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Title: Annual report of the director
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1934/35
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Preceded by: Annual report of the executive director

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 37
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    Back Cover
        Page 43
        Page 44
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UNIVEfkiITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY
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ERICAN ASSOCIATION

R ADULT EDUCATION













ANNUAL REPORT OF
THE DIRECTOR
in behalf of the Executive Board
for 1934-35


.**. : > : .







kCAN ASSOIATJON FOR ADULT EDUCATION
SIXTY EAST IMITY-SBCOND STREET
NEW YORK CITY








0_ _


AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
Annual Report of the Director in Behalf
of the Executive Board
for 1934-35


tflRGRESS in education customarily
).L has been associated with the birth of
i's about education. Belief in the
beneficent results that flow from innova-
W has become o widespread in America
thMit has been incorporated as an essen-
tial part-perhaps the essential part-of
the national educational creed. Steady
vefent through the years has justi-
is faith. Continual examination
e methods, media, and content of
tion at all levels has become tradi-
I. Those interested in education,
l nal and lay persons alike, have
t and even to like radical
m-the usual. It is recog-
lat blsuch means genuine im-
til a complicated and delicate
achieved. So general is the
i ment that parents as
r ject to offering either
en or themselves-now that
e subjects of adult edu-
ea pigs for the expii-
b ratories of the educational


e of this disposition
in the repeated fail-
1 ez ring cults of so-
l among the educa-
Fov ught the precious
t are adopted, assiyj-
sprg abroad bytbe
)f qlbp rs who eagerly aaspay


it be said, merrily press on toward new
experimentation. No cult can endure
when its tenets are from day to day
acclaimed and practiced by the multitude.
The philosophy of change, of procedure
by trial and error, is so deeply ingrained
in American education that there is
warrant for the criticism, sometimes ex-
pressed by European visitors to this
country, that this restless belief in the
efficacy of change is the only philosophy
possessed by American education. The
writings of our recognizedly great educa-
tional philosophers would seem to negate
this charge, but obvious failures to con-
solidate many of the gains made through
experimentation lend all too much color
to the allegations of the critics.
It would be a mistake, however, to
ascribe all progress in education to ideas
that have emanated from the professional
educators. Often educational ideas have
had their origin in the patient lay public
itself, and such ideas have prevailed be-
cause they were deeply rooted in human
needs or desires.
More often than not the expression of
the public mind on educational questions
has taken negative form. The pu ic
has registered its opinion-has men
birth to its ideas on education- th gh
its refusal to adapt or accept the ideas.of
the experimenters. And such refusals
have extended alike to methods andto


g o04-


I


_NVN_'








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


content of education. Two instances
will serve to illustrate this point: the
first, pertaining to subject matter or con-
tent, lies in the demonstrated unwilling-
ness to accept universal military training
in our schools and colleges as an integral
part of education; the second, relating to
methods of instruction, lies in the refusal
to adopt generally into the educational
S process the "principles of manual train-
ing, widely heralded thirty years ago.
So it would seem that education pro-
gresses not alone by the birth of ideas
but by the death of certain of them as
well. It is just as essential to progress in
education that old ideas should die as
that new ones should be born. And it
may be, too, that it is equally necessary
to progress that certain new ideas should
die at birth or in early infancy.
This benign mortality, brought about
by the inscrutable operation of public
opinion (whether lay public or profes-
sional public is immaterial), affords the
system of checks and balances by which
reasonableness is maintained. It pro-
vides the means of preservation of educa-
tional sanity. Even when contemned by
the opprobrious epithets of the extremist,
it is our very "apathy," "lethargy," or
"inertia" that forms our surface protec-
tion against the manipulations of those
who would exploit us and our institutions
under the guise of experimentation.
It is said that for youth alone there are
in this country more than fifty privately
financed and conducted national or-
ganizations whose programs are pre-
dominantly educational. Each pursues
an educational objective but each pos-
sesses an additional objective, sometimes
hidden and sometimes acknowledged, to
indoctrinate the recipients of its educa-
tion with ideas that it holds to be good.
These ideas are of varied assortment and
most of them are sincerely believed to be


of inestimable benefit to those who come
under their sway. Religious belief, anti-
militarism, thrift, health, and racial
tolerance all would be good examples of
educational programs wherein the objec-
tive is something more than actual edu-
cation in the subjects involved. If the
adult group as well is included, the num-
ber of such organizations increases many
fold, and the hundreds of national efforts
at indoctrination or exploitation make a
staggering total. Propaganda for polit-
ical and for commercial purposes is qp
every hand and even governments have
descended to its use in the name of
education.
The American is accustomed to such
manifestations, however, and he doouawt
fear them. He has a canny habit of a
sidering the source of edwatie aa
applying necessary personal de-n .
And in the main in this country Ie l
had a bulwark upon which he could ly.
That bulwark has been the pubMt tax-
supported schools. Resistant to exploita-
tion and on the whole fairly swcce dm in
that resistance, the public school e
maintained a tradition of unpaid
that constitutes their most price att -
bute. It would appear then tt c
thing the school definitely is net, ,
that is an agency for the diW=V[
doctrines superimposed upo wagblM
tional base.
It is the purpose of the introduce
this report to note the
of a new educational doctrine
years of the depression. For
die while it was still yon",
this particular idea, fed by thl~
the depression, gained cedeceen
tears ordinarily given over to
thinking. It is with gratification
the writer of this report y aa
obituary in passing, tru inag
observations may be heard








APoUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


g~rps Wthe expiring formula by which
8b weofto have been made over;
lg~aM Elwailing, the gnashing of teeth,
and the self-flagellations of the diminish-
ing lbdy of watchers and mourners. The
jeiication for devoting space to what
after all has proved to be only a passing
pise of American educational develop-
rmnt is to be found in the somewhat
dying realization that the successful
growth and maturing of this now dying
ideav-ould have meant inevitably the
dtdtfld ldestructiorof whatever qual-
ity d~ebpeniledness adult education
hasJ1CW ftr. In the world of education,
reincarnations are not unheard-of, and it
DM'fe ell to examine this idea as it
'%itd itself during its brief life in case
itf- Au reeame necessary to recognize
it ia new form in the future.
id what was tis idea? Stripped of
SW and stated baldly in the words
A ip ea paMgitors, it was this: "The
4- and should be an agency for
1W ieen." n
4l-C- .aps beide the point at issue
to A xO ance of the fact that those
S r-tn-this- idea were educators
v dsBt "at tte time in what they
Awar rtmental and social reform.
-M- n eVentlemen who looked for-
6e ntlyto "a reorganization of
eldea," a tatk that, in their
ioi 4 be performed without
d.*coMring to specifications
ilt themselves competent to
w of them was heard to
a a tha mday conference."
-a, -t6en educators
s, bhe pe nents of
"4obee"-t they-fondly
-aform oar seial
l. llF er their faith was
or ~iasr"~am-
re-muuflike.
ir enthuimsiasms, they


so far forgot their professional loyalty
and allegiance to educational ideals that
they were wholly willing to see the edu-
cational system utilized for non-educa-
tional purposes. These gentlemen cast
aside, in one reckless gesture, the con-
ventional black robes of their academic
profession and reached for the bright
scarlet togas of a pseudo-statesmanship.
The theory that schoolmasters should
dictate governmental and social policies
seems seldom to have been in high favor
either in our own country or in other
countries. Statesmen as a rule have not
come from the ranks of the professors.
Public confidence does not for long ex-
tend to those whose lives in the main
have been spent in the make-believe
world of the classroom. This lack of
confidence on the part of the public is
clearly indicated in the popular attitude
toward the current "brain trust." Presi-
dent Wilson, during his career as a states-
man, succeeded as a leader of the people
despite rather than because of his prior
career as an educator. His academic
background was a constant source of em-
barrassment to him in dealing with popu-
lar and political movements of his day.
This was true notwithstanding the un-
deniable fact that much of his splendid
equipment for statesmanship was at-
tributable to his professorial experience
and study. Unfortunately, however, the
public responds to certain qualities of
leadership that have little to do with the
educational equipment of the leader. For
many years leaders of the people have
come from professions and vacations
other than that of the schoolteacher, and
there is little reavn to betire that a
departure from such practice Sll eate
even as a result of-the somewhaCmFWtic
efforts of the educational lawgfVers to
induce a change.
But aside from their motives,The ipsic








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


question with reference to the educa-
tional system raised by these experi-
menters and innovators deserves to be
challenged. It is being challenged. The
public is in the act of deciding over-
whelmingly that the school is not "an
agency for social action."
It is to be suspected that the public's
decision rests upon a distrust of the
schoolmaster and a firmly held belief
that he is not qualified to take leadership
in governmental and social action. It is
not the intent here to weigh the question
of how well founded such a distrust may
be. There is much to be said on both
sides, and the final answer probably
never will be determined. But the fact
remains; the decision of the public has
been made; and the educator-statesman
has opportunity now to retire, with what
grace he can muster, to his own realm of
education.
Under what conditions shall he be re-
ceived back into the educational circle?
Surely the fundamental question of
whether or not the school is an agency
for social action must be decided before
these knights-errant, so long tilting in
alien fields, return to do battle again in a
highly important even if somewhat lim-
ited area. The practical answer has
already been given by the world outside.
Is it not important that education-the
world inside-ever wont to occupy itself
with theory, should once and for all
settle this question of what the school
really is and should be?
The school is a social agency and an
important one. Possibly it is the most
important of all our social agencies, par-
ticularly when it is viewed as a center of
education and training for adults as well
as for children-and there is little doubt
that the school of the future will be such
a center for the entire community.
But is it an agency for social action?


Evidently the schoolman, wiWher he
be administrator or teacher, is rejected
by the public as a leader in social action.
He is sought after neither as a statesman
nor as a reformer. However, the school
can be an agency for social action ovay if
and when the leaders of the school-te
administrators and teachers-conume
to act. Clearly the elementary ane-
ondary school children, the college-r-
dents and the adults who retuRno
schools to learn (but not to join A
"action group") can not be expected tj
provide the action. Theirs is a follaP
ship-a right and proper relationship-
during the period of learning.
The school may well be an agency for
the preparation of people for social
action. The school would be a srry
spectacle indeed if it did not consi
offerings to students in such a lights
intelligent social action is de
upon a thorough underst-aMis MF
one but of many sides of a giver
question. The quality of operr-i
ness in teaching-an honest"ofort
part of the teacher to strive
doctrination-will, more and m
come the gauge of success in tea
It is not necessary that stud
whatever age, should ne led b
teacher to believe. It is necoWry
they should be led to underst
ierience of life will mold bel*
tance, economic status, legal
injustice-a thousand
daily life conditioneief.
cern of the educator onl
these outside factors over
no control are allowed to
individual in the light of th
fullest possible understand
forces at work in th -. al
It further is the duty e
afford the individual or
terpret the social forces at








ANUWTAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


him-in4 ms of pertinent knowledge to
be gained feom the fields of the humani-
ties and of the physical and biological
sciences.
In the time at his disposal, whether it
be eight, twelve, sixteen years, or a life-
time, the educator can never fully per-
fosm these duties toward the individuals
under his charge. He must be content
always with a less than perfect job. But
when that job is done, again he must be
content to let individuals formulate their
own beliefs. He must be content to
leave them free to bring about such social
action as they deem wise and fitting. His
is not-the part to lead them in that social
action. His is the part-and it is one
deserving of the highest respect and ad-
Oration-to determine the validity of
the preparation accorded to the expand-
ing minds under his care.
In no subdivision of education is it
so necessary clearly to understand this
priacipleopf freedom from forced belief or
aiU.as in that relating to the adult.
SaW of the future are to be adult cen-
ter s ell as centers for the education
ofdbilda- Schoolmen, whether they
we -he prospect or not, are to be
fomkwhi the educational leadership of
e-ersons like themselves-persons
4-Aih to know and to understand and
411etth their children to know and to
e nndrbut who will jealously chal-
e any claim at all on the part of the
der and teacher to translate the proc-
of acquiring knowledge and under-
ing into one of social movement.
vehemently will they deny that the
i4r should be an agency for social

ry l it be forgotten that in
schools are, and should-be,
mind conceives them to
SAneBm-education is organized on
is of local community autonomy.


Unwise and of short tenure will be the
educator who seeks to make schools
something else than the purely educa-
tional agencies they originally were de-
signed to be. The educator may expand
the educational program without limit
and as rapidly as public opinion and pub-
lic funds will support him. He can not
arrogate to himself and to the school
system the functions of government or of
direct social and political action.

