** So so. Only I can't g't warm,-I got so wet," said
Kryltusv, hastenin:z to: conceal his hand in the sleeve of
the chort. fur :coat. "It is as cold here as in a kennel.
The wind.iws .r: Ir',:l;en." He pointed to broken win-
l.-ws in two.v pla:ce- tbehiund the iron bars.
"1 Whit was the matter with you? Why did you not
They would not admit me, the authorities were so
strict. Only the officer of to-day proved to be obliging."
Well, he is obliging!" said Krylts6v. Ask MArya
what he did this morning."
Mdrya Pavlovna, without rising from her place, told
what had happened with the little girl in the morning
at the departure from the halting-place.
In my opinion, it is necessary to make a collective
protest," Vydra Efrdmovna said, in a determined voice,
looking now at this person, now at that, with an un-
decided and frightened look. "Vladimir has made a
protest, but that is not enough."
"What protest ?" Krylts6v muttered, with an angry
scowl. Apparently the lack of simplicity, the artificial-
ity of the tone, and the nervousness of Vydra Efremovna
had long been irritating him. "Are you looking for
K-ityti sha ?" he turned to Nekhlytidov. "She has been
working, cleaning up. They have been cleaning out
this room, ours, the men's; now they are working
in the wornm'n-s ronm. But they won't get rid of the
fleas: they will eat us up alive.-What is Marya doing
tht.re he asked, with his head indicating the comer
in whi,:h Marya Pl-'vlovna was.
She is cu-'ling her adloplted daughter," said EmNliya
SAu. won:,u't c- e1,-t lo:i'e her vermin ou us ? a.ked
No, no, I am rec.'ular with her. She i, clean now."
s.i.1 M;-rya Palorivua. ** T-ak, hei-r," she turune to Emiliyn
RT4utev. -- I will go anud help Katylisha. And I "t ill
briug himu the plaid "
EuiLbva RPiE tt-v took the girl, and, with maternal ten-
.lerne pre-sing to her-elf the bare. plump Lttle hanid of
the CIhil'J, inced her on her knee, and gave her a piee of
Mdirya Pa'vl'vna D rent out, and, immieiatelyv after,
two Lme stepped into the room with boiling water aud
ONE .f those who eutered was an undersized, lean
young man in a covered short fur coat and tall boots.
He walked with a light, rapid gait, carrying two large
steaming teapots with boiling water and holding under
his arm bread wrapped in a cloth.
"Here our prince has made his appearance," he said,
placing a teapot amidst the cups and giving the bread to
MAslova. We have bought some fine things," he said,
throwing off his fur coat and flinging it over the heads to
the comer of the benches. Mark6l has bought milk and
eggs; we will simply have a party this evening. Kiril-
lovna, I see, is again busy with her aesthetic cleanliness,"
he said, looking with a smile at Emfliya Rintsev. Now,
please, get the tea ready," he turned to her.
The whole exterior of this man, his movements, the
sound of his voice, his look, breathed vivacity and merri-
ment. The other of the new arrivals, also a short,
bony man, with an ashen-gray face that had very pro-
truding cheek-bones and puffed-up cheeks, with beautiful,
greenish, widely placed eyes and thin lips, was, on the
contrary, gloomy and melancholy. He wore an old
wadded coat and boots with overshoes. He was carry-
ing two pots and two birch-bark boxes. Having placed
his burden in front of Emiliya Rantsev, he bowed with his
neck to Nekhlyidov in such a way that he kept his eyes
on him all the time. Then, unwillingly giving him his
claummry banid, lie immediately began to unload the provi-
sions from there baski-t.
These two political prisoners were men of the people:
the first was Peasant N.ahl.tov, the other was the factory
workman, MaLk.tl Kondritev. Markel had found his, way
among the revolutionists at the advanced age of thirty-five,
while Nabatov had joined them at eighteen. Having,
through his conrspicivus ability, found hi-i way from the
village school to the gyminasiut,, Nabitov maintained
himself all the while by giving lesson- He graduated
with a gold medal, but did not luri-ceed to the university,
,becau.ie he had decided, while in the seventh form, to go
among the peeopile frot whom he had come, in 'Irder
to enlighten his forgotten brothers. And thus he did : at
first he accepted a position as scribe in a large village,
.but he was s,:,:n arrested ior reading books to the
peasants and forming among them a (Consurmers' Co:i;era-
tit\e Leauiie. The frist time he was kept eight, months in
prison, after which he was released and placed under
secret surveillance. After his liberation, he immtediatelv
went to another village, in another Goveruneut. and
there established himself as a teacher, continuing his old
activity. He was again arrested, and this time he was
kept a year and t wo months in pririn, and there he was
only strengthened in bhis ouvictions.
After his second imu.rinsonment, he was sent to the
Government of P4ri.'a. He ran awvay from there. He
was again arrested, and, having been incarcerated t,:or
seven months. was sent to the Guoernment of Arkhan-
gelik. From:1 there he ran away ag-'in, and was again
ca ught ; be was sentenced to deportation to the Yakritsk
Territory ; thus he had passed half of hia youth in prison
and in exile. All these adventures did not in the least
sour him; nor did they weaken his energy,-on the
cont tary, they only fanned it. He wa- a mobile man,
with an excellent digestion, always equally active, cheer-
ful, -ind vivacious. He never regretted anything, and
never looked far into the future, but with all the powers
of his mind. of his agility, and of his practical good sense
worked only in thi plre:si.:'nt. When he was at liberty, he
worked fo:r the goal which he had set for himself, namely,
the enlightenment and organization of the working classes,
eIp..cially .'f the pea-antF; but when he was imprisoned,
he just as euergvtically and practically worked for inter-
course with the external wo:ild, and for the arrangement
of the best p,.isible life. utinde the given conditions, not
only for himself, but for his circle. Above everything
else he was a social man. It seemed to him that he did
not need anything for himself personally, and he was sat-
isfied with anything, but for the society of his friends he
was exacting; he could do all kinds of physical and men-
tar work, without laying down his hands, without sleeping
or eating. As a peasant, he was industrious, quick to see,
agile in his work, naturally temperate, polite without
effort, and respectful not only to the feelings, but also to
the opinions of others.
His old mother, an illiterate widow, full of supersti-
tions, was alive, and Nabitov helped her, and, whenever
he was at large, came to see her. During his stays at
home he entered into the details of life, aided her in her
work, and did not break his relations with his companions,
the peasant lads: he smoked with them paper cigarettes
bent in the shape of a dog's leg, wrestled with them, and
pointed out to them how they were all deceived, and how
they must free themselves from the deceptions in which
they were held. Whenever he thought and spoke of
what the revolution would give to the masses, he always
represented to himself the same people from which he
had issued, only with land and without masters and
officers. The revolution was, according to him, not to
chauge the fundamental forms of the people's life,-in
this h,- dirTred from Novodv6rov and Novodv6rov's fol-
lowir, Mark"[l Kondrdtev,-the revolution, in his opinion,
was not to iear down the whole structure, but was only to
arrange differently the apartments of this beautiful, solid,
iLt,[en-de. .li. buddlung whLich he loved so fer ently
In re,-pect to religji..u, he \\as also a typical r-e-.int :
be n,.vter thought -of meta physical subj.-ctq, of the begin-
niug of all thing.;, of th.- Life after the .ra\e God wa.
for bhiL, as He had li-en for Aag:,, a hypothe.-is, the Dneid
:4f whi.:L h be did not feel a- yet. H,- w., n.ot in the l-ast
o:',n,:ern.:d ..i.out th,- onrwin of the w.:.rld, whe-ithr it had
its Iegiuiinig ato:,rding to ilos. .r to Darwvin, and Dar-
WminEim, which sitemnid to It, of su.:h imp,:.rt iu.:e t:. hi.
c.:.mrades, was fo:r hiLu just snch a1 Ylay :of imagination as
the creation of the world in six days.
