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Title: Annual report of the director
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1940/41
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Preceded by: Annual report of the executive director

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text




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AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION

Annual Report of the Director for 1940-41

PART I


IT IS inevitable in time of national
crisis that education should be con-
fused. Particularly is this true of adult
education by very reason of its nature,
for current events are shaped by adults.
Earlier in this series of reports it was
pointed out that education seldom leads
in matters pertaining to social organiza-
tion and reorganization, but that usually
it follows great ground swells of public
opinion. This procedure is precisely simi-
lar to that followed by government under
democratic forms. Both education and
government respond to, rather than lead,
public opinion. However, they react
with a greater degree of speed than is
commonly conceded. By and large, im-
portant changes in education and in gov-
ernment come after and not before the
progress of public thinking. Those of us
who are highly optimistic with regard to
social reform may doubt the truth of this
assertion. It would be comforting and
flattering to our amour propre as edu-
cators if we could concur in the more
optimistic view. Unfortunately, history
does not produce the evidence necessary
for belief in this theory.
Adult education, along with education
on other levels, has been directly and pro-
foundly influenced by the war in Europe.
Only in its second year is this war ap-
proaching its true perspective in the
Ods of educational leaders. We are
e beginning to recognize its fearsome


proportions as one phase of a social revo-
lution sweeping the world. It is but
natural, then, with chaos and confusion
characterizing the thought of the political
leadership of the world, with regrets as to
the past and fears as to the future con-
founding the world's social leadership,
that educators alike should be confronted
with problems difficult to define and
seemingly incapable of immediate solu-
tion.
The operation of the National Selec-
tive Service Act in the United States has
outlined three definite periods in the life
of the soldier that materially affect his
well-being and his status as a member of
society. These include: (1) the period of
pre-induction when the soldier knows
that he is to be called upon for national
service and ultimately for sacrifice, the
exact nature of which, however, he can
not visualize; (2) the active period of his
service in the armed forces, either in time
of emergency or in time of war; and (3)
the period of his rehabilitation and per-
manent placement in civil life, either
after a mere mustering-out process or
after the achievement of peace.
It will help us in our thinking about the
citizen, man or woman, who is not and
probably will not be a soldier, if we at-
tempt to draw an almost exact parallel.
It is a truism in the present European
war that the non-soldier is no longer a
non-combatant. With or without a dec-


-~ 5521


Sli









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


laration of war on the part of the United
States, the non-soldier citizen has be-
come, in a very large sense, a combatant.
He must prepare himself for actual serv-
ice in his country's national effort, even
though that service may be confined
merely to a better performance of his
present task in his present position. Cer-
tainly the continuing crisis will involve a
better performance of his duties as a citi-
zen in his own community and state.
However, precisely as the potential sol-
dier is without information as to the ex-
act nature of his future service, so is the
citizen without exact knowledge of the
part that he will be called upon to play
in the national effort. During the months
that have just passed, and in lesser degree
ever since September 1, 1939, the Ameri-
can citizen has been passing through his
"pre-induction period." What should
this citizen be doing to prepare himself
for the effort to come, especially when, in
so far as social strains are concerned, he
has learned little of the probable nature
of the emergency of the future?
The period of active service lies just
ahead. All the necessary business of
materialistic defense of our persons, our
property, and our communities must be
worked out. And this, even though we
can not foresee the shape, the size, or the
form of the danger that confronts us.
Just as the soldier feels that there is little
that he can do as a civilian to prepare
himself for military training, so the citi-
zen in this pre-induction period feels that
there is little he can do to prepare him-
self for community service that will be
useful in time of actual war, if war shall
come.
The citizen possesses a naive and some-
what childlike belief that, when the crisis
arrives, the way will be made clear to
him. This is a service that he expects of
his political leaders. He forgets that


they, like the educators, follow, rather
than lead, the ground swells of public
opinion. He forgets that he, as a citizen
and with his neighbors and his fellows,
must help to decide the general course of
action.
Few soldiers delude themselves into be-
lieving that, following the period of their
military service, they will be able to as-
sume their accustomed places in civil life
without loss and with rosy prospects for
the future. The citizen, again like the
soldier, should prepare himself for the
difficult social, political, and economic re-
adjustments that are an inevitable after-
math of world conflict. The mustering-
out of the citizen, in exactly the same
way as the mustering-out of the soldier,
will profoundly affect the conditions of
peace that will prevail in the world fol-
lowing the cessation of actual warfare.
These are considerations that both as
educators and as consumers of education
we push off into the future with the pious
hope that a way will be pointed out to us.
These various considerations all bear
upon the increasingly important question
of civilian morale in the United States.
Whether this country remains an "ar-
senal for democracy," or advances into
the status of a belligerent, makes little
difference when the attainment of civilian
morale itself is considered. Differences
in our national status will involve changes
in approach to the problem of civilian
morale, but will not alter materially the
question of its desirability. It is just as
important that we attain quickly, during
the period of non-belligerency, a high de-
gree of civilian morale as it is important
that the same status be achieved in a
state of actual warfare. The difficulty
will lie, of course, in bringing home to the
public generally the urgency of the
for morale in a national position that
remain perhaps for an indefinite p









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


"short of war." In our democratic way
of life, the achievement of public morale
is a direct concern of adult education.
The interdependence of adult education
and democratic processes is by now too
well known to need further elaboration.
There are various ways in which, pre-
sumably, national civilian morale may be
achieved. The one employed in World
War I is possibly the best known. At the
same time, it is a method which, in the
long view, runs the risk of tearing down
the very social institutions that democ-
racies always have cherished. A govern-
ment-conducted or inspired "Ministry of
Education and Propaganda" smacks all
too intimately of the techniques em-
ployed by the dictators. Our national
experience with such an agency in 1917-
1919 indicates that, despite a certain
measure of immediate effectiveness, it
results over a period of time in loss of con-
fidence in the purposes of democratic
government. It is not to be forgotten
that, regardless of where such plans or
schemes originate, they will bear the
name of education and most likely that of
adult education.
What, then, are the alternatives to
government-initiated schemes of propa-
ganda for the inducement of morale?
Undoubtedly, the most effective, far-
reaching, and enduring plan of civilian
morale would be one that would originate
with the people themselves, rather than
with their political leaders. Would it not
be possible, then, for Americans to think
of building morale community by com-
munity, county by county, state by state,
rather than through the doubtful and re-
mote leadership of a national Ministry of
Propaganda? There are few among the
leadership of adult education in this
country who would not agree that the
community approach is far preferable to
any form of high-powered national effort.


There would be little difficulty in a com-
munity-engendered program of civilian
morale in bringing about coordination
and cooperation with the Federal Gov-
ernment. The community leadership,
intimately acquainted as it would be with
the considerations at stake in the civilian
morale, could and would deliver public
opinion more effectively to the purposes
of the government than if prescriptions
for thinking were handed down to the
community leaders from a federal source.
And the thinking, when done both by the
public and by the leadership, would be
based much more upon understanding
than upon pure emotionalism. Such a
process would stand firmly upon demo-
cratic belief in the diffusion of knowledge
among the people, in contrast to the blind
herd followership inherent in the Nazi
and Fascist creeds. It would be a cou-
rageous test of our much-vaunted democ-
racy to put it to the crucial test of a
genuinely educational process. There
can be little doubt that a justification
of our faith would result, though the way
would be far from easy and the effort de-
manded tremendous in amount and in
scope.
If we can agree as to the desirability of
the community approach to this impor-
tant problem, then what can we, as edu-
cational leaders in our several communi-
ties, do to achieve it? Immediately there
arises in the mind of the community
leader a series of dilemmas when the
practical outworkings of such a plan are
considered. It is not the purpose of this
report to attempt to solve such problems.
It is, rather, its rightful function to pose
certain of these questions for the dis-
cussion of the members of the Association
both at the annual meeting and in other
conferences to occur as the defense of our
country develops.
Should we in our communities, in our








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


states, and in our nation attempt to
strengthen ourselves for the emergency
through the enhancement of our existing
social institutions along lines dictated by
their evolution through the years? Or
should we, on the other hand, abandon
temporarily the progress of these insti-
tutions (which, after all, are the concrete
expression of our folkways) and throw
ourselves whole-heartedly into the mate-
rialistic aspects of national and local de-
fense? There will be found advocates of
both these courses even in the ranks of
the adult education leaders themselves.
One group will argue that diminution in
the effort to make progress in social and
educational reform constitutes a betrayal
of the essence of democracy. Another
group will counter with what will be de-
scribed as the practical and efficient ap-
proach to the emergency-through use of
the argument that temporary abandon-
ment of democratic usages is not dan-
gerous provided the temporary character
of that abandonment is emphasized.
Let us examine, though not in detail,
some of the moot questions or minor
dilemmas that stem from this central
problem. The main question has been
variously stated: Are we to give up some
-even perhaps a good many-of our lib-
erties in order that we may be able to
fight more effectively for the greater con-
cept of a whole people's liberty? Are we
to sacrifice for the time being principles
dear to our democratic hearts in order
that in the future our ability to practice
these very liberties may be safeguarded?
This question or, if you will, dilemma
underlies most of the thinking in America
today on subjects relating to government
and to education. What is to be our
attitude toward the ancient tradition of
English-speaking peoples in the matter
of free speech? Curtail it in certain de-
gree we shall be forced to do, but is it


possible to carry out the curtailment
process with adequate recognition of the
right to be heard of minorities and of
dissidents?
What about the tradition of local au-
tonomy in government and in education?
Admittedly, centralized government from
the short-range point of view is more
efficient. Shall we centralize in our com-
munities, in our counties, in our states,
and above all in our Federal Govern-
ment? Or shall we, with all the shrewd
distrust of remote control characteristic
of our ancestors in this country, apply
certain definite brakes against this ten-
dency?
Shall we rely upon centralized govern-
ment to carry out both social reforms and
social relief? Or shall we see to it that
these necessary improvements in our so-
cial status are initiated in the local com-
munity and carried through only as fast
and as far as public opinion in the local
community permits? It is easy to bring
this question down to such concrete con-
sideratiotis as local housing, and espe-
cially, of course, local housing in com-
munities whose economic life is centering
more and more upon national defense.
Again, the question is one of urgency, and
there are definitely two sides to it.
The practical, concrete questions, how-
ever, fade into unimportance when ranged
alongside the intangible, far-reaching
consequences of policies relating to the
control of thinking. Of course, educa-
tion is a central factor in the process of
producing mass thinking. The emer-
gency may well be likened to an epidemic
of disease. The question that faces the
thinking American today is similar to
that which faces the local health author-
ity. Is the epidemic to be controlled by
measures which make for immediate pal-
liative effects? Or, is it to be considered
in terms of the long-time health and well-