PUBLIC SCHOOL FORUMS
The limits beyond which public educa-
tion should not and can not go are no-
where more plainly seen than in the con-
duct of free discussion forums in public
schools. The three years of operation of
the Des Moines Forums project have
demonstrated beyond doubt that a com-
munity-wide attempt to educate upon
social questions of importance can be
successful provided the community mem-
bers clearly understand that the objec-
tives are understanding and knowledge
of current problems and nothing more.
Des Moines residents willingly and with
interest listen to and cross-question ex-
treme radicals and extreme conserva-
tives alike. They appreciate the attempt
to present a balanced program and the
effort to bring out more than one side
of controversial questions. Even more
have they learned in Des Moines to de-
pend upon the fair-mindedness and open-
mindedness of the regular forum leaders
who, week iri and week out throughout
the year, stand solidly for a calm analy-
sis of the facts advanced by the pro-
ponents' of many sides of contemporary
questions. The Des Moines Forums
have been conducted in a spirit of.apen-
minded fair play. The almost complete
absence of local criticism of the-ttitude
of the leaders is the best evidence'4hat
success in this respect has been achieved.


SA








ANNUAL REPORT C


Despite the fact that the forums have
lost their novelty in Des Moines, the at-
tendance has not receded markedly. The
neighborhood gatherings have fallen off
somewhat but this decrease may well be
attributed to the greater number of cen-
tral forums affording residents oppor-
tunity to see and hear forum leaders so-
journing in the city for periods of six
weeks or less only. However, the aver-
age weekly attendance on all forum
activities in Des Moines has been 2,210
during the year 1934-35. This is a re-
markable showing in the crucial third
year of the project, when a serious at-
tendance slump may usually be expected.
From the point of view of educational
results it seems clear that the small,
intimate neighborhood group forum,
conducted by the seasoned full-time
forum leader well known to his group,
produces greater satisfaction than the
large central forums or the even larger
city-wide forums. Forum leaders when
engaged on a short-time or casual basis
may be valuable as inciters to enthu-
siasm for the forum idea, but inevitably
there is a tendency for them to attract
and to entertain at the expense of the
true objective, which is to educate. It
would be a pity if in Des Moines or any-
where else that the forum plan is tried
the activity should be allowed to degen-
erate into a traveling-chautauqua-like
form of entertainment with little resul-
tant educational content. The organi-
zation of small discussion groups for the
more serious-minded in the community,
the laying of emphasis upon the neigh-
borhood forum, and the employment of
competent forum leaders on an annual
basis would seem to be means of com-
bating the ever-present tendency to
entertain rather than to educate. And
such changes in emphasis can be put into


IF THE DIREWBOR

effect without destroying the popularity
or enjoyability of the forum enterprise
Mr. John W. Studebaker, the superin-
tendent of the Des Moines schools and
ex-officio the leader of the forum experi-
ment, in the fall of 1934 became the
United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion, on leave from his Des Moiaes Api-
tion. Mr. Studebaker has not rein-
quished his responsibility for plain g
the Des Moines Forums, althouglis
assistant, Mr. R. I. Grigsby, has bein
active administrative charge through
the year. Mr. Studebaker is waBftg
to secure Federal Government finantal
support for a plan that he has drawn up
devised to extend the Des Moines forum
idea to other communities. It is to be
hoped that he will be successful in repro-
ducing or even in magnifying the es
Moines experiment in a number.f
American cities during 1935-36. I -
ever, great care will have to be exerid
in the selection of qualified forum lead,
whose number at best is ex
limited. The cooperation of unive
and colleges in the selection and tr
of leaders will have to be soughl
great deal of caution must be
to see that school administrators
stand fully the delicacy with wh
discussion of prickly contempora
tions must be handled. It is tol
that the application of Fede 1
indeed they become availa
purpose, will not -d ali
back rather than f
democratic edueationde6 al
ard of performaee on a4fl ,
stance, with that-of t
ported emergency relief program i
education wrlh-be tdRWble.
of leadership availdle cW the r
is most certainly not the type
for a system of public forums.









r


IfI~We fall of 1934 the Carnegie Cor-
pWf n n of New York, on recommenda-
tion of the Association, made a final
grant in support of the Des Moines
Forums of $80,000, designed to complete
the five years originally agreed upon as
the experimental period. This grant,
together with the $45,000 previously
appropriated, will make the total cost of
the experiment $125,000.
On January 21, 1935, there was assem-
bled a special meeting of eastern mem-
bers of the Executive Board of the
Association, together with the officers
S of4mt-organization and certain invited
guests, for the purpose of discussing
progress in the Des Moines project and
the plans of the United States Commis-
sioner of Education to extend the forum
idea to other communities. In the
course of the discussion many of the
limitations upon the forum idea as set
S stb above were formulated and passed
g( eSifr. Studebaker for his considera-
utn. A-special grant of $500 from the
inegi- Corporation made this con-
Sienc-*pssible.
S- *- amary, 1935, the Association
LtCrse*the publication by the McGraw-
4ll mC"npany of Mr. Studebaker's re-
IBIon the Des Moiaes project, entitled
'-* American Way-Democracy at
k iz the Des Moines Forums.
hthe use of the balance remain-
pended in the fund provided by
1 Education Board for publi-
urposes in connection with the
erergany educational program,
o purchase and to dis-
without charge 1,200 copies of
-er's book- Comments-from
of copies and reviewers'
alike cnsatitue-testimony
the-foruo-
by later,"r-education both- pro-
lay.


The subject-matter content in the Des
Moines Forums has been largely deter-
mined by the public's interest in con-
temporary questions of importance. In
a sense the morning newspaper has been
the text-and all too exclusively the text
-for the Des Moines forum participants.
Ever since the inception of the Des
Moines plan the Association has been
interested in seeing the forum idea tried
out in another city, comparable in size,
the second experiment to serve as a
check upon the validity of the Des
Moines performance. An opportunity
to provide such a check and at the same
time to experiment with a somewhat
different subject-matter approach was
afforded through the interest and co-
operation of Dr. Hans Kohn, who in the
spring of 1934 had served as a lecturer
and forum leader at Des Moines. Dr.
Kohn, who now holds a professorship of
history in Smith College, had expressed
interest to the Association in seeing a
forum program initiated in which the
approach would be historical rather than
based on a more or less superficial inter-
est in current questions. With the hearty
cooperation of President Neilson of
Smith College, a committee of citizens
was formed in Springfield, Massachusetts,
and the Kohn plan was laid before them.
The committee immediately expressed
interest and set about the establishment
of an experimental, eight-weeks series of
forty sessions given between the dates of
February 18 and April 12, 1935. The
entire course was designed to present the
backgrounds of European history. Five
countries, England, France, Italy, Ger-
many, and Russia, were included, with
eight lectures (one each week) devoted to
each country. Lecturers and discumsion
leaders were secured fromnvari~Uewew
England and New York universitiet nd
colleges, Professor Kohn himself carry-


Ai m*l L REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIREW)OR


ing a heavy share of the lecturing. On
recommendation of the Association,
the Carnegie Corporation appropriated
$4,500 in support of the series.
As a result of the activities of an in-
telligent and devoted local committee,
combined with the generous cooperation
of the Springfield Republican, this
series of lectures and discussions has
achieved the success its excellence merits.
The average attendance on sessions has
been more than 1,000 and the audiences
have ranged in size from 800 to 2,800.
Each lecturer in the series has been re-
quired to place in the hands of the audi-
ence a digest or outline of his lecture, to-
gether with a brief annotated bibliog-
raphy on the subject under discussion.
Local clubs and organizations in Spring-
field have commenced to build their edu-
cational programs around the subjects
dealt with in the forums; the reading of
books on these same subjects has in-
creased to the point where it has been
found necessary to supplement the book
supply of the Springfield Public Library
in the fields under discussion; and evi-
dence abounds on every hand that the
educational resultant of the Springfield
project has been high.
The most serious difficulty in the
Springfield experiment has arisen out of
the very popularity of the series itself. It
is difficult if not impossible to conduct
free discussion in audiences running up-
ward of one thousand persons. If the
Springfield project is continued, every
effort will be made to devise some means
whereby thorough discussion of forum
questions, presumably under the leader-
ship of qualified local residents, may be
made available to the very considerable
portion of the forum audience that is
interested in going forward on a true
educational basis with the subjects in
hand.


FEDERAL EMERGENCY PROGRAM
In the report for 1933-34 considerable
space was devoted to the difficulties in
the way of successful educational per-
formance in the Federal emergency edu-
cational program financed through the
Federal Emergency Relief Administra-
tion primarily for the benefit of needy
persons who either were former teaheers
or were qualified to teach. The program
has gone forward during 1934-35 ort-a
slightly increased basis, governmental
expenditures running at about $2,400,000
a month in support of this program. The
quality of the work has improved, as a
result largely of the provision of a much-
appreciated though still inadequate sum
for supervision and for teacher training.
Supervisors appointed in the various
states had an opportunity to attend -vri-
ous adult education institutes held during
the summer of 1934. They returnedto
their state areas and, in most instances,
were successful in setting up in-service
teacher training programs which- it
appears, have aided greatly in impronhg
the quality of the product offered teLhe
public. Even with these improvements,
however, the Federal emergency program
is not on the whole distinguished for its
high quality. The limitation imposed by
the prescribed selection of teachers and
leaders from the relief rolls is a
insuperable difficulty. Againr-
ernmental effort which is dii
marily toward relief as-i -
rather than tov _il-
bound to produce a 9esl
quate so far as its edufSil
whileness is concerned.
The United States Commissio
Education, early in April, 193
bled a conference to discuss the
for 1935-36, the assurtion be
the government relief agency wo
to see activities in the educate!








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


S continued during the year commencing
July 1, 1935. The conference was par-
ticipated in by members of the committee
that served in an advisory capacity to
the United States Commissioner of Edu-
cation during 1933-34; by state, county,
and city school superintendents; and by
the staff specialists employed by the Re-
lief Administration in connection with
the various subdivisions of the program.
The result of its two days of deliberations
was to place in the hands of the Commis-
sioner a series of strong recommenda-
tions, in brief as follows: (1) That, after
the allocation of funds by the Relief
Administration to the various states and
after the certification of financial need
with respect to those who were to par-
ticipate as teachers and leaders in the
program, the entire administration (ex-
tending to authority as well as to re-
sponsibility) should rest in the hands of
tlh educational authorities. (2) That
active direction of the program should
rest in the United States Office of Educa-
tion-n-tcooperation with the state educa-
tional authorities. (3) That adequate
sums should be provided for (a) super-
vision, (b) teacher training, and (c) mate-
rials of instruction. (4) That, unless the
United States Office of Education and
the various state school officers involved
are to be given the administrative au-
thority that should accompany responsi-
bility, the program should be returned to
the flief Administration or its successor
Soke and conducted independently by
%hRelief authorities.
i. quite clear that the unwilling
pmbership Jtween Relief authorities
ar Bri -tbities does not work out.
i cities are public officers and
-e htel accountable. If
lI I m qm ewl authorities were
4 fepndence upon-qe Relief
)a 'tration and could have the


benefit of the advisory assistance which
might be afforded by a strong staff at the
United States Office of Education and by
state, city, and county adult education
councils and committees, there is reason
to hope that the quality of the Federal
emergency effort could be vastly im-
proved. Unless effective measures can
be undertaken to produce such improve-
ment it seems likely that adult education
will be done a costly and harmful dis-
service. There can be no excuse for the
Federal Government's mishandling of
education and particularly the education
of adults, even when done in the holy
name of relief.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation of New
York appropriated $3,000 to be used for
cooperation with the United States Com-
missioner of Education in the develop-
ment of the Federal emergency program.
This sum has been drawn upon from time
to time by the Commissioner for con-
ferences and studies relating to the work
offered in the forty-eight states.