He w\va not interested in the 'ui:stion of how the worlil
wt for:me.:d, I.ecu::iue the iluestio h:ow to liwv best in thirh
world was paramt:ount t-:. him. Nor did he eter think -f
the future life. blearin- in the depth of bi-. s-,u that irmi
,and quiet :,:,nviction, comii:.n to all t:iller o.f the soil,
which he had al;, w herited from his anc-si.tors, that, as
in the world of animals and ptl'iunt nothing ,eve-r ccnrm,. to
,in end, buit is e-terni.lly trausfirmed frainm one sha pe into
another,-the manure into a Lpain, the *raiu rut:' a
chicken, the tadpile into a frog. the .icatertpillar into a but-
tLerty, tht acorn into an oak, -- o man i. not destroyed,
but only chaged into somethingg el:S. Thil he beliheed,
and theref.,re, he 1holdly and even cheertfillv looked iut.:,
the eyes ,:.f death and coura'ge-ouily Iore all suffering
which led t>:- it, but. did not like and did not know how
to speak of it. He liked tto work. and was always
occupied within practical labours, aud urnge.d his comrades
On to practi,::il lal,:.urs.
The other p.liti:al prisoner in this party, who originated
froi the people, .ark-l Kindr.itev, was a mau of a ditlerent
type. H, started t.: work Lt tifttee, and begin smoking
and drinking in oi.ler to drown "his dim :onsuciousuess of
oll'entie. This otlenice he became C(.ouni:ous :i for the first
time when he, with other boys, was called in to look at a
'hiistinas tree, which bad been fixed up by the manu-
factuier's wif., and received as a present a penny whistle, an
pple,a g ilt walnut, and a fig. while the manufacturer's chil-
dren re,.eived toy winchb to hiiia appeared as fairy gifts, and
which, as he laitet found out, cost more than fifty roubles.
He was thirty years uld when a famous revolutionary
woman began to work in the factory. She noticed Kon-
drAtev's marked ability, began to give him books and
pamphlets, and to speak with him, explaining to him his
position and its causes, and the means for improving it.
When the possibility of freeing himself and others from
the position of oppression in which he was was clearly
presented to him, the injustice of this position seemed
even more cruel and terrible than before, and he not only
passionately wished for his liberation, but also for the
punishment of those who had arranged and sustained this
cruel injustice. This possibility, so he was told, could be
got through knowledge, and so Kondratev devoted himself
ardently to the acquisition of knowledge. It was not
clear to him how the realization of the socialistic ideal
was to come about through science, but he believed that,
as knowledge had manifested to him the injustice of his
position, so it would also remedy this injustice. Besides,
knowledge raised him in his opinion above other people.
Therefore he quit smoking and drinking, and employed
all his spare time, of which he had now more, having been
made a material-man, in study.
The revolutionary lady taught him; she marvelled at
the wonderful ability with which he eagerly devoured all
kind of knowledge. In two years he had learned algebra,
geometry, and history, of which he was especially fond,
and had read all the artistic critical literature, and
e v[ecially all so:i.alisti,. works.
The rev.olutionit was arrested, and Kondratev with
her, for havii,., intcer'ltited books in his room. He was
put in prison, al.1 later deported to the Government of
Vclogda. There he be e, e ai':q;uai ted with Nc'v-dvorov,
read morie revoolutiounry books, nieinoried everything, and
was even ,uore *o:nfuiled mi his so: ialjstie views. Alter
his exile he became the leader of a large strike, which
c:nided in the storming o:f the factory ani the death ot its
direc:t':'r. He was arrested and .+entenced to loss :of his
civil rights and exile.
lie a.su med the sa5ue negative attitude toward religic:u
asz to:\vard the existing ec:'n,:'mi: order :A' tliingc Having
be,.ome ,c.nvminced -of the insipidity of the faith in whi.h
he han been brought up, and having with dilti,.ulty freed
himself f,:iom it, at first exsprienecing terror and later trans-
port in this liberation, he, in retri[bitiou fo:,r the dec,:epti':n
which had been pr,:'Atied upon him and his an':estors,
never :e sIed vetorn,:,muily .and il maLiciously to ridicule the
ppes anud the relii:us dO:.gmais.
He was by habit an as,.eti. ; he was satisfied with the
smallest allvau.e, und, like all people cwh aie early used
toi: work and wh'o have well-developed musi.les, c:'ould easily
ind well perit':rm all kind'i of physical labour; but he
e:teemed leiure muor- than auythiiLg. because it gave him
in prisons and at the h.ilting-pla..es a ,:-hanu-e to continue
his studies. He inow paired over the first volume of A Marx,
which boo: he kept with great. a.re in his bag. like a very
precioIus thing. He treated all his c:-ompanions with reserve
find iudiffi'eue, exc,:ept Novodv,:r,:v, to whorn he was par-
ticularly devoted, an.d \vho e o:piuions i regard to all
-ubiects he a.cciepted as ico:,:ut irovertible truths.
Fo,:r woeu, o-u wh:im he look-ed as i hinudriuce iu all
important matter, he h;,d ian uncon'4uerable (coDnteimpt.
llowcver, he pitied Milh:ova, and was kind to her, seeing
in her an example of the exploitation, of the lower classes
by the higher. For the 4~.-rne reis-.on he did not like Nklih-
lydNI:v, was incnuiimunicative with him. aiud did rn:,t press
his hand, but only otf',re, his to be pressed, whenever
Nel;hlyudov, exchanged greetings with him.
THE stove burnt up brightly and warmed up the room;
the ten was steepe.1 -tad poured out in the glasses and
cup-. -tu.I whitened% with milk; there were spread out
.:i.:knels, trash rne and wheat bread, hard-boiled eggs,
butter, .-id a head and legs of veaL All moved up to the
place on th.- ..:unohe,. which was used as a table, and ate,
and rink, au,.l .inver-ed. Emiliya RAntsev sat on a box,
pouring out the lea. Around her stood in a crowd all the
others, except Krylts6v, who had taken off his short fur
coat and, wrapping himself in the dry plaid, was lying in
his place on the benches and talking with Nekhlyuidov.
After the cold and dampness during the march, after the
dirt and disorder which they had found here, after all
t bh, la boi rs they had to expend to get things into shape,
after taking food and hot tea,-all were in a most happy
and :heerful frame of mind.
The feeling of comfort was increased by the very fact
that be. 'Nnd the wall were heard the thumping, the cries,
anid the cur-'es of the criminals, as though to remind them
-if their surroundings. Just as at a halt in the sea, these
people ':for a time did not feel themselves overwhelmed by
all the Lhu ilations and all the suffering which surrounded
them, antd -o they found themselves in an elated and ani-
iiiatiedl imood. They spoke of everything, except of their
-itu.-Ation uid of what awaited them. Besides, as is always
the case with young men and women, especially when they
aie torcibly brought together, as were those collected there,
theie Ihl1 arisen among them all kinds of concordant, and
1ES UL.; ECTI N
discordant, .nld variu.uslyv interfring at.tra.:tio:ns t,:, each
other. They w:erc Le:trly ill of them iu love.
Nov',v.::..vWA was in love with ir-tty, m.,iling Mi-ss
Grablts. Mi;s; Gral.4t \a. a yvoiun -tiii:Ut Of the
Course. fi:,r Wutmen, n '.wh wa, ex':ee' in-41; little given to
thinking_ aul w1h:, was quite iudJitlerent to thhe quesition-
of the rev:l.ti:nu ; :,but -Lhe ul.imitte,.d to the infl;uner: ,.'f
the titue, in s,'l wa'y was. : L'inpro:i.. eai:l,a.'1 thu' .l -,p:.rti:il.
As when at larg the chv:f interest of her lift c:n.-i-:ted
in having s. .c.:cs with men, -lie c'ointinued.l thile -ime
methodJ- at the inquest. in prn~i:n, in .'xil:.. Now, tilring2
the jo',urney, -she f,:uund 'n.:latiu iu Nuvivhi,:v'. i1-
fatuati,:n f'-r hel, niaul herself fll in love with him.
