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Title: Annual report of the director
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1932/33
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Preceded by: Annual report of the executive director

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
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    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text













UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
SIB AR Ye


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9 IAMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
M/ EDUCATION


Annual Report of the Director in Behalf
of the Executive Board
for 1932-33


ERVERS of American social and more violent republics of central
and political institutions have Europe as they wrestle with novel forms
noted in the last few months of political control. Out of our logger
paralleled transfer of democratic and larger experience we perhaps :an
ts and privileges to the executive listen somewhat skeptically to the f-en-
of the government. The powers zied promises of political opportunists
tn to the President of the United and, with such sorry amusement as the
through action by Congress, spectacle affords, gaze with at least a
d by an overwhelming public degree of perspective upon the current
are without precedent in our parade of extremists and their leaders.
e history. The American It is no longer necessary for us to sit
ve quite clearly reached the attentively at the feet of so-called
that in an emergency a con- statesmen in Europe, for we have learned
nof authority is both necessary to our cost that they are often wrong and
e. In European countries, where that their political ideals many times are
inion is more inured to swift associated with false gods.
tal change and consequently The amazing cheerfulness with which
tragedy by it, our recent action our people are submitting to executive
ly would have been dubbed dictatorship, and the corresponding ab-
ti n, our President would dication of legislative control, should not
ed a gDictator, and the be subjected to misinterpretation. It is
f colored shirts would our national nature to react quickly in
idy profit in an outburst eriergencies. It would be a false ap-
ervor. praisal of the people's motives that
United States of America would attribute to fear alone our willing-
een accustomed to the pe- ness to suspend certain democratic
ses of democratic govern- practices. This submissiveness goes far
e first time in the national deeper into our experience than mere
usual relationship to surface fright. Past emergencies, do-
reversed. It is we mestic and international, have produced
tury and a half similar lapses from a deeply ingrained
anism, who can theory of a government of, by, and for
upon the younger the people. We have learned that there

S. 707 .

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


is such a thing as a return from dicta-
torial concentration to the normal, even
if faulty, functioning of democratic gov-
ernment. We feel secure in the knowl-
edge that the slightest abuse of concen-
trated authority will provoke swift re-
prisal on the part of the people. We
Know that the dictatorship can truly
stand only so long as it is the will of the
) voter that it should stand. This se-
curity is made doubly sure by the com-
plete negation of military power as a
( factor in our political situations. A
military dictatorship, even in time of
war, would outrage every right-minded
American. These are some of the factors
inherent in American life and institutions
which differentiate us, definitely and
distinctly, from most of the European
nations and from most of the nations of
the world.
It is inevitable that changes in our
political practices, even though tem-
porary in nature, should have an imme-
diate effect upon our educational pro-
cedures. The introduction into the
educational structure of principles defi-
nitely Fascist in nature is already tak-
ing place. A state university president
recently remarked a present tendency
among his colleagues to discard many
of the democratic precepts hitherto mo-
tivating educators. A none too gradual
abandonment of the attempt to pro-
vide educational opportunity for all at
various academic levels is now in prog-
ress and is being accelerated by the
immediate necessity for economy in all
school expenditures, whether in the pri-
mary grades or in the colleges. Already
we are hearing the cry among supposedly
enlightened people that "too many are
being educated" and that "our economic
structure can not stand the expense of
free education for all." This reversion
is disappointing in a republic dedicated


-. .',:.. .."
". :' ::.=/


to a large measure of individual deter-
minism. It is the kindof talk customarily
confined to the hot-stove philosophers of
the country store: one can not hear it
among educational and civic leaders
without abhorrence. It is to be hoped
we shall not see the day when concen-
trated authority, whether in government
or in education, shall determine for us
the kind and degree of educational op-
portunity that shall be open to us, young
or old, each according to his economic or
cultural station or inheritance. And yet
educated men are discussing these very
measures.
If we are to abandon our ideal of a
basic education for the whole American
people and of unlimited educational op-
portunity above that minimum, then
it becomes wholly reasonable to question
the continuance of the entire American
experiment of democratic government.
An uneducated population is supinely
at the mercy of the political demagogue.
One glance at the proletariat of Russia
yields ample evidence of such futility.
If we are to deaden our consciences ant
forsake the educational principles of a
century and a half, then our only salva-
tion as a nation lies in a dictatorship,
most certainly backed by force of arms-
call it Fascism, a monarchy, a soviet,
what you will.
There are few among us who, know-
ingly, would make this choice. In s
protection, we should insist that all steps
taken away from democratic principles
in education, like the correspondit]
steps taken in civil government,
merely temporary. They are to be re-
traced in the opposite direction at the
earliest opportunity. Theoutmostbound-
aries of education should be set ony
the ambition and the capacity
individual boy or girl, man or
who applies for educational service.
: -
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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Our procedure undeniably is in proc-
ess of change and, we shall hope, for
the better. But the goal of American
education as developed in the last fifty
years remains unchanged.
It would seem that the task of adult
education in such a crisis is plain. Such
of our philosophy as we have been able
to formulate clearly and to phrase suc-
cinctly should continue to aid us. The
responsibility remains upon us unceas-
ingly to strive for increased clarity in our
own thinking. We must hope that there
may in truth develop a philosophy of
action, readily understood by the adult
population and calling for the universal
acceptance of the belief that education is
in verity a life-long expanding process of
enrichment in moral and spiritual, as
well as in vocational, values.
But that is not all. We must increase
our own sensitivity to new ideas in pro-
cedure. Dislocated people in a dislo-
cated world may not be approached with
outdated and obsolete pleas in the name
of education for mere social accepta-
bility. The actual and intimate relation
I between education and the complex
problems of living in the modem age
must form the basis of our offerings. No
longer will people be inclined to accept
traditional social and educational forms
at their face value. Preservation of the
status quo has ceased to interest them.
We must address ourselves to new means
of approach, interpreted in terms of
living needs. Let us remember, too, that
living needs may be cultural as well as
vocational, of the mind and spirit quite
as much as of the body. If the abundant
life is the perfect blend of the spiritual
and the material, then education for
the abundant life depends for its validity
upon a similar blending process. There
is no reason why, in adult education, the
S cultural lamb should not lie down with