THE JOURNAL
In line with the change in Journal
policy reported last year, by which the
proportion of descriptive articles in each
issue of the magazine was increased and
the proportion of theoretical articles cor-
respondingly diminished, it was decided
this year to abolish the Why Stop Learn-
ing department of the Journal, in which
the descriptive articles had originally
been concentrated. This new change
has released for inclusion in the main
body of the magazine a number of
briefer articles, written in a somewhat
mere informal style than that which
usually characterizes the more -engthy
contributions. The general effect upon
the Journal has been to lighten its tone








ANNUAL REPORT


and to give greater variety in both con-
tent and style to the main articles. At
the same time the number of those
articles has been considerably increased.
Judging by the comments, written and
verbal, made by Journal readers, all
these changes have met with their
hearty approval.
Encouraging evidence that the influ-
ence of the Journal is spreading has come
to the Association through the increasing
number of requests for permission to re-
print or otherwise reproduce material
that the Journal has published. Five
of the articles that appeared in the recent
April number have been thus borrowed
and copied for circulation among mem-
bers of special groups. The lead article
in that same issue aroused discussion in
many quarters and was made the subject
of extended comment in the New York
World-Telegram.
The long-hoped-for letters from read-
ers have at last begun to materialize
in satisfying numbers, and a slender
stream of correspondence between Jour-
nal readers and writers has been trickling
over the editorial desk during this last
year.
Unsolicited manuscripts have come
in so steadily that at times the tempta-
tion to resort to the cruelty of printed
rejection slips has been almost, though
happily not quite, irresistible. Some of
S the senders of these freewill offerings
have proved to be welcome additions to
the list of Journal contributors. Other
new contributors have come through
the kindness of members of the American
Library Association headquarters staff
and others. Again, this year, a few spe-
cial writers have been engaged to pre-
pare reports of noteworthy enterprises
suitable for publication in the Journal,
payment for these services being made
from the residue of a fund of $2,550 pro-


OF THE DIREC1R

vided by the Carnegie Corporatian in
October, 1933.
Thus it seems that the Journal is
strikingits roots deeper and hence growing
more useful to the Association as a means
not only for gathering and disseminating
information and ideas about adult edu-
cation developments but also for exert-
ing an influence upon the direction at
those developments shall take.
For a second year, by special arrange-
ment between the Association and-tihm
Department of Adult Education of
the National Education Association, the
Bulletin of the Department, edited by
Caroline A. Whipple, has been published
regularly as a section of the Journal.
Though the arrangement has inevitably
involved some difficult adjustments, the
active cooperation between the Assali-
tion and the N.E.A. Department,.Aih
are naturally so closely allied in aimna
interests, has been gratifying and he
to both groups.
In October, 1934, the Journal puMb L
a special Workers' Education Suvop
ment, which is noted in connection
other workers' education activities w
cussed in this report.

THORNDIKE STUDY
In March, 1935, TheVMaaiillan
pany published in behalf of t
tion a boek.entitled Ad
Edward L. Thorndike
Division of Psycholfgy o
of Educational R
College, Columbia
book, which is a seq
in,, published b
pany in 1928, states t
experiments carried out
1931 to 1934 on chang
of interests with age, h
of modifing and i wng i
adult years, and on thrae








r


odsb doing this effectively. It in-
cludes also practical discussions of means
and methods desirable in the teaching
of adults.
Adult Learning has been one of the
epich-maling books in adult education,
and this new volume by Professor
Thorndike and his associates promises to
prove of similar service to all those men
and women who are concerned with im-
proving and broadening their own in-
terests or those of other mature persons.

POST-COLLEGIATE EDUCATION
Aspects of Post-collegiate Educa-
tiu'-by-Ralph A. Beals, a report review-
ing typical opportunities for continuing
education open to college graduates,
was published by the Association in
March. Intended originally as a follow-
up of Alumni and Adult Education
by Wilfred B. Shaw, issued jointly by the
*sociation and the American Alumni
council in 1929, the scope of Mr. Beals'
report was broadened somewhat to in-
clude.a second part in which the profes-
sionaLfields, as represented by medicine
anr engiaiering, are briefly reviewed.
Ineart one, nonprofessional facilities as
p di1 d-by one hundred and sixty-nine
e1ofo-liberal arts are presented in
V*k^d-wess section, with notes on
a resentative activities offered by
legiate bodies. A conference com-
university and college presi-
mni secretaries, and represen-
ucators identified with the
aw, medicine, engieering, and
raining set at.the Alumnae
sws ClJege, January 14,
anuscriptof the
ly

h edp .
ere p islandd


SCIENCE
In the year 1933-34 the Association
commenced an inquiry into the place of
science in adult education. The paucity
of science offerings in adult classes was a
challenge to the investigation which was
initiated under the direction of Dr.
Benjamin C. Gruenberg, who was tem-
porarily appointed to the staff of the
Association for the purpose of the in-
quiry. His investigations showed that
between five and six per cent of the total
offerings to adults in the United States
were on science subjects. He immedi-
ately set about a determination of the
causes for this relatively small and prob-
ably inadequate showing. In the course
of the investigation numerous confer-
ences with scientists were held and, as a
result of one such general and national
conference, there was appointed a Spe-
cial Committee on Science of the Amer-
ican Association for Adult Education,
with Dr.John C. Merriam, President of
the Carnegie Institution of Washington,
as Chairman and with the following as
members: Dr. Isaiah Bowman, Dr.
Austin H. Clark, Dr. Karl Compton,
Dr. Frank B. Jewett, Dr. Harlow
Shapley, and Dr. Milton C. Winternitz.
The formation of a policy for the Asso-
ciation with respect to the development
of science activity in adult education
was made the responsibility of this com-
mittee. It is contemplated that a full-
time secretary of the committee will be
appointed who will operate from the
Association headquarters as a base, but
whose chief duties will lie in the encour-
agement and "energization" of science
organizations to undertake actual ac-
tivities and offerings for adults. The
Carnegie Corporation on recommenda-
tion.r-the Association has appoep ited
$10,4 0 to carry -ths-program forward.
Dr. Gruenuerg's studies have bha


AMTMALTREPORT OF THE DIRECTOR








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


completed and have just been published,
under the title Science and the Public
Mind, by the McGraw-Hill Company.
Six hundred copies of this book have
been purchased by the Association and
have been given free distribution among
scientists and adult educators.

MUSIC IN ADULT LIFE
Preliminary explorations in a second
broad area of adult interests have been
initiated by the appointment of Eric
Clarke as Field Representative to report
on the place of music in adult life, with
particular reference to adult education
as distinct from recreation. The prob-
lem will be approached through careful
examination of certain typical activities
-such as listening, learning, and oppor-
tunities for performance-in selected
geographic areas to include a large city,
a city of medium size, a suburban com-
munity, villages, and rural areas. The
music inquiry has been financed by the
Carnegie Corporation apart from the
Experimental Fund.

CCC CAMPS STUDY
The general opinion that the educa-
tional programs which had been initiated
in the Civilian Conservation Corps
camps were on the whole proving suc-
cessful led the Association to under-
take a study of the educational offerings
in the camps, commencing in January,
1935. At the request of the Association
the Carnegie Corporation supplied $2,000
for this study and the services of Mr.
Frank E. Hill were secured for the pur-
pose. Mr. Hill was appointed Field Rep-
resentative of the Association and has
visited some hundreds of camps in all of
the nine corps areas. As these lines are
written Mr. Hill is completing the manu-
script of his study, which it is hoped may


be published shortly and given wide dis-
tribution.
The gravity of the problems confront-
ing young men and women between the
ages of sixteen and twenty-five years,
unable to find gainful employment in
either large or small communities in the
United States, makes the issuance of the
Hill study of exceeding importance. It is
felt that some of the lessons learned in
the CCC camps may be found appli-
cable to the local communities. School
officials particularly should be interested
in the results of such an inquiry. It is
quite possible that there may be set up
through the school organization a pro-
gram for youth which will embody many
of the features of the educational pro--
gram of the CCC camps but necessarily
without the residence requirement.

READING MATERIALS
For a number of years the Carnegie
Corporation of New York has been ap-
propriating funds, on recommendation of
the American Association, for activities
approved by the Joint Committee on
Adult Reading maintained by tlhe-A
ciation and the American Library Am*
citation. Most of these activities-4 e
taken the form of psycholegieaiW
searches, the bulk of them being earr
on in the University of Chicago, 1HB@
in the College of Educatiorror i
Graduate Library School. In the fal
1934 decision was reached to suspe
for the present studies and researches
the psychological side of the que
and to attempt to work out certain
perimentation in the actual produce
of reading materials. It was felt
throughout the country adult e
teachers -and administrators
fronted with the p
tion; that is, the mraiing
fairly difficult materials,










I


'


technien, for adults at various levels of
educational experience.
As a step in this direction the Associa-
tion commenced activities in the fall of
1934 with a committee of which Dr.
Charles A. Beard, Vice-President of the
Association, was made Chairman. This
committee set about the task of develop-
ing a pamphlet or booklet on a subject of
current interest, which should be at once
educationally sound and highly readable.
Other members of the committee in-
cluded Professor Lyman Bryson of
Teachers College, Columbia University,
and the Director. Typographical experi-
mentation was commenced at once and a
Abm of publication agreed upon which
promises interesting results. The re-
search on the topic chosen for initial
experimentation was commenced under
the direction of Dr. Charles A. Beard,
and the materials so produced were then
s for textual revision to Professor
on. A preliminary appropriation of
0 was made by the Carnegie Cor-
tion for the purpose of this experi-
n which, according to present
willA continued during 1935-36,
it is.~-acted- that approximately
l alf ef-Pfessor Bryson's time will
l e-fr this service.
blishers, and educators
immeted-in the development of
mataml~ and it is anticipated
ill b# ihd profitable to call one
cors9dnces during the year to
t ded by representatives of
e groups, and that a number of
vestigation and of demonstra-
be initiated.
Its of the studies made by the
du ion of the Universit* of
g ll hed, by the
gag gs,q i= by
icea4. Imry, en-
a-,B ok Readable?


ANPNAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


A


The results of Professor Douglas Waples'
studies are appearing from time to time
in technical journals and in the Journal
of Adult Education.

ADMINISTRATION
The following members of the Council
have served as officers and members of
the Executive Board for the year 1934-35:
President: Edward L. Thordike*
Vice-Presidents: Charles A. Beard*
Harvey N. Davis*
Alain Locke*
Agnes Meyer*
William A. Neilson*
Lewis A. Wilson*
Malcolm G. Wyer*
George F. Zook*
Chairman: James E. Russell*
Secretary: Jennie M. Flexne*
Treasurer: Harold L. Stonier*
Executive Board
Arthur E. Bestort Frank L. McVeyt
Lyman Brysont C. S. Marsh*
Harry W. Chaset Everett Dean Martint
Linda A. Eastman* Spencer Miller, Jr.*
Grace E. Frysingert Elizabeth C. Morriss*
Franklin F. Hopper* Harry A. Overstreetf
Carl F. Huth: Robert I. Rees*
Henry W. Kentt Elmer Scottt
Austin H. MacCormickt Robert E. Simont
Term expires September 30, 1935.
tTerm expires September 30, 1936.
1 Term expires September 30, 1937.

The committees appointed by the
Chairman for the year 1934-35 are as
follows:
Executive Committee: Arthur E. Bestor,
Lyman Bryson, Morse A. Cartwright,
Franklin F. Hopper, Henry W. Kent, Ever-
ett D. Martin, Harry A. Overstreet, Robert
I. Rees, James E. Russell (Chairman).
Annual Meeting: Arthur E. Bestor, Morse A.
Cartwright (Chairman), Carl F. Huth.
Art and Museum Cooperation: Linda A.
Eastman, Grace E. Frysinger, Wanklin F.
Hopper, Henry W. Kent (Chairman), Frank
L. McVey.
Community Projects: Lyman Bryson, Carl
F. Huth, Elmer Scott (Chairman), Lewis A.
Wilson, Malcolm G. Wyer.
Cooperation with Industry and Labor:
Charles A. Beard, Harvey N. Davis, Sancer
Mist, Jr. (Chairman), Robert I. its,
Harold S4 ier.
Intaf tional Relations: Arthur S or,
mnan Bryson, Morse A. Cartwrijlm hair-
man)-Everett D. Martin, Spencer flUmffr.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Library Cooperation: Linda A. Eastman
(Chairman), Jennie M. Flexner, Franklin F.
Hopper, Henry W. Kent, Austin H. Mac-
Cormick.
Negro Education: Harry W. Chase, Jennie M.
Flexner, Franklin F. Hopper, Alain Locke
(Chairman), Frank L. McVey.
Parent Education: Everett D. Martin, Eliza-
beth C. Morriss, Robert E. Simon (Chair-
man).
Public School Relations: Lyman Bryson,
C. S. Marsh, Elizabeth C. Morriss, Robert
E. Simon, George F. Zook (Chairman).
Reading Habits: Lyman Bryson, E. L. Thorn-
dike. From the A.L.A.: Jennie M. Flexner,
Adam Strohm. Chosen by the Committee:
W. S. Gray.
Recreation: Grace E. Frysinger, Austin H.
MacCormick, C. S. Marsh, Agnes E. Meyer
(Chairman), Harry A. Overstreet.
Rural Education: Grace E. Frysinger (Chair-
man), C. S. Marsh, Frank L. McVey,
Elizabeth C. Morriss, Lewis A. Wilson.
Science: Harry W. Chase, Harvey N. Davis
(Chairman), Robert I. Rees.
Studiesand Research: Lyman Bryson (Chair-
man), Harry W. Chase, Carl F. Huth, Ever-
ett D. Martin, Harry A. Overstreet.
Techniques of Discussion: Lyman Bryson,
Austin H. MacCormick, Everett D. Martin,
Harry A. Overstreet (Chairman), Elmer
Scott.
University Cooperation: Harry W. Chase,
Harvey N. Davis, Frank L. McVey, William
A. Neilson (Chairman), George F. Zook.