Vyydr, Efi4Lu.'vnam, \whi was prince t,:i fall in l've blt ilid
not in,.ite lIv:.- to: herself, thigh hg alway- ho.:ped. for
recipro:.ati'-n, wa,. m liv,: now with Naib.it,.'v, and unw
with Nove:'lv...cv. There vas sometthin- in the natuIre of
love whi.:h Kryltcrv (_It f,.-r M.irya PvI-,:vua. H.: l:,ve'-I
her as m:-n lve w,.mu, bIlt, kn.,:wiun her attitu.l-d t,:%,i,.ar
love, bh:- artf',lly eni:,i.e' hi- [eli4.in ui'hler the : cloak of
friend.-hip anud gatitui.le, fu.r th,:- tend,:r care whi.:h -h
bestowed up i:on hiru. Nal.,,tc.v and Eiriliya l-oLit:tev were
united ly v'.ry :o':mpln-,: love telati.un. As Mairya Piv-
lovna was in ail..ul.tely .hlaste- irl, s Emiliva 'aiutccv
was an al.,slut:ely ,.hasti -'wite.
At Lxt,.:n year: f a-.e, vihil-e till iu the gyiAna-
sium, -he fell in I.:v\'e with r[:.iLnte. a -tulI.nt o'f the
St. P'ter-l.inr' U[iver ity, inDl, when ntWete. n y-.u cl.hl,
she mnarri.d-J him, while he was still attenilin; the uni-
versi:y. Iu his seui'ir year hl wa- nuixed up in ,ome
univer ity allair, for which he: wa.- exl. elle. fri.rm St.
Peter-lburg, aun.l I.:am: a r,.'v:lrti,:niCt. She left her
medical :i.r-es, whi.:h -he was atteunlin., f.Ul.we.l him,
and herself tri..e revrIlui:ui't. If hbr hiil.andl had
not been the mau he wa she n.:usiiere'i him the,- l...;
and elevere-t .f all wmn s-.e \io:uld n:t have fallen in
love with him, and, not loving him, she would not have
married him. But having once fallen in love with and
married the best and cleverest man in the world, as she
thought, she naturally understood life and its aims pre-
cisely as they were understood by the best and cleverest
man in the world. At first he conceived life to be for
study, and so she understood life in the same sense. He
became a revolutionist, and so she became one. She
could prove very well that the existing order was impos-
sible, and that it was the duty of every man to struggle
with this order and to endeavour to establish that polit-
ical and economic structure in which personality could
develop freely, and so forth. She thought that those
were actually her ideas and feelings, but in reality she
only thought that everything which her husband thought
was the real truth, and she sought only for a complete
concord, a merging with the soul of her husband, which
alone gave her moral satisfaction.
Her parting from her husband and from her child,
whom her mother took, was hard for her. But she bore
this separation bravely and calmly, knowing that she
bore it all for her husband and for the cause which was
unquestionably the true one, because he served it. She
was always in thought with her husband, and, as she had
before been unable to love anybody, so she now was
unable to love any one but her husband. But Nabatov's
pure and devoted love touched and disturbed her. He,
a moral and firm man, the friend of her husband, tried to
tie:ai h.er as a sister, but in his relations with her there
rq.'ll.: ':i somethingg greater, and this something greater
fi:ht.:L.:..l them both and, at the same time, beautified
thleir hai,.l life.
Thuli, the only ones who were completely free from
any intatuation were Marya Pavlovna and Kondrdtev.
CI-'ONTING O1D A sept.e ':ou:versti with Katycsha
after the ':ommnon tea .Wud suppr, u,:h as hbe had Ih'l
oU pr'.vi.:,us ,:..: :i'ns., Ne:khlytidov -it neir Krylt-Ov and
talked with him. Amoug other things, hb told bhim of
Maklii's iequst i.l d the story of his crime. Kiylts.5v
lih-tened att,:utiv'ly, fixing his beanting eyes :un Nekkh-
l li,.iv's faca .
** Y ie," -. sudd-enly sai:l. '- I have frequently 1be,,en
thinking that we, .ire going with them, id.e by side with
them,-with vhat tlim ? with th'e sanim pe :'ple for
wh.mn %\e r go.in" into exile. And yet, we not only do
uot know tlihe-m, 'ult Ceve .n d not wish to knovw theu.
And they -ire even worse: they h.ait us and regird us as
th>:ir en'- ie.-a This is terrible."
"There: is nothing telrille in thiU." siid No,:,vdv5rov,
v. hbo w. i listening to the, conver-ation. "The Luasses
alwa,, worship pl',wer," he said, in his t.latterinog voice.
li't: govern -ent i, in power, i.nd the)' worship it ind
hate us; to-muoirr.,w we shall be in ,,ower,-and they
will worship u11 -"
Just then an o:'utburt of curses wi. he -irI beyondI the
wAll, and the thud .:.t people hurled against the will,
the ',i.-uiking ', ':haius, whining, and sihoutI. Sojmelbody
w-i- being bie.at-en, and -omrjeb:,":Jy reiAl '- He:lp I' "
There they are, th, b-a-..ts! Wii.t '?o1imujniUn can
there le betw een them aund us quietly remt rketl
No,'.:. v o,,: D v.
.. You Saiy beasts ? And here Nekblydidov ha- ju .t
told ate of an act," Krvltsiv Stid, irritated, ani:l told te
story of how Makir had risked his life in order to save a
countryman of his. "This is not bestiality, but a heroic
Sentimentality !" ironically said Novodv6rov. It
is hard for us to understand the emotions of these
people and the motives of their acts. You see mag-
nanimity in it, whereas it may only be envy for that
You never want to see anything good in others,"
MArya Pivlovna suddenly remarked, in excitement.
It is impossible to see that which is not."
How can you say there is not, when a man risks a
terrible death ? "
I think," said Novodvorov, that if we want to do
our work, the first condition for it is" (Kondratev left
the book which he was reading at the lamp, and atten-
tively listened to his teacher) not to be given to fancies,
but to look at things as they are. Everything is to be
done for the masses, and nothing to be expected from
them. The masses are the object of our activity, but
they cannot be our colabourers, as long as they are as
inert as they are," he began, as though giving a lecture.
" Therefore it is quite illusory to expect aid from them
before the process of development has taken place, that
process of development for which we are preparing
"What process of development ?" Krylts6v exclaimed,
gri:wing red in his face. "We say that we are against
arI.,itrarin,'v, and despotism, and is not this the most
appalling despotism ?"
There is no despotism about it," Novodv6rov calmly
replied. All I say is that I know the path over which
the people rmudt travel, and I can indicate this road."
But why are you convinced that the path which you
indicralt i, the true one ? Is this not despotism, from
which ha've resulted the Inquisition and the executions of
the :reat Revoluti.n ? They. too. knew from science the
only tLiJ':, path."
Tthe tnact that they were mistaken '.los n..t prove that.
I am, too. H',iles, there is a gr
the ra.V .g ,..t ide':.l'.:ists and the '.lat: of positive :- .'?:n. mi:
N,:v\:,"lv,'r',:,v' voice tilled the cell. He al'Dne was
-ak;ikug. '-i,.l everybol.:.y ele:- w -. silent.
SThe-y always di.-iute." Nail. M.rya Pil''vna, when he
grew silent tIr m*.m.-nt.
\V WIhat ,.1i v,_.u yv.urself think about it ? NeklhlyiM.loA
aia-,Il M iryn P''vl,:vna.
I think that Anat.'1i is right. that it i- imtp.-.ible to
obtru.le our liews on the peop'le:-."
Well, an'd you, Katyti -h :" Nekhlytil.lv asked, :miil-
ing tluilly waiting, for her answer, with wuicgiviu s lest
she ;ay s''methin. wr,.nnD.
'" I think tli it the *:ounon people are malt.re-tte.l," she
sail, flmaini ul ; up they are d.Irea'ltully maltr'ate.l."
"Correct, M1kh.;.yl'vn', :corr'::ct," :ri,.l Na lt'.'v. "The
people are .Ire,.ld'ully waltreated. Th-.y mu't not not and
it is our ibusim-.i t':' .ee that they are ,ot."