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


being of the community? The choice
does not lie between doing something and
doing nothing. The presence of the epi-
demic is clear. It is translated to us in
terms of war and of revolution. We have
no choice but to do something. The
question is what to do and-that once
determined-how is it to be done?
Another approach to this problem-
also on the long-time basis-lies in at-
tempting to determine whether or not
the necessities of the present emergency
situation may be capitalized upon in
terms of eventual gains. Are we to em-
ploy cheap and makeshift methods to
meet immediate needs without reckoning
the future cost in terms of time, energy,
and money? Or, on the other hand, are
we to attempt to rebuild and reorganize
our communities, both in the materialis-
tic and in the non-materialistic sense so
that in the years to come, after peace has
descended upon the world, these com-
munities may be stronger rather than
weaker for their defense effort? This
question has cogently come to the fore in
the last few months with respect to the
national policy in relation to local, pri-
vate voluntary agencies for social well-
being and social uplift. Are these agen-
cies to be strengthened, or, through the
necessity of immediate governmental ac-
tion in order to meet urgent conditions,
are they to be allowed to languish and
perhaps to die? Again the question re-
solves itself into a decision of whether or
not time, and its twin, efficiency, will
permit us to follow our usual slow-but-
sure democratic practices.
To what extent can our educational
and social leadership withstand the pres-
sure to channelize public opinion? As a
nation we must have unity. But to what
extent must we achieve it at the price of
loss of public understanding? That this
loss of understanding occurs inevitably


as a result of an emotional drive, there is
no question-and it occurs in direct pro-
portion to the pitch and intensity of the
emotional appeal.
How much patience should the adult
educator have with the so-called prac-
tical man who says that education, pub-
lic discussion, debate, and such matters
are to be thrown out the window in the
light of the crisis that confronts the na-
tion? Many Americans hold this view,
though most of them express regret at
what they feel to be the necessity. It is
noteworthy that in the British Isles, in
Canada, and in Australia, where exist the
three great concentrations of English-
speaking peoples aside from that of the
United States, it has been found possible,
over a period of nearly two years of war,
to continue educational and free dis-
cussional practices. Debate and dis-
cussion have not been thrown out the
window. Questions of governmental and
public policy continue to be subjected to
criticism and to analysis. Democratic
processes have not been abandoned in
our closely related cultural areas. Is it
necessary, then, for us in the United
States to consider such a suppressive
censorship? There will be widely differ-
ing answers to this question, even among
the adult educators.
The questions here outlined are those
which strike at the root of the matter so
far as the continuance of democratic
processes based upon educational under-
standing are concerned. They transcend
in long-time importance even such ques-
tions as the training of armies, the build-
ing of ships, the production of arma-
ments. What boots it to save either our
skins or our economic prosperity if, in the
process of salvage, there are lost our
essential freedoms, our traditions of toler-
ance and of decency, our recognition of
the inherent and basic rights of men to









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


live, to work, to worship, and to under-
stand? We shall all be agreed as to the
prime necessity of preserving these com-
ponents of our social life. There will be
wide differences among us, however, as to
the procedures to be followed, and even


greater disparities in our opinions as
to the degree of sacrifice necessarily in-
volved. But surely it is the task of
adult education to work toward solutions
which are practicable and full of the wis-
dom that as a people we possess.


PART II


EMERGENCY PROGRAM FOR
DEFENSE
All educational forces in America now
have a two-fold duty. The first is to
awaken in the public mind a greater ap-
preciation of the meaning of democracy,
and a steadier loyalty to its purposes.
The second is to strengthen the nation
against any possible aggression. These
two purposes are closely related when the
values defended are those that we call the
democratic way of life. All would have
wished for peace and a chance to extend
and to improve democratic processes in
every phase of American life. But the
price of peace may be to arm for defense,
even though armament is itself a threat
to democracy unless the public be on
guard. We may have to use our arms
against an enemy. But a people-espe-
cially a technically resourceful people-
united in the love of common ideals is not
easily overcome. An educational agency
is bound to remember that whether we
have peace or war, the world will have
to be rebuilt. Unless democracy can be
kept alive, even a victory in battle will
be a defeat.
Preparation for military defense, how-
ever, does make demands of its own. In
modem warfare, the morale of the civil-
ian population must be kept up. Every-
one, civilian and soldier alike, must learn
to protect himself. Large numbers will
work in the factories making munitions
of war or accessory materials and they,
as well as those in military training, will
be directly engaged in defense. Just as


their personal lives will be changed by
the emergency, so must the programs of
many educational agencies be remade in
order that special technical training can
be given, although it may have little
value when the war is over. For such an
institution as the American Association
for Adult Education this change is slight.
The Association is especially prepared to
provide a part of the educational fore-
sight that will reduce the social and per-
sonal loss caused by military activities.
In spite of the present haste, educators
must use what they have learned about
differences among individuals in putting
the right men in the right places. They
should not stop there. They should try
also, wherever possible, to make war-
time experience educationally valuable
for civilian life. The Association can
play a part in these adjustments, not only
directly but also indirectly, by doing all
it can to awaken real concern for the
preservation of human resources.
These human resources, useful now in
preparation for defense, will be needed
again when the time comes for demo-
cratic reconstruction. A nation's sound-
ness of body and mind is fundamental for
either purpose. A strong nation is made
by happy and secure people, by men and
women efficiently at work in self-respect-
ing jobs. A strong nation must have the
education that its people need for know-
ing what democracy is worth.
As early as October, 1939, the Execu-
tive Board, as the result of a special mast-
ing, went on record as favoring the appli-










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


cation of the resources of the Association
to problems relating to the national de-
fense of the United States. Subsequent
meetings of the Executive Committee
developed a definite program which, in
the fall of 1940, was presented to the
trustees of the Carnegie Corporation.
The program consisted of two parts: (1)
field work aimed at increasing opportuni-
ties for discussing and achieving demo-
cratic processes, and (2) an attempt to
improve the quality of the democratic


processes by assembling, preparing, and
distributing current materials relating to
defense of American culture.
In cooperation with local, state, and
regional adult education councils and
associations, regional conferences on
adult education and defense were ar-
ranged in fifteen centers spread through-
out the country. Fourteen of these gath-
erings have been held; the fifteenth is
scheduled for July, 1941, in Honolulu,
Hawaii.


The fourteen conferences already held were located as follows:


Conference
New England Regional Conference
Springfield, Mass.
December 12-14, 1940
Conference on Adult Education and the Negro
Washington, D. C.
January 30-February 1, 1941
Midwest Regional Conference
Chicago, Illinois
February 7-8, 1941
Great Lakes and Ohio Valley Regional Conference
Columbus, Ohio
February 13-15, 1941
East Central Regional Conference
Indianapolis, Indiana
March 6-8, 1941
Mountain Plains Regional Conference
Denver, Colorado
March 13-15, 1941
Missouri Valley Regional Conference
Omaha, Nebraska
March 18-19, 1941
Pacific Southwest Regional Conference
Pasadena. California
March 20-22, 1941
Southwestern Regional Conference
Austin, Texas
March 27-29, 1941
South Central Regional Conference
Stillwater, Oklahoma
April 3-5, 1941
Pacific Northwest Regional Conference
Spokane, Washington
April 8-10, 1941
North Central Regional Conference
Minneapolis, Minn.
April 17-19, 1941
Middle Atlantic States Regional Conference
Albany, New York
April 24-26, 1941

Southeastern Regional Conference
Knoxville, Tenn.
April 27-29, 1941


Local Sponsor
Springfield Adult Education Council


Associates in Negro Folk Education and Howard
University

Adult Education Council of Chicago and Illinois
Adult Education Association

Ohio Association for Adult Education


Indiana University Extension Division


Adult Education Council of Denver


Adult Education Council of Omaha and Ne-
braska Council of Adult Education

California Association for Adult Education


University of Texas and Texas Federated Agen-
cies for Adult Education

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College
and Oklahoma Council on Rural Life and Rec-
reation
Pacific Northwest Association for Adult Educa-
tion

Minnesota Adult Education Council and Uni-
versity of Minnesota

Division of Adult Education of the State Educa-
tion Dept.; New York State Council of Adult
Education; and New York Adult Education
Council
Southeastern Association for Adult Education