The following members of the Associa-
tion have served as members of the
Council during this year:


TERMS EXPIRE 1935


Newton D. Baker
Remsen D. Bird
W. S. Bittner
Scott Buchanan
Marguerite H. Burnett
Kenyon L. Butterfield
Olive D. Campbell
S. P. Capen
Harvey N. Davis
Frank M. Debatin
John Dewey
Helen H. Dingman
C. R. Dooley
Linda A. Eastman
A. Caswell Ellis
John Erskine
Milton J. Ferguson
Nat T. Frame
Wil Lou Gray
R. M. Grumman
Mary H. S. Hayes


John Hope
Walter A. Jessup
Henry W. Kent
Vincent W. Lanfear
Robert S. Lynd
Carl H. Milam
Spencer Miller, Jr.
Fred A. Moore
Elizabeth C. Morrims
Thomas H. Nelson
David K. Niles
H. A. Overstreet
James Harvey Robin-
oen
Carl B. Roden
Elmer Scott
Walter Dill Scott
A. D. Sheffield
Chester D. Snell
John W. Studtaker
Henry M. Wrnston


TERMS EXPIRE 1936
Jerome H. Bentley Lois H. Meek
Arthur E. Bestor James A. Moyer
Edmund dcS. Brunner William A. Neilson
Jessie A. Charters Paul M. Pearson
Harry W. Chase J. H. Puelicher*
L. L. Dickerson Leon J. Richardson
Grace E. Frysinger James E. Russell
Charles R. Green Florence Snow
Edgar W. Knight Harold L. Stonier
Read Lewis Douglas Waples
C. S. Marsh Caroline A. Whipple
Frank L. McVey Philip N. Youtz
*Deceased.

TERMS EXPIRE 1937
Lucy Wilcox Adams F. E. Johnson
L. R. Alderman George Johnson
Seymour Barnard F. P. Keppel
G. F. Beck Benson Y. Landis
W. W. Bishop W. M. Lewis
Lyman Bryson E. C. Lindeman
L. D. Coffman Austin H. MacCormick
Ned H. Dearborn Everett Dean Martin
M. S. Dudgeon John C. Merriam
E. C. Elliott Robert I. Rees
Dorothy Canfield Charles E. Rush
Fisher Robert E. Simon
Sidonie M. Gruenberg Hilda W. Smith
Franklin F. Hopper E. L. Thomdike
William J. Hutchins Levering Tyson
Carl F. Huth Felix M. Warburg
Edith J. R. Isaacs Frederic A. Whiting
E. C. Jenkins George B. Zehmer

Rent paid for the headquarters office
has been reduced, and the physical faMi-
ties have been greatly improved
joint lease entered into by the
tion and the National Advis s M
on Radio in Education.
adds enough space adjacent- "
ready occupied by the-Associatim
provide for offices required by bo*e
ganizations and, in addition, ce
facilities which are shared-recept
room, telephone service, mailing
stock room, staff rest rogn, and
modious library, which can also
ized for board and committee me
The following persons have
from the staff of the-As iatit
the completion of special
A bwr E. Bester an
Field R resentati
Amnmiatien's IiSmal








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


mittee on Adult Education to assist the
Commissioner of Education in connec-
tion with the Federal Emergency Pro-
gram; Benjamin C. Gruenberg, Asso-
ciate in Science; Thomas Fansler, Field
Representative to study the technique of
discussion; Benson Y. Landis, Field
Representative, as Educational Director
of the Institute of Rural Economics;
Jacques Ozanne, Field Representative to
make a study of adult education surveys;
and Nathaniel Peffer, Field Representa-
tive to report on the lecture field. Gustav
F. Beck has continued throughout the
year as Field Representative for Cana-
dian Relations. Eric T. Clarke has been
appointed Field Representative to study
music in community life, and Frank E.
Hill has been appointed Field Represen-
tative for the study of the educational
program of the Civilian Conservation
Corps. Miss Emily Graves has been
appointed jointly by the Association and
the National Advisory Council on Radio
in Education as telephone clerk and
receptionist.
The Association lost a most valued
member-in the death, on January 28,
19m6pin-Milwaukee, Wisconsin, of John
Raegtr-iPuelicher. Mr. Puelicher had
eerr.rnern.ber of the Council since the
esta"mlhment of the Association, a mem-
ber d'the Executive Board from 1926 to
1934,and Treasurer of the Association
1926 to '31.
t the opft ig of the year 1934-35,
Carnegi Corporation of New York
ed to devote $100,000 to studies and
ments in adult education. During
4 the Carnegie Corporation had
applred -he Association's rec-
for a pfeect involving
g 1934-35,
gaining un-
rime for
lI s- carried forward into the


present year. The total sum available
as an experimental fund for adult educa-
tion in 1934-35, therefore, was $105,000.
Additional appropriations from general
funds to the extent of $18,100 were made
by the Carnegie Corporation for special
studies by the Association, and to sup-
plement grants from the experimental
fund.

PUBLICATIONS
In addition to publications mentioned
elsewhere in this report, the Association
has issued A Note on Adult Education
in British Museums by Margaret R.
Scherer; Ten Years of Adult Educa-
tion by Morse A. Cartwright; and The
Annual Report of the Director of the
Association for 1933-34, issued in May,
1934, as a separate bulletin, and later
incorporated in the June number of the
Journal of Adult Education. A Man-
ualfor Teachers of Adult Elementary
Students, a revision of A Manual for
Teachers of Adult Illiterates, by
William S. Gray, has been completed by
Caroline A. Whipple, Mary L. Guyton,
and Elizabeth C. Morriss and published
by the Association under arrangement
with the United States Office of Educa-
tion. The Association also has under-
written the costs of publishing An An-
notated Bibliography of Adult Edu-
cation, compiled under the direction of
William M. Proctor, Professor of Educa-
tion, Stanford University. Preliminary
work has been begun on a second edition
of the Handbook of Adult Education
in the United States to be published
next year under a grant of $4,000 made
to the Association for this purpose by the
Trustees of the Carnegie Corporation.
During the twelve moths since the
publication of the last annual report, the
Association has been able to distribute
publications as follows:








ANNUAL REPORT OF TMI DIRECTOR


To Members.-Journal of Adult
Education, Volume VI, Numbers 3 and
4, Volume VII, Numbers 1 and 2; The
Adjustment Service, a Report of an
Experiment in Adult Guidance, by
Jerome H. Bentley.
To Organization Members.-In addi-
tion to the above: Aspects of Post-
collegiate Education, by Ralph A.
Beals; A Note on Adult Education in
British Museums, by Margaret R.
Scherer; Annual Report of the Director
for 1933-34, American Association for
Adult Education; Manual for Teach-
ers of Adult Elementary Students,
by Whipple, Guyton, and Morriss; The
American Way, by J. W. Studebaker;
An Annotated Bibliography on Adult
Education, compiled by William M.
Proctor.
To Council Members.-In addition to
the above: A Readers' Advisory Serv-
ice, by Jennie M. Flexner and Sigrid A.
Edge; Adult Interests, by E. L. Thorn-
dike; Living and Learning (revised
December, 1934), American Association
for Adult Education; Economic Issues
and Experiments, Digest of Lectures
and Discussions of the Institute of Rural
Economics, 1934, Rutgers University.
To Officers and Executive Board.-In
addition to the above: Ten Years of
Adult Education, by Morse Adams
Cartwright; Selection and Training
of Counselors at the Adjustment
Service, by L. S. Hawkins and Gwen-
dolen Schneidler; Registration and
Counseling Procedure at the Adjust-
ment Service, by G. L. Bergen and
R. S. Ward; Use of Tests in the
Adjustment Service, by G. L. Bergen,
Gwendolen Schneidler, and Leroy Sher-
rmn; Costs of the Adjustment Serv-
ice, by Jerome-H. Bentley and-Helen
Kelley.


PUBLICATIONS FUND
The revolving publications fund has
been considerably augmented during the
year through sales of publications and
income from royalties. The balance of
$2,450.50, reported as of March31, 1934,
has been increased to $5,717.52 as of
March 31, 1935. This increase is par-
ticularly noteworthy in view of the fact
that expenditures have been made fret
the fund for part of the cost of prepmar-
tion and printing of An AnnotatWl
Bibliography on Adult Educatftry
compiled under the direction of Wilnam
M. Proctor; for part of the costs of
printing A Readers' Advisory Service
and Living and Learning; and for
reprinting extra editions of the Hand-
book of Adult Education and Di-
cussion Methods for Adult Groupm

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL
CONFERENCE
In February, 1935, the Nationut .-
pational Conference completedits sMw
year of operation. In addition toW
clearing house, publication, and c
nation functions, the organization
through its recommendatory privil
the Carnegie Corporation, brought
a series of studies designed to
readily available info
occupations and aboett-m
tudes. The Conferenc
field service and has b
advice by many orgwr oi
dividuals interested '
ance problems.-ts dis
tion has chiefly been o
the publication, ten t
the magazine Occupati
serves as the official pu
National Vocational G
tion. In addition t
Conference has arravAu
tion of various boolM


71








-MilPlP REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


to ai" techniques of guidance and has
iiate a series of occupational leaflets
t e distributed to counselors and to
young men and young women and their
parents seeking the aid of counselors.
The coordination function of the or-
ganization has resulted in a greater de-
gree.of cooperation between some eight
or ten organizations concerned with
guidmce than was in effect before the
formation of the Conference and has
madwpossible joint annual meetings of
tlwse organizations.
During the year 1934-35 the Confer-
ence has had an operations budget of
$501jB0 supplied to it by the Carnegie
Corporation and in addition has recom-
nded to the Corporation grants to
r organizations totaling $25,000.
a amount available for new studies
and projects during 1934-35 is small
cam ed with the amount appropriated
purposes in 1933-34, when the
tphUa s S 00. However, many of
i tsipproved in 1933-34 did not
l -intil 1934-35 so that the
t- n entation program
he during the current
isargetthan would be indicated by
me amount allocated.
March 4 and 5, 1935, there was
New York City the second called
f the Conference. Some three
the membership of the organi-
in attendance and efforts were
lusl the program of the Con-
far asit had been developed
S rtain- principles of
organization
e years to
e a te 'was a
theadisee~ nation
Ile;:is pf the
inifinorities
he opinion
sis sflM be laid on


research and study than had been pos-
sible in the past. A half-dozen subcom-
mittees of the Conference filed reports,
which were referred for action to the
Executive Committee and through it to
the President and Trustees of the Car-
negie Corporation.
On April 15, 1935, the Executive Com-
mittee commenced a series of discussions
of future program which are expected to
extend into the fall of 1935 and which
may result in certain changes of policy
for the organization. At this meeting
the Executive Committee learned with
regret of the decision of the Director of
the Conference, Dr. Franklin J. Keller,
to return to his duties in the New York
City school system, upon the expiration
of his leave of absence from that system
on February 1, 1936. Dr. Keller's desire
to return to active school administration
led him to this decision. The Executive
Committee is therefore confronted with
the difficult task of appointing his suc-
cessor. An attempt will be made to
secure a qualified individual under con-
ditions similar to those obtaining in the
case of Dr. Keller, that is, on leave of
absence from some institution or school
system interested in the general prob-
lems of occupational guidance. The
Conference and the Association as its
sponsor, as well as the Carnegie Corpora-
tion, owe a debt of gratitude to Dr.
Keller who, with his colleagues on the
staff of the Conference, has succeeded in
establishingihe organization on a highly
useful plane.
In the opinion of its advisers, the Car-
negie& Corporation should proceed wi*
extreme care in the occupational field.
It is yet too-soon to judge whether- o-nt
the )National Occupational CoeCd e
sltfd be established as a permanfa
orblmtatibn, and careftut rtgrd shai@
be given to the question of whether or








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


not the program of research and study in
occupations and in individual aptitudes
should eventually be assumed by govern-
mental agencies. There seems to be little
question but that the Conference has
amply justified the expenditure of the
very considerable sum of money which
has been invested in it during the two
years of its operation. Furthermore, it
seems wise to continue these expendi-
tures, at least for a limited period, but
there seems to be general agreement that
the Corporation should keep an open
mind as to whether or not, at the end of
such a limited period, the necessity for
continuance of the Conference in its
present form would still exist.