- A ;tran'e ,::', n'-ptic.n alout the prol.'leLm-s .'f the rev-
'l!utio,u." .ii..1 Nov,'.Iv'.'.tv, gro:,wing silent al ang-rdy
sruoking a : igarette.
I ciunut speak with him," Krylts'v jaid, in a whis-
per, InI greCw -i--lnt.
It. is much better not to -peak," S.il N-kblvy'.lIv.
ALTHOUGH Nov,:dv6rov was very much respected by
all the rtvolutioni-ts and passed for a very clever man,
Nekhly d.ii:v c::u ijte' I him among those revolutionists who,
sta.'u'lJug by thtir moral qualities below the average, were
very mu'::h below it. The mental powers of this man-
his numceat:,r-wEre very great; but his own opinion
about himself his denominator was unbounded and
had long ago outgrown his mental powers.
He was a man of a diametrically different composition
of spiritual life from Simons6n. Simons6n was one of
those men, of a preeminently masculine turn, whose acts
flow from the activity of their minds, and are determined
by them. But Novodv6rov belonged to the category of
men, of a preeminently feminine turn, whose activity
of mind is directed partly to the realization of the aims
posited by their feelings, and partly to the justification of
their deeds evoked by their feelings.
Novodv6rov's whole revolutionary activity, in spite of
his ability eloquently to explain it by conclusive proofs,
presented itself to Nekhlydidov as based only on vanity,
on a desire to be a leader among men. Thanks to his
al.lity tv' appropriate the, ideas of others and correctly to
tranruiiit thimii, In: was at first a leader, during the period
', his studi,-. am.,ng his teachers and fellow students,
whr:.-r,; this :d.,hIty i hiiglly valued,-in the gymnasium,
iu the uiii'.er:ity, aui while working for his master's
degr:-. an li he w-"ts satisfied But when he received
hi;s d.li[p.ia 3ar st',:pp,.1, studying, and this leadership
came. to an ,end, he su.lenly, so Krylts6v, who did not
like Nv.,dv,.rov, told Nekhlydtii'v, completely changed
his Mews, aud from a pr,.greF ive liberal becaame a rabhid
adherent of the Popular WVill. Thiuks to the absence in
his character of moral and aesthetic qualities, which call
forth doubts and wavering, he soon occupied in the rev,-
lutiouay world the p.:i;tion of a leader of the party,
whii:h satiktied his egotism.
II.ivingj. o':nce and for all tch,'sen his direction, he never
ditilted n,'r wavered, and theref.ire lhe was convinced
that he was never in error. Everything seemed unusu-
ally simple, A:lear, incontrovertible. And, in reality, with
the narrow nes; and ,iie-CidednelLs ,t hi- vie s, every-
thing was simple and :leair, nid all that was neces-ary,
as he said, was to be logical. His self-i:o:nfidence wais so
great that it could only repel people or subdue them.
And as his activity was. displaved among very young puo-
ple, who acI:epted his bt:oundless self-confidence f,,r depth
of thought and widoti., he had a great success in rev:olu-
tiuary cilclee. His activity i .:.,nited in preparing for
ant uprising, hen lie would take the government in his
hand, and would call a popular pailiameut. To this par-
liament was to be submitted a prg,,raiime which he had
couimpoied. He wis ab.ssolutely convinced that this pro-
gra-imme exhausted all the questions, and that it had to
be carried iiut without fail.
His companiOns respected him fr hi' boldness and
determination, but did not lo,:ve him. He himself did not
lv:'e anybl.dy, and lookedd upon all prominent people as
his ri',als; he would gladly have tieated them as male
monkeys treat, the young ones, if he could. He would
have torn out all the mind, all the ability from other pen-
ple, sothat they might not interfere with the uwani'esta-
tion of his own ability. He was in g-ood relation; with
onlv such peo.:ple s bowed down before him. In such
a manner he ..,bore himself, n the road, toward the
workman Kondrdtev, who had been galmed for the propa-
ganda by him, and toward Vy4ra Efremovna and pretty
Mi-ss Grabi.ts, both :'of whom were in love with him.
Th,:.ugh by principl lihe was for the woman question, yet,
in the depth ot his sUl, he regarded all women as stupid
and insignificant, with the exception of those with whom
he fiequeutly was sentimentally in love, as now with
Mi:si Grabets, and in that case he considered them to be
unusual women, whose worth he alone was capable of
The question about the relation of the sexes, like all
other questi.Ans, seemed very simple and clear to him,
and was fully solved by free love.
He had on.e fititi:ious and one real wife; he had sepa-
rated from the latter, having become convinced that there
was no real love between them, and now he intended to
enter into a new free marriage with Miss Grabets.
He despised Nekhlyuidov for being finical" with Mds-
lova, as he called it, and especially for allowing himself to
think about the faults of the existing order and about the
means for its improvement, not only not word for word
as he himself did, but even in a special, princely, that is,
stupid, manner. Nekhlyudov knew that Novodv6rov had
this feeling toward him, and, to his own sorrow, he felt
that, in spite of the benevolent mood in which he was
during his journey, he paid him with the same coin, and
le was quite unable to isuppress his strong antipathy for
IN the neighbouring cell were heard voices of the
authorities. Everything grew quiet, anid immediately
afterward th,:- under-ottc-cr enter-ed with two guards.
This was the roll-call. The under-,ticer counted all,
poujting his singer .t each person. When it came to:)
Ne-kblyid.v's turn, he said. with ,:,iod-hearted famnilhrity :
Now, priuc'-, after the roll-call you ,:au't rewaim here
any lon.iter. You must leave."
N':-hlyuidov krnew what tlis meant, and so he went up
to him and put three r:.uble., whi:h h- had held ready,
into bis hand.
Well, what can I d.:. with you ? Stay awhile longer!"
The uuder-otficer wanted to leave, when ariother iiunder-
otficer entered, aud after him a tall, leau prisoner with
a bla:k eye: and scant beard.
I :oe- to see about the girl," said the prisoner.
-Here is father," wa.is sudldenly he.-id a rmelodious
child's; vice, and a bloInd-haired.l little head rose bLack of
Mrs. l:iutsev, who'. with Mairya P.ivlovna auld Katyvdsha
was sewin,_' a new dress for the chill from a skirt which
she herself had onlered for the purpose.
I. daughter. I," tenderly caid I-;u.6vkin.
She is :otfortable here," said Mhirvy P.ivlovua, cotm-
passionately lookintig into Luz,7'v'kiu's Wuauled fa10ce. Leave
her here with u;l "
**The ladies are seeing a new .arrment for me." said
the .irl, showinzj her father Mrs. Ra'ints-ev's work. It is
nice, -a red one," she liped.
.. Do you want to stay overnight with us?" asked
Mrs. l-iutsev, stroking the girl.
Yes And father, too."
Mrs. RIntsev beamed with a smile.
Father can't," she said. So leave her here," she
turned to her father.
"Please leave her," said the roll-call under-officer,
stopping in the door and going away with the other
The moment the guards left, NabAtov went up to
Buz6vkin and, touching his shoulder, said:
Say, friend, is it true that Karminov wants to change
Buz6vkin's good-natured, kindly face suddenly became
sad, and his eyes were covered by films.
We have not heard. Hardly," he said, and, without
losing the films over his eyes, he added : Well, Aksyiitka,
have a good time with the ladies," and hastened to go out.
"He knows everything, and it is true that they have
exchanged," said Nabatov. What are you going to do
about it ?"
I will tell the authorities in town. I know them
both by sight." said Nekhlyiddov.
Everybo'ly was silent, apparentlyy fetiring th, renew-d
of the Jdispute.
Simoul'6n, vh,, had all the time beeu lying in sileuce
in .- corner of the bench,:s, with his firms thrown back :.f
his hoead,, rose with de.termiiu.itionu a.n, :.irefully w.ilkmg
arouu.l those who weie sitting up, went up tv Nekh-
Gi Can you listen to me now ?"
