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Title: Annual report of the director
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Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1933/34
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
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    Back Cover
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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY






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AMERICAN ASSOCIATION
FOR ADULT EDUCATION


ANNUAL REPORT OF
THE DIRECTOR
in behalf of the Executive Board
for 1933-34


WASSOCIA N FOR ADULT EDUCATION
SIKTY EAI Y-SECOND STREET
1i-ORK CITY


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I I I


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AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
Annual Report of the Director in Behalf
of the Executive Board
for 1933-34


MEN and events make adult edu-
cation. Throughout the ages
mature minds have sought to
understand the ever-shifting trends of
human interests. Each thinker, high or
low according to his economic station
and his intellectual inheritance, each
participant in the ofttimes magnificent
adult education of the past, has dealt
predominantly in his little time with the
vibrant folk movements of his era.
The adult education of the time of
Confucius would be translated, in present-
day interest, into terms of behavioristic
psychology. The asseverations of Soc-
rates, handed down to us by Plato, the
thought systems of Aristotle we still
revere under the name of philosophy.
And philosophy at the height of Greek
civilization was not a subject to be
studied in the sense in which we examine
it today, but absorbing and provocative
discussions of ways of life which men
actually sought to live. The sculpture,
the painting, the literature of the period
that we term the Renaissance were all
the reflections of the adult education of
the Middle Ages.
Men in those times discussed those
matters about which they cared most,
and they cared most about those things
which, in our American parlance, were
"in. the air"-responses to under-the-
surface folk movements. Thought is a
wildfire that spreads round the world in


curious and indefinable ways. All were
affected, directly or indirectly, by these
thought movements. Freeman and slave,
noble and peasant, merchant and artisan,
each in the manner peculiar to his kind,
reacted to the call of his age. Each in a
sense participated in the adult education
of his day.
From Abelard and Spinoza to Darwin
and Huxley, all the saints in the calendar
of adult education received canonization
because they educated men and women
currently in those matters about which
they cared most. They became great
men and great educators in large part
because of the timeliness of their teach-
ings. We are prone to believe these
teachers led the way; it is probable that
they were pushed into leadership by the
eager minds that followed them, all-
leader and led alike-impelled by the
strange urge of their times.
The shift of the present in our modern
civilization has been to the social sci-
ences. Economics, government, sociology
-these are the matters about which men
care today the world over. Philosophy,
religion, art, literature may have their
day again tomorrow, but for the moment
we care little for the humanities. We are
consumed with curiosity about the social
order. We crave to take it apart, to
analyze it, and to put it together again
in what we conceive to be a better
arrangement. This compelling urge con-


91603


&CAf1t:An4








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


stitutes the central theme of the adult
education of today.
It is therefore needful that current
movements of thought, and of what
passes for thought, among the educators
should be discussed in a consideration of
the growth and objectives of modern
adult education. It is now perceived, by
both radicals and conservatives, that
twentieth century change dislikes to wait
for the judgment of a new and better-
trained generation. The speed motif of
our mechanical age has extended in most
minds to all social phenomena. Recently
many educators have turned to the belief
that social reorganization resolves itself
merely into an educational problem, and
one chiefly to be aimed at the adult.
And it is greatly to be feared that the
terms "education" and "propaganda"
have become synonymous in their lexicon.
The recurrent testimony of history to the
gradualness of permanent social change
throughout the centuries dismays them
not. Like the Spanish knight of beloved
memory, they tilt full speed at the wind-
mills of educational thought, little reck-
ing the consequences. In their enthusiasm
of the moment, they have quite lost
interest in the ponderous machinery of
civilization which, supplanting the wind-
mills, must creak laboriously on to turn
the imperfect but improving motors of
education.
Any attempt to view the American
educational scene in perspective today is
fraught with perplexities and filled with
uncertainties. Caught in the midst of a
period of adjustment induced by economic
dislocation, educational leaders groping
for the light, like their brethren in the
industrial field, betray their almost hys-
terical fear of the future. It is no longer
the fashion among them to look askance
with coldly critical eye upon educational
ideas advanced as new by zealots who


hail the dawn of a new day in education]
Conservatism now gives way befoi
the onslaughts of those who, apparently
oblivious of the centuries that have gone
before, in their own self-laudatory phrases
are blazing new trails of progress and ol
glory in an education which shall reor-
ganize the social order.
It is to be doubted whether education
of itself alone blazes new paths of soci
progress; rather is it probable that edu
tion reflects both our progress and
backwardness as social orders devel
out of our economic and, to some ex
at least, our spiritual being. This
disillusioning, perhaps, and a blow to t
amour propre of the educator.
ever, if he will but reflect upon his
experience with the learning process
himself and others, he will rec
education is a steady, painstakig
time-consuming battle against t
of human apathy and human stup
which at times seem almost overWhe
ing. Education does not and can
take place over night. There is no
formula of immediate effectiveness.
a slow growth and a steady one
counts in the final analysis.
The position of the educational li
today is both delicate and un
Always has he been distrust
conservative for thateery y
open-mindedness w~ihis th
eral's pride and joy. Y-ldi
servative expends his efrg
for the outmodedul lts
existing system rather than
sonable skepticism of the co
position. Undertheexcitenient
day stresses, he falls into the
error of classifying those wh
doubt as non-constructive e
Indignantly he denounces "th
who would tear down or
tested ideals," little realiwimgipt




S


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ranks of his opposition there are those
v*&-would fight with him to save much
tl*t hi-feels is desirable in the present
eaicational scene.
Thts misconception of liberalism is not
improved but made more pronounced
because the ranks of the liberals in a
time of hysteria always are split asunder.
Those former liberals who, sniffing the
wId of economic change, have deserted
t philosophy of open-mindedness in
cation for the more popular cause of
igiaediate and profound social change
lIdI considerable color to the conserva-
tiewiuspicion of any and all dissenters.
IM-~ homes with him a case of "who is
nemath me is against me." Little does
tW conservative realize that these one-
tWIltiberals now have become radical
ellmmtsts and that they deliberately
tFe abandoned the tenets of their liberal
faith. Mostly have they become com-
munist or fascist in their leanings-both
persuasions exist among those who pro-
fess to educational leadership in this
country-but the two curiously coincide
in their menace to educational progress
in a democracy.
aksM-the conservative utterly fails to
is that such renegades make
e use against the liberal. The
-minded acceptance of cer-
dical tenets, and his equally
rejection of much of the
direct action preached by
mes the ire of the extremists.
protagonists of destructiveness,
advocates of the left-wing posi-
ducation, the liberal is a much
gerous enemy than the con-
This situation, of course, has
counterpart in the activities of
al arties-witness the ac-
nepspaper of communist
suialists, and the precisely
si et ieM s of fascism, whether in


Germany, Italy, or America, toward its
opposition.
Is it not timely that American liberals
should enter a robust plea for the middle
ground in education? Is the undeniable
tendency of a democracy to shift politi-
cally from extreme right to extreme left
and back again to affect our educational
processes to the point of sabotage of fifty
years' gains? Is perhaps our American
system of education, bound in as it is
with our democracy, worth fighting for?
And should not we as leaders in the most
liberal branch of education-that for
adults-assert our beliefs with vehe-
mence?
Let us not forget that the adult edu-
cation movement, in the minds of the
extremists, is the spearhead of their
quixotic attack upon the old order. With
much that they have in mind we can
agree, but with their methods of accom-
plishment it would seem that all liberals
should quarrel. Many of these fascist
and communist leaders in education are
sincere and well intentioned. But in
their understanding of history and of
philosophy-and perhaps even of eco-
nomics-they leave themselves open to
the charge of unintelligence. It would
be costly if leadership in the adult educa-
tion movement were to be surrendered
to the unintelligent, but so it will happen
surely unless the spirit of true liberalism
prevails among the members of the edu-
cational craft.
There has been too much talk among
us of "revolution" and far too little of
the processes of "evolution." Present-
day changes in the United States indeed
may be termed revolutionary, but only
when viewed as the logical evolutionary
outgrowth of the Revolution of 1776
and its resultant constitutional embodi-
ment in 1789. In one sense, the Ameri-
can experiment in democracy has been








ANNUAL REPORT C


part of a continuous revolution waged
for almost one hundred and sixty years
against those forms of government which
do not rely upon the will of a people.
But to speak of the flurry of 1933-34 as
"revolution" is to exaggerate. Principles
now actuating our governmental admin-
istration derive from our constitution,
liberally interpreted it is true, and the
actual forms of many of the changes
newly become effective were in evidence
as the serious proposals of the political
party which ran second in the presiden-
tial election of 1912. One who had
observed revolution at first hand, with
the repressive and oppressive measures
deemed necessary by revolutionists, would
have difficulty in applying such a term
to our peaceful, if noisy, efforts to adjust
ourselves to new economic conditions.
A plague upon this talk of revolution
among those of us whose serious business
it is to concern ourselves with education!
Our task of improving the means of
diffusion of knowledge and understand-
ing remains before us. It will not be
accomplished hurriedly by resorting to
the questionable medium of the propa-
gandist. The liberal in education must
have no commerce with those who al-
legedly would "educate" through "emo-
tionalizing" the content of education.
There is legitimate use in plenty for the
magnificent media opening themselves
to educational uses in the twentieth
century. The drama, the radio, the
motion picture, the press, all in good
time will lend themselves heartily to
constructive cooperation with education.
The trend already is in that direction
and nothing can stop it save betrayal by
misguided or by disillusioned educational
leaders.
The liberal must decry efforts to seize
control of our educational system, public
and private, of our educational organiza-


)F THE DIRECTOR

tions, of our curricula for children and
adults, by those who seek to overthrow
or to uphold, whether in the name of
capitalism, communism, or fascism. It
is our concern to educate for the open
mind, and in adult education particu-
larly we must fight for the right to make
all movements understood. But it is
not the function of education to go
beyond this and to translate such under-
standing into action, political or ec*
nomic or social. Whatever may be sat
as to the education of children, with
adults, educators would not be successful
if they attempted leadership in action.
Adults would judge, and rightly, that in
such matters pedagogues were less li y
to procure meritorious results than peli
ticians, sad as political leadership ha
proved to be in the past. Whether-r
not the educator so wills it, the puflt
will expect him to stick to his last, qfl
regardless of the eventual success or laok
of success of so-called "brain trusts."
And it is a task, both in magnitudeand
in importance, wholly worthy of his best
efforts.
The liberal in adult education, then,
despite his present difficulties, may *&
forward to continued usefulness and-f
haps, after the smoke and tumult of'g1
present argument have cleared awayzi
a full measure of public popularity
confidence. The direct actionist
gotten, he then may return to do
with his age-old, time-honored adver
the conservative. The liberal's is n
program that requires secret socie-
"boring from within," dramatization
declamation, to succeed. He need no
be lured by ambitious attempts to "
organize the social order" in than
fortnight; his is the infinitely
cult and more important effort t
the stubborn opposition of igno
at every hand. His reward lies, al








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the ephemeral acceptance of an alleged
panacea for social ills, but in the growing
number of those who, like himself, seek
to-learn more of social and natural
phenomena.
The present craze for planning boards
-a new guessing game with the answer
sealed by time-should interest our lib-
eral as an observer of social institutions.
He should participate to the end that
opportunities for education are not neg-
lected. He should make clear that only
upon the availability of such opportuni-
ties can there be predicated social change
for the better-three, five, ten, or fifty
years in the future. He must have the
courage to state at every opportunity
the truism that the American experi-
ment in democracy-the success of the
American revolution of 1776-is wholly
dependent upon adult education. It is
the common ground upon which can
meet "the American system," glowingly
referred to in 1928, and "the new deal,"
even more enthusiastically hailed in the
elections of 1932.
The entrance of the Federal Govern-
ment into the adult education field,
thluagh large-scale subsidies to the states
J relief funds, has been a significant
lapppening of the last year. Regardless of
Wansuccessor unsuccess of this venture,
iu sed elsewhere in this report, it has
-n d to emphasize the partnership of
4 b14c school, the public library, and
ivate organizations in the staggering
hp blem-f serving the educational needs
adtts. School men and women the
try over are conscious as they never
been before of a new field of pub-
ice open to them. It has been
ing to note in many parts of the
the emergence of school officials
of n willing and even eager to grasp
t portnity that has come to them.
Onthe other hand there is danger that


many school men will see adult education
only as a problem of carrying over to a
more mature audience the teaching tech-
niques and teacher-pupil attitudes prev-
alent in the classroom maintained for
adolescents. Unless these school officials
can be brought to realize the differences
between audiences of children compelled
by law and by parental pressure to
undergo educational discipline, and as-
semblages of adults under no compul-
sions whatsoever, nothing but disaster
will result. The wise school man will
take the experienced private adult educa-
tor into his counsels in planning his first
ventures in the adult field.
Again, this new assumption of respon-
sibility on the part of the schools raises
the question of indoctrination. Deans
and professors of education are fond of
maintaining that indoctrination is pres-
ent in all teaching, that it can not be
eliminated, and that it is folly to attempt
to combat it. To whatever degree this
may be true in the education of children
or even of college students, the question
remains as to whether it is true with
groups of adults. It is to be doubted, of
course, whether it is possible or desirable
that the opinion of the group leader or
lecturer on a given subject should be
concealed. On the other hand, in most
adult groups, certain of the participants
may be expected to possess quite as good
backgrounds in experience and education
as the leader himself. Particularly is
this clear in groups dealing with current
social questions. The leader's attempts
to indoctrinate, whether conscious or un-
conscious, will be subjected to constant
challenge and criticism with more than
an even chance that in a given argument
he will come off second best. The wise
leader of adult groups, therefore, will
make a conscious effort-a determined
effort-to state all sides of controversial