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


It will be noted that the geographic
spread of these meetings is wide and that
in every case a local adult education
group or organization took primary re-
sponsibility for the program. The na-
tional Association aided in constructing
the programs for the meetings, this work
being done largely through its two field
representatives for community organiza-
tion, Charles A. Hogan and Herbert C.
Hunsaker. In addition, the Association
made an average contribution of $300
toward the expenses of each gathering,
this money having been provided by the
Carnegie Corporation grant in support of
the general Association defense program.
Audiences at the conferences have ranged
from 250 to 900. At each conference
there have been representatives of local,
state, and regional school systems; uni-
versities; libraries; labor organizations;
churches; agricultural services; social
agencies; group-work organizations;
luncheon clubs, etc.
Emphasis at all conferences has been
on community organization and com-
munity action as the chief means of
bringing the resources of adult education
to bear on the national emergency. As a
result, there have been formed many
local adult education councils and com-
mittees. In several instances, state com-
mittees in defense of democratic processes
have evolved, these efforts being carried
on under a variety of names, but all
aimed at comprehensive defense of the
American democratic way of life. In
several states, governors have been called
upon to lend official backing to such
state organizations of citizens.
Public reaction to the conferences has
been in every case immediate and en-
couraging. The local press has extended
the public knowledge of the meaning of
education to the defense program. The
two field representatives of the Associa-


tion visited more than two thirds of the
states of the Union, their activities being
spread into every major section of the
country. In addition to their regional
duties, they have aided scores of adult
education agencies and councils and have
given advice looking toward the forma-
tion of additional councils and agencies
in every region visited. The demand for
the services of the two representatives
has been insistent and gratifying, and ex-
pressions of appreciation for their aid
have come to the Association from every
region covered.
As a part of its defense program, the
Association established in the course of
a year a new bulletin known as Com-
munity Councils in Action. This
bulletin serves as a clearinghouse for in-
formation about the activities of adult
education councils. It carries contribu-
tions from various parts of the country,
but is edited and published by the Asso-
ciation. The bulletin supplements the
work of the field representatives, and the
four issues that have appeared during the
year 1940-41 have served as useful media
for spreading information about actual
programs adaptable for general use
throughout the nation.
The approach of the Association to the
problemof assembly, preparation,and dis-
tribution of current materials for study
and discussion use, and as a follow-up of
the field efforts, has taken the form of two
new publications known as Defense
Papers and Defense Digests. The
first numbers appeared in December,
1940. In the months since their appear-
ance, without benefit of paid advertising,
orders have been placed for nearly 30,000
copies of the three publications. In-
cluded in this figure are approximately
1,600 subscriptions for the eight issues of
Defense Papers scheduled for the year;
also approximately 700 similar sub-









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


scriptions for the twelve issues of De-
fense Digests; and 500 for the four
issues of Community Councils in
Action. Quantity sales account for the
balance of the figure of 30,000.
Both Defense Papers and Defense
Digests are issued primarily as aids to
the many adult groups now discussing
national defense. The contents are ad-
dressed not only to problems relating to
the material defense of the nation, but
also to other urgent national problems,
such as housing, health, civil liberties,
etc., all of which have become increas-
ingly important during the national
emergency. The aim of all the defense
publications has been to provide prac-
tical assistance to individuals and groups
desirous of increasing their understand-
ing of democratic processes. The public
response to the issuance of these publica-
tions is indicative of the widespread need
felt on the part of a serious and highly
important section of the national popu-
lation.
The technical task of producing sub-
ject-matter materials for discussion has
proved to be a fascinating experimental
venture. The Association had the benefit
of the experience of the last four or five
years of the Readability Laboratory,
maintained by it at Teachers College,
Columbia University, but, even so, much
remained to be done in exploring the
possibilities of writing at approximately
the tenth-grade level of educational ex-
perience. Effort has been made to pre-
pare the materials for use by persons of
limited educational experience, but at
the same time to guard against making
them unpalatable for those at higher
levels of education. The contents have
been chosen with a definite view to their
discussibility. A factual basis is given in
every case, followed by a delineation of
issues, the suggestion of questions for


discussion (so designed as to be useful in
the handsof an inexperienced leader), and
in each case reference lists of materials
in print, readily available and at little or
no cost, are included. In addition, at-
tempts are made to list available films
and radio broadcast scripts bearing on
the same subject.
Of the twelve Defense Digests sched-
uled for publication during the year, four
have been movie discussion guides where-
in sound motion pictures available in
16 mm size have been used as the basis
for the discussion. In the movie dis-
cussion guide, the film largely takes the
place of the actual text. This has been a
unique venture in that little or nothing
heretofore had been published for adult
use in conducting discussions based on
motion pictures.
The following are a few of the subjects
dealt with in Defense Papers:
Rearmament-Is It Efficient?
Training Workers for Defense
What Kind of Peace?
What Should We Do about Japan?
On Guard for Civil Liberty
Pan-America-Can It Work?
Paying for Defense
Swords and Ploughshares
The Negro-His Place in Defense
Women in Defense

The twelve issues of Defense Digests
have been on the following subjects:
Our Policy in the Pacific
Freedom of Assembly
Housing for Citizens
Discussing Your Defense
Women in Defense
Your Town and Defense
Farmers and Defense
Health of the Nation

Movie Discussion Guides:
China's War and the U. S. A.
Unemployment and Defense
Planning for Living
What Shall We Defend?

The preoccupation of the Association
with Defense Papers and Defense Di-
gests marks its first venture into the field









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


of preparing and distributing subject-
matter materials for adult use. From
the experience in the defense program, it
seems clear that a useful continuing serv-
ice could be performed in supplying
materials for study and for discussion at
not one but many levels of educational
experience.
The Association has had the advantage
of excellent cooperation from the public
libraries of the country, and in fact one,
the New York Public Library, has per-
mitted a member of its staff to give pro-
fessional assistance to the Association in
compiling reading lists. In addition to
the distribution through libraries, de-
fense publications are being used ex-
tensively by the educational classes in
the W.P.A.; by workers' education
groups and labor unions, in which there
has been a gratifying response; by forums
and study groups; by adult education
councils; by group-work organizations,
by settlements and by social agencies;
among home demonstration leaders,
granges, and farmers'cooperatives. Anal-
ysis of the geographical distribution shows
that Texas leads the list, with New York,
Ohio, Illinois, California, Pennsylvania,
and Massachusetts following in that
order. Many national agencies have co-
operated in the distribution of these de-
fense materials. The National Univer-
sity Extension Association, American
Library Association, American Institute
of Banking, the Workers Education
Bureau of America, the Young Men's
Christian Associations, Delphian Society,
Rotary Clubs of America, Jewish Wel-
fare Board, U. S. Office of Education, etc.,
have all given valuable publicity aid to
the publications and, in many cases, have
mailed notices to their members. Ex-
hibits at regional meetings have proved
valuable as well.
Through the generosity of the trustees


of the Carnegie Corporation, the Asso-
ciation has been enabled to conduct its
emergency program under a budget of
$85,000. This has been distributed ap-
proximately in terms of one third to field-
work expenses and two thirds to produc-
tion and distribution of materials.
During the year, the Director of the
Association has served as a member of
the Executive Committee of the National
Committee on Education and Defense,
in the membership of which latter body
the Association is included. The Direc-
tor has also served as a member of the
Subcommittee on Military Affairs of the
National Committee. Through this con-
nection, the Director was instrumental
in having prepared a memorandum on a
proposed program of education for the
United States Army, which is now under
consideration by the Joint Army and
Navy Committee on Welfare and Rec-
reation.
During November, 1940, the Director
made a visit to various Army centers in
Canada for the purpose of observing the
Canadian Army's education program. A
memorandum on this program has had
wide distribution and was published in
the April, 1941, issue of the Journal of
Higher Education. Copies of it were
also made available to the War De-
partment.

STUDY PROGRAM
During the course of the year four ad-
ditional members of the series of Studies
in the Social Significance of Adult Educa-
tion have been published by the Associa-
tion, thus bringing the total number of
volumes in the series to date to twenty-
five. Two remain yet to be published:
A Study of Adult Elementary Educa-
tion, by Ruth Kotinsky, and A Study of
University Extramural Programs, by
James Creese. These two books exist in









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


manuscript form and will be published
before September 30, 1941.
In addition, the Association has made
arrangements with a well-known and
qualified writer, who has agreed to review
the entire series of twenty-seven volumes,
and to write a book based thereon, view-
ing adult education as a social phenome-
non of the twentieth century in the
United States. This will be an interpre-
tative and philosophical treatment and
will be designed for a popular audience.
The Association would hope to see this
book published in the trade and given
wide distribution.
The volumes in the series of Studies in
the Social Significance of Adult Educa-
tion published during the year are: Edu-
cation for Social Understanding, by
Gaynell Hawkins, September,,1940 (Edi-
tion, 2,500); Culture at a Price, by
Ella Woodyard, December, 1940 (Edi-
tion, 2,500); Leaders for Adult Educa-
tion, by H. A. and Bonaro Overstreet,
March, 1941 (Edition, 3,000); and
The Literature of Adult Education,
by Ralph A. Beals and Leon Brody,
May, 1941 (Edition, 3,000).
The issuance of the final or omnibus
volume puts a period after a four-year
study of the Association which grows in
importance and significance as time goes
by. Some 60,000 copies of the books in
this series have been placed in circulation
and have been sent to many quarters of
the globe. It is interesting that the
studies have proved serviceable in foreign
countries where some of them have re-
ceived wide attention through reviews
and analyses. Particularly is this true in
Australia and New Zealand.