Of :,:.ure," sail Nekhllyiihlov, getting up in order to
Lookinug at Ne.khlyti.lov. is he was getting up. and her
eyeS meeting his, KNat; d.ha grew red in her face and shook
her he.,l, as though itn doubt.
-' This is whlt I have to say," began Simnoundo, when
he bhal reached the corridor with Nekhlyddov. Iu the
curridlor the di and the explosion of:,f the prisoIJnr'
voices were quite audible. Nekhlytidov frowned at them,
but Sijmion-i< was evidently not disturbed by them.
.. Knowing of your ri-latitn-D with Katerina:: Mikbiy-
lovua," hc begou, loo'kiug with his kindly eves -trailht at
Nekhlytidov's c,:'untenance, I counider it Iy duty," he
continued, but wa, c,,ir pclleili to stcp, b,-cauLl ne'_ar the
door two \'oice, were, quarreliugn about something, shouting
"' I am tellin-' you, dummy, it is unot mine.," cried one
SCL.'ke your-elf, devil," the tther exclaimed, hoaie ely.
.IJut then Mlitva P'vl..vna came out into the corridor.
"- How c.-n you talk her.?," qhe -.-id. -- Go in here.
Theie is none :.ut VL'vra theic." And -he walked ahead
imnt: the adji':iiuin dtin 'ot of a tiny -ig'le celU, which was
now turned 'ov.:r to the ut: c.f the political women. On
the benches, cver:,ing up her bead, lay Vyra Efritemvna.
She bha me.'triu. She i- a-leep aud dues not hear;
and I will ,o out," said Mrarya Pdvlo vna.
(. Oij the contrary, you may ctay," Said Siniont'n. I
have rt secrets firom auybo:dy, least of all from you."
All ri'lt," 'iid, Mr rya P.ivl:O na, and iii childi-h
fashion moving h.r wb.hlc b.ody from ide to i ide. and
with this moitin rece.din- faithet and farther on thb
benrichel slih- *,ot reidy t.. listed, looking with her beautiful
sheep ',y:s ':ni': where into tlih- distance.
*So this is what I have to ary." repeated Simotnsn.
" Knowing; your relation with Katcrn a Mikhia lovan, I
cotuider it my duty to inforim yuu of my relations with her."
Well, what ik it acked Nckhl'i.vldov. involuntarily
ad'mirinu, the siimplicity and truthfUitlnel s with which
Simi'n ',n spoke t.. him.
- I -should ke to marry Katerina Mlikhylcna "
-- W'oudeiful" said M6rya P6vlovna, resting her eyes
and I have decided to ask her about it, to
become my wife," continued Simons6n.
What can I do here ? This depends upon her," said
"Yes, but she will not decide this question without you."
"Because, as long as the question of your relations with
her is not definitely solved, she cannot choose any-
From my side the question is definitely solved. I
wished to do that which I regarded as my duty, and,
besides, I wanted to alleviate her condition, but under no
consideration do I wish to exert any pressure."
"Yes, but she does not wish your sacrifice."
"There is no sacrifice whatsoever."
"But I know that this decision of hers is unshakable."
"Why, then, should you speak with me ?" said Nekh-
"She must be sure that you accept the same view."
"How can I say that I must not do that which I con-
sider my duty to do ? All I can say is that I am not
free to do as I please, but she is."
Simoucu' u was sileut for .awhile, lost in thought.
. Very vell, I will tell htr so. Don't imagine that I
amr in l,;I inth hb:r," be continued. "I love her as
a b.eutiiul, rare per.c .:.u who has suffered much. I want
nothing from her, but I am very anxious to help her, to
alleviat.: her con- "
Nekhlyd'.lov was surprised to hear Simons6n's voice
- to allevitt, her condition," continued Simons6n.
" If she do:,'3 not want to.: accept your aid, let her accept
minLe. If slhei.onsent.ed to it, I should petition to be sent
into xile- with her. Four years are not an eternity. I
s.ho.:uld be living near her, and might be able to ease her
fate- He again st[i[pped fr...ni agitati.:in.
- What shall I say ?" sa.i:l Nekhly6,d..v. ** I am glad
she ha. fo.:und sut.h a pritet.:'r in yo''u "
.. It is Lhi5s whi.h I watitel. to. find :ut." *:ontinueil
Sirijnsin. I w.inted to:. know whether, in Iovingr her
and .lwishing her ......."l. y.u woiuli regard .ls gi:nd her mar-
ryii me ? "
- Why, ve.," Nekhlyidl,-v said, with determimati,_n.
I am c.:inc'erne,.d only al.b-ut her. I want to: se', thi.
alering siul ,t rest," .m a lM Sitm:.ns.n, I:.oking at Nekhlyti-
.1o: with chilish teniderne',', such as r::iuil ,I h.irily have
been expecte'l :Now a luau *:t such gl:]i:my as.pe':t.
Sm,_si- n ari-..:e ani.i, takin'. Nekhlydi.l.v by the handl,
drew his fa.,e ti:.waird him, ituiih.il sh inefa.:edly, and ki.-se,:
I will tell her S-o." he said, going out.
WELL, I declare," said Marya Pavlovna. "He is in
love, just in love. I should never have expected Vladi-
mir Simonsdn to fall in love in such a stupid and boyish
way. Wonderful! To tell you the truth, it pains me,"
she concluded, with a sigh.
How about Katyisha ? How do you think she looks
upon it ?" asked Nekhlyutdov.
"She ?" Marya Pavlovna stopped, apparently wishing
to reply to the question as precisely as possible. She ?
You see, notwithstanding her past, she is by nature one of
the most moral persons and her feelings are refined -
She loves you, loves you well, and is happy to be able
to do you at least the negative good of not getting you
entangled through herself. For her, marrying you would
be a terrible fall, worse than her former fall, and so she
will never consent to it. At the same time your presence
Well, then I had better disappear ?" said Nekhlyd-
M6rya PTvlovna smiled her sweet, childlike smile.
"How can I disappear partly ?"
"I have told you nonsense. But I wanted to tell you
about her that, no doubt, she sees the absurdity of his so-
called ecstatic love (he does not tell her anything), and
she is flattered and afraid of it. You know, I am not
competiut in thelb:: matters, but it seems to me that on his
sid,? it iq nrLthliin buit the common male sentiment, even
though it b.e marked. He says that this love increases his
energy, mnd that it is a Tplatonik love. But I know this
muIL',h, that if it is in excepti',n:idl l.ve, at the base I :.f
it lie; the .-ame nastiness,--as with Novadvr:rov und
Ly db.c hka."
MdAry.a i Ivl:u- was departing fom the question, hav-
ing struck her fav,-urite theme.
u But what :rim I to do.? asked Nekhlyuid.-,v.
I think you ought to tell her. It is always better to
bive everything ,'lear. Talk with her! I will tall her.
D. Yviou want me to ? ssail Mlryva Paivlovna.
If you please." said Nekhlyuiduv, and IMlirya Pivl:'vna
A ;tranige feeling came ,:over NekhlyvdJ.v, when he was
left :almne in the small cell, listening to the quiet breath-
ing, rnow and then interrupted by the groans Af Vyr-t
Etr,'m-.vna, an.I t.he jiin of the criminals, whi,'h wa.s heard
witlh:iit interruption bevuindi tw.-i loors.
Wh.at Sim,,nsu had told hium freed him from the obli-
gation which he hai assLinmed .andi which, in i..imnents of'
weakn,-ss, hli appeared haril and strange to him, ani yet
he n,..t only had an unpleasant, but even a painful, sens.a-
tion. This feeling w-is united with another, which re-
minded himr that Simonsi.i's pr.ipos-ition dlestr,'yed the
singilarity of hi; deedl and diminished in his .,wn eye.s .tnd
in those of others the v.'lue of the sacrifice whi-:h he was
bringing: if a man, such a gi.]d a.in, who was not bound
to her by any ties, wimhed to unite his fate with hers, his
sz(criliee w- i not 3 so important, after all. There was also,
n" doubt, the simple feetlilng of jealousy : he was sO used
to h.er love for him that he could not admit the possi-
bility of her loving .-iiiyl",-ly else. There was also the
de;t ruction of the plan which he had fIorrameid.- to live by
her side a.s lo:Ln .ts she had to suffer puni-:hment. If she
wa: to) marry Siminsin, his p[re'en,.ce, wnuld hlecoime super-
fluous, ;rid he would have to form a, new plan for his
He had not yet succeeded in disentangling all his feel-
ings, when through the opened door broke the intensified
din of the criminals (there was something special going on
there), and Katyiisha entered the cell.