ANNUAL REPORT C


questions. His own belief may become
apparent, but if so he will be quick to
label it as opinion on all fours with and
not superior to that of the group. An
open avowal to educate for the open
mind will be found more successful with
adult groups than attempts to teach in
the commonly accepted sense of that
term.
It would appear, then, that a real task
lies before the liberal thinker. He must
assert himself with force and vigor. He
is neither the protector of the status quo
nor the advocate of ill-considered and
hasty change. He believes in orderly
and sane progress, but orderliness and
sanity must not be so deliberate as to
impede progress. He brings to current
events his quality of open-mindedness
to the extent that change does not
frighten him because it is change. But
he makes certain that any proposed
change is sound and constructive before
it enlists his sympathies. His is no r6le
of wavering compliance with shifting
winds of opinion, but one of courageous
and, if necessary, passionate advocacy of
the rights of all men. And when the
liberal thinker assumes the responsibility
of leading adults in their education, then
must he attempt the most difficult task
of all-to recognize the full and inalien-
able privilege of those who sit at his
feet to differ with himself and to oppose
his own liberal views.
This introduction should not be closed
without an explanation that it does not
necessarily represent the opinion of the
members of the Executive Board of the
Association, but sets forth that of the
Director, the writer of this report. He is
confident, however, that the views herein
expressed coincide in the main with those
held by a considerable majority of the
Board and the officers. An attempt was
made to shape the policies of the Board,


)F THE DIRECTOR

at a meeting of Eastern members held
October, 1933, with reference to current
problems having educational implica-
tions. Differences of opinion developed
as to whether the Association should
address itself, in its program of activities
for the year, to problems connected with
immediate "recovery" or long-term "re-
construction," a distinction that had
been nicely drawn shortly before by Mr.
Walter Lippman. Advocates of the.&e-
construction policy were clearly in.-e
majority, although inevitably and july
a compromise was reached, whereby-er-
tain experiments of a recovery nature
were provided for when found to be-in
consonance with sound reconstruction
policy. It should be added that, as
shown hereafter in this report, these
experiments were highly successful.

FEDERAL EMERGENCY PROGRAM
Entry of the Federal government iato
the field of adult education comipdir,
from the point of view of the AssQiati, -
probably the most important haw g
in the year just drawing to a close. As
part of the Administration's generalTe-
covery program, the Federal Emsuw ry
Relief Administration, under thvleadfr-
ship of Harry L. Hopkins, determined in
August and September to devote reli
funds to the payment of unemp
teachers and others qualified to tea
the following general fields: (1)
schools; (2) Education for literacy )
Vocational rehabilitation for
cally handicapped; (4) Vocatiou
ing and adjustment; (5) Geweral
education, including workesa' s aa
and parent education; and (6)
schools. The widespread nature
program is indicated by the faet
some 40,000 teachers have
played in the various states and
Federal subsidies to the state








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


reached the important maximum of
$2,000,000 a month in the course of the
year. Administration of the program
has been placed in the hands of State
Boards of Education which act in co-
operation with the State Emergency
Relief Administrations. Allocations of
funds have been made by the Federal
Emergency Relief Administration with
the aid and advice of the United States
Office of Education. In a large majority
of the states the major portion of the
funds so allocated have supported teach-
ers and group leaders in the general adult
Education field.
So much for the quantitative side of
the program-an imposing enterprise of
large proportions representing a total of
educational activity for adults far beyond
the size of any previous single effort and
constituting a major recognition on the
part both of the Government and the
public of the serious importance of adult
education as an integral part of the
democratic experiment upon which this
country has long been engaged. How-
ever, in consonance with its policy since
its founding, the American Association
for Adult Education is chiefly concerned
witlfthe quality of educational offerings
for adults, and there would seem to be
justification, therefore, in such a report
as this, for a frank examination into the
quality of the general adult education
oflings of the Federal Emergency Pro-
graiB
From the point of view of work relief,
th~ tnergency program has been a huge
sfls. Proud, needy, and deserving
P have been given congenial, im-
employment in a time of stress.
*1 h the conditions for qualification
up ie relief rolls have varied among
the several states, on the whole the
restrictions imposed have been fair, im-
partially administered, and designed only


to protect the expenditure of public
funds. But from the point of view of
education-and from that of the adult
participants in the programs (both em-
ployed and unemployed)-the results
the country over are far from convincing.
Even the friendliest critics of the enter-
prise agree that the program as it now
stands leaves much to be desired.
Last October, while the program was
yet in its formative state, a committee of
the American Association submitted a
series of representations to the Relief
Administration and the Office of Educa-
tion designed to clarify the issues in-
volved and, if possible, to secure rulings
that might allay the growing fear that
the enterprise might render a disservice
to the cause of adult education and undo
the work of the ten years during which
its most signal progress had been made.
These representations consisted, briefly
and in the main, of pleas (1) that alloca-
tions to states be made on the basis of
community projects to be submitted
rather than purely on the basis of state
quotas, (2) that amounts be set aside for
adequate supervision, state and Federal,
(3) that provision be made for materials
of instruction, (4) that relief qualifica-
tions be relaxed sufficiently to permit the
employment of persons qualified to teach
who were undeniably in need but who
had not qualified for relief or who might
find difficulty in doing so, and (5) that
recognition be made of private organiza-
tion leadership in adult education to the
end that representatives of such organi-
zations should participate in community
projects as advisers to school officials.
In the meantime the United States
Commissioner of Education, George F.
Zook, had requested that the Association
assist him in administering the academic
responsibility that had become his upon
the announcement of the program by the








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Relief Administration. He had immedi-
ately loaned to the latter organization
the services of two members of the Office
of Education staff-L. R. Alderman,
Specialist in Adult Education, and C. L.
Klinefelter of the Vocational Education
division. To the able efforts of these two
gentlemen is attributable the exception-
ally smooth-working administration of
the emergency educational program-a
most complicated and exacting task that
has been performed so well as to sur-
mount most, if not all, of the many
administrative difficulties which have
arisen. The Relief Administration fur-
ther strengthened its staff on the educa-
tional side by the employment for work-
ers' education activity of Hilda W. Smith
of the Affiliated Summer Schools for
Women Workers and by the additional
loan from the Office of Education of the
services of Mary Dabney Davis, whose
particular care was the nursery school
program. These workers were later re-
enforced, with special reference to the
parent education and nursery aspects of
the program, by the presence in Wash-
ington of Ralph P. Bridgman of the
National Council of Parent Education
and of George D. Stoddard of the State
University of Iowa, with supporting field
staffs, made possible through certain
emergency grants of the General Educa-
tion Board.
The degree of participation in the
emergency program which it was thought
advisable for the Association to under-
take was made dependent somewhat
upon the disclosure of the objectives of
the Government as indicated in the reply
of the Relief Administration to the repre-
sentations submitted in October. This
reply clearly indicated that the primary
objective of the Government was relief
and that education was considered a
worth-while but purely secondary con-


sideration. It also became clear that
quotas were to be assigned to states
without reference to planned community
projects, that there was to be no Federal
supervision though a certain measure of
academic responsibility rested with the
United States Commissioner, that no
amounts were to be made available for
supervision within the states, that the
questions surrounding relief qualification
were to be left to the various states,
and that responsible school officials alone
were to determine all questions relating
to the content and the conduct of the
program. The sole representation secur-
ing favorable action during the year was
that relating to materials of instruction
when, in December, expenditures for
this purpose up to five per cent of the
total received were permitted.
However, American adult education
seemed to be confronted with a condition
and not a theory. The program was to
go on and the Commissioner of Educa-
tion was concerned that it be made as
worth while as possible under the circum-
stances. Again, the decided success,
despite these obstacles, of the New York
State program under the skilled leader-
ship of Lewis A. Wilson, Assistant State
Commissioner of Education, gave en-
couragement to the thought that other
states might emulate this example. (The
New York program had commenced
some nine months earlier under a3te
initiation, auspices, control, and finamnial
support.) Hence it was agreed*that
while neither the Association nor its staff
or board members should assume any
official responsibility for the program,
the Association should nevertheless pro-
vide a committee of three to assist the
United States Commissioner. This group,
known as the Informal Advisory Com-
mittee on Adult Education, was to serve
in Washington and in the field as the


aw









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Commissioner should direct, acting in
his name and in personal responsibility
to him, but without official recognition or
authority. The part-time services of the
Director of the Association were loaned
for the purpose, and through a special
grant of $10,000 made to the Association
by the Carnegie Corporation of New
York, it became possible to secure the
services, also on part time, of two addi-
tional committee members, Arthur E.
Bestor, President of the Chautauqua
Institution and member of the Executive
Board of the Association, and Jerome H.
Bentley, Director of the Adjustment
Service of New York City and an execu-
tive of the staff of the New York City
Y.M.C.A. Both Mr. Bestor and Mr.
Bentley were appointed as Field Repre-
sentatives of the Association for this
service. Travel and other expenses inci-
dent to the service of the Committee
have been met from the Carnegie Corpo-
ration grant, while clerical assistance and
other strictly office expenses have been
assumed by the Office of Education.
This group has served throughout the
year, augmented at the close by the
voluntary services of Spencer Miller, Jr.,
of the Workers Education Bureau and
member of the Executive Board of the
Association, and with the assistance in
connection- with the proposed training
program of Mollie R. Carroll of the Uni-
versity of Chicago, whose full-time serv-
ices over a period of three months were
secured through an emergency grant
made to the Workers Education Bureau
by theGeneral Education Board.
C embers of the Informal Advisory
Committee have visited twenty-four
states in the interests of the program and
have concerned themselves with numer-
ous cortflfnity situations within those
states. A series of twelve memoranda on
adult education, containing suggestions


on the administration and content of
programs, have been drawn up and dis-
tributed by the Commissioner to a cen-
tral list of eleven thousand persons.
Through cooperation between the staffs
of the New York Public Library, the
American Library Association, and the
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion, an annotated list of readable books
for use in the emergency programs has
been compiled. Through a grant of
$7,500 for publication purposes in con-
nection with the emergency programs,
appropriated to the Association by the
General Education Board, it has been
possible to publish this list and to make
an initial free distribution of eighteen
thousand copies. The list has appeared
under the title, "Books of General Inter-
est For Today's Readers," with Doris
Hoit of the New York Public Library
named as compiler. A second edition,
for sale at cost, has been underwritten by
the American Library Association and
will be handled by that organization as
publisher after the initial distribution.
Through use of the same grant it has
been possible to arrange publication of
a greatly needed revision of the "Manual
for Teachers of Illiterates" by W. S.
Gray, which was out of print. The
revision was undertaken by a committee
consisting of Elizabeth C. Morriss of
Teachers College, Columbia University
(a member of the Executive Board of the
Association), Caroline A. Whipple of the
New York State Department of Educa-
tion staff, and Mary L. Guyton of the
Massachusetts Department of Education
staff. An edition of four thousand is to
be printed, with fifteen hundred copies
for immediate free distribution, the bal-
ance to be held for purchase by the states
for distribution to teachers, all proceeds
to be devoted to the publication of fu-
ture editions.








10 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


The relations of the Committee with
the Commissioner and members of the
staff of the Office of Education have
been most cordial, as they have as well
with members of the Relief Administra-
tion staff concerned with the educational
program. School and relief officials in
the several states have welcomed visits
by members of the Committee and are
now cooperating generously in attempts
to evaluate the workwhich has been done.
There seems to be considerable likeli-
hood that the educational program under
state leadership will go forward for the
year 1934-35. Decisions made at the
time of writing this report were not
wholly clear, but the trend unmistak-
ably is in the direction of continuance,
with probability that a training program
will be initiated in most of the states,
and with the high possibility of securing
adequate supervision through the setting
aside of a suitable percentage of the
financial total for the salaries of super-
visors and for their training. If rulings
eventually are forthcoming to support
these trends, it is to be expected that the
quality of the emergency programs will
be improved immeasurably. The mis-
givings of school officials, local, state and
Federal, and of private organizations
concerned with adult education will
largely be removed by adequate pro-
visions for supervision and for leader
training. Such provisions will at once
bring about increased interest on the
part of conscientious school officials and
will afford as well a basis upon which
private adult education leadership in the
communities may find proper outlet.
The real test of the validity and worth-
while character of the Federal Emer-
gency Educational Program will come in
1934-35 if the conditions described above
may obtain.
One other important emergency edu-


national activity of the Government de-
serves special mention-the extensive
project undertaken by the United States
Office of Education in connection with
the fifteen hundred camps of the Civilian
Conservation Corps. This adult educa-
tion enterprise, just now in the process
of organization, involves 250,000 young
men. The program is administered by
the War Department; full educational
responsibility, however, rests upon the
Office of Education. The work is in the
charge of C. S. Marsh, Dean of the
School of Business and of Extension at
the University of Buffalo, and a member
of the Executive Board of the Associa-
tion. An assistant in each of the nine
corps areas has been appointed, to each
of whom report the camp educational
officers. It has been necessary to recruit
nearly fifteen hundred adult education
and personal adjustment leaders, who
are being trained as rapidly as possible
for their new responsibilities.
Liaison with the Informal Advisory
Committee on Adult Education and with
the Association staff has been close. All
camp officers have been furnished with
copies of the Handbook of Adult Edu-
cation, a special second edition of that
publication having been published and
furnished to the government at cost. It
is hardly necessary to point out the
opportunities for adult education experi-
mentation and demonstration that exist
under the CCC organization. Plans
are under way, particularly in the First
and Second Corps areas, for educational
innovation and for personal adjustment
and guidance that may eventuallyoMld
information of importance to the entire
adult education movement.