READABILITY LABORATORY
In the conduct of nearly all educa-
tional activities for adults, the question
immediately and automatically is raised


as to the availability in print of subject-
matter materials geared to the needs and
educational qualifications of the persons
to be served by such activities. The
variations in educational experience of
the American population are wide indeed.
For the upper levels, materials exist in
fairly adequate amount, but many of
these are too technical and complex to be
of service, even to university and college
graduates. As steps down are taken in
the degree of educational experience of
the audience to be served, the dearth of
materials becomes more acute until, at
the extreme lower levels, almost nothing
is available. There is a problem then, on
every educational level, of simplifying
and, to an extent, popularizing materials
in order that they may be attractive and
useful to the adults undertaking study
and discussion. The problem posed is
one of simplification and popularization
without vulgarization. It boils itself
down to the production of exceptionally
good educational exposition rather than
the discovery of a magic formula of sim-
plification, which it is safe to say does
not exist.
In an attempt to progress toward some
few solutions of certain of the aspects of
this complex problem, the Association
Committee on Simplification of Mate-
rials was formed some three and a half
years ago. Under its auspices there was
set up a Readability Laboratory, whose
first task was to correlate and interpret
the psychological and other research done
on adult reading in various parts of the
world, but particularly at the University
of Chicago and at Teachers College, Co-
lumbia University. Out of this correla-
tion came a fairly concrete statement of
the existing knowledge about reader in-
terests and about certain of the tech-
niques of writing in order to cater to
these interests.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


These findings were immediately put
to work in the production of the Peoples
Library series of books, issued at low
prices for an audience representing the
average school-leaving age of about the
eighth grade. There have been sold ap-
proximately 160,000 copies of the eleven
books in this series, for which the Read-
ability Laboratory has been directly re-
sponsible.
The enormous amount of tabloid news
print, "pulp" magazines, "slick" paper
periodicals, farm journals and vocational
specialty materials consumed annually
by people of limited educational experi-
ence constitutes abundant proof that this
portion of the public will read if interest
is aroused. Modern typography and
illustration will aid in getting attention.
But arousing interest is not enough. The
contents must be direct in style and fac-
tual in approach. Complexity of vocab-
ulary and of structure must be avoided.
Brevity is of the essence. The charac-
teristic essay form of educational mate-
rials must be abandoned. Given these
ingredients, there seems every reason to
believe that people of limited educational
experience not only will read nonfiction
but will read it in book form. And this
is the large element in the population
that under present conditions does not
read books of any kind.
In addition, the staff of the Laboratory
is engaged in constructing a system of re-
viewing newly published books (particu-
larly popularizations), evaluating such
books in terms of their usefulness to vari-
ous types of readers. This system of
classification, covering the humanities,
the physical and life sciences, and the
social sciences, is being made available
to the librarian through a special com-
mittee of the American Library Associa-
tion appointed for the purpose. Various
other library services stemming from this


enterprise are being developed by mem-
bers of the Laboratory staff.

ENGINEERING SURVEY
In cooperation with the U. S. Office of
Education, the Association sponsored
and financed a survey of the need for
technical training in defense industries
in the New York metropolitan area.
This survey was conducted by a staff
under the direction of James Creese, who
served as Assistant to the Director of the
Association during the year 1939-1940.
By means of this quick survey carried out
over a period of six weeks, defense train-
ing needs at the collegiate level were iden-
tified, particularly in the airplane indus-
try. As a result of the survey and of a
subsidy provided by federal funds to the
engineering colleges cooperating with the
U.S. Office of Education, there were set
up two schools for training young execu-
tive engineers, one in Hoboken, New
Jersey, and the other in Brooklyn, New
York.
The example of the survey in the New
York area has been widely followed and
may be said to possess national signifi-
cance in that it has facilitated the devel-
opment of the defense industry training
program at the collegiate level. All the
important engineering colleges in the
New York metropolitan district were
represented on the committee that had
charge of this survey.

ADMINISTRATION
The following have served as Officers
and members of the Executive Board for
the year 1940-41:
President: Harry A. Overstreet
Vice-Presidents: Austin H. MacCormick
Alexander Meiklejohn
Ralph Munn
John W. Studebaker
Althea Warren
Henry M. Wriston




r__


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Honorary Chairman: James E. Russell
Chairman: Everett D. Martin
Secretary: Jennie M. Flexner
Treasurer: Harold Stonier
Director: Morse A. Cartwright

Executive Board
Beulah Amidon** J. Walter Dietz*
Harold Benjamin* Franklin F. Hopper*
Jerome H. Bentley' Edith J. R. Isaacs*
Arthur E. Bestor* Hans Kohn**
Edmund deS. Brunner***Spencer Miller, Jr.*
Lyman Bryson* Agnes Seasongood**
Harry W. Chase** Hilda W. Smith*
Ned H. Dearborn*** Caroline A. Whipple***
George V. Denny, Jr.*** George B. Zehmer***


The list of standing committees ap-
pointed by the Chairman for the year
1940-41 is as follows:
Note: The Chairman and Director are mem-
bers of all committees ex offices. The
Chairman of the Committee on the
Emergency Defense Program has served
during the year as a member of the
Executive Committee ex officio.

Executive: Harry W. Chase, Chairman; Jerome
H. Bentley; Arthur E. Bestor; Edmund deS.
Brunner; Lyman Bryson; Ned H. Dearborn;
Spencer Miller, Jr.; Everett Dean Martin
(ex officio); Jennie M. Flexner (ex officio);
Harold Stonier (ex officio); Morse A. Cart-
wright (ex officio).
Emergency Defense Program: Franklin F.
Hopper, Chairman; Jerome H. Bentley;
Lyman Bryson.
Annual Meeting: Austin H. MacCormick,
Chairman; Edmund deS. Brunner; Franklin
F. Hopper.
Regional Conferences: Arthur E. Bestor,
Chairman; Jennie M. Flexner; Charles E.
Rush; Elmer Scott; Harold Stonier. Asso-
ciates: R. M. Grumman; Herbert C. Hun-
saker; Alain Locke; J. Lloyd Mahony;
Ralph McCallister; H. Y. McClusky; Philip
C. Nash; John W. Powell; J. T. Reid; Agnes
Seasongood; Malcolm Wyer.
Vocational Education and Guidance: J. Wal-
ter Dietz, Chairman: James Creese, Vice-
Chairman; L. R. Alderman; Jerome H.
Bentley; C. S. Coler; W. M. Cooper; Harvey
N. Davis; Paul L. Essert; Nat T. Frame;
Robert Hoppock; George Johnson; Edwin A.
Lee; Austin H. MacCormick; George C.
Mann; A. J. Stoddard; Harold Stonier.


STerm expires September 30, 1941.
Term expires September 30, 1942.
** Term expires September 30, 1943.