She walked over to him with rapid steps.
MArya PTvlovna has sent me to you," she said, stopping
close to him.
Yes, I must speak with you. Sit down! Vladimir
IvAnovich has been speaking with me."
She sat down, folding her hands on her knees, and
seemed to be calm, but the moment Nekhlyuidov pro-
nounced Simons6n's name, she flushed red.
What did he tell you ?" she asked.
He told me that he wanted to marry you."
Her face suddenly became wrinkled, expressing suffer-
ing. She said nothing, and only lowered her eyes.
He asks for my consent or advice. I told him that
everything depended upon you, -that you must decide."
Ah, what is this ? What for ? she muttered, look-
ing into Nekhlyuidov's eyes with that strange, squinting
glance, which had a peculiar, strong effect upon him.
They looked into each other's eyes in silence for a few
seconds. This glance spoke much to both of them.
"You must decide," repeated Nekhlyidov.
"What am I to decide ?" she said. Everything has
been decided long ago."
No, you must decide whether you accept Vladimir
Ivnnovich's proposition," said Nekhlyiidov.
What kind of a wife can I, a convict, make ? Why
should I ruiu Vladimir Ivanovich's life, also? she said,
'* ut 3upposte .you should be pardoned?" said Nekh-
Oh. leave me in peace There is nothing else to say,"
she said, and, rising, weut out of the room.
WHFN Nuekhlyud.'_v followed K'ty'i-hal t the tie -ill,
all were in grei-t ,git'atin. Nalato v who walked about
evi-t where, who entered into relations with .everyl::-dy.
wvho obeived evwrythiug. had i.1 r.iou ht a tpiee of Liew
-whi.:-h tirrel them .ill. This news wsi that he hi-'.I fo:ind
ona uit.i On the wall, v.ritt,n ., revolutionist 1-'tliu. who
had Icen -r entenuCed to haldi l;Ial::our. Ever; I l..ody had -up-.
pl:o:-d thit P-'tliu had long i.-eet at K ira. rind row it
appe.,tei. that he h.i-i but Jately pa-'ised over thiz roail,
aluODg with tbe rllinutl'-.
On Au'-.itn 17th," -io ran the ,Lrote, I wa- cent out
all aloue. with the cr riinitl'. Noyvv'rov wa- with IJuC,
but he hauged hiiiself at Ka::i,t in the insane a nylnum.
I .itu well and in o. .d sp.irit. t.and hope: for the Ies:.t."
Eve:rybl.ody dilI:siii .l P'Itlin's couilition and the causes
of Nevvyrov's suic-ide. Krylt6.., however, kept 'ilerit,
v-ith i...riu:etratLed look, glat.h:iug ahead of him with his
arrestedil, vq.irklinz. eye,..
** My bhi iild told Lue that Nevyr'rov ha, hlid t visii,.u
-whilt locked up :it Petrop:ivlvl:," .said Mrs. lInt'ev.
Y--, da poet. a visionary, u.:-h ,people .n:iuuot staud
.,olitity coniiiemeut." 'eL d Novldvtirov. .\--'teunvei I
vwa~ kept in -olitary courfinemncut, I did un..t allow my
imagimnation to work, Init arranQ.-d imy timhe in the most
:vytemiati.: mauner. F.,i this rea.?on I lhore it well."
..** hy i._.t bear it ? I u-ed to 1ie ~o h',appy when I was
locked up:,." aid N;aiJtov, with vi\ai.:ty, apparently wish-
ing t,: diipel gliooWy thought.. *' I u-ed t., .,e fr.tid that
I 4-hould be caught, that I should get .l.thers mixed up.
R E- U RRECTION
and that I should spoil the cause; but the moment I was
locked up, all responsibility stopped: I could take a rest.
All I had to do was to sit and smoke."
"Did you know him well ?" asked Mirya Phvlovna,
looking restlessly at the suddenly changed, drawn face of
Nevy6rov a visionary ?" suddenly said Krylts6v, chok-
ing, as though lie had been crying or singing long.
" Nevydrov was a man such as the earth does not bear
often, as our porter used to say. Yes. He was a man of
crystal, you could see through him. Yes. He not
only could not tell a lie, he did not even know how to
feign. He was more than thin-skinned: he was all lacer-
ated, so to speak, and his nerves were exposed to view.
Yes. A complex, a rich nature, not such Well, what
is the use of talking ?" He was silent for a moment. We
would be discussing what was better," he said, with a
scowl, first to educate the people, and then change the
forms of life, or first to change the forms of life, and then
how to struggle, whether by peaceful propaganda, or by
terrorism. We would be discussing. Yes. But they did
not discuss matters. They knew their business. For
them it was all the same whether dozens and hundreds
of men, and what men, would perish. Yes, Herzen has
said that when the Decembrists were removed from the
circulation, the level was lowered. How could they help
lowering it! Then they took Herzen and his contempo-
raries out of circulation. And now the Nevy6rovs "
They will not destroy all of them," said Nabatov, in
his vivacious voice. There will be enough left to breed
No, there will not be, if we pity them," said Kryltsdv,
raising his voice and not allowing himself to be inter-
rupted. Give me a cigarette !"
"It is not good for you, Anatdli," said MArya Pavlovna.
"Please, don't smoke!"
Oh, leave nm. inl peace," he said, angrily, lighting a
cigarette. He soon b:.-ga to. cough, and he looked as
though he were g.'iung to:, vouuit. He spit out and con-
tin aeil :
We did not do the right thing. We ought not to
have beeu discussing, but bauding together to destroy
'. But they are men, too," said Nekhlyddov.
No, they are not men,-those who cau do what they
are doing. They say they have invented l.,ul,-i andi
balloons. We ouu._ht to rise in the air in these ialloonQ
and pour down l::ml.,s on them as on bIedlugs. until t'ot
one A: them is left. Yes. Decaue --" he began, I..ut
he grew led in his face and couched even more than
before, and thr I'lood ru Thed out of his month.
Nabittov ran out for some snow. ML;.rya .i'vlo\ua
took out some v.alenau drop-. ajnd offered them to him,
but he, with :losue eyes, pushed her away with his white,
lean hand, and breathed heavily d-i rap.illy. When the
snow and cold water had 'given him some relief, and he
was put to bed for the night, Nekhlyuidov bade everybody
good-bye and went toward the door %%ith the under-othcer,
who had come fon him and had been ,aiLinL' for him
quite Ua bile.
The CLriiinalk wee now quieted dIown, and most of
them 'weie .sleep.. AlthouuLh the people in the cells
were lyin oun the bench,:.- and beneath thr benches and
in the aisles, they could nut all find a place, a.id soome of
them liy on the foor of the corridor. ha\int-, placed their
bag- under their head and their damp cloaks over them.
Thr.,ugh the d:o:, of the cells and in the corridor could
be heard suc'iing, gloauns, and sleepy cO-uversation. Every-
where could be seen masses of human htgures, covered
with their cloaks. A few meu iu the bachelor criminal
cell weie unot asleep: they were seated around a dip,
which they extinguished when they saw the soldier. In
the corridor, under the lamp, an old man was sitting up,
naked, and picking off the vermin from his shirt. The
foul air of the quarters of the political seemed fresh in
comparison with the close stench which was spread here.