ADJUSTMENT SERVICE
Since the Adjustment Service closed in
the spring of 1934 a skeleton staff has
been maintained for the purpose of pre-
paring the rather extensive reports of the
work performed during the year and a
half of operation of the Service. The
Director of the Service, Mr. J. H.
Bentley, assisted by Mr. L. S. Hawkins,
Mr. G. L. Bergen and Miss Helen
Kelley, have prepared a series of twelve
reports on Adjustment Service activities.
The first five of these reports have al-
ready made their appearance, the initial
issuance being a general description of
the Service, which was printed in an
edition size of 10,000 and given wide free
distribution. A series of subsidiary re-
ports includes the following subjects:
selection and training of counselors;
registration and counseling procedure;
use of tests; development of informa-
tional resources; medical and psychiatric
services; community agency relation-
ships; costs; general appraisals; a gen-
eral study of 10,000 clients; a detailed
study of 100 clients; a bulletin on clients'
opinions of the Service. The bulletins


have been prepared with the assistance
of the Editor of Special Publications-e*
the Association, Miss Dorothy Rowden,
and the attractive appearance of the re-
ports is attributable to the cooperative
skill developed by her department and
the staff of the Adjustment Service.
A wealth of materials which ought to
prove highly useful in future research in
personnel, guidance, and occupational
psychology has been one yield of the
Adjustment Service activities. These
materials have been placed in the custody
of the National Occupational Conference
and are located at Columbia University,
where advanced students and others con-
cerned with research may have access to
them upon permission granted by the
National Occupational Conference.
The possibility that public employ-
ment offices, school systems, and univer-
sities and colleges will devote increasing
amounts of time and money to educa-
tional, vocational, and avocational guiA
ance in the future lends added signi
chance to the reports of the Adjustm t
Service. It seems not unlikely-that
numerous projects throughout the-coaW
try will in time be modeled upon 1W
Adjustment Service experiment, forwhlP
the American Association for Adult Edu-
cation had responsibility and for whi
it has taken also both credit and criticism

LIBRARIES
A helpful cooperative relatioahi
continued with the America
Association, as in the past. Th
tion has been benefitedpart
series of reports prepmbaelby
Chancellor, Assistant in MWEd
tion, attached to the Pua
Division of the American Library A
ciation. Mr. Chancellor has visi
number of important adult edue
projects in various ports of the








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


as a friendly but critical observer. His
observations have attested the usefulness
of such visits and suggest the desirability
of a similar procedure on the part of
other national organizations with pro-
grams falling largely within the field of
adult education.
In November, 1934, the Association
published A Readers' Advisory Service
by Jennie M. Flexner and Sigrid A. Edge,
Readers' Advisers in the New York Pub-
lic Library. The study was made pos-
sible by a grant from the Carnegie Cor-
poration through the Association for the
purpose of making a practical test of the
reading interests of individual adult
readers as observed in the New York
Public Library. The booklet includes an
analysis of the kinds of readers served,
the subjects they were interested in, and
the reasons why they wanted to study
these subjects. The making of booklists
suited to the individual reader is dis-
cussed in detail. Librarians, publishers,
and others interested in reading prob-
lems have found the booklet useful and
have commented favorably on it in their
journals. The first edition of 500 copies
has6een exhausted, and a second edition
has -been printed.

RADIO AND FILMS
Growth of knowledge concerning the
educational uses of the various new
mechanical aids to learning seems to be
proceeding at a much slower pace than
originally was hoped for when the devices
fist sprang into general use. Over a
riod of yea~s American educators have
if-eteivelylittle concerning meth-
Bol presntion of educational sub-
means of the radio, the
ti Ml we- film, the gramophone
dly this slowness
tributble to the depression,
-gMIbrIWihave not been available to try


out these devices educationally either in
the laboratory or among sections of the
public wherein actual results could be
measured.
The National Advisory Council on
Radio in Education, which it will be
remembered was brought into existence
by this Association, has been able to
maintain a staff large enough only to
cope with current questions of public
policy relating to the educational use of
the medium and to sponsor a certain few
programs over the national networks.
There is every reason to suppose that if
adequate personnel at the headquarters
of the Council could have been main-
tained and if funds had been provided
for experimentation, progress would have
been much swifter and that by the pres-
ent time some information would have
been developed showing the extent to
which education may safely rely upon
the radio as an important adjunct in the
accomplishment of its task.
There is crying need for the immediate
establishment, in cooperation with a
hospitable university, of a "radio educa-
tion workshop." This would in effect be
a laboratory for the preparation of
scripts and for the dissemination of such
scripts over the broadcasting waves to
audiences whose reactions could be ob-
served and measured so that the results
could be applied to future script experi-
mentation. There is need, furthermore,
for the establishment of a fairly compre-
hensive series of local councils or com-
mittees on radio education which would
arrange not only for local broadcasting of
educational subject matter but also for
listening groups whose reactions to
broadcast programs could be observed
and measured. In addition, funds
should be supplied to make possible ex-
perimentation in the preparation and
dissemination of printed materials arising








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


out of educational broadcasts. A peri-
odical such as The Listener, published
by the British Broadcasting Corpora-
tion, should be tried out in America, and
care and attention should also be given to
the preparation of study guides, bibliog-
raphies, pamphlet materials, and the like.
Many of the same problems that are in-
volved in the simplification of reading
materials for use by adults at various
levels of education are encountered in the
preparation of broadcast materials. The
way is open to a very great deal of useful
experimentation, with not a little true
research involved, bothon the educational
and on the mechanical sides of the prob-
lem.
As early as 1926 the Executive Com-
mittee and the Committee on Studies
and Research of the Association both
went on record as to the need of experi-
mentation on the use of motion pictures
in adult education. This need was later
intensified by the rapid development of
motion pictures with sound, and certain
enthusiasts even went so far as to predict
the supplanting of the teacher and
leader by educational materials recorded
in sound, light, and shadow, on rolls of
film. Calmer reflection led even these
enthusiasts to temper their original
predictions but the fact remains that
motion pictures with sound may easily
be developed into teaching aids of the
first magnitude of importance. Espe-
cially may this prove true in the handling
of adult audiences who are interested in
compact and rapid methods of learning
and who are not compelled, as children
in school are, to subject themselves to
more laborious learning processes.
In all the discussions of the relation of
the motion picture to education that
have taken place in the last seven or
eight years, no generally accepted na-
tional organization concerned with this


subject has emerged to further its inter-
ests. By far the most valuable ex i
mentation has taken place under priva

able contribution being attributable to
Electrical Research Products, Incor-
porated, and its associated organization,
Erpi Picture Consultants, both sub-
sidiaries of the Western Electric Com-
pany and parts of the Associated.all
System. The need for a coalition of edu-
cational organizations and institutins
interested in the educational use of.
motion picture has constantly grown t
until the present year there has seed
little likelihood of making effective such
a coalition.
Meanwhile, in England, through the
use of a portion of the tax exacted for the
showing of motion pictures on Sunday,
there has been formed the British bia
Institute, which is furthering muchtlV
ful experimental work within the Sam
and in addition is proving a
uable adjunct to the production
tional film of high merit.
With the British venture in
Director of the American Co
Education, through the aid o
liminary grant made by the Payn
has gathered a large amount of d
pertinent to the formation of an A
can Film Institute. It is greatly
hoped that success will attend
liminary effort on the part of t
can Council and tha
formed in this country a
which will clear impart
concerning the ed
ture. The Ameri
Council on Raedo Edlm r
rating with the A.
formation of such an orgiktio
Executive Board of the lBc
officially gone on record in
such cooperation, altgugh


q









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


derstanding that funds made available to
tlb&Association can not be tapped for the
financial support of the new organization
when formed. The financial obligations
involved in the development of the Na-
tional Advisory Council on Radio in
Education are such that the assumption
of additional financial outlay for the
-new organization would not be possible.
The film institute, when formed and in
operation, inevitably will concern itself
with numerous problems common also to
the Radio Council. TIt opportunity for
cooperative study of such problems will
be great.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
The Ninth Annual Meeting of the
Assagiation was followed by a conference
.-r.epresentatives from Community Or-
gaaizations for Adult Education, made
0sfible-by a grant from the Carnegie
Gn&a*etion as reported last year. Dele-
gtes-from sixty community groups and a
I-anber of interested observers assem-
bled to hear reports on typical com-
munrty enterprises like The New Era
School of Dallas, The Brooklyn Neigh-
borhood Groups, and the Cooperative
College in Toledo; to review the tech-
nical organization and procedures of
community and state surveys; to con-
sider questions of leadership, the mobili-
zation of community resources, the inter-
e of-ideas in a community, and the
s of community councils; and
Sdcuss practical problems of organiza-
t the last session of the confer-
-thorowgh discussion of the rela-
etween local groups and the
led to a formal request that
e Committee consider ways
ans of strengthening the position
cal groups.
'the earliest days of the Associa-
Executive Committee has real-


ized the importance of local councils and
associations as centers for the clearance
of information concerning educational
opportunities for adults and as the only
possible means of giving reasonable and
well-considered direction to rapidly ex-
panding programs of constituent mem-
bers. However, the Committee felt that
too little was known about the present
operating scope of existing urban and
state groups to embark upon any con-
siderable program of direct assistance,
even assuming such an action on the part
of a national association to be wise. It
was therefore decided that a field rep-
resentative should attempt a fairly rapid
exploration of the field for the dual pur-
pose of conferring with interested mem-
bers of the local councils and of bringing
together a body of information which
might be useful to the Executive Com-
mittee in the future. Ralph A. Beals,
Assistant to the Director of the Associa-
tion, was assigned to this duty and has
completed a preliminary report which
will form the basis of discussion at a
second conference of community organi-
zation workers to be held in connection
with the Annual Meeting this year. A
grant of $4,000, in support of this ex-
ploratory field service, was made by the
Carnegie Corporation on recommenda-
tion of the Association.
During the year, grants to community
enterprises fully reported upon in previ-
ous years have been made by the Trus-
tees of the Carnegie Corporation, on
recommendation of the Association, as
follows: $3,000 to the New York Adult
Education Council; $4,000 to the Leonia
Community Association; and $5,000
(supplemented by $2,500 from other
funds of the Corporation) to the Cali-
fornia Association for Adult Education
for a survey of the metropolitan district
of Los Angeles, a special study of oppor-








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


tunities for education in the arts, and a
community program in the Covina dis-
trict. One new project in this field re-
mains to be recorded, a grant of $5,000
recommended by the Association and
made by the Carnegie Corporation to
the Denver Adult Education Council for
an experimental community program of
adult education, affiliated with and cen-
tered in the public library, but including
all major educational agencies in Denver.

WORKERS' EDUCATION
The close cooperation with the Work-
ers Education Bureau of America which
marked the early years of the existence of
the Association has continued during
1934-35. Representatives of the Bureau
and of the Association have served side
by side on the advisory committees in
Washington charged with informal re-
sponsibility with reference to the Federal
emergency relief program in adult educa-
tion. The grant of $15,000 made by the
Carnegie Corporation on recommenda-
tion of the Association has enabled the
Bureau to go ahead with its very inter-
esting series of conferences participated
in by university and labor leaders. The
Association also looked with high favor
upon the very considerable emergency
grant made to the Workers Education
Bureau by the General Education Board.
The recognition by the Bureau of the
fact that much of the education for work-
ing men and women in the United States
would of necessity not be labeled workers'
education has made easier the develop-
ment of the general provisions for adult
education throughout the country. The
Bureau has taken the enlightened point
of view that while undoubtedly there
exist a need and a place for workers' edu-
cation so designated, provisions for such
specialized education, whether made by
organizations supported by tax funds or


by private organizations, will not come
anywhere near meeting the manifot
needs of the workers themselves.
The Bureau, along with the Associa-
tion, has been much concerned that the
workers' education activities developed
by the Federal Emergency Relief Ad-
ministration and headed by Miss Hilda
W. Smith of the Affiliated Schools for
Workers should not result in a drawing
apart of workers' education and genel4
adult education. As a result of Geneive
Education Board emergency grants math
to Miss Smith's organization for usVl
the development of workers' educatift
within the Government's relief program,
there have been appointed in a great
many states directors of workers' educa-
tion. In some cases at least, the activities
of these directors have served to differen-
tiate the educational interests of tl
workers from those of the balance of
population rather than to mergel
It is to be doubted whether such aetiqw
ties are advisable from the point of vise
of public policy, and it would seem-tha
the present efforts of Miss Smith- anr
staff at Washington to bri
mergers of interest on the part
very considerable portion of the
to be served should receive hearty m-
dorsement and support. Plans are 0A
ready under way in the contempla
teacher training program to pool
efforts of the workers' edastion
with those of the generaldultiac
group.
With its issue for Oettm- 6B4
Journal of Adult Edut esle
sible the publication, at-4alMPEdu
tion Bureau expense,
cattin Supplement to
joint publication venture 'Rl e
phasize the close relative ip lst
the workers' education move
the general adult education m









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


It is a matter of pride to the Association
that the original participation of the
workers' organizations in the Association
has. been maintained unabated to the
present day.