Radio Education: Harry W. Chase, Chairman;
Arthur E. Bestor; Lyman Bryson; Ned H.
Dearborn; George V. Denny, Jr.; Frank
Ernest Hill; C. S. Marsh; Levering Tyson.
Simplification of Materials: Charles A. Beard,
Chairman; Lyman Bryson; Morse A. Cart-
wright; Arthur S. Hoffman; Harold D. Lass-
well; Austin H. MacCormick; Frederic G.
Melcher; Charles Merz; Harlow Shapley;
A. L. Threlkeld; Miriam Tompkins.
Adult Reading: (Joint Committee with the
A.L.A.) Lyman Bryson; Edward L. Thorn-
dike. Members appointed by the A.L.A.:
Sigrid A. Edge; Marian S. Carnovsky.
Rural Problems: Edmund deS. Brunner, Chair-
man; Marguerite H. Burnett; Olive D.
Campbell; W. M. Cooper; Helen H. Ding-
man; Dorothy Canfield Fisher; Nat T.
Frame; Grace E. Frysinger; Wil Lou Gray;
R. M. Grumman; Benson Y. Landis; Frank
L. McVey; Elizabeth C. Morriss; J. T. Reid;
James E. Russell; W. H. Stacy; Carl Taylor;
Caroline A. Whipple; George B. Zehmer.
Library Cooperation: Franklin F. Hopper,
Chairman; Seymour Barnard; W.W.Bishop;
Lyman Bryson; Leon Carnovsky; L. L.
Dickerson; Linda A. Eastman; Milton J.
Ferguson; Dorothy Canfield Fisher; Jennie
M. Flexner; Alvin Johnson; Carl H. Milam;
Ralph Munn; R. Russell Munn; Ernestine
Rose; Charles E. Rush; Miriam Tompkins;
Douglas Waples; Althea Warren; Louis R.
Wilson; Malcolm Wyer; George B. Zehmer.
Workers' Education: Spencer Miller, Jr.,
Chairman; Beulah Amidon; Charles A.
Beard; Harold Benjamin; Mollie Ray Car-
roll; Ned H. Dearborn; Paul L. Essert;
Eugene Kinckle Jones; Read Lewis; Kirtley
F. Mather; William A. Neilson; David K.
Niles; John W. Powell; Jesse T. Reid; Hilda
W. Smith.
Councils: Agnes Seasongood, Chairman; Glen
Burch; Winifred Fisher; Ralph McCallister;
Philip C. Nash; Charles E. Rush; Althea
Warren.
Museums: Charles Russell, Chairman; L. V.
Coleman; Harvey N. Davis; Henry W. Kent;
Philip N. Youtz.
Public Schools: A. J. Stoddard, Chairman; L. R.
Alderman; E. W. Balduf; Harold Benjamin;
Ned H. Dearborn: Wil Lou Gray; Sidney B.
Hall; Katherine M. Kohler; George C.
Mann; C. S. Marsh; G. L. Maxwell; James
A. Moyer; Ross O. Runnels; John W. Stude-
baker; J. K. Torbert; Caroline A. Whipple;
Edna N. White.
Forums and Discussion Groups: Hans Kohn,
Chairman; Charles A. Beard; Lyman Bry.
son; George V. Denny, Jr.; Thomas Fansler;
David K. Niles; Harry A. Overstreet; John
W. Powell; Chester D. Snell; John W. Stude-
baker; Philip N. Youtz.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Churches: Harry C. Munro, Chairman; Arthur
E. Bestor; David I. Cedarbaum; Wilbur C.
Hallenbeck; F. Ernest Johnson; George
Johnson; BensonY. Landis; Bernard Meland.
Universities and Colleges: Leon J. Richardson,
Chairman; Harold Benjamin; Remsen D.
Bird; W. S. Bittner; Harry W. Chase; James
Creese; A. Caswell Ellis; Carl F. Huth; Wal-
ter Jessup; Ralph McCallister; Kathryn
McHale; John C. Merriam; James A. Moyer;
Philip C. Nash; William A. Neilson; Florence
H. Snow; Levering Tyson; Henry M. Wris-
ton; George B. Zehmer.
Negro Education: Alain Locke, Chairman;
Lyman Bryson; W. M. Cooper; Franklin F.
Hopper; Eugene Kinckle Jones; Ernestine
Rose.
Science: Harvey N. Davis, Chairman; J. Walter
Dietz; Benjamin C. Gruenberg; W. Stephen
Thomas; E. L. Thorndike.
Educational Films: Seymour Barnard, Chair-
man; Lyman Bryson; Ned H. Dearborn;
Sidonie M. Gruenberg; Edith J. R. Isaacs;
Charles E. Rush.
Definitions and Terminology: Mary L. Ely,
Chairman; Lyman Bryson, Ruth Kotinsky.
Subject-Matter Materials: Harold Benjamin,
Chairman; Ned H. Dearborn; J. Walter
Dietz; Jennie M. Flexner; Hans Kohn.
Emergency Publications: Henry M. Wriston,
Chairman; Lyman Bryson; Edmund deS.
Brunner; George V. Denny, Jr.; Edith J. R.
Isaacs; Hans Kohn; Spencer Miller, Jr.;
Caroline A. Whipple; George B. Zehmer.


The following members of the Asso-
ciation have served as members of the
Council during the term 1940-41:


TERMS EXPIRE 1941


Beulah Amidon
Remsen D. Bird
W. S. Bitter
Marguerite H. Burnett
Olive D. Campbell
Mollie Ray Carroll
Harvey N. Davis
Frank M. Debatin*
George V. Denny, Jr.
Helen H. Dingman
A. Caswell Ellis
Milton J. Ferguson
Nat T. Frame
Wil Lou Gray
R. M. Grumman
Herbert C. Hunsaker
Walter A. Jessup

Deceased


Henry W. Kent
George C. Mann
Kirtley F. Mather
Carl H. Milam
Spencer Miller, Jr.
Elizabeth C. Morriss
David K. Niles
Harry A. Overstreet
Jesse T. Reid
Ernestine Rose
Elmer Scott
Chester D. Snell
William F. Steams
John W. Studebaker
Miriam Tompkins
Louis R. Wilson
Henry M. Wriston


TERMS EXPIRE 1942
E. W. Balduf Alain Locke
Harold Benjamin C. S. Marsh
Jerome H. Bentley Kathryn McHale
Arthur E. Bestor Robert Russell Munn
Edmund deS. Brunner Harry C. Munro
Leon Carnovsky Philip C. Nash
Harry W. Chase William A. Neilson
Laurence V. Coleman H. W. Nisonger
William M. Cooper John W. Powell
Linda A. Eastman Leon J. Richardson
Paul Essert Charles Russell
Thomas Fansler James E. Russell
Winifred Fisher Agnes Seasongood
Jennie M. Flexner Harold Stonier
Alvin Johnson J. K. Torbert
Read Lewis Caroline A. Whipple
Philip N. Youtz

TERMS EXPIRE 1943
L. R. Alderman Benson Y. Landis
Seymour Barnard Gertrude Laws
Charles A. Beard Mabel Leslie
G. F. Beck Ralph McCallister
Lyman Bryson Roben Maaske
Glen Burch Everett D. Martin
Eleanor G. Coit G. L. Maxwell
Ned H. Dearborn Charles E. Rush
J. Walter Dietz Philip L. Seman
Dorothy Canfield Fisher Hilda W. Smith
Franklin F. Hopper Henry B. Stevens
Edith J. R. Isaacs A. J. Stoddard
George Johnson Carl C. Taylor
F. P. Keppel Edward L. Thorndike
Katherine M. Kohler Levering Tyson
Hans Kohn Malcolm G. Wyer
George B. Zehmer


The membership of the Council suf-
fered one loss by death during the year
just closed, that of Frank M. Debatin
on August 3, 1940, in California. Mr.
Debatin had been a member of the Asso-
ciation since 1926, had served a three-
year term of membership on the Execu-
tive Board from 1935-1938, and had
been a member of the Council of One
Hundred since 1929. Mr. Debatin was
Dean of Extension, Washington Uni-
versity, St. Louis. His interest in the
Association had been an active one, and
his counsel and assistance will be missed.
Two changes in the regular staff of the
Association have occurred during the
year: On September 30, 1940, James
Creese returned to his duties as Vice-
President and Provost of the Stevens






A








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Institute of Technology, a position from
which he had been granted leave of ab-
sence for one year. Mr. Creese's connec-
tion with the Association was a pleasant
one for all concerned, and it was with
great regret that the Association recog-
nized the prior claim to his services pos-
sessed by the Stevens Institute of Tech-
nology. On September 30, 1940, Florence
Arnott of the clerical staff resigned to
take another position. The close of the
fiscal year saw also the lapsing of the
appointment of H. A. and Bonaro W.
Overstreet, as research associates.
No appointments have been made to
the regular staff during the year, the
position of Assistant to the Director hav-
ing been allowed to remain vacant. One
member of the clerical staff, Emily
Graves, who had been on extended leave
of absence, returned on October 1, 1940,
and assumed the duties of secretary to
the Director.
Numerous temporary appointments
(all of them expiring on September 30,
1941) have been made to the special
staff of the Association assigned to the
conduct of the emergency defense pro-
gram. The individuals so appointed,
with titles indicated, are as follows:
E. Ashley Bayne, Editorial Staff
William Corcoran, Editorial Staff
Frank Ernest Hill, Editorial Staff
Ruth Kotinsky, Editorial Staff
Philip McConnell, Editorial Staff
Robertson Sillars, Editorial Staff
Seymour Barnard, Film Consultant
Charles A. Hogan, Field Representative
Herbert C. Hunsaker, Field Representative

PUBLICATIONS
The demand for the publications of the
Association has continued steadily dur-
ing the last year. This has been true not
only of the newer volumes in the series
of Studies in the Social Significance of
Adult Education, but of some of the
earlier studies as well, and particularly


so in the case of Adult Education in
Action, published in 1936. This com-
pilation has been used widely as a text in
adult education classes.
Four new studies in the Social Signifi-
cance series were issued during the year,
bringing the number of volumes now
published to twenty-five, with two more
titles scheduled for issuance during the
coming six months. Members of the
Association have received copies of all
studies issued during the term of mem-
bership.
A discussion of the publications issued
as part of the Association's Emergency
Program for Defense appears elsewhere
in this report. Receipts from subscrip-
tions and sales of these publications-
Defense Papers, Defense Digests, and
Community Councils in Action-are
being used to meet in part the cost of
production; it was not found possible to
include these bulletins in the publica-
tions sent without charge to members of
the Association.
During the year special grants made
possible the publication of two important
and interesting studies. The first, Plan-
ning the Community School, by
N. L. Engelhardt, was published by the
American Book Company, the Associa-
tion purchasing a sufficient number of
copies to distribute to the entire mem-
bership. The second, A Regional Li-
brary and Its Readers, by H. B. Chand -
ler and J. T. Croteau, was published by
the Association. This study was based
on library-use records kept over a period
of five years by the Prince Edward Island
(Canada) Libraries. A limited number
of copies was distributed to a selected
list of libraries in the United States and
Canada. The Association drew upon its
Community Organization Fund to cover
the costs of printing (offset process) two
pamphlets, Adult Education in New









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Jersey, by Leon Brody, and Secondary
Schools as Community Centers, by
Edwin S. Fulcomer.
During the twelve months since the
publication of the last Annual Report,
the Association has been able to dis-
tribute publications as follows:
To Members-Journal of Adult Ed-
ucation, Volume XII, Numbers 3 and 4,
Volume XIII, Numbers 1 and 2; The
Literature of Adult Education, by
Ralph A. Beals and Leon Brody; Edu-
cation for Social Understanding, by
Gaynell Hawkins; Leaders for Adult
Education, by H. A. and Bonaro W.
Overstreet; Culture at a Price, by
Ella Woodyard; and Planning the
Community School, by N. L. Engel-
hardt.
To Council Members-In addition to
the above: Annual Report of the Di-
rector for 1939-40, American Associa-
tion for Adult Education; Forgotten
People, by George I. Sanchez; Second-
ary Schools as Community Centers,
by Edwin S. Fulcomer; and Why the
British People Fight, by R. H.
Tawney.