THE DES MOINES PROJECT
The Emergency Educational Pro
has demonstrated as never beforefe


a








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


real community of interest in adult edu-
cation as between the private organiza-
tions and the school officials. A partner-
ship in fact is springing up between the
two groups which seems destined to be of
great importance to the future of the
movement in this country. The accelera-
tion of this process-one of the chief
objectives of the Association for the last
two years-constitutes certainly not the
least valuable by-product of the govern-
ment's effort. It is but natural, therefore,
that the most important project of
the Association dealing with the public
schools-that known as the Des Moines
Public Forums-should be the focus of
attention at this time, as the experiment
comes to the close of the second year of
its five-year existence.
Neighborhood forums were held over a
period of thirty-six weeks in twenty-
three public school buildings, widely dis-
tributed throughout the city to insure
maximum of convenience in attending
discussions. These forums were con-
ducted by the resident forum leaders,
Lyman Bryson, Director of the Cali-
fornia Association for Adult Education;
Carroll H. Wooddy, of the University
of Chicago; W. J. Hinton, Director of
Studies for the Institute of Bankers,
London (first half-year); and William
Adams, Assistant Professor of History,
University of California at Los Angeles
(second half-year).
The schedule of the neighborhood
forums provided for six meetings on each
of the following topics: Plans for Na-
tional Recovery; Proposed Solutions for
Our Tax Muddle; World View-Looking
East, Looking West; The Political As-
pects of National Recovery; The Eco-
nomic Aspects of National Recovery;
The International Aspects of National
IMcoary; Safeguarding the Consumer;
America Faces the Future; and Some


Makers of the Modern World. At each
meeting the leader distributed an outline
of the main points of the lecture, to-
gether with a list of questions for dis-
cussion and references for reading.
Five locations were selected for "cen-
tral forum;" held weekly from October
24 to April 21. This series was opened
by S. Stansfeld Sargent of Pennsylvania,
who spoke on Propaganda. Hans Kohn
of Vienna was selected to speak on
Russia, and Luigi Villari conducted five
meetings on The Political and Economic
Evolution of Italy. The series was con-
cluded by Eduard Brenner of Nfirnberg,
with six meetings devoted to Germany
since the War.
A new feature of the forums for the
year was a series of city-wide forums
scheduled for each Monday evening from
October 2 to March 12 and held alter-
nately in the four senior high schools.
Usually a speaker chosen specially for
the occasion presented the lecture. The
staff of forum leaders was present at
each meeting as a panel to engage the
speaker and one another in discussion for
the benefit of the audience. The city-
wide forums were followed by study
groups open to a limited number of
adults interested in following a system-
atic program of reading and discussion
under the direction of one of the three
resident neighborhood forum leaders, an
experiment in which the Public Library
cooperated by assisting with suitable
reference material.
A rather complete survey of adult
education in Des Moines was made pos-
sible early in 1934 as a special project
under the Civil Works Administration.
With the assistance of fifty investigators
thus provided, a house-to-house canvass
was organized which obtained informa-
tion on such topics as education, interest
in adult classes, attendance on the public








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


forums, newspapers read, and use of the
public library. A complete analysis of
the returns and a description of the
resulting program will appear in an
early number of the Journal of Adult
Education.
The Carnegie Corporation continued
support of the Des Moines project by
appropriation to the Association of
$25,000 from general funds.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
In 1930-31 the Executive Board con-
sidered a proposal that the Association
undertake a study of urban community
projects, but the Board then felt that
such a study would be premature and
voted that it be postponed. In the
meantime, interest in community organi-
zations has steadily grown. Several new
community associations or councils have
been formed and others are in prospect.
The need for interchange of plans and
opinions has become increasingly ap-
parent, for the benefit of both the older
and*the newer groups. To meet this
need the Executive Committee recom-
mended that the Carnegie Corporation
allocate to the Association $5,000 for the
purpose of holding a conference of com-
munity organization workers on adult
education as a part of the Ninth Annual
Meeting of the Association. The neces-
sary preliminary investigation has been
done by Jacques Ozanne, Field Repre-
sentative of the Association, who has
prepared a report, published by the Asso-
ciation, reviewing twenty-seven regional
surveys made in the interests of adult
education within the last seven years.
After the May conference, a second
report will be prepared, showing forms
of organization, scope of operation, and
other details of administration as they
have developed in various community
organizations.


The excellent record of the New York
Adult Education Council has amply
justified the support accorded to this
metropolitan movement by foundations
and other organizations, national and
local, including the Association. The
difficult task of securing information
concerning specific activities nears com-
pletion, with more than ten thousand
educational opportunities already listed;
attention has been given to helping the
inquirer in various ways, from giving
answers to simple questions to counseling
in regard to leisure-time programs. On
recommendation of the Association, the
Carnegie Corporation made a second-
year grant to the Council of $4,000,
representing a decrease of $1,000 from
the sum appropriated during the first
year of this experimental enterprise. The
Council has been successful in raising a
budget of more than $21,000 for the
current year, which fairly can be con-
sidered a measure of public interest in
the New York problem. Considerable as
this sum is, it is inadequate to meet the
growing service demands made upon A4e
Council in a huge city just awakening4o
its adult education needs and responsi-
bilities.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation allocated
$5,000 to the Association for support of
a program planned by the People's In-
stitute-United Neighborhood Guild of
Brooklyn with reference to the native
capacity, interests, and convenience of
adults from the so-called "middle c 1"
who do not utilize existing opportu s
for study because of unawakened gir-
ests or because of a natural dislil- to
expose handicaps resulting from infrior
training in youth. For the most pt,
classes are self-constituted, thus is RM
the intellectual and social homoQbW
necessary for spontaneous and .g@ll








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


participation. Subjects chosen include
history, economics, psychology, phil-
osophy, and current literature; but no
two groups pass over the same subject
matter with the same speed and in the
same way. In consultation with staff
members, each group chooses some easily
read book-by no means an easy task;
reading and discussion proceed as the
group desires, with the leader participat-
ing as a member of the group rather than
as a teacher. From the rapidity with
which requests for leadership have been
received, it is apparent that adult educa-
tion on the level reached by this phase of
the Institute's program may become a
convention more rapidly than had been
anticipated.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation allocated
$2,700 to the Association to finance an
experimental program of adult education
in a representative suburban community
based on a survey of the special interests
and skills of individual residents, poten-
tial leadership, and physical resources,
such as meeting places, equipment, and
funds. Leonia, New Jersey, was chosen
as the point of experiment, and the pre-
liminary survey was undertaken by the
Leenia Community Association, an or-
genization open to any adult resident of
the community interested in the under-
taking. C. B. Loomis, Executive Secre-
tary of the Leonia Community Council,
has been assisted in developing suitable
plans and procedures by the Committee
on Adult Education at Teachers College,
Columbia University.
The results of a comparable approach
tow planned program of adult education
in a suburban community have been
made available with publication by the
Associaion of Radburn: A Plan of
Livirgby R. B. Hudson. The Radburn
expetnient has been of value in many


ways, chiefly, perhaps, in showing that
the persons who take advantage of a
particular educational or recreational op-
portunity may or may not be the same
persons who expressed a desire for it
beforehand. A project established to
meet expressed desires may or may not
find adequate support, while another
project that had aroused little enthusi-
asm in the planning stage may prove to
be extremely popular when it is set up.
In short, the present techniques for sur-
veying a community with a view to
discovering interests and building up a
program to meet those interests are of
questionable value.
California had been active in the field
of adult education for a generation or
more through the Extension Division of
the State University, the public schools,
and private agencies, when in 1927 the
California Association for Adult Educa-
tion was organized to give "form and
impetus" to the movement. Specifically,
this service included not only advice
and assistance to many organizations
and individuals engaged in different
forms of adult education throughout the
state, but the inauguration of a wide
variety of activities under the auspices
of the Association itself. During its first
two years the work of the Association
was financed by private contributions
supplemented by fees for lectures given
by the director. The sum of $5,000
granted by the Carnegie Corporation,
upon recommendation of the American
Association for Adult Education, in 1929
and two subsequent grants of $7,000
each in 1930 and 1931 made possible a
considerable expansion of the program,
but with the cessation of the grants and
the curtailment of private donations in
1932 the Association entered into its
present phase of reduced activity. It
has never ceased, however, to be a strong








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


factor in keeping alive the interest of
the people of California in adult educa-
tion.
The story of the California Association
and its work, written by Lyman Bryson,
Director of the Association (on leave of
absence since 1932), has been published
by the American Association for Adult
Education and distributed to its mem-
bers.

HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
Events of the last few years have
called attention to a group of the popula-
tion for whom scant opportunities for the
wise use of leisure have been provided,
the large number of recent high school
graduates who have broken the ties of
adolescent association but have not as-
sumed the full responsibilities of adult
life. A partial solution formerly lay in
the clearly defined choice between college
and immediate employment, but the
depression years have obliterated even
this alternative for many and have
emphasized the isolation of individuals
who have outgrown the scouting organi-
zations, 4 H Clubs, etc., and have not
yet been ready to identify themselves
with any of the many organizations pre-
occupied by their elders.
The importance of this problem has
been widely recognized. One promising
line of approach has been opened by the
Civic Federation of Dallas through inten-
sive study of fifteen hundred boys and
girls who had graduated from the Dallas
High School during the previous two
years. Analysis of the data is not yet
complete, but one great need was imme-
diately manifest: the need for "an in-
formal meeting place for young men and
women, where their interests may be
cultivated under able leadership." The
result was The New Era School, built
around the initial interests of its stu-


dents, boys and girls who graduated from
high school between January, 1931, and
January, 1934. There will be no formal
procedures of any kind, but there will be
constant supervision by an able director,
and critical appraisal of program and
methods. Groups already are actively
engaged with such projects as Adven-
tures in Reading, Ensemble Playing, etc.
Financial support has been provided by
a grant of $3,000 made to the Association
by the Carnegie Corporation on recom-
mendation of the Executive Committee
of the Association.

ADJUSTMENT SERVICE
More than twelve thousand unem-
ployed men and women of New York
City, largely of the so-called white-collar
class, have received personal assistance
in solving their life problems through
the agency of the Adjustment Servic-of
New York City. This organization,
sponsored by the Association, anrme-
scribed in detail in last year's report,
reached its minimum goal of 10,00
clients in December, 1933, two months
before the expiration of its first year of
existence. Skillful administration under
the direction of Jerome H. Bentley,
combined with supplemental support
from Civil Works Administration funds,
has made it possible to carry the work
until the close of the academic year under
a somewhat limited schedule. Fua
initially supplied by the Emergency.Ji-
employment Relief Committee .d-Ae
Carnegie Corporation in a total asnit
of $188,000 have thus been made-ae-
quate to extend the life of the Service a
full third of a year beyond the period
originally contemplated. The importance
of this guidance effort, both vooatiou y
and avocationally, has been suoh ao
justify abundantly the very cen -
able expenditures involved. Testimay


-a








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


abounds from users of the service and
from experts who have appraised its
work that the Service has proved to be a
most potent morale-building force in
the metropolitan community in time of
stress.
The "diagnosis" function of the Ad-
justment Service, i. e., counseling and
testing, has mainly been in the hands of
individuals recruited from the ranks of
the unemployed. Trained by psycho-
logical and guidance experts, this fine
body of men and women counselors has
proved adequate to the extremely varied
and exacting calls for assistance voiced
by a large cross-section group of the
city's unemployed. At its peak load,
the staff consisted of 116 persons re-
cruited from unemployment lists and six
otherwise selected.
Extraordinary care was taken from the
outset to preserve detailed records on all
clients, for the experimental nature of
the effort was ever uppermost in the
minds of the directional staff and the
responsible Executive Committee. A
most painstaking evaluation and analy-
sis is now being carried out, with the
professional assistance of the Psycho-
logical Corporation. In addition, three
independent evaluations have been made
by-outsiders: from the psychological
' rt of view, by Professor Donald G.
-aterson of the University of Minnesota;
from the point of view of the social
wrker- by John A. Fitch of the New
*" eifthool of Social Work; from the
(point of view of industry and business,
by C. S. Coler of the Westinghouse
ric and Manufacturing Company.
at two evaluators served in this
ty at the request of the National
Occupational Conference, this body hav-
ing.Reinced a keen professional interest
in the enterprise as the outstanding
experiment in adult guidance in the


country. These evaluations, together
with the analyses undertaken by the
Service itself, will be published in a
report for wide distribution.
As the work of the Service progressed
through the year, its close relationship
with the state emergency educational
program became evident to all concerned.
In an effort to bring about a necessarily
closer coordination and to provide cer-
tain supervision lacking in the emer-
gency program, the Association recom-
mended to the Carnegie Corporation the
appropriation of a coordination fund of
$15,000. The Corporation acceded to
the request and the fund is now being
used for the purpose for which it was
provided. In case both projects go for-
ward during the year 1934-35, this fund
will prove to be invaluable in working
out a unified control of emergency educa-
tion and guidance in New York City.
It is greatly to be hoped that relief
funds, state and Federal, will be forth-
coming in sufficient quantities to insure
the continuance of the Adjustment Serv-
ice for another year. With the cessation
of the emergency programs, serious con-
sideration should be given to the incorpo-
ration of such a service in a city-wide
scheme of adult education, social welfare,
and re-employment. The New York
experiment has now become a demon-
stration center and seems destined to be
copied in numerous other large cities.

HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION
After nearly a year and a half spent in
its preparation, the Handbook of Adult
Education was published early in March.
Six weeks after the publication date, 500
copies of the book had been sold to
libraries, schools, educators, and other
individuals and organizations interested
in adult education. In addition, a special
edition of 1,700 was purchased by the








16 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


War Department for distribution to edu-
cational advisers in the Civilian Con-
servation Corps.
The book is made up of 36 sections
covering the various fields of adult edu-
cation, each consisting of a general article
followed by a series of notes on specific
activities in the particular field. The
subjects discussed include unemploy-
ment and adult education, alumni edu-
cation, agricultural extension work and
rural adult education, art education,
music, private correspondence schools,
chautauquas, forums, education for the
handicapped, adult education among
Negroes, vocational guidance, education
for recreation, parent education, adult
education through the churches and re-
ligious organizations, visual education,
education for the foreign born, university
extension, workers' education, tax sup-
ported adult education, adult education
through museums and libraries, political
education, education by radio, adult edu-
cation through the little theater and
through puppetry, and education for
adult prisoners.
Whenever it was possible, an expert in
each of these fields was asked to prepare
the article and either to prepare or sug-
gest programs that should be included
in the notes following the articles. The
method of collecting the material for the
book was as follows: tentative lists of
organizations that should be included
were made from books, pamphlets, and
newspaper clippings in the Association's
library. To supplement and bring this
information up to date, questionnaires
were sent to some 1,500 organizations
asking for further information about
their programs. The material thus col-
lected was digested and sent to the
organization for approval before being
published. In view of the reception
accorded the book, it is probable that a


revised edition will be published within
the next two years.
The issuance of the Handbook is a
significant event in the adult education
movement. Its compilation was a task
of intricacy and difficulty, efficiently
performed by the editor, Miss Dorothy
Rowden, and her assistants. For the
first time it is possible to make definite
answer to ever-recurring inquiries as to
what constitutes adult education in the
United States.

LIBRARIES
The Association has continued to work
closely with libraries and with the Ameri-
can Library Association during the last
year. A brief survey of the adult educa-
tion programs of libraries was made by
the American Library Association for the
Handbook of Adult Education. Perhaps
the most interesting fact disclosed by the
survey was the growth in the number of
readers' advisers during the last decade.
Since 1923, when the first experiments in
readers' advisory service were made, the
number of libraries offering this service
has grown to 48. In the face of the
general decrease in library budgets and
the resultant curtailment of many activi-
ties, this is an extraordinary record.
For the last few years, for financial
reasons the position of assistant in adult
education at the headquarters office of
the American Library Association has
not been filled. It is with gratification
that we are able to report that the
Executive Board of the American Li-
brary Association has recently approved
the appointment of John M. Chancellor
formerly readers' adviser at the NJ
Haven Public Library and lately cye
United States Bureau of Prisons, to41
position of assistant in adult ed
attached to the Public Library DivW .
Mr. Chancellor's duties, as outM--b


a








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Board, will be to maintain close
cooperation with other national organi-
zations interested in adult education, to
collect and make available information
on what libraries are doing in the field
of adult education, to forward coopera-
tion between libraries and the American
Library Association and the emergency
adult education activities of the Federal
government, and to study experiments in
adult education.
For the last six years our Association
has maintained jointly with the Ameri-
can Library Association a Committee on
Adult Reading. No meeting of the Com-
mrttee has been held during the last year,
although a meeting is scheduled for the
early fall. It is expected that the results
of two studies, one on reading habits by
Douglas Waples, the other on reading
achievements of adults of limited educa-
tion by William S. Gray, for which funds
were allocated by the Carnegie Corpora-
tion on recommendation of this Com-
mittee, will be published within a few
months.
For some time there has been a de-
mand from leaders of classes being con-
ducted with CWA funds, from CCC
camps, and from other sources for a list
of simAly written, informative, and read-
able books suitable for use by adult
sl ts. At the annual conference of
wik&merican Library Association, held
in.Ciaego, October, 1933, the Sub-
cqeittee- on Readable Books of the
lbmed n Library and Adult Education
tentative list of subjects that
re as a basis for such a list.
Hoit of the New York Pub-
li ,assisted by a staff of CWA
t undertook the preparation of
ine hundred books were se-
lte or inclusion; brief notes were
wtten for those titles that needed an
explanation; and each book was given a


symbol indicating whether the wording
was "simplest, fairly simple, or more
difficult." The list was published under
the auspices of the American Library
Association Board on the Library and
Adult Education and our Association,
with the endorsement of the Commis-
sioner of Education of the United States,
under the title "Books of General Interest
for Today's Readers."
Publication of the results of a study
of the reading programs of a group of
patrons of the New York Public Library,
being made by Jennie M. Flexner, read-
ers' adviser, is expected in the fall of
1934. Certain subsidies for this work
have been made by the Association in
the last two years.

RADIO EDUCATION
It is not the function of this report to
deal in detail with problems of radio
education, but since the leading organi-
zation in this country concerned with the
problem traces its ancestry to the original
studies made by the Association in 1930-
31, it is fitting that some consideration be
given to the subject here. The National
Advisory Council on Radio in Education,
notwithstanding the handicap of insuffi-
cient funds with which to carry on its
program of experimentation and of ad-
ministrative organization, has made sub-
stantial progress during the year. With
augmented support it would be possible
for the Council to proceed with experi-
mentation with broadcast programs, with
techniques of presentation, with listener
groups, with its long-delayed plan for the
formation of local groups and councils,
and with its important schedule of pub-
lications concerning educational broad-
casting. A special grant of $25,000 made
by the Carnegie Corporation at the close
of last year has made it possible to
surmount some of the administrative








18 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

difficulties, and a special grant of $6,000 also have been recommended for support*
from the Carnegie Corporation broke the guidance procedures on the secondary
dam of unpublished manuscript, level (Stanford University); guidance
On April 14, 1934, the President of the procedures on the college level (National
Carnegie Corporation reassembled the Occupational Conference); and an evalta-
group that had met almost exactly three ation of adult guidance in the Adjust-
years earlier and as a result of whose ment Service of New York (National
meeting the Council was formed. At Occupational Conference). Plans have
this time a thorough evaluation of ac- also been completed for an experimental
complishments was attempted and a programconcernedwithcommunityplan-
course charted for future action. The ning and guidance in several typical
cordial willingness of the broadcasters communities of various sizes.
to provide air-time for educational pro- Dissemination of occupational infor-
grams sponsored by the Council augurs mation has centered in Occupations,
well for the development of large-scale the Vocational Guidance Magazine,
educational broadcasting of high merit a periodical issued nine times a yser,
in this country. The importance of the which seeks to provide a running record
Council in such developments can not be of events and developments in the whele
overestimated, field of guidance, including reports of
conferences, notes on current researches,
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL and reviews of new books. Thre"te-
CONFERENCE gional conferences have been held in
Development of the National Occupa- the northeastern, western, and southern
tional Conference has continued along states, and a fourth is planned for the
the general lines laid down in the report central states. These regional conir-
for last year. The assembling and organ- ences have been held to stimulate forma-
izing of available information have been tion of independent, homogeneous grsap-
begun with preparation and publication ings of persons interested in occupati l
of a complete bibliography of the litera- adjustment, and to bring to the -
ture on occupations; a history of voca- ing counselor" the latest, most -autv-R
tional guidance; and studies of occupa- knowledge in the field of guidance;
tional trends, occupational distribution, The Conference continues adhmis-
and aptitude tests. New ground has tratively as a legal subdivision oflte
been broken by studies supported by the Association. It is to be expectedthatas
Carnegie Corporation on recommenda- its program develops and its permanent
tionofthe Conference, as follows:women's or semi-permanent usefulness is dtkon-
occupations (American Woman's Asso- strated, it may become desirable sepa-
ciation); certain women's professions (In- rately to incorporate the Conferen
stitute of Women's Professional Rela- The Executive Committee of that b
tions); and store occupations (Occupa- in which the Chairman and the Di
tional Research Section of the National of the Association hold memberil
Vocational Guidance Association); inter- sessescomplete autonomy so fara
ests of individuals (Stanford University); and program are concerned. F
and occupational ability patterns (Na- concers~g administrative ac
tional Research Council). Three studies are samnitted to the
seeking to evaluate guidance processes mittee of-the Association. Di








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


of funds is handled by the Association
at its office, a not inconsiderable adminis-
trative task when it is noted that the
overhead grant of the Carnegie Cor-
peration for the running expenses of
tle-Conference during the current year
toti~ 5O0,000. In addition, grants made
for special projects, studies, and experi-
ments will approximate $80,000 for the
year.

RURAL ADULT EDUCATION
The exploratory surveys culminating
last year in the publication of Rural
Adult Education by Benson Y. Landis
and John D. Willard have been followed
in 1934 by a concrete demonstration
of adub education in a rural area: the
Instibe of Rural Economics, held at
;itgers University and in eight central
regions of New Jersey, jointly sponsored
by Rutgers University and the Associa-
tionrtd financed by a grant of $10,000
from the Carnegie Corporation made on
the recommendation of the Association.
The Chairman of the Association actively
participated in organizing the Institute
and took part in the program. Benson
Y. Landis was chosen to serve as Educa-
tional Director, and was appointed as a
special Field Representative of the Asso-
< Hirahis enterprise.
of the Institute was to
f rp r n-derstanding of some of
the economic issues affecting agriculture,
na yonally a locally. Each of the
was controversial: price
xing; control of farm
and its relation to
a credit; taxation; part-
ovements; local govern-
ernational relations and
a eakers were drawn from
mental agencies and from
rvard, Rutgers, Prince-
irsconin, and Connecticut


State College. Freedom in the expres-
sion of personal opinion was encouraged,
but care was taken to advance both sides
of every question; the Institute neither
sponsored a particular economic doctrine
nor sought to achieve unanimity of opin-
ion among those participating.
Eight all-day sessions were held at
Rutgers University on successive Mon-
days from January 8 through March 5.
Enrollment in the Monday sessions was
to be limited to fifty, but one hundred
persons finally were admitted from all
parts of the state-principally farmers
and farm advisers, with a sprinkling of
country clergymen, bankers, and mem-
bers of the state legislature. Forums
held in eight rural centers on alternate
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and
Friday evenings attracted an attendance
of from 50 to 125 persons each night.
The Institute was also extended to in-
clude three round tables for women.
In the course of the Institute it became
apparent that a central organization
would be needed to carry forward the
program already begun and to correlate
the various agencies for rural adult edu-
cation in New Jersey. The Carnegie
Corporation has appropriated $2,500 to
the Association to assist in perfecting
such a central organization.

WORKERS' EDUCATION
The year 1933-34 has witnessed a
revival of interest in workers' education
throughout the country. From all sec-
tions have come clear indications of
desire on the part of workers for adult
education opportunities, particularly for
assistance toward an understanding of
rapidly changing social and economic
conditions. Because the week-end con-
ferences and labor institutes developed by
the Workers Education Bureau of Amer-
ica have proved effective in providing








20 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


short courses on current social and eco-
nomic problems for wage earners, the
Executive Committee recommended,and
the Trustees of the Carnegie Corporation
approved, a grant of $10,000 to the
Bureau for the establishment of a series
of labor institutes in 1933-34. In these
institutes, special emphasis was placed
on opportunity for frank, free, and im-
partial discussion of the promises and the
menaces for labor implied in the Na-
tional Recovery Act. The program of
the Bureau was further supported by a
generous emergency grant from the Gen-
eral Education Board.