The smoking lamp appeared as though through a fog, and
it was hard to breathe. In order to make one's way
through the corridor, without stepping on any of the
sleepers or tripping up, it was necessary first to find a
clear spot ahead and, having placed the foot there, to find
a similar spot for the next step. Three people, who
apparently had been unable to find a place even in the
corridor, had located themselves in the vestibule near
the stink-vat, where the foul water moistened their very
clothing. One of these was a foolish old man, whom
Nekhlyidov had frequently seen on the marches; another
was a ten-year-old boy: he lay between the two pris-
oners, and, putting his hand under his chin, was sleeping
over the leg of one of them.
Upon coming out of the gate, Nekhlyudov stopped and,
expanding his chest to the full capacity of his lungs, for
a long time intensely inhaled the frosty air.
TRF. tar-, hbad come ,ut. Over the crusted rnud,
whin-h nly i spots broke thr.,rugh. Nekhilyhiiv leturniE.l
tl:' his inn. He kri.i:-keitd k it the d"Iiik wiudo. and tilhe
l'ii-,a'l-lii:,ldi -lel 'er\'vanirit in hi: I.are feet opened the d,..i'r
for hitr aind let hir, Int,, the ve-til.jul,. On the iicht
baud.l of the -vetilbule ':'uld 1' beard the isnriting: of the
drivers in the servant-roomi: ; it fturiot. I:,eyni1 the d,:,r,
wac heard the -h-wing 't oats I.Y a ior- ri uril:'er ':.f
h:.r-es in the yard. On the 1-ft. a d":'r led ti:, the :leau
gue.t- r:":.ii. The'- clean gut-,:,:m .itaelleJ i:f w,:irw:.,:
anld sweat, and beyond a pattitiuni wac, heard the eve-n
su.d-:m," sn','re ,.,f ':rjne muiity lung.'. and a led ,glas
biiurnt a lami in fro:ut i:4 the itr:xae'-. Ne-khl]vYd.lo:iv un-
dre-edil himself, -spreadl 1i-. plaid o:n tlhe wa::-e: lth <-ta,
ad, j'st"e his leather apill 'w, and lay d:own miunt,lly run-
nilng :-ve all het d ad heard and seen .:,n that dlay. Of
everythirr.g he h.I .- seeu, the I,..'-t teinille a.ippearel to hi rn
the sight of their l:.oy ileepirei in the foul puddle formed I.y
the stink-vrt, 1.y plhaciri.- hi hea-d on the prisoner.
Iti spit-e 'f the uiexpectedij2s al.ld illl, -itante o -fhi
even i:',..nvert..-ti,.n with Siruon-'
did' no:t dw-ell .:n that eveA-nt: hi relati,,o to:, it was too
:,i:UJple:; anid, Ies.-ide:,, 0 indefiuite, anLil therefore he kept
all thou-hbt uf it away fr,_,u hiu-iell. But -..,. rIuh tihe
u-r'e' vil-idly hbe thiouliht ,if the [pecitale i:f thb.'e- unfiir-
I tuate 1:,ein, s. whi:, v. re strangli u2 ini the foul at mnj:,sphere
arid who were v.walli:v.in,_. in the liLui' whiih i.......i:i. out
from tie -tink-vat, and. especially, of the ib-vy wiith the
inn,:,,c.ent fac:e, whvl:. wIas sleepin-, o:.n the prisoner's leg.
which did ui:,t leave hi. mirui.
To know that somewhere far away one set of people
to'rturc another, subjecting them to all kinds of debauches,
irhiui himilinations, and suffering, or for the period of
three mnutbh continually to see that debauch and the
torture praitis-r1 by one't class of people on another, is
quite a liff'eit-ut thing. Nekhlyuidov was experiencing
this. Durin4f t[iest three months he had asked himself
more than ::nc-: Am I insane because I see that which
others 'd.. not s:e, or are those insane who produce that
which I see ?" But the people (and there were so many
of them) produced that which so bewildered and terrified
him with such quiet conviction that it must be so, and
that that which they were doing was an important and
useful work, that it was hard to pronounce all these people
insane; nor could he pronounce himself insane, because
he was conscious of the clearness of his thoughts. Con-
sequently he was in continuous doubt.
What Nekhlyuidov had seen during these three months
presented itself to him in this form: from all people who
are living at large, by means of the courts and the admin-
istratio:n, are selected the most nervous, ardent, excitable,
gifted., and strong individuals, who are less cunning and
"i,.-uitiJs than the rest, and these people, not more guilty
:Or more dangerous to society than those who are at
liberty, are locked up in prisons, halting-places, and mines,
whele they are kept for months and years in complete
i ilne.s33 and material security, and removed from Nature,
hfmily, and labour, that is, they are forced outside all the
conditions of a natural and moral human existence. So
much in the first place. In the second place, these people
,i'e in these e-tablishments subjected to all kinds of
uIneic:ary humniliati:n,-to chains, shaven heads, and
dihgraciug attir,:-, that is, they are deprived of what is,
for weak peo..le, th.- chief motor of a good life,-of the
ire- of human *::piuiui, of shame, of the consciousness of
lumanu dignity. In the third place, being continually
RESU .P ECTTON
silnjei:ct to the pe ilc '-f lift, nOt Lt:, mention the exc'ep-
tio.n:al :'asf- of suustr-.ke. dro nvin., tirin-, of the %ever-
pre-eut e,-'nt:rgio'_ls .lis~a.-iaes in, the plates Iof -onfinemniiut.
it eX:Ihautiou. a.nd -,t eiitting-, tht:set pe,-1e ,are all the
ti1ne in that co nud]itio,. when the l.b. t and:l .-t imoral
iuj-i, trim-, a- feeling :f seI-l.-re-rvtlou. cm -,:inuits -nd
."i doues the most terril-.le and c.ruel a-t -. In the t:urth
plac', these pio:'pl'e are t'ore:d t- have: i x: elusive: iDnt,:r,:oAlrCe
.ith di .'l.-lute ,e.:.pl': v.h:, h .Ive .u ,:: rru 1.te.'d by life.
au,.i eec.i.illy ly the-e very insttuti,:u-, -with mur-
d:-rer' anud villain, wh,,, as a leavin i-n the di-:,u.h, a.:t
,:.n .ll the others who. have nt y;et. I.-.- c:'mpletely
co:rrupte:td by the means employed against thlu. Aud.
at last. iu the fifth ilac:e, all the 1.,e.iple: h'- ire ulbj,-ted
t(c these iunliajeiuces .re, in the mis.t pli-rs uasive manner.
euc:.ir:-gd, by Lumeans of: aill kinds of inhuman acts -c:,m-
uitte:d iu re.-ard to themselve-. iy meaLs ,:,f the t,:irture
t chdren, w-menl, nd :od men, ot I'eatin_ and tfl'i:iing
with rods and strap;.. of ot'fering reward,: t: those whl:.
will gi.e ulip a.lite or dedil a fugitiLe, :f ceparating men
fr-,m their wives' and ci:none,-ting for co:ihabitatio:n stmri'ge
men with -tranue :imi.n, nit sh,:.-'tinu and h.angini.- they
are enoiur.giid in the wisot pIrsuasiv.. manun,.r to be'leive
that all kinds of vi.-,leuce, crueltyN. bI:estiality, are not (.lily
not forbid.lden but even permitted ly the g-v\'eunHje.nt,
wle.n it derives tny aidv'tDtagi. fr,-mi them, and that there-
fore they aLr: e s pei--itlly p.eruis.ible to: tho,-: whi are under
duress, Iu lmisery and want.
All thtes. inu-titutio'ns ce':nied to him toi have been
s pially Invelttd in order to: pr:oddiu:ce tile comparte't,
possible deba:uic.h and vice, such a; could nit be attained
iin..:lr any other :,'ouditioin, with the ftirther purpli.se in
view lati.r to disse-miiaLte the c-.'ml-act iel.naiaiih and vices
in their Ibroadest extent ainoutg the people. It. looks as
th':.ugh a ,probd-l:m had lbn-u put ho-w to ci-rrupt, the largest
possible nmiuber in the b.,-t anid surest manner." thought,
Nekhlyuidov, as he tried to get at the essence of jails and
prisons. Hundreds of thousands of people were every
year brought to the highest degree of corruption, and
when they were thus completely debauched, they were
let loose to carry the corruption, which they had acquired
in confinement, among the masses.