PUBLICATIONS FUND
During the twelve months ending
March 31, 1941, there were few major
charges against the revolving Publica-
tions Fund. The chief expenditures were
for printing (offset process) 3,000 copies
of a Checklist of Free and Low-Cost
Books and Pamphlets for Use in
Adult Education; and for an allocation
to the National University Extension
Association to be applied to the purchase,
when published, of copies of the report
of the study of university extension
clientele being made by that organiza-
tion. In addition, expenditures have
been made for the part-time services of a


stockroom and mailing clerk, and for
costs of distribution of publications. The
income from the sale of publications and
from royalties during the year amounted
to $2,907.75; expenditures to $1,128.13.
The balance of $2,850.40, reported as of
March 31, 1940, has in consequence been
increased to $4,630.02.


THE JOURNAL
Journal progress along the lines indi-
cated in the last annual report has con-
tinued with quickened tempo during the
present year. A greater number of manu-
scripts has been received; requests for
permission to reprint articles in whole or
in part have multiplied; the volume of
letters to the editors has notably in-
creased. In particular, there have been
many favorable comments upon the
"Clearing House" news items, most of
which have been selected and prepared
by Dorothy Rowland Ozanne, formerly
secretary to the Director and now a full-
time member of the editorial staff.
Not only the growing number of manu-
scripts, but also the range of subjects dis-
cussed in them, bear testimony to the
spread of interest in adult education and
the very wide variety of activities through
which this interest now manifests itself.
It is noteworthy, too, that among the
writers who have submitted articles to
the Journal are many not professionally
engaged in adult education and some who
are frequent contributors to well-known
general magazines. "Adult education is
capable of unifying the two great cur-
rents of lay and academic thought, ren-
dering the former less turbid and the
latter more fertile," wrote Alvin Johnson
a dozen years ago. This highly desirable
unification seems actually to be taking
place today, accelerated by the urgent
need for strengthening the ideals of









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


American democracy as one of the pri-
mary measures of our national defense.
Outstanding among all the issues of
the Journal since its inception in 1929,
were those published in June and Octo-
ber, 1940. The former contained seven
notable addresses on various phases of
the relationship between adult education
and democracy, and a summary of a
panel discussion on the "Perils of Democ-
racy," all of which constituted part of the
program of the Fifteenth Annual Meet-
ing of the Association. The remainder of
the conference proceedings, including a
tabulated fifteen-year record of Associa-
tion activities, appeared in the regular
October issue, which was augmented by a
128-page supplement, made possible
financially by a special subsidy from the
Carnegie Corporation. In this supple-
ment is presented an all-inclusive, up-to-
date report of American adult education
activities, classified under forty main
heads and fourteen subdivisions.
Such a report would have been valu-
able under any circumstances, but its
importance at the present time can
scarcely be overestimated. Here we
have, upon the eve of what seems certain
to be one of the most critical periods in
our history, a roster of the forces of adult
education, by means of which we hope
not only to preserve our national culture,
but also-to safeguard the mature, respon-
sible section of our population against the
dangers of unbalanced thought and un-
considered action. England can show an
enviable record of adult education agen-
cies carrying on with heightened enthu-
siasm and vigor in the very midst of war
and threatened invasion. It remains to
be seen whether this country can emulate
that record. A comparison of adult edu-
cation forces and achievements a year or
five years hence with those set forth in
the Journal for October, 1940, will tell


the story of the social significance of our
adult education movement more con-
clusively than it has yet been told.


FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING
The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the
Association, which convened in New
York City, May 20-23, 1940, was unique
in many respects among our national
conferences of adult education workers.
In point of attendance, itwas the largest
Association meeting ever held. Twelve
hundred and twenty-six persons from
thirty-seven states, the Argentine Re-
public, Uruguay, and Canada signed
registration cards. Since many who
came to one or more of the evening ses-
sions did not register, it is safe to esti-
mate that the total attendance was well
over fifteen hundred.
The program, with "The Democratic
Way-an Educational Process" as its
unifying theme, was more comprehensive
than any previously provided. There
were nine general sessions, forty-five sec-
tional meetings, and a banquet and other
special sessions. In addition to more
than two hundred scheduled participants,
members of the audience in great num-
bers contributed to the program in the
general discussions with which most of
the sessions were concluded.
The principal speeches made at general
sessions marked a departure from the
proceedings of other annual meetings of
the Association in that they were not
addressed to the audiences primarily as
members of a profession but rather as
world citizens. Thus, those in attendance
were themselves exposed to four days of
intensive adult education instead of de-
voting their time exclusively to consider-
ing ways and means of educating others.
The response to this innovation was con-
vincing proof that the time has come for









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Association to turn its attention in-
creasingly to subject-matter fields.
Seven of the annual meeting addresses
and the summary of a panel discussion
on "The Perils of Democracy," which
were published in the June issue of the
Journal, were given wide national distri-
bution in the form of Journal preprints.
Fifteen thousand of these preprints
were sent to individuals and to organi-
zations which, in turn, circulated copies
among their members. Certain of these
same addresses were reprinted in other
periodicals. One of them has been made
the basis of a series of articles still
appearing in an outstanding national
monthly.
The banquet speeches, made by the
President of the Carnegie Corporation
and six ex-Presidents, the President, and
the President-elect of the Association
constituted collectively a stirring re-
affirmation of faith in adult education
and of rededication to its service.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
During the year, the Association has
continued cooperative relationships with
many organizations and individuals.
A continuation grant of $2,500 was
made on the recommendation of the As-
sociation by the trustees of the Corpora-
tion to the Red Hook Community Asso-
ciation. The experimental program in
this large federal housing development
has been widely publicized and its suc-
cess assures its imitation in many of the
five hundred federal housing projects in
the country. A combined program of
education and recreation has been pro-
vided. A supplemental grant of $450
was made during the year to provide for
residents of the housing project a course
on problems of adolescents, conducted
by the Child Study Association of
America.


A final grant of $5,000 to the People's
Institute, United Neighborhood Guild
of Brooklyn was made for the conduct
during a second year of its experiment
with film forums. Much of the experience
gained by the People's Institute has been
made available to the Association in the
preparation of its movie discussion
guides, through the appointment to the
staff of Seymour Barnard of the People's
Guild as a staff consultant.
The Carnegie Corporation made a
grant, on recommendation of the Asso-
ciation, to the Common Council for
American Unity (formerly the Foreign
Language Information Service), for the
establishment of a new periodical, Com-
mon Ground, for the interpretation of
foreign-language groups to the American
public. This publication has been suc-
cessful, and has a circulation in excess of
4,000.
At the instigation of the Association,
the Corporation provided a grant of
$3,500 to the Associates in Negro Folk
Education to be used by that organiza-
tion in promoting adult education and
organization for adult education among
Negroes, particularly in the South. One
representative is in the field and there is
a possibility that a second will be added
for service during the fall.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, a personal grant-in-aid was made
to John W. Powell, Director of the San
Francisco School of Social Studies, for
the writing of a history of that interest-
ing educational experiment which sus-
pended operation on December 30, 1940.
The Association again extended recog-
nition to the field of workers' education
through two grants recommended by it
and made in the fall of 1940. One was
for $5,000 to the Workers Education
Bureau of America for special applica-
tion to the defense program of that or-









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ganization. The other was a continua-
tion grant in support of the field service
of the American Labor Education Serv-
ice.
On recommendation of Francis H.
Taylor, Chairman of the Committee on
Education of the American Association
of Museums, the Association appointed
to its staff Theodore L. Low as a field
representative to conduct a study of the
educational programs of museums. Mr.
Low's appointment was made possible
through a personal grant-in-aid from
the Carnegie Corporation amounting to
$2,000.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation provided,
in the spring of 1940, the sum of $10,000
for the conduct of special discussions on
an experimental basis by the National
Council of Young Men's Christian Asso-
ciations. Seven or eight experimental
centers were selected and a program of
high merit resulted. It is hoped that the
Young Men's Christian Associations will
be able to carry forward this current
affairs project on its own funds.
During the year the Association ac-
cepted a legal responsibility for a grant
made by the Carnegie Corporation to
the Workers' Educational Association of
Canada for the conduct of a program in
visual education. The grant-$6,000 in
amount-has been paid over to the
Canadian organization in installments
on the basis of quarterly reports of prog-
ress.
The Association received a grant of
$690 (part of a total grant of $900) from
the personal grants-in-aid fund of the
Corporation in support of R. Alexander
Sim of Quebec Province, Canada, for the
initiation of a program of rural studies in
an American university. Mr. Sim chose
to become a student for the half year at
Teachers College, Columbia University.


He is traveling to many agricultural cen-
ters in the course of his studies.
The University of Virginia, through
its Extension Department, established
during the year a state-wide rural adult
education project, made possible by the
transfer to the University of certain un-
expended balances in relief funds allo-
cated to Virginia for educational pur-
poses. On recommendation of the Asso-
ciation, the Carnegie Corporation acted
favorably upon an application from the
University for $7,500, to be applied to
the preparation of study materials which
are to be used in connection with this
project.
A second-year continuation grant of
$2,500 was made, upon recommendation
of the Association, to the Osborne Asso-
ciation in support of its general national
inquiry into educational conditions ob-
taining in the country's penological in-
stitutions.