NEGRO ADULT EDUCATION
The statement has been made that no
subdivision of the field of adult education
is so greatly in need of development as
that relating to the Negro population of
the United States. The experiments
sponsored by the Association in the Har-
lem district of New York City and in
Atlanta, Georgia, have served to indi-
cate both the caliber and extent of this
need. An adult population which all too
generally in its youth has been deprived
of educational opportunity cries all the
maze loudly for educational assistance in
maturity. There is room for a very large
measure of activity both on the part of
private organizations and on the part of
these supported by tax funds before the
minimum needs of Negro grown people
will have been met.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation supplied
$12,000 for experiments in Negro adult
education during 1934-35. Of this sum,
$2,000 has been devoted to the con-
tinuance of the Atlanta experiment, and
$4,750 to the continuance of the Harlem
-Emmient. It seems likely that at the
amption of. these concluding grants
-fke present year, the programs will
in the-main te taken over, in New York
Qipby-the New York Public Library,
-alin Ateata by the Atlanta Public
] ary and the University of Atlanta
11 g in cooperation.
babtnce of-$5,250 supplied by the
tion has been placed in the hands
y created organization termed
1m s in Negro Folk Education.
IThis organization, which has its head-


quarters in Washington, D. C., is headed
by Mr. Eugene Kinckle Jones, the Presi-
dent of the National Urban League. The
Associates have addressed themselves to
the task of developing a series of syllabi
on Negro life and history. These syllabi
are to be issued under the general editor-
ship of Dr. Alain Locke, Professor of
Educational Philosophy in Howard Uni-
versity. They are for use in Negro adult
classes the country over and will be
distributed through existing Negro or-
ganizations and through the extramu-
ral divisions of Negro universities and
colleges.

RURAL ADULT EDUCATION
The Institute of Rural Economics at
Rutgers University has concluded a sec-
ond successful year supported in part by
a grant of $5,000 made by the Carnegie
Corporation on recommendation of the
Executive Committee of the Association.
Eight all-day round tables were held at
the University during January and Feb-
ruary for the free discussion of contro-
versial issues under the direction of lead-
ing economic authorities. The first series
was followed by three additional round
tables devoted to problems especially of
interest to women and concluded with
two sessions for young people between
the ages of eighteen and twenty-five.
The underlying purpose of the Insti-
tute, a better understanding of economic
issues affecting agriculture, has moti-
vated comparable activities in other
states, particularly in Wisconsin; and a
more widespread application of educa-
tional discussion in the search for a solu-
tion to important public questions seems
assured through experiments conducted
toward this end in several states by land
grant colleges in cooperation with the
United States Department of Agri-
culture.








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


TEACHER TRAINING COURSES
Upon application of the Adult Edu-
cation Committee of Teachers College,
Columbia University, presented in the
spring of 1933, the Executive Committee
of the Association recommended to the
Carnegie Corporation that a grant from
the adult education experimental fund be
made available to Teachers College for
the academic year 1933-34 for disburse-
ment in the form of fellowships in adult
education. The ultimate object of the
project was to discover in what ways and
to what extent a graduate school of edu-
cation, such as Teachers College, can aid
in solving one of the paramount problems
of adult education; namely, the pro-
vision of intelligent, well-informed, and
well-equipped leaders and teachers. A
grant of $6,000 for this purpose was
approved by the Carnegie Corporation.
The curriculum provided by Teachers
College for the adult education fellows,
twelve of whom were chosen for 1933-34,
included special courses and seminars at
the college, supplemented by carefully
chosen and supervised field work under-
taken by each member of the group and
reported upon regularly.
For 1934-35, a second grant, this time
for $15,000, was made, partly for the pur-
pose of financing new or renewed fellow-
ships, partly to make possible the ap-
pointment to full professorship on the
Teachers College faculty of a specially
qualified person who could devote him-
self to the further development and crit-
ical evaluation of the adult education
teacher training experiment. For this
important assignment, Mr. Lyman Bry-
son, Director of the California Associa-
tion for Adult Education and Forum
Leader of the Des Moines Public Forum
Project, was chosen. Mr. Bryson was
made Visiting Professor of Educatien-for
the year 1934-35. He has since been


given permanent professorial appoint
ment.
The Association, almost from the da
of its formation, has been under pressure
especially heavy during the last tw
years, to establish and conduct a train
course for adult education teachers and
leaders. However, in this, as in other
branches of the movement, the Di
and Executive Board have concei
function of the Association to be
of actual operation but of study and
perimentation, on the one hand, and
advice, and direction, on the other. 1j
pursuance of this policy, which has
amply justified by experience, the Ass
ciation has chosen to make its contribu-
tion to the solution of the all-importal*
problems of leadership through su=c
periments as that conducted by Tedw
College. Plans for a second expeaoM
likewise under university aus
approaching the problem fro
what different angle, are now
sideration.

CANADIAN ORGANIZATION
Apprised of a growing interest in
education across the Canadiaw
and of a desire on the part of the
dians to organize their adult
interests, the American
Adult Education in the
through formal re
annual meeting in W
offers of cooperation toan
group. At the call of MI
of the Extension Divisi
versity of Toronto, a
ference of those interest
cation in theDomi
Toronto on May 22 and 2 193
conference made tentat
gani iag a Camaen i
Adfrs-Educati on,
province by pr- a


a


2









AIJAML REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 25


aduhlsm tion now under way in the
leiwr, and made arrangements for
tfutre meeting or meetings at which
tllm ization plans should be ratified.
At ite request of the Canadian group,
eHel funds for the holding of the 1934
conference and of an additional confer-
ence now scheduled for June 12 to 16 in
ftntreal were supplied. Funds for the
conduct of the national survey were
raised from Canadian sources. The
American Association recommended to
the Canegie Corporatica of New York
the prowision of $10,000 to be used in
awing adult education development in
gedna. In addition to the conference
4QOWmi, the Association assisted the
4itmn movement by appointing to
MrttM9r. G. F. Beck, then Director of
4- Mrtly disbanded Labor Temple
e ew York, who, on a part-time
been available for lectures on
education subjects in various prov-
Canada. Dr. Beck's travels
le carried him over the whole of east-
ern Can&a, where he has found interest
adult education opportunity to he.
d where, he reports, the proeecta.
e -eat~imoraizatio). are.,ex-

I balh hat at the '35 confer-
e CanadieAAsiaiation will
repflMwne&tivmnot only of
-surperted Tfforts but
nrinta @J-e a considerable
private orgaffaations as well.
AssBgiMl looks With
pathy, and derstanding
anadian attend to organize.
ng together of ly diversi-
n somewhat rate inter-
e banner of t education
in the Uit
-lished d
enic 5 is
It will b- matter of


congratulation if the Canadian organiza-
tion can be made effective at the 1935
conference and if the Association may
have on the North American Continent
a sister organization with which it may
cooperate in the determination of the
many problems to be solved in the adult
education field,

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The World Association for Adult Edu-
cation has been operating upon a reduced
budget and certain of its activities have
been suspended during the year 1934-35.
The political disturbances of central
Europe, together with the scarcity of
money for organizational purposes, have
been deterrents of no mean proportions
upon the work for international under-
standing and cooperation inherent in the
basic idea of the World Association. The
question is now very much to the fore as
to whether or not in 1936 effort may be
made again to bring the various national
delegates together in an international
gathering wtich should be at once a
meeting of'tlie councill of the World
Association and a-cd`nf'nce on com-
mon problems. The affdima f ofe World
Asst!ioJ y techrjcally are ithf ki hands
of. a.oiriissi6n of three, consisting of a
Norwegian representative, a Polish rep-
resentative, and a German representa-
tive. It is expected that this commission
will meet during the summer of 1935 and
that certain of the other international
representatives concerned with the future
of the World Association (notably the
British and the Americans) will be in
attendance. In this connection, it will
be remembered that the American Asso-
ciation holds a considerable sum of
money provided by the Carnegie Cor-
poration for use in developing thoeub-
lications program of the World*Associa-
tion. This publications program has









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


been in suspension and, since the decision
to resume operations and to rehabilitate
the World Association rests to a con-
siderable extent upon the availability of
funds for publication purposes, the re-
sponsibility of the American members of
the Council and of the American Asso-
ciation for Adult Education in particular
looms large.
One other international development
of possible significance has occurred dur-
ing 1934-35. An International Com-
mittee on Workers' Spare Time has been
formed with headquarters in Geneva.
The program of this International Com-
mittee is not yet fully revealed but prob-
ably will be announced in connection
with a conference to be held in Belgium,
June 15, 16, and 17. The American
Association for Adult Education has been
invited to become a member of the Inter-
national Committee but has taken no
action on the invitation pending further
information with respect to future plans.

ANNUAL MEETING .
The Ninth Annual Meeing of the
Association wAP..hld in Washington,
D. C., May.', 22, and 23, 1934, followed
on May 24'by a Special Cokferedn* bof
Community Organizatiois' "f'b: AdXlt
Education, mentioned elsewhere in this
report. The scheduled program provided
for two business sessions; a banquet; a
series of addresses on three themes, "The
Federal Emergency Educational Pro-
gram," "The New Deal in Education,"
and "Leading the Way"; panel dis-
cussions of "The Library, Recreation,
and Adult Education," and "Public
Regulation of Radio Broadcasting"; a
forum dialogue on "The Objectives of
Adult Education"; luncheon sessions
with addresses on the educational pro-
gram of the Civilian Conservation Corps,
the work-camp movement, the Des


Moines Forums, and the Radburn sur-
vey; and eighteen section meetings il
which small groups of interested person
considered in detail the implications of as
many controversial issues in adult educa-
tion. Upward of five hundred persons
were in attendance.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
On recommendation of the Executive
Committee of the Association the Trus-
tees of the Carnegie Corporation have
made continuing grants on a diminishing
basis for experiments more fully reported
in recent years as follows: $2,000 to the
Civic Federation of Dallas in support of
the New Era School for recent high
school graduates; $3,500 to the People's
Institute-United Neighborhood Guild of
Brooklyn for continuing work with
self-constituted groups of persons -not
otherwise interested in educational activ-
ity; and $5,000 to the National Thefare
Conference to complete its preliminary
program of organization.
The study of ability and achievement
of students in divisions of university ex-
tensimn, financed by a grant of $10,1
frofi tihe Carnegie Corporation, has
forward tnder the direction of HeOt
Sorenson, -Assistant Professor e&-A -
tion at tle University of Mi >.
Professor Sorenson has now-Aisd
of the institutions cooper
study and is preparing a
publication.
The first comprehensive b
of adult education, compiled.
direction of William M. Procto
fessor of Education at Stanford U
sity, was published in January,
The Executive Committee adv
$400 as a charge against the Re
Fund for Publications-to
of publication.
For several years the Ex









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


mittee and the Committee on Research
and Studies have attempted to agree
upon a suitable statement of needed re-
search in adult education. Successive
chairmen of the Corhmittee on Research
andiStudies, and especially Dr. A. Cas-
well Ellis, Chairman from 1932 to 1934,
have accumulated an impressive array
of facts and opinions, and progress has
been made in reducing these materials to
order. Issuance of the final report, un-
fortunately delayed from year to year,
is hoped for early in the ensuing year.