NEGRO ADULT EDUCATION
The three-year experiments in adult
education for Negroes in Atlanta and
in the Harlem district of New York, fi-
nanced by annual grants of $10,000 from
the Carnegie Corporation and of $5,000
from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, termi-
nate this year. In 1933, $1,000 from the
adult education experimental fund was
allocated by the Carnegie Corporation to
the Association to secure a Negro edu-
cator of distinction who might observe
the program of the experiments impar-
tially and objectively, report his findings,
and suggest suitable plans for future
development. Dr. Alain Locke, Pro-
fessor of Philosophy in Howard Univer-
sity, was chosen for this purpose; during
the year 1933-34 he has been closely in
touch with the committees in charge and
with the actual programs which the com-
mittees have devised. Differences in
administrative organization, social life,
and economic conditions naturally have
produced dissimilar results in the two
cities, but Dr. Locke's reports point to
certain conclusions of importance for the
three-year experimental period.
In both centers emphasis has been
placed on the cultural history and eco-


nomic status of the race-subjects natu-
rally of great interest to Negroes and
seldom presented free from emotional
stress or the bias of propaganda. Offer-
ings of this nature have met with sus-
tained response and have been found the
most effective motivation for the program
as a whole. Other subjects have, of
course, been included in programs, formal
and informal, adapted to the special
needs of those participating. The ex-
periments may be said to have demon-
strated the need for and desirability of
special programs in adult education for
Negro groups both in northern and
southern communities. Procedures in the
planning and administration of programs
for Negro groups have been developed
which will be useful as precedents for
similar undertakings elsewhere. An im-
portant by-product in both centers has
been increased interracial cooperation re-
sulting in intelligent discussion of racial
problems and relations.

THE JOURNAL
This last year has been an eventful one
for the Journal of Adult Education.
In October the final number of the fifth
volume appeared, thus rounding out the
first quinquennium of publication. But
more important than this event, which
looks to the past, have been certain
changes in content and policy, which
look to the future.
When the Journal was launched five
years ago, no course was charted for
it other than that indicated by the
general purpose of the Association: to
facilitate free and fruitful exchange of
ideas, opinions, and facts concern
adult education and to steer cleairfm
propaganda. As between ideas alrmpli
ions, on the one hand, and facts,flll
other, no undue weight has eve been
given to the former as an editorial pdl".





a-








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Nevertheless, it has so happened that
most of the main articles contributed to
the Journal up to the beginning of the
present calendar year have tended to be
of a theoretical rather than of a factual
nature-a tendency easily enough under-
stood in a comparatively recent and
rapidly expanding movement. Now,
however, the situation is changing; the
objectives of adult education are more
sharply defined, the direction of the
movement is more clearly set, and a
multitude of individual enterprises are
well under way. If the Journal is to
continue to present a true picture of
adult education in this country, it be-
comes increasingly necessary that an ac-
curate delineation of what actually has
happened and is happening should occupy
the foreground. With this object in view
the Journal has embarked upon a well-
defined policy of giving a more prominent
position and increased space to articles
that describe and appraise various adult
education projects. In order more fully
to insure objectivity in these articles, the
writing of them is being assigned to men
and women who, though they are in-
formed in regard to adult education and
sympathetic with the purposes of the
movement, are not themselves engaged
in adult education work, or at least not
closely associated with the projects that
they are reviewing.
This new policy was inaugurated in
January, 1934, and in spite of difficulties,
both foreseen and unforeseen, which have
arisen in putting it into practice, it will
followed as far as possible in future
Sof the Journal. A special fund of
provided by the Carnegie Corpo-
has been utilized in preparing
r bf adult education enterprises
w notice in the Journal. Ap-
pr one half of this fund has
been used unng the current year. The


balance will be available for the same
purpose during the year to follow.
The January Journal marked another
innovation of importance-the incorpo-
ration into the Journal, as one of its
departments, of the Bulletin of the
Department of Adult Education of
the National Education Association, the
publication of which was threatened with
suspension because of shortage of funds.
This union of the two periodicals, which
is effective for the present year, has the
double advantage of carrying the Journal
regularly to every member of the N.E.A.
Department of Adult Education and of
giving our own members complete and
authoritative news of the extensive and
important work in adult education that
is now part of the program of our public
school system.
The publication of the Journal during
the current year has been financed by an
allocation of $14,000 made for that pur-
pose from the adult education experi-
mental fund of the Carnegie Corporation.
The cooperative publications program
with the N.E.A. has been made possible
by a subsidy of $1,000 granted by the
Corporation.

PUBLICATIONS
A special grant of $2,500 from the
Carnegie Corporation enabled the Asso-
ciation to publish, in addition to the
studies described elsewhere in this report,
Deliver Us From Dogma, by Alvin
Johnson, a collection of brief essays that
originally appeared in the Bulletins of
the New School for Social Research;*
The Annual Report of the Director of
This fund also permitted the Association to
aid in the publication by the Womans Press of
Leisure-Time Interests and Activities of
Business Girls, by Janet Fowler Nelson, a re-
port of the two-year study and experiment con-
ducted by the Laboratory Division, National
Board. Y. W. C. A., and described in the 1932-33
annual report.


Lbh








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Association for 1932-33 was issued in
May, 1933, as a separate bulletin, and
was later incorporated in the June num-
ber of the Journal of Adult Education.
An article on adult education was pre-
pared by the Association for The New
International Year Book.
During the twelve months since the
publication of the last annual report, the
Association has been able to distribute
publications as follows:

To Members-Journal of Adult Ed-
ucation, Volume V, Numbers 3 and 4,
Volume VI, Numbers 1 and 2; Books of
General Interest for Today's Read-
ers, compiled by Doris Hoit; Deliver
Us From Dogma, by Alvin Johnson;
Radburn, A Plan of Living, by R.
B. Hudson; Discussion Methods for
Adult Groups: Case Studies of the
Forum, the Discussion Group, and
the Panel, by Thomas Fansler; A State
Plan For Adult Education, by Lyman
Bryson; and miscellaneous leaflets and
announcements.
To Council Members-In addition to
the above: Social Planning and Adult
Education, by John W. Herring; An-
nual Report of the Director for 1932-
33, American Association for Adult Edu-
cation; A Handbook for the Educa-
tional Advisers in the Civilian Con-
servation Corps Camps, prepared by
the United States Department of the In-
terior, Officeof Education; TheNational
Crisis Series-Senior High School
Series, published by Teachers College,
Columbia University; Leisure-Time
Interests and Activities of Business
Girls, by the Laboratory Division, Na-
tional Board, Y.W.C.A., Janet Fowler
Nelson, Director.
To Organization Members-In addi-
tion to the above: A Review of Re-
gional Surveys of Adult Education,
by Jacques Ozanne.

PUBLICATIONS FUND
Although the revolving publications
fund was augmented during the year


through sales of publications and income
from royalties, the balance in the fund
as of March 31, 1934, was $2,450.50 as
against $4,258.48 for March 31, 1933.
The publication costs of the Handbook
of Adult Education were met from this
fund, as was a part of the cost of Uni-
versity Teaching by Mail. It is ex-
pected that the income from sales of the
Handbook during the coming months
will return to the revolving publications
fund the major part of the amount
expended.

ADMINISTRATION
The following members of the Council
have served as officers and members of
the Executive Board for the year 1933-
34:
President: Dorothy Canfield Fisher*
Vice-Presidents: Charles A. Beard*
W. W. Bishop*
Harvey N. Davis*
John Hope*
James A. Moyer*
William A. Neilson*
George E. Vincent*
Chairman: James E. Russell*
Secretary: Jennie M. Flexner*
Treasurer: Chauncey J. Hamlin*

Executive Board
Arthur E. Bestort Everett Dean Martin:
Lyman Brysonj Spencer Miller, Jr.t
Harry W. Chase: Elizabeth C. Morrisst
Linda A. Eastmant William A. Neilson*
A. Caswell Ellis* Harry A. Overstreet*
Franklin F. Hoppert John H. Puelicher*
William J. Hutchins* Robert I. Reest
Henry W. Kentf Elmer Scottt
C. S. Marshf Robert E. Simon*

The committees appointed by the
Chairman for the year 1933-34 are as
follows:
Executive Committee: Arthur E. Bestor;
Franklin F. Hopper: Henry W. Kent;
Everett D. Martin; Harry A. Overstewt;
Robert I. Rees; James E. Russell (Chair-
man); Morse A. Cartwright.
Term expires September 30, 1934.
t Term expires September 30, 1935.
t Term expires September 30, 1936.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Annual Meeting: Arthur E. Bestor; Morse A.
Cartwright (Chairman); C. S. Marsh.

Art and Museum Cooperation: Linda A.
Eastman; Chauncey J. Hamlin (Chairman);
Franklin F. Hopper; William J. Hutchins;
Henry W. Kent.

Community Projects: Lyman Bryson; Linda
A. Eastman; Chauncey J. Hamlin; James
A. Moyer; Elmer Scott (Chairman).

Cooperation with Industry and Labor:
Charles A. Beard; Harvey N. Davis; Spen-
cer Miller, Jr.; John H. Puelicher; Robert I.
Rees (Chairman).

International Relations: Arthur E. Bestor
(Chairman); W. W. Bishop; Spencer Mil-
ler, Jr.

Library Cooperation: W. W. Bishop; Harry
W. Chase; Linda A. Eastman (Chairman);
Jennie M. Flexner; Franklin F. Hopper.

Negro Education: John Hope; Franklin F.
Hopper (Chairman); Mrs. Elizabeth C.
Morriss.

Parent Education: Linda A. Eastman; Ev-
erett D. Martin; Robert E. Simon (Chair-
man).

Public School Relations: Mrs. Elizabeth C.
Morriss; James A. Moyer (Chairman);
Robert E. Simon.
Reading Habits: W.S. Gray; E. L. Thorndike.
From the A. L.A.; Jennie M. Flexner;
Adam Strohm.

Rural Education: Arthur E. Bestor; William
J. Hutchins; Benson Y. Landis (Chairman);
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Morriss; Edmund de S.
Brunner; Kenyon L. Butterfield; Allen
Eaton; Grace Frysinger; Elizabeth B.
Herring.

Studies &nd Research: W. W. Bishop; Ly-
manBrywn; A. Caswell Ellis (Chairman);
C. S. Marsh; Harry A. Overstreet.

Techniques of Discussion: A. Caswell Ellis;
Mary L. Ely; Everett D. Martin; Harry
Overstreet (Chairman); Elmer Scott.

Uj j y Cqperation: Harry W. Chase:
N. Davis; William J. Hutchins;
A. Neilson (Chairman); George


T. S ng rsgnbers of the Associa-
tio rved as members of the
Cousraid ng this year:


TERMS EXPIRE 1934
L. R. Alderman E. C. Lindeman
Seymour Barnard Austin H.MacCormick
G. F. Beck Everett D. Martin
W. W. Bishop John C. Merriam
Lyman Bryson N. C. Miller
Margaret E. Burton J. A. Randall
L. D. Coffman Robert I. Rees
M. S. Dudgeon Charles E. Rush
E. C. Elliott Robert E. Simon
Sidonie M. Gruenberg Hilda W. Smith
John W. Herring Lorado Taft
Franklin F. Hopper E. L. Thorndike
Rossiter Howard Levering Tyson
Wm. J. Hutchins Felix M. Warburg
E. C. Jenkins Frederic A. Whiting
George Johnson John W. Withers
F. P. Keppel George B. Zehmer
W. M. Lewis

TERMS EXPIRE 1935
Newton D. Baker John Hope
Remsen D. Bird Walter A. Jessup
W. S. Bittner Henry W. Kent
Scott Buchanan Vincent W. Lanfear
Marguerite H. Burnett Robert S. Lynd
Kenyon L. Butterfield Carl H. Milam
Olive D. Campbell Spencer Miller, Jr.
S. P. Capen Fred A. Moore
Harvey N. Davis Elizabeth C. Morriss
Frank M. Debatin Thomas H. Nelson
John Dewey David K. Niles
Helen H. Dingman H. A. Overstreet
C. R. Dooley James Harvey Robin-
Linda A. Eastman son
A. Caswell Ellis Carl B. Roden
John Erskine Elmer Scott
Milton J. Ferguson Walter Dill Scott
Nat T. Frame A. D. Sheffield
Wil Lou Gray Chester D. Snell
R. M. Grumman John W. Studebaker
Mary H. S. Hayes Henry M. Wriston

TERMS EXPIRE 1936
Jerome H. Bentley Lois H. Meek
Arthur E. Bestor James A. Moyer
Edmund de S. Brunner William A. Neilson
Jessie A. Charters Paul M. Pearson
Harry W. Chase J. H. Puelicher
L. L. Dickerson Leon J. Richardson
Grace E. Frysinger James E. Russell
Charles R. Green Florence Snow
Edgar W. Knight Harold L. Stonier
Read Lewis Douglas Waples
C. S. Marsh Caroline A. Whipple
Frank L. McVey Philip N. Youtz

The following appointments to the
staff of the Association have been made
during the year: Arthur E. Bestor and
Jerome H. Bentley, Field Representa-
tives as members of the Association's
Informal Advisory Committee on Adult








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Education to assist the Commissioner of
Education in connection with the Federal
Emergency Program ;Benj amin C. Gruen-
berg, Associate in Science; Gustav F.
Beck, Field Representative for Canadian
relations; Thomas Fansler, Field Repre-
sentative to study the technique of dis-
cussion; Benson Y. Landis, Field Repre-
sentative, as Educational Director of
the Institute of Rural Economics jointly
sponsored by Rutgers University and the
Association; Jacques Ozanne, Field Rep-
resentative, to make a preliminary study
of urban community projects, and make
arrangements for a conference of com-
munity organization workers; and Na-
thaniel Peffer, Field Representative to
make an investigation of the lecture field.
The Association lost one of its best
friends and most valued members in the
death, on September 25, 1933, in Seattle,
Washington, of Henry Suzzallo, Presi-
dent of the Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching. Dr. Suzzallo
had been a member of the Council of the
Association since its founding, had served
as a Vice-President, as chairman of the
standing committee on research, and as a
member of the Editorial Board of the
Journal of Adult Education. His friendly
concern for the Association was exceeded
only by his profound interest in the social
significance of adult education. All who
came in contact with him were enriched
by the experience. His influence upon
the work of the Association will not soon
be forgotten.