CONCLUSION
The year just closed has been one of
considerable strain at the headquarters
of the Association. The initiation of a
program involving the establishment and
regular issuance of three new publica-
tions is bound to present problems diffi-
cult of solution and delicate of adminis-
tration. The fact that for most of the
year the program was carried with less
than requisite personnel, on both the
regular staff and emergency staff, put an
added burden on all staff members. This
burden was cheerfully assumed and
carried with a high degree of efficiency.
The Director acknowledges with con-
siderable pride the loyalty and devotion
of the staff of the Association.
As usual, the Executive Committee
has been faithful and hard-working, and
members of the Executive Board and of









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Council have given freely of their
advice and counsel.
The Association, with all modesty, can
take credit for a very considerable con-
tribution to the defense effort of the na-
tion. Both in field work and through its
publications, efforts of high quality have
been made to strengthen American dem-
ocratic processes. The devotion of the
Association to this truly patriotic ob-
jective has been greatly worth while in
the opinion of the Board members and
of the staff. Indications from the mem-
bership generally have been of high ap-
proval.
Respectfully submitted,
Morse A. Cartwright,
Director
New York City
April 28, 1941










FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, September
30, 1940; Statement Showing Changes in
the Maintenance Fund for the Year Ended
September 30, 1940; Statement of Re-
ceipts, Disbursements, and Balances of
Publication, Special Project, Study, and
Conference Funds for the Year Ended
September 30, 1940; and Statement of
Receipts and Disbursements of Appropria-
tions Received for Account of Other Or-
ganizations for the Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1940.
(As audited by Frederick Fischer, Jr., Certi-
fied Public Accountant.)
II. Statement of Financial Condition, March 31,
1941; Statement Showing Changes in the
Maintenance Fund for the Six Months
Ended March 31, 1941; Statement of Re-
ceipts, Disbursements, and Balances of
Publication, Special Project, Study, and
Conference Funds for the Six Months
Ended March 31, 1941; and Statement of
Receipts and Disbursements of Appropri-
ations Received for Account of Other Or-
ganizations for the Six Months Ended
March 31, 1941.


I
Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director
American Association for Adult Edu-
cation
60 East 42nd Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have made
an examination of the books of account
of the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR
ADULT EDUCATION
for the year ended September 30, 1940,
and present herewith the following four
exhibits:
Exhibit "A"-StatementofFinancialCon-
dition September 30, 1940.
Exhibit "B"-Statement Showing
Changes in the Mainte-
nance Fund for the Year
Ended September 30, 1940.
Exhibit C"-Statement of Receipts, Dis-
bursements, and Balances
of Publication, SpecialProj-
ect, Study, and Conference
Funds for the Year Ended
September 30, 1940.
Exhibit "D"-Statement of Receipts and
Disbursements of Appropri-
ations Received for Account
of Other Organizations for
the Year Ended September
30, 1940.

In connection with the foregoing, I
examined or tested accounting records of
the Association and other supporting
evidence, including confirmation of cash
in bank, by certificate obtained from the
depository.
In my opinion, based upon such ex-
amination, the accompanying four ex-
hibits set forth the financial condition of
the Association at September 30, 1940,
and the results of the operations for the
year ended on that date.

Yours very truly,
Frederick Fischer, Jr.
Certified Public Accountant
New York, N. Y.
October 28, 1940










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 21

EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1940
Assets
Cash
Capital Account ...................................... $69,191.08
Managing Account. .................................... 3,037.07 $72,228.15
Returnable advance on account of Study of Educational Pro-
gram of Museums .................. ............................ 333.32
Total Assets ..................................................... $72,561.47
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues......................................... 1,051.26
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................ 572.15
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D"............................................ 26,250.00
Total Liabilities ................................................ 27,873.41
Net Assets................................................................. $44,688.06
The net assets comprise the following funds:
Maintenance Fund, per Exhibit "B" ............................................ $9,967.50
Publication, Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per Exhibit C ............ 34,720.56
$44,688.06

EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN THE MAINTENANCE FUND FOR THE YEAR
ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1940
Balance, September 30, 1939 ................................... $14,960.29
Additions
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation of New
York for:
Maintenance ...................................... $50,000.00
Emergency services .................................... 10,000.00 $60,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual ............................... ............. 2,991.04
Organizational.. ............................ ... 1,307.33 4,298.37
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of separate copies ................. 1,193.23
Advertising sales...................................... 15.00 1,208.23
Transferred from other funds
Social Significance Study Program ....................... 3,364.09
National Occupational Conference ....................... 83.33 3,447.42
Total Additions................................................. 68,954.02
N Total................................ ........... ............... $83,914.31
Deductions
Maintenance expenses:
Annuity expenses .................................... ........... $2,098.50
Accountants' and Attorneys' fees .................................. 160.00
Furniture and equipment............ .......... ............396.84
Incidentals ..................... ..... .......................... 109.80
Incidentals-conferences ......................................... 643.03
Insurance ....................................................... 130.76
Journal printing, honoraria, reprints................................ 5,508.05
Library....................................................... 198.10
Postage and general shipping charges............................... 714.67
Printing, publications, publicity ................................... 778.64
Rent ...................................................... 7,650.00
Repairs and maintenance ........................................................... 189.76
Salaries.............................................. 43,431.67
Supplies, stationery, mimeographing............................... 1,312.30
Telephone and Telegraph......................................... 999.34
Travel...... ............................................ 925.02
Emergency services .................................... .......... 8,700.33
Total Deductions............................................ ... 73,946.81
Balance, September 30, 1940, per Exhibit "A" ................................. $9,967.50










22 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT C
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND BALANCES OF PUBLICATION,
SPECIAL PROJECT, STUDY, AND CONFERENCE FUNDS FOR THE YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1940
Adult Reading Study
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ $477.84
N o change .................................. .................... .. .
Balance, September 30, 1940. ................................................. $477.84

Community Organization Service
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 3,080.90
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................. 1,122.20
Balance, September 30, 1940.................................................. 1,958.70

Fifteenth Anniversary Celebration
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation for:
Expenses of meeting ............................................. 3,000.00
Special Proceedings issue of Journal ................................ 2,000.00
5,000.00
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................. 3,697.39
Balance, September 30, 1940 .................................................. 1,302.61

Forums Experimentation
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 1,032.20
Deduct: Disbursements............................................. 500.00
Balance, September 30, 1940 .................................................. 532.20

International Cooperation in Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 5,000.00
No change ................................... ..... ................ ..
Balance, September 30, 1940... ........................................... 5,000.00

Miscellaneous Projects
Balance, September 30, 1939........................................................ 1,260.00
Deduct: Disbursements to National University Extension Association.... 1,260.00
Balance, September 30, 1940 ..................................... ............

National Occupational Conference
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 1,425.00
Deduct: Disbursements. .................................. $1,341.67
Transferred to Maintenance Fund-apportionment for
overhead......................... ...... .... 83.33 1,425.00
Balance, September 30, 1940 ..................................................

Occupational Education and Guidance Service,
U. S. Office of Education
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 8,763.41
Add: Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 5,000.00
13,763.41
Deduct: Disbursements......................................... ... 7,868.21
Balance, September 30, 1940 .......... ........................ ............ 5 5,895.20

Purchase and Distribution of Publications
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation for:
Study of rural reading .................................... ... .. 1,000.00
Study of school buildings for community use........................ 1,000.00
2,000.00
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................. 12.00
Balance, September 30, 1940........................................ ................ 1,988.00

Radio Listening Groups-European Phase
Balance, September 30, 1939 ................... ..................... 500.00
Deduct: Disbursements ......... ........ ................... 500.00
Balance, September 30, 1940 ..................................................-






i










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 23


Exhibit C-continued
Readability Laboratory
Report on Readability Study
Balance, September 30, 1939............................ $1,978.64
Deduct: Disbursements ................................. 1,978.64
Balance, September 30, 1940 .....................................
Readability Laboratory
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ................. 15,000.00
Add: Fee for services of laboratory ...................... 750.00
15,750.00
Deduct: Disbursements ................................ 12,971.21
Balance, September 30, 1940 ..................................... $2,778.79 $2,778.79

Regional Conferences on Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 1,076.65
Add: Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 5,000.00
6,076.65
* Deduct: Disbursements ............................................. 2,957.57
Balance, September 30, 1940 ............................................... ... 3,119.08

Research Report
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 1,024.50
N o change.......................... .... .. .......................
Balance, September 30, 1940 .................. ............................... 1,024.50
Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 3,065.46
Add: Receipts from sales of publications and royalties .................. 2,773.80
5,839.26
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................. 2,216.25
Balance, September 30, 1940 ................................................. 3,623.01

Social Significance Study Program
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 9,494.47
Add: Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 25,000.00
34,494.47
Deduct: Disbursements ............................. ... 24,109.75
Transferred to Maintenance Fund-apportionment for
overhead.............. ... ..................... 3,364.09 27,473.84
Balance, September 30, 1940 .............................. .................... 7,020.63

World's Fair Science and Education Exhibit
Balance, September 30, 1939 ........................................ 1,858.77
Deduct: Disbursements ...................................... ... 1,858.77
Balance, Septem ber 30, 1940.................................................. .
Total Publication, Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per
Exhibit "A"........................... ....................... $34720.56











ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


EXHIBIT D
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED
FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE YEAR
ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1940
Balance, September 30, 1939
Payable to:
Associates in Negro Folk Education................................ $3,000.00
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ...................... 2,000.00 $5,000.00


Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation, for account of:
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations ............
American Labor Education Service...............................
Clarem ont Colleges ..............................................
Cleveland Public Library .........................................
Connecticut State Department of Education ........................
Foreign Language Information Service.............................
Hudson Shore Labor School......................................
Labor Tem ple ...................................................
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America .....
New York Public Library........................................
The Osborne Association..........................................
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild......................
Red Hook Community Association ................................
San Francisco School of Social Studies .............................
Workers Education Bureau of America .............................