Nekhlyddov saw how this aim, which society had in
view, was successfully reached in the prisons of Tyimen,
Ekaterinbirg, and Tomsk, and at the halting-places.
People, simple, common people, brought up in the tenets
of Russian social, Christian, peasant morality, abandoned
these conceptions and acquired new prison ideas, which
consisted mainly in the conviction that every outrage and
violation of the human personality, every destruction of
the same, was permissible whenever it was advantageous.
People, who had lived in the prisons, with all their being
came to see that, to judge from what was being done to
them, all the moral laws of respect and compassion for
man, which had been preached by religious and moral
teachers, were, in reality, removed, and that, therefore,
there was no need for holding on to them. Nekhlyidov
saw this process in all the prisoners whom he knew: in
FNdorov, in MakAr, and even in Taris, who, having passed
two months with the convicts, impressed Nekhlyiidov by
the immorality of his judgments. On his way, Nekhlyuidov
learned that vagabonds, who run away to the TAyga,
persuade their comrades to run with them, and then kill
them and feed on their flesh. He saw a living man who
was accused of it, and who acknowledged this to be true.
Most terrible was the fact that these were not isolated
cases, brut of common occurrence.
Only by a special cultivation of vice, such as is carried
on in these institutions, could a Russian be brought to
that condition to which the vagabonds are brought,
who have anticipated Nietzsche's doctrine and consider
nothing forbidden, and who spread this doctrine, at
first awiung the lpri-,i:ers, and later :an-:ung the pe.i.ple at
The .,uly expll::a .:.u : t all that ,hi._h was going ,:,u
was that it vwa. intendul, a an: abLat-:ie-mint of evil, a- a
threat, c.rrn:ctio:n, and legal r-trili.utiLo. DBut, in ri-ality,
their: wav not any -:-il:lance of aiNy O:f tihee thintg'z. Ijn-
stead 'A a l..atemeut. there was ,inly d. is- 0iuiati,'a 02 -f ': ri-its.
Inst-al ['f t-hreat., there was .inly ene.:.ir'I:Lenienut to,
criminal, many f4 wh.:.in as f.:.r e::aiple, the vaal.'ond. ,
voluntarily int.led the pi-.'.ui. In.:t.-ea,_l t ciricti r i, t hli-r-
was a -y-t,-f ,ati': ire.adlin, ,f .all the ice-:, while the
need i ic-tril.iuti..n was u.:,t only unt le-:-ne.dl biy -gverrj-
jenvtal prunishluLit, I-nit \wa ea t nurtur-id i ,-iian'1 th,-
,-an--,., wh,._e it di 11 not e :i -t l-tfo,:ri-.
\Why, thian. u, tl-y d.i. all thisu things :" NekhlYti,.lov
ask.:l hifnf'-lf, ian.: fia.d.l nI.: auns:we'-i.
What suiti.i-'s.- hiLu r,:.ost v.as that all this wia n..t
done at h-apha-ai.l, y mi.-tak-, iry:idii-ntally, l.ut ,:-ntin-
uou-ly, in the '.:'r'I.te .f *:utitri-es, with thL di-tin-ti'..u
only. that in t':'i-Aei days theLy h.ad their ji..isis slit and
their ear: ..it i..f, the-u, late-i, they wei e l.wir- l nil- anil I.i'at':n
with i.:,.-, and a',w they wtr,- iiana'a-led in'l transp.:tted.l
by st,-,na iinrt-a-,il i:if ,:.arts.
The redle-:tiou that th.it wvhi,.h i1r.i.ivi:ked him ori:A.inatJd,
as th.._,e er", ing in the.-e in- titnti-lns tl0. hint, in the
im p ti,.eac:t.i:,in ,t th, arran.,t_, nts at ti.: ,la',- (.,f P:,:ul ,.f.-
ment an.:l hle,:irta:,tii:, and th:It all thi ,:,tiMl Ihe ret.-iiled,
did unt -ati-fy N-el:hlydh.l I, l.i.-.au he ftlt that that
whi,:h Ipr.:iv.k-kl Iim hal Li'-thirtv t:o u with th-e u,-:,rc or
less pvrt'fect nrr:ani-jIi,-:-nt ,f thii plac- :,f -:..t iniuenieut.
H e hadl re-.d al..:.t perfe':-Ct'-d [ris.:.u with el-.tr, ic ll-:, i..f
ele.tl..ii.tio:un, rer,.A:ULLi.l..-il ly Taille,i aud thi- pjitctltedl
viol--tj.:te ifll.IIIli.I hilm :illy nl u re.
What iia.vti.l:i- Nekhlyaidli. wa-, mainly, l]:.aui e tLhre
were re-:illle in the ci.,ialts and t. uinitiei-, whol rec-.-i'.,-il
large salaiie-., ..iiille:ted fi-.m the ua'.,.-., for crijulting
books written by just such officials, with just such aims,
for classifying the acts of men who had violated the laws
which were written by them, according to certain articles,
and for sending these people, in accordance with these
articles, to places where they would never see them again,
and where these people, under full control of cruel, hard-
ened superintendents, wardens, and guards, perished
mentally and bodily by the million.
Having become closely acquainted with the prisons and
halting-places, Nekhlyddov noticed that all the vices
which are developed among the prisoners, drunkenness,
gambling, cruelty, and all those terrible crimes which are
committed by the inmates of the prisons, and even canni-
balism itself, are not accidents or phenomena of degenera-
tion, criminalism, and cretinism, as dull savants explain
it, playing into the hands of the governments, but the
inevitable result of the incredible error that people may
punish others. Nekhlyiidov saw that the cannibalism
did not begin in the Tayga, but in the ministries, com-
mittees, and departments, and was only accomplished in
the Tayga ; that his brother in law, for example, and
all the court members and officials, beginning with the
captain of police and ending with the minister, were not
in the least concerned about justice or the people's
weal, of which they spoke; and that they all wanted
only those roubles which they were paid for doing that
from which originated this corruption and suffering.
That was quite evident.
Is it possible all this has been done by mistake ?
Could there not be invented a means for securing a salary
for these officials, and even offering them a premium, pro-
vided that they should abstain from doing all that they
are doing ?" thought Nekhlyidov. With this thought,
after the second cock-crow, he fell into a heavy sleep, in
spite of the fleas which spirted around him as from a
fountain, every time he stirred.
WHEN Nekhlyidov awoke, the drivers had left long
ag,.,, the hostess: had had her tea. and, wiping her stout.
sweaty neck wnth her kern:hie, she came to inform him
that a soldier from the haltiung-place hadl brougLht him a
note. The note was from Marya Pavlovna. She wrote
that Krylt-slv's attack was mhOre serious than they hail
thought. "At otin time we wante]l to leave him and
stay with him, but that we were not alluweid to 'IL'. and so
we will take him along, but we fear the worst. Try to
arrange it so in the (:ity that, if he is to be left behind,
one .f us may stay with him. If, in oriner to anoi-
plish this, it is nece= ary for nme t.. marry him, I am. of
,course, ready to d :."
Nekhlv'idov .-ent the lad to the station for the horses and
at once began to pack. He ha.d not finished his second
glass of tea, when the stage trdyka, tinkling with it;
little b,-lls and rattling with its wheels on the frozen rnud
as on a p:av'enment, drove up' to the steps. Nekhlydov
paid his bill to tht st.,.ut-n,cked hosts'.. He hastened
t. go 'out, and, seating himself iu the wicker body iof the
,:art, o.rderted the driver to go as fast as pos-.ible, in order
to cat,:h up with the party. Not far from the gate of the
herding eudlosure be fell in ninth the carts which were
loaded with bags and sick people, and which rattled over
the tufty, frozen imud. The officer was not, there,-he
ha]d driven ahead. The soldiers, who had eidenrtly hail
some liquor, were chatting nerrily, walking behind and
on the sides o.,f the road.
There were many carts. In each of the front carts sat,
closely huddled together, about six feeble criminals; in