CONCLUSION
As the country emerges from the de-
pression it is possible to make a few gen-
eralizations which perhaps may prove of
importance in shaping the future course
of the Association. Adult education,
along with the country, is emerging from
the depression and quite unexpectedly,
through the entry into the field of the
Federal Government, emerges with a
vastly increased following. The depres-
sion itself has proved an asset to adult
education. This is not to be wondered
at, since peoples in the midst of trouble
materially ever have turned toward con-
cerns of the mind. Material prosperity
o'f4 e unsound and somewhat hysterical
e evident in the late 'Twenties is not
ucive to the development of a na-
culture. If adult education has its
to play in the formation and in
aintenence of a national culture,
those interested in the movement
devoutly4lope that we may never
material prosperity of the 1929

heightened interest, with hun-
usands and even millions
ed in adult education, the
uediately arises that we shall


over-regiment and over-organize the
movement. The possibility of doing
many bad things in the name of adult
education has increased many thousand-
fold since 1929. It behooves an organiza-
tion like the American Association for
Adult Education actively to forestall this
danger on every possible front and to
concern itself, in its discussions of phi-
losophy as well as of techniques of pres-
entation, to see that high quality of per-
formance is the chief test ever applied to
the validity of all programs. Our re-
sponsibility as an Association is greater
than it ever was before. Our opportunity
for service is greater. May those who
are most concerned in our country's wel-
fare aid us in the development of stand-
ards that will make for true progress!
Respectfully submitted,
Morse A. Cartwright.
New York City
April 22, 1935



FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, September
30, 1934; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1934; Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year Ended Sep-
tember 30, 1934; Summary of Total In-
come and Total Expenses for the Fiscal
Year Ended September 30, 1934; and Ap-
propriations Received for Account of
Other Organizations for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1934.
(As audited byFrederick Fischer, Jr., Member,
American Institute of Accountants and American
Society of Certified Public Accountants.)

II. Statement of Finandal Condition, March 31,
1935; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Six Months Ended March 31,
1935; Statement of Income and Expenses
for the Six Months Ended March 31, 1935;
Summary of Total Income and Total Ex-
penses for the Six Months Bnded March
31, 1935; and Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organizations for the Six
Months Ended March 31, 1935.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


I
Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion
60 East 42nd Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have
audited the books and accounts of the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
for the fiscal year ended September 30,
1934, and present herewith the following
four Exhibits and one Schedule:
Exhibit "A"-StatementofFinancialCon-
dition, September 30, 1934.
Exhibit "A"-Schedule "-Statement
Showing Changes in Funds
for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1934.


Exhibit "B"-Statement of Income and
Expense for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30,1934.

Exhibit "C"-Summary of Total Income
and Total Expenses for the
Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1934.

Exhibit "D"-Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organiza-
tions for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30,1934.


Very truly yours,

Frederick Fischer, Jr.,
Certified Public Accountant

New York, N. Y.
October 11, 1934


EXHIBIT A

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1934
Assets
Cash
Capital Account. .............................................. $106,728.46
Managing Account ......................................,..... 504.29
Advance for travel expense ....................................... 60.95
Total Assets ................... ............................... ~

Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues........................................ 984.26
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................. 302.79
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D"......................................... 12,962.25
Total Liabilities .................... ......... ........... 1
Net Asset Value.............................................................
The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds, per Schedule "I" ............................ -.... ."
Publication Funds, per Schedule "...................... ..... ... 1
Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per Schedule "" ............
Total Funds ..................................................


a










AN'AL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 29


EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1

STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1934
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September 30, 1933 .................................. $9,446.63
Deduct-Excess of Maintenance Expenses over Income, September
30, 1934, per Exhibit "C".................................... 5,358.05 $4,088.58
Add-Transferred from Publication Fund accounts
Journal of Adult Education ................................. 121.00
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications.................. 143.20 264.20
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. $4,352.78

Administrative Reserve
Balance, September 30, 1933................................... 5,000.00
No changes ...................................................
Balance, September 30, 1934.............................................. 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "A"...... $9,352.78

Publication Funds
Journal of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" $454.33
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund................ 121.00
Balance, September 30, 1934............... ................................ $333.33

Handbook of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1933 ................................... 1,205.21
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C" .............................................. 1,205.21
Balance, September 30, 1934 ..............................................

Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 2,282.43
Balance, September 30, 1934.............................................. 2,282.43

International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1933.................................... 7,044.70
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C"................................................ 102.30
Balance, September 30, 1934.............................................. 6,942.40

Research Report
BenM ce, September 30, 1933.................................... 1,892.23
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C"................................................ 846.95
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. 1,045.28

Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1933.................................... 3,914.34
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 1,073.33
Balance, September 30, 1934................................................ 4,987.67

Fund for Misellaneous Publications
of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 143.20
--Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund ................ 143.20

B September 30, 1934 ..............................................
Total Publication Funds, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "A"......... ..$15,591.11










30 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Project, Study and Conference Funds
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Balance, September 30, 1933 .................................. $1,094.59
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C".............................................. 363.33
Balance, September 30, 1934................... ........................... $731.26

Library Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1933 ................................. 100.00
No changes ................................................
Balance, September 30, 1934 ............................................ 100.00

Studies
Balance, September 30, 1933 .................................. 100.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C".............................................. 100.00
Balance, September 30, 1934.............................................

Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 667.62
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. 667.62

Alumni Education Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 1,981.96
Balance, September 30, 1934............................................... 1,981.96

Canadian Adult Education Organization
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit C" 8,305.05
Balance, September 30, 1934 .................. .............. ........... 8,305.05

Canadian Scholarship Fund
Balance, September 30, 1933 .................................... 215.05
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C". ............................................ 215.05
Balance, September 30, 1934.............................................

Conference of Community Organization Workers
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 1,505.08
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................................. 1,505.08

International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1933 ................................... 569.38
No changes ...................................................
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. 569.38

Lecture-Field Study
Balance, September 30, 1933 ....................................... 3,000.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C"................ .............................. 2,596.22
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. 403.78
National Occupational Conference
Balance, September 30, 1933.................................. 11,838.03
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C" ............................................. 39,328.66
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................... ........................ 51,166.69
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1933................................... 2,980.74
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1934, per
Exhibit "C".................... ........................... 2,671.49
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................... ....................










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 31

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" $1,284.04
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. $1,284.04
Science Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit "C" 1,076.40
Balance, September 30, 1934 .............................................. 1,076.40
Total Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, September 30,1934,
per Exhibit "A"............................................... $68,100.51


EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1934
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ $30,000.00
Membership dues
Individual ...................................... $1,846.16
Organizational ................................... 870.34 2,716.50
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of single copies .............. 737.54
Advertising sales................................ 10.00 747.54 $33,464.04
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation........... 14,000.00
Allocation from Department of Adult Education of the
National Education Association.................. 1,333.33 15,333.33
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Appropriation from General Education Board................... 7,500.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Sales of Handbook of Adult Education .............. 3,550.75
Sales of Miscellaneous Publications .................... 209.94
Royalties on Publications................. .......... 572.55 4,333.24
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation........... 2,500.00
Sales of publications............................. 208.83 2,708.83 29,875.40
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation...................... $10,000.00
Alumni Education Study
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation.................... 5,000.00
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 10,000.00
Conference of Community Organization Workers
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation........................ 5,000.00
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ................. ..... 25,000.00
Study of Discussion Methods
:Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 2,500.00
National Occupational Conference
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation .......... 110,530.00
Slibtriptions and sales of reprints................... 5,611.19 116,141.19
Negro Adult Education Experimentd
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation............ 10,000.00
Apprpration from Rosenwald Fund................. 5,000.00 15,000.00
n Current Investigations and Experiments
.-on from Carnegie Corporation....................... 2,550.00

f B iatlon from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 8,500.00 199,691.19
Totdl Income.................................................... $16,030.63










32 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Projects, Studies and Conferences-continued
Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments......................................... $1,486.09
Accountants' fees .................................. 150.00
Incidentals........................................ 746.88
Insurance.......................................... 26.75
Office library....................................... 140.59
Office furniture and equipment....................... 271.26
Office supplies, stationery and mimeographing.......... 1,163.07
Postage .... ... .... .......................... .. 712.39
Printing, publications, publicity ..................... 1,801.72
Rent.............................................. 4,150.00
Repairs and maintenance ............................ 90.16
Salaries ....................................... .. 25,625.08
Telephone and telegraph ............................. 968.19
Travel..................... .................... 1,322.57
Miscellaneous minor projects ......................... 167.34 $38,822.09
Publications
Journal of Adult Education ......................... 14,879.00
Handbook of Adult Education....................... 1,205.21
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program. 5,217.57
Research Report.................................... 846.95
Revolving Fund for Publications..................... 3,259.91
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications ........... 2,565.63
International Review of Adult Education .............. 102.30 28,076.57
Special Projects, Studies and Conferences
Adult Reading Study-Conferences................... 363.33
Adult Reading Study-Studies ....................... 100.00
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program.... 9,332.38
Alumni Education Study ............................ 3,018.04
Canadian Adult Education Organization............... 1,694.95
Canadian Scholarship Fund .......................... 215.05
Conference of Community Organization Workers........ 3,494.92
Des Moines Adult Education Project................. 25,000.00
Study of Discussion Methods ....................... 2,500.00
Lecture-Field Study ................................ 2,596.22
National Occupational Conference.................... 76,812.53
Negro Adult Education Experiments ................. 17,671.49
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments..... 1,265.96
Science Study...................................... 7,423.60 151,488.47
Total Expenses..................................................... 218,387.13

Excess of Income over Expenses............................................. $91,643.50



EXHIBIT C

SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL
YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1934
Maintenance
Income.......... ............................................ $33,464.04
Expenses ........................................................... 38,822.09
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" 1................. $5,358.05*
Publications
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Income............................ ....... ................... 7,500.00
Expenses ..... ........................................................ 5,217.57
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ............. 2,282.43

*The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balance
of the respective funds.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 33

Publications-continued
Handbook of Adult Education-1934
Incom e .......................................................
Expenses...................................................... $1,205.21
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"............. $1,205.21*
International Review of Adult Education
Income............................................... .........
Expenses. ....................................................... 102.30
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule ".1"............. 102.30*
Journal of Adult Education
Income..................................... ................... 15,333.33
Expenses ....................................... ............. 14,879.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule 1"................ 454.33
Research Report
Income ........................................................
Expenses. ..................................................... 846.95
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1.............. 846.95*
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income. ..................................................... 4,333.24
Expenses. ....................................... ........... 3,259.91
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 1,073.33
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications
Income. ........................................... ............. 2,708.83
Expenses.............................................. ...... 2,565.63
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ............. 143.20
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Income....................................................
Expenses. ........... .................. .............. 363.33
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"........... 363.33*
Studies
Income..................... ................... ........ .
Expenses ................................................... 100.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"........... 100.00*
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Income....................................................... 10,000.00
Expenses .................................................... 9,332.38
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 667.62
Alumni Education Study
Income. ...................................................... 5,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 3,018.04
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I".............. 1,981.96
Ca C aSn Adult Education Organization
Sncome....................................................... 10,000.00
Expenses. .. .......... ........ ................................... .. 1,694.95
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 8,305.05






0.................................................. 00.00
Se4................................................ ..... .92
S of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "............. 1,505.08
spenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period uftnces
respective funds.










34 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Projects, Studies and Conferences-continued
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Income....................................................... $25,000.00
Expenses........................................................ 25,000.00
Excess of Income over Expenses .........................................
Study of Discussion Methods
Income...................................................... 2,500.00
Expenses.................................................... 2,500.00
Excess of Income over Expenses .................. ....................
Lecture-Field Study
Income .......................................................
Expenses ...... ......................................... .... 2,596.22
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1 "......... $2,596.22*
National Occupational Conference
Income....................................................... 116,141.19
Expenses..................................................... 76,812.53
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 39,328.66
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income...................................................... 15,000.00
Expenses ..................................................... 17,671.49
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 2,671.49*
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Income.............................................. ........... 2,550.00
Expenses...................................................... 1,265.96
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 1,284.04
Science Study
Income........................................................ 8,500.00
Expenses ..................................................... 7,423.60
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"........... 1,076.40
Total Excess of Income over Expenses.............................. $44,643.50




EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1934
Balance, September 30, 1933, payable to:
Adjustment Service....................................... .......... $25,000.00
Berea College .................................................. 750.00
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ........................ 3,750.00
Teachers College................................................. 6,000.00
Leonia Community Council ........................................ 2,025.00 $37,525.00
Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for account of:
Adjustment Service............................................. 15,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ....................................... 3,000.00
Farmers Institute, Rutgers University .............................. 12,500.00
National Education Association, Department of Adult Education...... 1,000.00
National Theatre Conference ..................................... 6,000.00
New York Adult Education Council ............................... 4,000.00
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild................. ..... 3,500.00
Workers Education Bureau......................................... 10,000.00
Total Receipts ........................ ......................