FOUNDATION ALLOCATIONS
At the opening of the year 1933-34 the
Carnegie Corporation of New York set
aside $80,000 to be devoted to studies
and experiments in adult education.
During 1932-33 the Carnegie Corpora-
tion had already approved the Associa-
tion's recommendation for projects in-


volving $15,450 to be completed during
1933-34, and the balance of $6,550 re-
maining unexpended in the experimen-
tal fund for 1932-33 was carried forward
into the present year. The total sum
made available by the Carnegie Corpora-
tion as an experimental fund for adult
education in 1933-34, therefore, was
$102,000. Additional appropriations
from general funds to the extent of
$104,000 also have been made to various
projects in adult education by the Car-
negie Corporation during the course of
the year, including support of the Des
Moines Forum Project, the National
Council on Radio in Education, the
People's Institute of New York, Canadian
adult education activity, the coordina-
tion fund for the Adjustment Service and
the Emergency Program in New York,
the Washington cooperation fund, and
other minor grants. In addition, the
Corporation has appropriated to date
this year approximately $85,000 for the
support of the National Occupational
Conference and projects recommended
by it.
The President and members of the
Board of Trustees of the Corporation
have shown a ready sympathy with the
problems confronting the Association
and have been most generous in express-
ing their understanding of those problems
through approval of the recommenda-
tions submitted to them by the Execu-
tive Committee of the Association.
The Julius Rosenwald Fund has con-
tinued through the year its support of
the Negro adult education experiments
in Harlem and Atlanta, the current
payment of $5,000 completing a three-
year appropriation for this purpose total-
ling $15,000.
The General Education Board made
an emergency grant of $7,500 to the
Association for publication purpovNPif


ad









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


connection with the Federal emergency
educational program.

SCIENCE STUDY
An inquiry into the status of science in
adult education was undertaken during
the year by Benjamin C. Gruenberg, who
accepted an invitation to join the staff of
the Association on appointment for six
months as Associate in Science.
By interview and correspondence, Dr.
Gruenberg sought to ascertain the views
held by a number of scientists and edu-
cators on this important aspect of adult
education. As was to be expected, a
great variety of opinions was found,
even among well-informed persons, both
as to the character of educational work
in process and as to future needs. Prob-
lems of outstanding importance were
chosen for further consideration by a
special conference of scientists held on
April 9, 1934; and a formulation of the
problems discussed together with a syn-
thesis of solutions proposed will be pub-
lished shortly. The science inquiry was
supported by a grant of $6,000 made by
the Trustees of the Carnegie Corpora-
tion on recommendation of the Assorih-'
tion, supplemented by $1,500 placed-it
the disposal of the Association by the
President of the Carnegie Corporation
from administrative funds.

ALUMNI EDUCATION
In 1929 the Association published
Alumni a-nd Adult Education, an in-
troductory survey prepared by Wilfred
B. Shaw in cooperation with the Ameri-
can Alumni Council. Mr. Shaw's survey
crystallized growing interest in the idea
oa ntinuing education for the graduates
of enerican colleges and universities,
and led to adaptation of old and de-
veltnent of new procedures in many
irlittutions. Reports received for the


Handbook of Adult Education indi-
cated that many such plans had been
devised and that a report to follow up
the Shaw study would be of value. On
recommendation of the Association the
Carnegie Corporation allocated $4,000
from the experimental fund to cover the
cost involved, and Ralph A. Beals was
released from a portion of his duties as
Assistant to the Director of the Associa-
tion in order that he might undertake
the necessary investigation. It is ex-
pected that Mr. Beals's report will ap-
pear in the autumn of 1934.

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
The study of ability and achievement
of students in divisions of university
extension, financed by a grant of $10,000
from the Carnegie Corporation, has pro-
gressed under the general auspices of a
special research committee of the Uni-
versity of Minnesota. Herbert Sorenson,
director of the study, has secured leave
of absence for the first semester of the
academic year" 1l34-35 and will visit
each 'o. the cooperating'institutions to
ascert in salient facts wllib6h sn be
gathered only on the ground. Iftis hc ked
that anothe:ryeAr Aill'sze the completion
of this' iniortaht study.' As in former
years, the Association has maintained
friendly relations with the National Uni-
versity Extension Association and the
Eastern Association for Extension Edu-
cation.

TECHNIQUE OF DISCUSSION
A study of the technique of discussion
was undertaken during the year by
Thomas Fansler, who was added to the
staff of the Association for this purpose.
Although there are several published trea-
tises on discussion procedures, the Execu-
tive Committee felt that there was a
distinct need for a "case book" which








26 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


would include interesting variations on
standard methods for utilizing discussion
as exemplified in the forum, the informal
study-circle, and the panel. The result-
ing volume includes verbatim tran-
scripts of actual discussions, with brief
marginal comments, and a final section
on criteria. Preparation and publication
of the manuscript have been made pos-
sible by an allocation to the Association
of $2,500 from the Carnegie Corporation.

LECTURE-FIELD STUDY
The investigation of the lecture field,
tentatively outlined in the report for last
year, has been carried forward by Na-
thaniel Peffer, Field Representative of
the Association. Mr. Peffer has been
concerned primarily with the relation
between the commercial lecture bureaus
and forums, town halls, clubs, institutes,
church leagues, and similar organiza-
tions, on the one hand, and audiences of
thinking men and women who desire
intellectual stimulus and guidance rather
than amusement- ow -the -other. The
number of such persons is increasing -nd
facilities'for-meeting their needs Arebotl'
mr cer, and beset with difficulties, pdx-:.
ticuldrly outside: the larger f centers of
population. The-general problem of the
lecture field as the principal medium of
education for adults who have left formal
institutions has been stated by Mr. Peffer
in the Journal of Adult Education for
April, 1934; the factors in this problem
and alternative solutions are to be dis-
cussed in a subsequent article.

PARENT EDUCATION
The emphasis laid upon parent educa-
tion in the Federal emergency program
of adult education is consistent with the
growing interest in this section of the
adult education field throughout the
country. Contacts of the Association


during the year with the principal operat-
ing organizations in parent education
have been many and most cordial. Offi-
cers of the National Council on Parent
Education, the Child Study Association
of America, and the National Congress
of Parents and Teachers have conferred
with representatives of the Association,
such conferences always leading to the
inescapable conclusion that, since most
adults are parents and all parents are
adults, the two movements have much
in common and should remain in close
association.

NATIONAL THEATRE CONFERENCE
The major effort of the National
Theatre Conference has been directed
against the complete extinction of little
theaters which were threatened with pro-
posals to include them under the Legiti-
mate Theater Code Authority. By rep-
resenting the little theaters before the
code authorities, by keeping the theaters
informed, and by arousing an aggressive
public opinion, the major disaster has
been avoided, at least temporarily.
At the same time, the Conference has
.*encouraged playwriting and the produc-
-tibr~of American plays, especially outside
Nz.w York. The Conference constantly
receives calls for assistance in community
efforts, and has sought wherever possible
to give expert advice with particular
reference to community conditions. The
library survey, begun last year, has gone
forward, and problems that need solution
will be presented at the meeting of the
American Library Association in June.
Other studies which the Conference has
under way deal with the architecture of
the theater, theater museums and collec-
tions, campaigns for community theaters
and related problems.
The work of the National Theatre
Conference during the year has been








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


assisted by a grant of $6,000 from the
Carnegie Corporation made through this
Association.

RESEARCH COMMITTEE
The standing committee on research
and studies has continued its effort to
formulate an inclusive program of desir-
able investigation and research in adult
education. The chairman of the com-
mittee, A. Caswell Ellis, Director of
Cleveland College, Western Reserve Uni-
versity, has been unsparing of time and
energy in his effort to bring order into
the mass of material accumulated by
himself and by previous chairmen. A
preliminary draft for the report has now
been completed by Dr. Ellis; some of the
problems arising therefrom will be pre-
sented for debate at the Annual Meeting
of the Association in May; and the entire
report, or the first of a series of short
detailed reports, will follow in the autumn.

ANNUAL MEETING
The Eighth Annual Meeting of the
Association was held in The Jones Li-
brary, Amherst, Massachusetts, May
22-24, 1933. Most of the sessions were
devoted to a review of projects directly
initiated or sponsored by the Association.
These included a study of adult educa-
tion in rural America; an experiment in
NIgro education carried on concurrently
iwr Atlanta, Geottia, and the Harlem
dtfier of New York City; an adjust-
rAilt service for the unemployed of New
YofiPity; the establishment of a Na-
flR Occupational Conference to serve
aft clearing house for information on
nations and occupational trends;
program of forum meetings ad-
ered as part of the public school
of Des Moines, Iowa. The an-
n meeting program concluded with
a panel discussion of accomplishments


to date and of desirable policies for the
future. At an evening session, open to
the interested public, addresses of a more
general nature were made by Harry M.
Lydenberg, President of the American
Library Association; George E. Vincent,
former President of the Rockefeller Foun-
dation; and Dorothy Canfield Fisher,
President of the Association. There were
two business meetings of the Association,
one of the Council and one of the
Executive Board. About two hundred
persons were in attendance.
A conference arranged by the Com-
mittee on Rural Adult Education of the
Association was held in Amherst on the
two days immediately preceding the an-
nual meeting. More than fifty persons
registered for this conference and joined
in the round-table discussions of prob-
lems pertaining to the improvement of
life and work in rural communities
through the provision of broader and
richer educational opportunities.

RECREATION
The important implications of recrea-
tion for adult education continue to
receive recognition in programs of all
kinds and at all levels. A spirit of
friendly cooperation has been maintained
between the staff of the Association and
that of the National Recreation Associa-
tion, and representatives from various
national agencies have met informally
from time to time as a National Educa-
tion-Recreation Council for the discus-
sion of problems common to the two
fields. The Director and other members
of the Executive Board further served as
members of the Fosdick Committee ap-
pointed to report on leisure-time prob-
lems growing out of the provisions of the
N. R.A.
Throughout the academic year Frank
H. Smith, formerly of Berea, Kentucky,








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


has conducted an itinerant recreation-
extension service in various mountain
centers and schools in the mining regions
of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
Intensive activities have been offered for
the training of local recreation leaders
in a region where "play" is almost an
unknown word. Mr. Smith's work has
been supported in part by an appropria-
tion of $750 made to Berea College by
the Carnegie Corporation on recommen-
dation of the Association.
Reference also should be made to the
publication of an investigation mentioned
in the previous reports. Leisure: A
Suburban Study, by George A. Lund-
berg, Mirra Komarovsky, and Mary
Alice McInerny (Columbia University
Press, 1934), is the result of a survey
undertaken for the Westchester County
Recreation Commission, supported in
part by a grant from the Carnegie
Corporation made on the recommenda-
tion of the Association. The adult edu-
cation implications of this study are
many and important. The volume prom-
ises to be of high value to those who
contemplate participation in community
and regional adult education surveys.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CANADA
Under the Carnegie Corporation grant
of $6,000 made to the Association in 1932
for the purpose of sending Canadian
students of rural life to Scandinavian
Folk High Schools, eight young men
visited Denmark, Sweden, and Norway
in the summers of 1932 and 1933. They
returned to Canada imbued with a desire
to launch an adult education movement
in the Dominion. As a first step they
initiated surveys of present adult educa-
tion efforts in each of the Provinces, and
organized themselves into an informal
committee to further an all-Canadian
organization.