Disbursements
Payments to:
American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations ............
American Labor Education Service ................................
Associates in Negro Folk Education ................................
Claremont Colleges ..............................................
Connecticut State Department of Education........................
Foreign Language Information Service.............................
Hudson Shore Labor School .....................................
Labor Temple ...................................................
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America ....
New York Public Library........................................
The Osborne Association..........................................
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild .....................
Red Hook Community Association ................................
San Francisco School of Social Studies ..............................
Workers Education Bureau of America .............................


500.00
2,000.00
1,500.00
5,000.00
12,000.00
8,500.00
5,000.00
1,000.00
10,000.00
2,000.00
3,000.00
5,000.00
5,000.00
3,000.00
5,000.00 68,500.00
$73,500.00


500.00
2,000.00
3,000.00
1,500.00
6,000.00
4,250.00
4,000.00
1,000.00
2,500.00
2,000.00
3,000.00
4,500.00
5,000.00
3,000.00
5,000.00 47,250.00


Balance, September 30, 1940, per Exhibit "A"
Payable to:
Cleveland Public Library ...................................... 5,000.00
Connecticut State Board of Education ............................ 6,000.00
Foreign Language Information Service ............................. 4,250.00
Hudson Shore Labor School....................................... 1,000.00
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America ... 7,500.00
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild...................... 2,500.00 $26.250.00










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 25

II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1941
Assets
Cash
Capital Account ........................................... .... $100,380.29
M managing Account ................................ ............ 42,960.57
Total Assets. ................................................... $143,340.86
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues .................. ...................... 334.37
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................... 210.60
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D ......................................... 25,000.00
Total Liabilities ..................................... ............ 25,544.97
Net Assets.................................................................. $117,795.89

The net assets comprise the following funds:
Maintenance Fund, per Exhibit "B". .................................. $12,495.41
Publication, Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per
Exhibit "C". ...................................................... 105,300.48
Total Funds..................................................................... $117,795.89





EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN THE MAINTENANCE FUND FOR THE SIX
MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 1941
Balance, September 30, 1940................. ............................... $9,967.50
Additions
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation of New York.......... $25,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual.............................................. $2,624.90
Organizational ....................................... 1,192.16 3,817.06
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of separate copies ........................... 1,345.64
Transferred from other funds
Emergency Program ............................................. 3,700.00
Total Additions..................................................... 33,862.70
Total........................................................... $43,830.20
Deductions
Maintenance expenses:
Accountants' and Attorneys' fees .................................. 150.00
Annuity expenses ................................................ 919.92
Furniture and equipment ......................................... ..
Incidentals...................................................... 67.71
Incidentals-conferences .......................................... 233.10
Insurance. ...................................................... 69.75
Journal printing, honoraria, reprints ................................ 3,118.69
Library ......................................................... 127.03
Postage and general shipping charges ............................... 462.01
Printing, publications, publicity .................................. 188.02
Rent ........................................................... 3,825.00
Repairs and maintenance ......................................... 14.75
Salaries ........... ........................................... 20,649.98
Supplies, stationery, mimeographing ................................ 853.37
Telephone and telegraph .......................................... 567.46
Travel.......................................................... 88.00
Total Deductions.................................................... 31,334.79
Balance, March 31, 1941, per Exliibit "A".. ............................. $12,495.41





/ *1-I











26 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT C
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND BALANCES OF PUBLICATION,
SPECIAL PROJECT, STUDY, AND CONFERENCE FUNDS FOR THE SIX MONTHS
ENDED MARCH 31, 1941

Adult Reading Study
Balance, September 30, 1940....................................... $477.84
No change....................................................... ..
Balance, March 31, 1941. .................................................... $477.84

Community Organization Service
Balance, September 30, 1940 ....................................... 1,958.70
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................ 40.06
Balance, March 31, 1941 ..................................................... 1,918.64

Emergency Program
Appropriations from Carnegie Corporation ........................... 85,000.00
Add: Receipts from subscriptions and sales of publications............. 1,876.85
86,876.85
Deduct: Disbursements................................ $31,916.52
Transferred to Maintenance Fund-apportionment
for overhead................................. 3,700.00 35,616.52
Balance, March 31, 1941 .................................................... 51,260.33

Fifteenth Anniversary Celebration
Balance, September 30, 1940 ....................................... 1,302.61
Deduct; Disbursements ............................................ 1,302.61
Balance. M arch 31, 1941 ...................................... ..............

Forums Experimentation
Balance, September 30, 1940....................................... 532.20
No change ........................ ...... .... .. ... .... ... ..... .
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 ..................................................... 532.20

Grants-in-Aid for Study of:
Museums
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ................ 2,000.00
Deduct: Disbursements ............................... 1,333.28
Balance, M arch 31, 1941........................................ 666.72
Urban Adult Education Institutions
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation................ 1,500.00
Deduct: Disbursements................................. 500.00
Balance, March 31, 1941........................................... 1,000.00
Adult Education Experiments in the United States.........
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation................. 690.00
Deduct: Disbursements ............................... 311.00
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 ......................................... 379.00 2,045.72

International Cooperation in Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1940 ....................................... 5,000.00
No change..................................................... ..
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 .................................................... 5,000.00
New York Study of Engineering Training for National
Defense
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ............................ 3,674.00
Deduct: Disbursements .................................... .... 3,674.00
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 ....................... ............... ... .......

Occupational Education and Guidance Service,
U. S. Office of Education
Balance, September 30, 1940 ....................................... 5,895.20
Deduct: Disbursements........................................... 3,063.95
Balance, March 31, 1941 ................................. ................. 2,831.25











ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 27

Exhibit C-continued
Purchase and Distribution of Publications
Balance, September 30, 1940 ...................................... $1,988.00
Deduct: Disbursements........................................... 1,715.95
Balance, M arch 31, 1941..................................... ............ ... $272.05

Readability Laboratory
Balance, September 30, 1940....................................... 2,778.79
Add: Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 15,000.00
17,778.79
Deduct: Disbursements........................................... 7,852.72
Balance, March 31, 1941..................................................... 9,926.07

Regional Conferences on Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1940......................................... 3,119.08
Deduct: Disbursements........................................... 3,119.08
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 .....................................................

Research Report
Balance, September 30, 1940...................................... 1,024.50
N o change ....................................................... .
Balance, M arch 31, 1941 ..................................................... 1,024.50

Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1940 ....................................... 3,623.01
Add: Receipts from sales of publications and royalties ................. 1,368.39
4,991.40
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................ 361.38
Balance, March 31, 1941 .................................................... 4,630.02

Social Significance Study Program
Balance, September 30, 1940....................................... 7,020.63
Add: Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 10,000.00
17,020.63
Deduct: Disbursements........................................... 2,403.86
Balance, March 31, 1941..................................................... 14,616.77

Vocational Conferences Fund
Transfer from Teachers College, Columbia University, of former National
Occupational Conference Fund.................................. 11,544.21
Deduct: Disbursements ............................................ 779.12
Balance, March 31, 1941.................................................... 10,765.09
Total Publication, Special Project, Study, and Conference
Funds, per Exhibit "A"................................................ $105,300.48











28 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT D
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED
FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE SIX MONTHS
ENDED MARCH 31, 1941


Balance, September 30, 1940
Payable to:
Cleveland Public Library.........................................
Connecticut State Board of Education .............................
Foreign Language Information Service .............................
Hudson Shore Labor School.......................................
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America....
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild .....................

Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation, for account of:
American Labor Education Service ................................
Associates in Negro Folk Education ................................
The Osborne Association..........................................
Red Hook Community Association .................................
University of Virginia............................................
Workers Education Bureau of America .............................
Workers' Educational Association of Canada ........................

Disbursements
Payments to:
American Labor Education Service .................................
Connecticut State Board of Education ..............................
Foreign Language Information Service ............................
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America...
The Osborne Association..........................................
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ......................
Red Hook Community Association ................................
University of Virginia ...........................................
Workers Education Bureau of America .............................
Workers' Educational Association of Canada ........................

Balance, March 31, 1941, per Exhibit "A"
Payable to:
American Labor Education Service................................
Associates in Negro Folk Education ................................
Cleveland Public Library........................................
Hudson Shore Labor School......................................
National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations of America....
University of Virginia ..........................................
Workers Education Bureau of America ............................
Workers' Educational Association of Canada .......................


$5,000.00
6,000.00
4,250.00
1,000.00
7,500.00
2,500.00 $26,250.00



2,000.00
3,500.00
2,500.00
2,950.00
7,500.00
5,000.00
6,000.00 29,450.00
$55,700.00


1,000.00
6,000.00
4,250.00
5,000.00
2,500.00
2,500.00
2,950.00
2,500.00
2,500.00
1,500.00 30,700.00



1,000.00
3,500.00
5,000.00
1,000.00
2,500.00
5,000.00
2,500.00
4,500.00 $25.000.00




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