*The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior peri
of the respective funds. a










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 35

Disbursements
Payments to:
Adjustment Service.......................................... $29,662.75
Berea College................................................... 750.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ....................................... 3,000.00
Farmers Institute, Rutgers University.............................. 12,500.00
Leonia Community Council ..................................... 2,025.00
National Education Association, Department of Adult Education ...... 1,000.00
National Theatre Conference................ ................... 6,000.00
New York Adult Education Council ............................... 4,000.00
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ...................... 4,625.00
Teachers College................................................. 6,000.00
Workers Education Bureau ...................................... 10,000.00
Total Disbursements.............................................. $79,562.75
Balance, September 30, 1934, Payable to:
Adjustment Service............................................... 10,337.25
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ........................ 2,625.00
Total Balance, September 30, 1934, per Exhibit A"...................... $12,962.25



II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1935
Assets
Cash
Capital Account .............................................. $150,792.44
Managing Account............................................. 6,967.14
Total Assets. ............................................. .... $157,759.58
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ......................................... 220.11
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education................. 127.86
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D". ....................................... 13,375.00
Total Liabilities............................................... 13,722.97
Net Asset Value ............................................................ $144,036.61
The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds, per Schedule 1"................................. $14,496.06
Publication Funds, per Schedule "1" ................................. 27,117.08
Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per Schedule "1"............ 102,423.47
$144,036.61



EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR TftE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1935
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... $4,352.78
Add: Excess of Maintenance Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935,
per Exhibit "C". .......................................... 5,143.28
Balance, March 31, 1935 ................................................. $9,496.06
Administrative Reserve
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................... 5,000.00
No changes.................... ...........................
Balance, March 31, 1935 .................... ........................ 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "A".......... $14,496.06










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Publication Funds
Cooperative Publications Program with National Education
Association and Other Organizations
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C".. $400.00
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................................. $400.00

Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................... 2,282.43
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"...................................................... 1,822.74
Balance, March 31, 1935 ................................................. 459.69

Handbook of Adult Education-1936
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C".. 3,345.02
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................................... 3,345.02

International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1934 .................................... 6,942.40
No changes...................................................
Balance, March 31, 1935.................. ................................ 6,942.40

Journal of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1934 .................................... 333.33
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"............................................. ........ 8,376.99

Balance, March 31, 1935................................................. 8,710.32

Research Report
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... 1,045.28
No changes....................................... ........
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................. ................. 1,045.28

Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................... 4,987.67
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"....................................................... 729.85
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................................. 5,717.52

Simplification of Materials Project
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C"... 496.85
Balance, March 31, 1935 ................................................. 496.85
Total Publication Funds, March 31, 1935,per Exhibit "A"............. $27,117.08

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds
Adjustment Service
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... $10,337.25
Add: Refund of part of Advance made to Adjustment Service prior to
September 30, 1934 ....................................... 1,797.74
12,134.99
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C ....................................................... 3,292.94
Balance, March 31, 1935................................................... $8,842.05

Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................. 731.26
No changes.................................... .........
Balance, March 31, 1935................................................ 731.26










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 37

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
Library Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................. $100.00
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per
Exhibit "C"....................................... ....... 100.00
Balance, March 31, 1935.... ................................... ...........
Alumni Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1934.................... .................. 1,981.96
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"....................................................... 1,552.40
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................................... $429.56
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Balance, September 30, 1934................................... 8,305.05
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"......................................................................... 1,918.00
Balance, March 31, 1935................... ............................. 6,387.05
Conference on Civic Forums
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C".. 60.18
Balance, March 31, 1935 ................................................. 60,18
Study of Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C"... 200.00
Balance, March 31, 1935 ......... ............................................ 200.00
Study of Community Music
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C"... 2,325.02
Balance March 31, 1935.................................................. 2,325.02
Community Organization Service
Balance, September 30, 1934.................................... 1,505.08
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C "....................................................... 1,921.83
Balance, March 31, 1935............................................ 3,426.91

Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... 667.62
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"....................................................... 238.35

Balance, March 31, 1935................................................. 429.27
Cooperation, Federal Office of Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit "C".. 2,645.10
Balance,'M arch 31, 1935.................................................. 2,645.10
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1934 .................................... 569.38
No changes.............................................
Balance, March 31, 1935...................... .... ........... ................ 569.38
Lecture-Field Study
Balance, September 30, 1934................................... 403.78
No changes.......................................... .....
Balance, March 31, 1935.................................................. 403.78
National Occupational Conference
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... 51,166.69
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C "....................................................... 5,152.27

Balance, *I#rch 31, 1935 ................................................ 56,318.96










38 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1934................................. $309.25
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C "....................................................... 7,625.87
Balance, March 31, 1935.. .............................. ................ $7,935.12
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... 1,284.04
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C"........ .............................. .. ........... 312.40
Balance, March 31, 1935................................................. 971.64
Science Study
Balance, September 30, 1934 ................................... 1,076.40
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit
"C". ........................................... .... 9,671.79
Balance, March 31, 1935................................................. 10,748.19
Total Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, March
31, 1935, per Exhibit "A"........................................... $102.423.47




EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1935
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ $20,000.00
Membership dues
Individual....................................... $2,138.79
Organizational..................................... 898.16 3,036.95
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of single copies ......................... 960.86 $23,997.81
Publications
Cooperative Publications Program with National Education
Association and Other Organizations
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 1,00(.00
Handbook of Adult Education-1936
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 4,0e-.00
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........... .$15,000.00
Allocation from Department of Adult Education of the
National Education Association .................... 1,200.00 16,200.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Sales of Handbook of Adult Education-1934 .......... 719.52
Sales of Miscellaneous Publications ................... 646.38
Royalties on Publications........................... 703.11 2,069.01
Simplification of Materials Project
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 1,000.00 A24269.01
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adjustment Service
Sale of publications ........................................ 62.50
Conference on Civic Forums
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 500.00
Study of Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation........................ 2,009,






r--


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued
Study of Community Music
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation .......................
Community Organization Service
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation.......................
Des Moines Adult Education Program
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ......................
Cooperation, Federal Office of Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation.......................
National Occupational Conference
Appropriations from Carnegie Corporation............. $46,000.00
Subscriptions and sales of reprints .................... 4,378.12
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ......................


Science Study
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ...................... 10,000.00 115,740.62
Total Income................................................... $164,007.44


Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments ...................................
Accountants' fees ...................................
Incidentals..........................................
Insurance .............................. ..........
Office library.......................................
Office furniture ......................................
Office supplies, stationery, mimeographing, etc...........
Postage and shipping.................................
Printing, publications, publicity .......................
Rent..............................................
Repairs and maintenance.............................
Salaries................... .........................
Telephone and telegraph..............................
Travel..............................................
Publications
Cooperative Publications Program with National Education
Association and Other Organizations .................
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program...
Handbook of Adult Education-1936 ..................
Journal of Adult Education............................
Revolving Fund for Publications .......................
Simplification of Materials Project .....................


$658.70
150.00
429.47
35.98
90.87
60.25
522.28
388.62
170.76
1,775.04
57.76
13,196.83
447.76
870.21 $18,854.53


600.00
1,822.74
654.98
7,823.01
1,339.16
503.15


12,743.04


Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adjustment Service .................................. 3,355.44
Adult Reading Study-Library Experiments ............. 100.00
Alumni Education Study................................ 1,552.40
Canadian Adult Education Organization................. 1,918.00
Conference on Civic Forums............................ 439.82
Study of Civilian Conservation Corps Camps............ 1,800.00
Study of Community Music........................... 1,474.98
Community Organization Service ...................... 2,078.17
Ws MoinewAdlt Education Program.................. 30,000.00
'Kvisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program...... 238.35
Cooperation, Federal Office of Education................ 354.90
National Occupational Conference ..................... 45,225.85
Negro A*t Education Experiments ................... 4,374.13
Repgts on Current Investigations and Experiments....... 312.40
4ence Study ........................................ 328.21 93,552.65
Total Expenses................................................... $125,150.22
Excess of Income over Expenses ........................................... $38,857.22


w,


$3,800.00

4,000.00

30,000.00

3,000.00


50,378.12

12,000.00










40 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR



EXHIBIT C
SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS
ENDED MARCH 31, 1935
Maintenance
Income......................................................... $23,997.81
Expenses.......................................................... 18,854.53
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"................ $5,143.28
Publications
Cooperative Publications Program with National Education Asso-
ciation and Other Organizations
Income ....................................................... 1,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 600.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 400.00
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Income .......................................................
Expenses..................................................... 1,822.74
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 1,822.74"
Handbook of Adult Education-1936
Income........................................................ 4,000.00
Expenses ..................................................... 654.98
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 3,345.02
Journal of Adult Education
Income ..................................................... 16,200.00
Expenses... ................. ........................ 7,823.01
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 8,376.99
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income ...................................................... 2,069.01
Expenses...................................................... 1,339.16
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 72985
Simplification of Materials Project
Income .................................................... 1,000.8
Expenses...................................................... 503.15
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 496.85
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adjustment Service
Income ................... .................................. 62.50
Expenses..................................................... 3,355.44
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............ 3,292.94*
Adult Reading Study-Library Experiments
Income......................................................
Expenses......................................................... 100.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 100?00*
Alumni Education Study
Incom e.............................................. ......... .
Expenses ... ................................................ 1,552.40
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 1,
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Income ...................................... ................. -
Expenses.............. ............................ ....... 1,918.00
Exces of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............

SThe excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior pei
of the respective fueds.




-w


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 41

al Projectt Studies, and Conferences-continued
aoference on Civic Forums
S Income.... ....... ................................. ..... $500.00
Ex es.................................................... 439.82
EJIkss of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"............. $60.18
Sof Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
com e........................................................ 2,000.00
Expenses. ...... ..... ........................................ 1,800.00
Exceeaof Ionome over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 200.00
S study of Community Music
Income...................................................... 3,800.00
Expenses ...... ............................................. 1,474.98
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 2,325.02
Community Organization Service
Income....................................................... 4,000.00
Expenses ...................................................... 2,078.17
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 1,921.83
I Des Moines Adult Education Program
Income..................................................... 30,000.00
Expenses.......................................... .......... 30,000.00
Excess of Income over Expenses ........................................

Sfvisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
SIncome. ........................................................
Expenses........................................ ........ 238.35
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .. ......... 238.35*
operation, Federal Office of Education
com e........................... ............................. 3,000.00
enses...................................................... 354.90

Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 2,645.10
national Occupational Conference
Income........................................................50,378.12
Expenses.................................................... 45,225.85
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 5,152.27
SAdult Education Experiments
e. ....................................................... 12,000.00
nses...................................................... 4,374.13
ess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 7,625.87
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Income........................................................
Expenses ................................................... 312.40
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 312.40*
e eStudy
....................................................... 10,000.00
s ...................................................... 328.21

Sof Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule I"............. 9,671.79
Total Excess of Income over Expenses........................... $38,857.22


s of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balances
tive funts.










42 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIM0 4


4
EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER CIRCANIZATIO
THE SIX MONTHS ENDED ~RRCH 31, 1935
Balance, September 30, 1934, Payable to:
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild........ ..............
Receipts -
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for account of:
California Association for Adult Education .............. ...... ,5
Civic Federation of Dallas. .... .............................. ..
Adult Education Council of Denver................................ 5
Leonia Community Council ...................................... 4
National Theatre Conference ..................................... 5,000.00
New York Adult Education Council................................ 3,03.
Institute of Rural Economics, Rutgers University.................... 5,000.Q
Springfield, Massachusetts, Civic Forums ........................... 45,0._
Teachers College, Columbia University ............................ 15,0o
Total Receipts ................................................

Disbursements
Payments to:
California Association for Adult Education..........................
Civic Federation of Dallas ........................................
Adult Education Council of Denver................................
Leonia Community Council ....................................
National Theatre Conference .....................................
New York Adult Education Council...............................
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild .....................
Institute of Rural Economics, Rutgers University....................
Springfield, Massachusetts, Civic Forums ..........................
Teachers College, Columbia University.............................
Total Disbursements................ .......................
Balance, March 31, 1935, Payable to:
California Association for Adult Education .......................... 3
Adult Education Council of Denver................................
Leonia Community Council.......................................
National Theatre Conference.............. ......................
New York Adult Education Council...............................
People's Institute, United Neighborhood Guild ......................
Total Balance, March 31, 1935, per Exhibit A"................. .




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