Quite independently of this group, the
Extension division of the University of
Toronto issued a call for a Canadian
Adult Education Symposium to be held
in Toronto May 22 and 23, 1934. This
agency has long conducted adult educa-
tion in various forms in the province of
Ontario and has maintained close rela-
tionships with the Workers' Educational
Association of Ontario. Through the
American Association, the two groups
were brought together and both will
participate in the Toronto Symposium.
Funds have been provided by the
Carnegie Corporation to the American
Association for cooperation with the
Canadian movement and to aid in the
development of a Canadian organization
if the formation of one should prove to
be the decision of the Toronto delegates.
A special fund of $10,000 has been made
available to be expended at the discretion
of the Association for these purposes.
The American Association will be
represented at the Toronto meeting by
Gustav F. Beck, Director of the Labor
Temple School of New York and special
Field Representative of the Association.
Dr. Beck served for many years with the
Workers' Educational Association and
the Adult School movement in England.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The Chairman and Director of the
Association represented the American
group at the meeting of the Council of
the World Association for Adult Edu-
cation held in Copenhagen, Denmark,
August 28 and 29, 1933. Unsettled
political conditions in many countries
resulting in loss of leadership and finan-
cial support to adult education, serious
decreases in financial support to the
World Association attributable to the
world-wide depression, admitted defi-
ciencies in the quality of the publications





aE








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


program of the World Association-these
and other considerations led the Execu-
tive Committee to recommend serious
curtailment in the activities of the inter-
national organization. These recom-
mendations were approved by the Coun-
cil, the resignations of members of the
Executive Committee were accepted,
officers were re-elected, and the affairs of
the Association placed in their hands and
those of a special commission of three
members. This commission is to meet in
the summer of 1934 to determine the
advisability of reassembling the Council
and proceeding with a reorganization of
the World Association. If the decision
in 1934 is adverse to calling a meeting of
the Council at that time, the same com-
mittee is empowered to give considera-
tion to the matter in 1935. The members
of the commission are Roman Dyboski of
Poland, Arne Kildal of Norway and
W. Pfleiderer of Germany.


CONCLUSION

In appraising the accomplishments of
the year just closed, it should be borne in
mind that the Association has not swerved
from the purposes for which it was
formed. Despite the superficially at-
tractive invitations which have come to
the organization repeatedly to take lead-
ership in promulgating a wide variety of
alleged panaceas for the country's social
ills, the officers, executive board, and
stafftave steadfastly refused to abandon
the policies originally agreed upon in
1919 nd confirmed in the two following
years.
remain a clearing house for infor-
U about adult education, a medium
fol action, an agency for the spon-
sor nd, in rare cases only, the
condbt of studies, researches, experi-
ments, and demonstrations in the meth-


ods and techniques of aiding adults to
educate themselves. With subject matter
offerings to adults, we have no direct
concern. As a national association, we do
not believe in superimposition or in un-
due interference in community, state, or
regional educational affairs.
It is our function to be of service to
American adult education to the utmost
limit of available personnel and financial
resources. In the light of the recent
unprecedented growth in volume of adult
education in the United States, it is
evident that performance of the task
before the Association will tax the in-
genuity of its leaders. Never-ending
emphasis upon quality and stern disap-
probation both of shoddiness and of
those who would use the movement for
ulterior purposes should continue to be
our guide stones.
Respectfully submitted,
Morse A. Cartwright.
April 30, 1934
New York City



FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, September
30, 1933; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1933; Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year Ended Sep-
tember 30, 1933; Summary of Total In-
come and Total Expenses for the Fiscal
Year Ended September 30, 1933; and Ap-
propriations Received for Account of
Other Organizations for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1933.
(As audited by Frederick Fischer, Jr., Member,
American Institute of Accountants and American
Society of Certified Public Accountants.)
II. Statement of Financial Condition, March 31,
1934; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Six Months Ended March 31,
1934; Statement of Income and Expenses
for the Six Months Ended March 31, 1934;
Summary of Total Income and Total Ex-
penses for the Six Months Ended March
31,1934; and Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organizations for the Six
Months Ended March 31, 1934.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


I
Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion
60 East 42nd Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have
audited the books and accounts of the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
for the fiscal year ended September 30,
1933, and present herewith the following
four Exhibits and one Schedule:
Exhibit "A"-StatementofFinancialCon-
dition, September 30, 1933.
Exhibit "A"-Schedule "1"-Statement
Showing Changes in Funds


for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1933.
Exhibit "B"-Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1933.
Exhibit "C"-Summary of Total Income
and Total Expenses for the
Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1933.
Exhibit "D"-Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organiza-
tions for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1933.
Very truly yours,
Frederick Fischer, Jr.,
Certified Public Accountant
New York, N. Y.
October 26, 1933


EXHIBIT A

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1933

Assets
Cash:
Capital Account ............................................... $58,120.42
Managing Account............................................... 28,515.00
Total Assets................................................... $86,635.42

Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues......................................... $472.06
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................. 237.46
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D"....................................... 37,525.00
Total Liabilities ................................................ 38,234.52
Net Asset Value ..................... ....................................... $48,400.90

The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds, per Schedule "1" .................................... $14,446.63
Publication Funds, per Schedule "" ...................................... 14,056.48
Special Project, Study, and ConferenceFunds, per Schedule "" .............. 19,897.79
Total Funds................................................... $48,400.90






dh<









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 31


EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1

STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1933
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September 30,1932.............. ............ $8,238.46
Deduct-Excess of Maintenance Expenses over Income, Sep-
tember30, 1933, per Exhibit "C"........................ 4,220.26 $4,018.20
Add: Excess of Journal of Adult Education Income over Ex-
penses, September 30,1933, per Exhibit "C"........... $757.39
Transferred from Special Projects
Study and Conference Fund Accounts:
Industrial Education Study.................. $321.18
Miscellaneous Conference.................... 365.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects............ 3,200.00
Rural Adult Education Study................. 81.81
Study of Opportunity Schools................. 703.05 4,671.04 5,428.43
Balance, September30, 1933...................................... $9,446.63
Administrative Reserve
Balance, September 30,1932............................. $5,000.00
N o change ......................................... ..
Balance, September 30,1933 ....................................... 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, September 30,1933, per Exhibit "A" ....... $14,446.63
Publication Funds
Handbook of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C"....................................... $1,205.21
Balance, September 30,1933..................................... $1,205.21
International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30,1932 .............................. $7,044.70
No change .............. .......... ...... ........ ..
Balance, September 30,1933....................................... 7,044.70
Research Report
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C"....................................... $1,892.23
Balance, September 30,1933 ....................................... 1,892.23
Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30,1932.............................. $1,849.67
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933,
perExhibit"C". ................................ 2,064.67
Balance, September 30,1933....................................... 3,914.34
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Balance, September 30,1932............................. $828.96
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933,
per Exhibit "C".................................... 828.96
Balance, September 30, 1933 .......................................
Total Publication Funds, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit "A" .......... $14,056.48
Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Balance, September 30,1932 ..................................... $1,730.43
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit"C".............................................. 635.84
Balance, September 30, 1933 .............................................. $1,094.59










32 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
Library Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1932...................................... $700.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C".............................................. 600.00
Balance, September 30, 1933................................................... $100.00
Studies
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit "C".. 100.00
Balance, September 30,1933.................... ...... ................ 100.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Balance, September 30,1932....................................... 4,289.80
Add-Refund of part of scholarship granted prior to September 30, 1932.. 120.00
4,409.80
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C"................................................ 4,194.75
Balance, September 30, 1933................................................ 215.05
Industrial Education Study
Balance, September 30,1932........................................ 321.18
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund .................. 321.18
Balance, September 30,1933 ................... ............................
International Conference Travel Fund
Balance, September 30,1932 ...................................... 437.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit"C" ............................................... 437.00
Balance, September 30,1933................................... ..... ........
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1932 ....................................... 5,284.38
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit"C". ............................................... 4,715.00
Balance, September 30,1933.............. ......................... .. 569.38
Lecture Field Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit "C".... 3,000.00
Balance, September 30,1933.... ........................................ 3,000.00
Miscellaneous Conferences
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit "C".... 365.00
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund................... 365.00
Balance, September 30, 1933 .................................................
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Balance, September 30,1932 ..................................... 8,200.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C". ............................................... 5,000.00
3,200.00
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund................... 3,200.00
Balance, September 30,1933.................................... ........... .
National Occupational Conference
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit C "... 11,838.03
Balance, September 30,1933 .................................................... 11,838.03
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Deficit, September 30, 1932.......................................... 250.00
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit
"C".......... ......... ... ........... . .. ..... ....... ..... 3,230.74
Balance, September 30, 1933................................................. 2,980.74








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 33

Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued
Rural Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30,1932....................................... $1,887.75
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit"C"................................................ 1,805.94
81.81
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund................... 81.81
Balance, September 30,1933. ................................................
Study of Opportunity Schools
Balance, September 30, 1932 ........................................ 813.87
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1933, per
Exhibit "C"..................................... .......... 110.82
703.05
Deduct-Amount transferred to Maintenance Fund ................... 703.05
Balance, September 30,1933.................................................
Total Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, September 30, 1933,
per Exhibit "A"................................................ $19,897.79






EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1933
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation.................. $30,000.00
Membership dues
Individual........................................ $1,669.69
Organizational.................................... 841.82 2,511.51
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of single copies................ 744.95
Advertising sales................................... 43.00 787.95
Interest on bank balances....................................... 461.20 $33,760.66
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 15,000.00
Handbook of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation......................... 4,000.00
Research Report
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 2,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Sales of publications ................................ 27.05
Royqlties on publications........................... 2,393.76 2,420.81 23,420.81
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study-Studies
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ..................... $6,000.00
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 20,000.00
Lecture Field Study
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 3,000.00







Lh


anh










34 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued
Miscellaneous Conferences
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... $2,000.00
National Occupational Conference
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ................ $45,100.00
Subscriptions to Occupations"....................... 756.85 45,856.85
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ............... $11,000.00
Appropriation from Rosenwald Fund.................. 7,500.00 18,500.00 95,356.85
Total lncome................................................... $152,538.32
Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments.................................... $1,178.12
Attorneys' and accountants' fees......................... 375.00
Incidentals............................................ 477.64
Insurance............................................ 36.55
Office library........................................ 152.03
Office furniture and equipment ........................... 1,141.62
Office supplies ........................................ 468.89
Postage............................................. 591.95
Printing, publications and publicity ..................... 1,718.76
R ent................................................ 3,774.92
Repairs and maintenance ............................. 397.00
Salaries............................................. 25,208.34
Stationery, mimeographing, etc.......................... 470.84
Telephone and telegraph.............................. 765.63
Travel.............................................. 1,073.63
Miscellaneous minor projects ........................... 150.00 $37,980.92
Publications
Journal of Adult Education ............................ $14,242.61
Handbook of Adult Education......................... 2,794.79
Research Report ..................................... 107.77
Revolving Fund for Publications ....................... 356.14
University Correspondence Teaching Study.............. 828.96 18,330.27
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study
Conferences........................................ $635.84
Library Experiments ............................... 600.00
Studies ........................................... 5,900.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund ............................ 4,194.75
Des Moines Adult Education Project..................... 20,000.00
International Conference Travel Fund.................... 437.00
International Psychological Study of Adult Education..... 4,715.00
Miscellaneous Conferences.............................. 1,635.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects ..................... 5,000.00
National Occupational Conference...................... 34,018.82
Negro Adult Education Experiments .................... 15,269.26
Rural Adult Education Study ......................... 1,805.94
Study of Opportunity Schools .......................... 110.82 94,322.43
Total Expenses ................................. ................... 150,633.62
Excess of Income over Expenses ............................................. $1,904.70










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 35

EXHIBIT C
SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL
YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1933
Maintenance
Income...................................................... $33,760.66
Expenses................................................ .. .... 37,980.92
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... $4,220.26**
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Income ....................................................... 15,000.00
Expenses....................................................... 14,242.61
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ........... 757.39
Handbook of Adult Education
Income ...................................................... 4,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 2,794.79
Excess of Income over Expenses,per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 1,205.21
Research Report
Income ...................................................... 2,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 107.77
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 1,892.23
Revolving Fund for Publications
Incom e.................................. ............. .... 2,420.81
Expenses ........................................... ........... 356.14
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1............ 2,064.67
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Income .......................................................
Expenses ...................................................... 828.96
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... 828.96*
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Income. ....................................................
Expenses.................................................. 635.84
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ........... 635.84*
Library Experiments
Incom e...................................... .. ............
Expenses ............................... ....... ............ 600.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... 600.00*
Studies
Incom e ..................................................... 6,000.00
Expenses................................. .................. 5,900.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............ 100.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Income.......................................................
Expenses...................... ............................. 4,194.75
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ........... 4,194.75*
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Income ...................................................... 20,000.00
Expenses.................................................. 20,000.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"..........
The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balances
of the respective funds.
** The excess of expenses over income of the Maintenance Fund is offset by transfers of unex-
pended balances from Special Project Funds as shown on Exhibit "A," Schedule "1."










36 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued

International Conference Travel Fund
Income.........................................................
Expenses........................ ........................... $437.00

Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule .............. $437.00*

International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Income....................................... .............. ..
Expenses.................................. .................. 4,715.00

Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"........... 4,715.00*

Lecture Field Study
Income.................................................... 3,000.00
Expenses ............................ ......................... ..

Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "". ......... 3,000.00

Miscellaneous Conferences
Income........................ .............................. 2,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 1,635.00

Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "l'".......... 365.00

Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Incom e.......................................................
Expenses .................................................... 5,000.00

Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" .......... 5,000.00*

National Occupational Conference
Income...................................................... 45,856.85
Expenses..................................................... 34,018.82

Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 11,838.03

Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income...................................................... 18,500.00
Expenses..................................................... 15,269.26

Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I............ 3,230.74

Rural Adult Education Study
Income......................................................
Expenses ..................................................... 1,805.94

Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... 1,805.94*

Study of Opportunity Schools
Incom e............................................... ....... .
Expenses ..................................................... 110.82

Excess of Expenses over Income,per Exhibit "A," Schedule ".l".......... 110.82*

Total Excess of Expenses over Income. ............................. $1,904.70

*The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balances
of the respective funds.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 37

EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1933
Balance, September 30, 1932 Payable to:
University of Minnesota............................ .................. $10,000.00
Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for account of:
Berea College ................................................. $750.00
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen.............. 5,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas..................................... 3,000.00
National Theatre Conference.................................... 5,000.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild ................... 5,000.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association............................... 3,000.00
Teachers College .............................................. 6,000.00
Leonia Community Council ..................................... 2,700.00
United Parents Associations of New York.......................... 5,000.00
Total................................................... $35,450.00
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation through Emergency
Unemployment Relief Committee of New York for account of:
Adjustment Service......................................... $100,000.00
TotalReceipts ................................................... 135,450.00
$145,450.00
Disbursements Payments to:
Adjustment Service........................................... $75,000.00
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen ................ 5,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ..................................... 3,000.00
National Theatre Conference ................................... 5,000.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild..................... 1,250.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association ............................. 3,000.00
Leonia Community Council..................................... 675.00
United Parents Associations of New York......................... 5,000.00
University of Minnesota............................................ 10,000.00
Total Disbursements............................................... 107,925.00
Balance, September 30, 1933, per Exhibit "A"............................... $37,525.00
Balance, September 30, 1933, Payable to:
Adjustment Service ............................................ $25,000.00
Berea College .................................................. 750.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild...................... 3,750.00
Teachers College................................................ 6,000.00
Leonia Community Council ..................................... 2,025.00 $37,525.00


II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1934
Assets
Cash:
Capital Account............................................. $149,098.04
Managing Account ........................................... 18,739.21
TotalAssets.................................................... $167,837.25
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ....................................... $190.92
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education.................. 121.00
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organ-
izations, per Exhibit "D" ..................................... 37,425.00
Total Liabilities ................................................ 37,736.92
Net AsetValue........................................................... $130,100.33
The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds,per Schedule ".1".............................. $15,280.10
Publication Funds, per Schedule "I"................................. 24,831.87
SpecialProject, Study, and Conference Funds,per Schedule ""......... 89,988.36
TotalFunds................................................... $130,100.33










38 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1934
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September30, 1933 ............................ $9,446.63
Add:
Excess of Maintenance Income over Expenses, March 31,
1934, per Exhibit "C". ............................. 833.47
Balance, March 31,1934......................................... $10,280.10

Administrative Reserve
Balance, September 30, 1933.......................... 5,000.00
No change....... ............................ ..
Balance, March 31, 1934........................................ 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit "A" ............. $15,280.10

Publication Funds
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per
Exhibit "C" ...................................... 3,446.39
Balance, March 31,1934............ ............................... $3,446.39

Handbook of Adult Education
Balance, September 30,1933 ........................... 1,205.21
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1934,
per Exhibit "C"................................ 1,205.21
Balance, M arch 31, 1934 ........................................

International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1933........................... 7,044.70
No change .................................... ..
Balance, March 31,1934......................... ............. 7,044.70

Journal of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per
Exhibit"C" ...................................... 7,932.05
Balance, March 31, 1934 ........................ ............... 7,932.05

Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per
Exhibit "C" ...................................... 2,266.00
Balance, March 31, 1934........................... ......... 2,266.00

Research Report
Balance, September 30, 1933........................... 1,892.23
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1934,
per Exhibit "C".................................... 200.00
Balance, March31,1934 ........................................ 1,692.23

Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30,1933........................... 3,914.34
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1934,
per Exhibit "C".................................. 1,463.84
Balance, March 31, 1934....................................... 2,450.50
TotalPublication Funds, March 31,1934, per Exhibit "A"............... $24,831.87









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 39

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Balance, September30,1933...... ................. $1,094.59
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1934,
per Exhibit "C" .........................................200.00
Balance, March 31,1934 ....................................... $894.59
Library Experiments
Balance, September 30,1933 ........................... 100.00
No change.................................... .. .
Balance, March 31,1934........................................... 100.00
Studies
Balance, September30, 1933............................ 100.00
No change....... ......... ......................
Balance, March31,1934........................................ 100.00
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C"............................................... 2,561.05
Balance, March31, 1934.......................................... 2,561.05
Alumni Education Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C "....... ......................................... 2,750.15
Balance, March31,1934........................................... 2,750.15
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C".................... .......................... 10,000.00
Balance, March 31, 1934.......................................... 10,000.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Balance, September 30,1933 ............................ 215.05
No change................... ..... ........
Balance, March31,1934.......................................... 215.05
Conference of Community Organization Workers
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C "............................................... 4,700.00
Balance, March 31,1934 .......................................... 4,700.00
Das Moines Adult Education Project
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C"........... ................................... 5,000.00
Balance, Mach 31, 1934......................................... 5,000.00
Study of Discussion Techniques
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C"........... ..................................... 1,084.20
Balance, March 31,1934.......................................... 1,084.20
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September30,1933 ............................ 569.38
Nochange....................................... ..
Balance, March 31,1934 ......................................... 569.38
Lecture-Field Study
Balance, September 30,1933............................. 3,000.00
Deduct: Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1934,
per Exhibit "C" .................................... 1,914.98
SBalance, March31,1934 ............................................. 1,085.02


a









40 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
National Occupational Conference
Balance, September 30,1933.................. ............ $11,838.03
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per
Exhibit "C"...................................... 33,208.96
Balance, March31, 1934 ........................................ $45,046.99
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1933............................. 2,980.74
Add: Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per
Exhibit "C"......................................... 7,256.71
Balance, March 31,1934 ......................................... 10,237.45
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C"................................................ 1,569.04
Balance, March 31,1934 ......................................... 1,569.04
Science Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit
"C"................ ................................ 4,075.44
Balance, March 31,1934.......................................... 4,075.44
Total Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, March
31, 1934, per Exhibit"A" ......................................... $89,988.36






EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1934
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ................... $15,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual........................................ $1,339.66
Organizational. ..................................... 723.73 2,063.39
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of single copies........................... 649.68 $17,713,07
Publications
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Appropriation from General Education Board..................... 3,750.00
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation .............. 14,000.00
Allocation from Department of Adult Education of the
National Education Association ..................... 1,333.33 15,333.33
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 2,500.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Sales of Handbook of Adult Education................. 215.00
Sales of Miscellaneous Publications.................... 7.25
Royalties onPublications ............................ 572.55 794.80 22,378.13
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 10,000.00
Alumni Education Study
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 5,000.00






Ad









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ $10,000.00
Conference of Community Organization Workers
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 5,000.00
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 25,000.00
Study of Discussion Techniques
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 2,500.00
National Occupational Conference
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation.............. $64,000.00
Subscriptions and Sale of Reprints, "Occupations"...... 3,232.50 67,232.50
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation .............. 10,000.00
Appropriation from Rosenwald Fund.................. 5,000.00 15,000.00
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 2,550.00
Science Study
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 7,500.00 149,782.50
Total Income .................................................. $189,873.70


Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments............ .. .................
Attorneys' and accountants' fees.......................
Incidentals...................... ...................
Insurance.................................. ......
Office library.......................................
Office furniture and equipment ........................
Office supplies, stationery, mimeographing...............
Postage. ........................... ........ ...... ....
Printing, publications, publicity .......................
Rent...............................................
Repairs and maintenance.............................
Salaries ..............................................
Telephone and telegraph ..............................
Travel..............................................
Miscellaneous minor projects...........................
Publications
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program....
Handbook of Adult Education. .........................
Journal of Adult Education ............................
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications ............
Research Report .....................................
Revolving Fund for Publications.......................
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study-Conferences.....................
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program......
Alumni Education Study ..............................
Conference of Community Organization Workers.........
Des Moines Adult Education Project....................
Study of Discussion Techniques........................
Lecture Field Study..................................
National Occupational Conference .....................
Negro Adult Education Experiments ......................
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments......;.
Science Study............................ ....


Total Expenses ................... ... ..... .....
S Excess o Income over Expenses..........................


$738.67
150.00
480.91
16.75
103.12
104.53
550.24
297.07
305.73
2,175.00
45.15
11,074.98
506.46
164.86
166.13 $16,879.60


303.61
1,205.21
7,401.28
234.00
200.00
2,258.64 11,602.74


200.00
7,438.95
2,249.85
300.00
20,000.00
1,415.80
1,914.98
34,023.54
7,743.29
980.96
3,424.56 79,691.93
.................... 108,174.27
.................... $81,699.43









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


EXHIBIT C
SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS
ENDED MARCH 31, 1934
Maintenance
Income....... ...... ............................... $17,713.07
Expenses.................................................... ... 16,879.60
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............ $833.47
Publications
Publications Fund for Federal Adult Education Program
Income....................................................... 3,750.00
Expenses......... ........... .................. 303.61
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 3,446.39
Handbook of Adult Education
Incom e................................ ........................ ..
Expenses........................................ ....... 1,205.21
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"............ 1,205.21'
Journal of Adult Education
Income....................................................... 15,333.33
Expenses................. ........ ............................. 7,401.28
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ......... 7,932.05
Special Fund for Miscellaneous Publications
Income.......... ............................................... 2,500.00
Expenses................................... ............... 234.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 2,266.00
Research Report
Income........................................................ .
Expenses.................................................... 200.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"......... 200.00*
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income......................................................... 794.80
Expenses................................................ ..... 2,258.64
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1". ........ 1,463.84*
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study-Conferences
Income........................................................ .
Expenses ...................................................... 200.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"........ 200.00*
Advisory Service, Federal Adult Education Program
Income .................................................... 10,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 7,438.95
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... 2561.05
Alumni Education Study
Income .......... ....... .................................. 5,000.00
Expenses...... ............................................. ... 2,249.85
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 2,750.15
Canadian Adult Education Organization
Income....................................................... 10,000.00
Expenses ..................................................... ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ........ 10,000.00
Conference of Community Organization Workers
Income.................................... ................ 5,000.00
Expenses.............................. ....................... 300.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1 ......... 4,700.00
SThe excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balaaf
of the respective funds.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 43

Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences-continued
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Income....................................................... $25,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 20,000.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A,"-Schedule "1"......... $5,000.00
Study of Discussion Techniques
Income ...................................................... 2,500.00
Expenses....................................................... 1,415.80
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ........ 1,084.20
Lecture-Field Study
Income................................. ...................... ..
Expenses..................................................... 1,914.98
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 1,914.98*
National Occupational Conference
Income....................................................... 67,232.50
Expenses.................................................... 34,023.54
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ......... 33,208.96
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income......................................................... 15,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 7,743.29
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "". ........ 7,256.71
Reports on Current Investigations and Experiments
Income....................................................... 2,550.00
Expenses..................................................... 980.96
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1."........ 1,569.04
Science Study
Incom e....................................................... 7,500.00
Expenses..................................................... 3,424.56
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "'". ........ 4,075.44
Total Excess of Income over Expenses............................. $81.699.43

The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset by unexpended prior period balances
of the respective funds.


EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR
THE SIX MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 1934
Balance, September 30, 1933, Payable to:
Adjustment Service............................................... $25,000.00
BereaCollege .................................................... 750.00
Leonia Community Council ........................................ 2,025.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild.......................... 3,750.00
Teachers College, Columbia University............................. 6,000.00 $37,525.00
Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for account of:
Adjustment Service...................................... .......... 15,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ........................................ 3,000.00
Department of Adult Education, National Education Association ....... 1,000.00
Farmers' Institutes............................................... 12,500.00
labor Institutes................................................ 10,000.00
National Theatre Conference...................................... 6,000.00
New York Adult Education Council................................ 4,000.00
TotalReceipts................................................... 51,500.00
S$89,025.00


a










44 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Disbursements
Payments to:
Adjustment Service............................................ $17,000.00
Berea College.................................................... 750.00
Civic Federation of Dallas................. ......................... 3,000.00
Department of Adult Education, National Education Association........ 1,00P.00
Leonia Community Council........................................ 1,35 .00
National Theatre Conference...................................... 3,000.01O
New York Adult Education Council................................ 1,000.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild....................... 2,500.00
Rutgers University (Farmers' Institutes) ........................... 10,000.00
Teachers College, Columbia University ............................. 6,000.00
Workers Education Bureau (Labor Institutes)....................... 6,000.00
Total Disbursements........................................... 51,600.00
Balance, March 31, 1934, per Exhibit "A"...................................... $37,425.00
Balance, March 31, 1934, Payable to:
Adjustment Service............................................... 23,000.00
Farmers' Institutes ................................................ 2,500.00
Labor Institutes .................................................. 4,000.00
Leonia Community Council ......................................... 675.00
National Theatre Conference........................................ 3,000.00
New York Adult Education Council................................. 3,000.00
People's Institute-United Neighborhood Guild.......................... 1,250.00 $37,425.00




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