the vocational lion. All that is required
is that each school of thought clarify its
ultimate objectives. They will be found
to coincide.
If, then, our task is to continue to be
that of broadening the base of under-
standing and of culture among the Amer-
ican people, it becomes pertinent in a
report of this character to inquire into
those activities of the American Associa-
tion for Adult Education which, presum-
ably, make for this end. No one will
question the desirability of experimenta-
tion on the part of the Association, both
with institutions and procedures offer-
ing reasonable expectations of success in
achieving, in part, the goal outlined.
It is obvious that the two most far-
reaching institutional agencies in Amer-
ica for the diffusion of knowledge are the
public school and the public library.
Both maintain extensive plants dotted
over the country, and the school par-
ticularly has established itself in every
community which makes even a pretense
of civilization. Has the public school a
part to play in the education of adults?
Clearly the answer is in the affirmative,
for an increasing use of school facilities
for adults has been evident for some
years past in rural as well as in urban
areas. Conscious of this increased use,
the officers and committees of the Asso-
ciation have year by year considered the
advisability of attempting a community-
wide experiment in adult education
based upon an entire school system and
conducted by school authorities. The
prerequisites were a medium-sized city
in the Middle West, a well-established
and highly progressive school system for
children, and-of utmost importance-
an intelligent school superintendent
keenly interested in adult education and
fully aware of its possibilities. The com-
bination was not discovered until 1932,


A,








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


when Des Moines, Iowa, was selected
for a community experiment with Su-
perintendent John W. Studebaker in
charge.
The value of this experiment will be
determined, of course, by the usual
qualitative and quantitative measures
applied to community-wide projects
whether in education or in social reform.
The willingness and ability of the school
authority to incorporate the program as
a permanent part of its educational ser-
vice to the community at the close of the
contemplated five-year period of out-
side subsidy will be perhaps the chief
test of the effort. But over and above
these criteria it will be interesting from
the point of view of the Association to
determine the extent to which a program
under school control can meet the cul-
tural needs of an entire community.
School efforts to teach the adult in years
gone by, aside from vocational training,
have fallen woefully short of adult aims
and aspirations. All too often have the
attitudes of public school teachers and
administrators remained those of the
classroom organized for children. Both
in subject matter and in techniques (or
lack of them) the offerings have savored
of the less pleasant attributes of "the
little red school house," familiar to adult
memories as among the chief tribula-
tions of youth. Discipline in schools
for children rests solidly upon compul-
sory attendance maintained both by
law and by parental authority. The
adult school, whether it be called class or
forum, must operate under new rules
peculiarly its own.
A most important question that the
Des Moines project can be expected to
answer is the extent to which a school
board and its duly appointed adminis-
trative officials can be trusted to preside
over widespread educational activities


of grown people. Fortunately there is a
rich field of experience to be drawn upon
in the activities of private organizations
and institutions maintained for the ed-
ucation of adults. It is here that real
strides forward have been made and will
continue to be made. The transfer of
this private experience to wide public
use through the agency of the public
schools presents a fascinating field for
observation and study. The more ex-
tensive use of knowledge gained from
private experiment and demonstration
should spur the less formal private agen-
cies to greater and even more careful
effort. There is ample room in American
life for both types to function for the
enlightenment of the adult mind.

THE DES MOINES PROJECT
In January, 1933, the Board of Educa-
tion of the Des Moines Public Schools
formally announced the institution of the
Des Moines public forums. The public
was informed that during the period of
experimentation the financial cost would
be met through a grant made by the
Carnegie Corporation of New York upon
recommendation of the American Asso-
ciation for Adult Education. The sub-
sidy for the first year, which has been
voted by the Trustees of the Carnegie
Corporation, amounts to $20,000. Ex-
penditures in the four years to follow
will approximate $25,000 a year.
The plan contemplates a five-year
period during which this experiment in
adult education will be conducted on a
city-wide basis. The control of the ex-
periment rests solely with the Board of
Education of Des Moines; administra-
tion of the plan is centered in the Super-
intendent of Schools as the respoW e
officer of the Board. The following!)
cerpt from the initial annouiesr
issued by the Des Moines Schoo Wl,










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


is evidence of the spirit of the under-
taking.

The plan is to provide adult forums in all
sections of the city for the discussion of current
social, political, and economic problems under the
leadership of men specially qualified. These
forums will not be formal classes. There will be
no textbooks, no fees, no enrollment, no assign-
ments, no tests. Any problem of current and
general interest to the citizens of Des Moines
will be considered appropriate for discussion at
any forum. All forums will be open meetings
which any citizen may attend at any time.
Obviously, the value of these forums will
depend in large part upon the character of the
leadership provided. The Board of Education
will employ for this purpose men of recognized
scholarship with a record of active participation
in public affairs, men who have the combination
of theoretical and practical acquaintance with
current problems which will enable them to speak
with authority and will also insure appreciation
of the difficulties involved in solving social prob-
lems. They will, therefore, be men who may be
expected to bring to each forum meeting a
stimulating presentation of issues and the ability
to help citizens to clarify their own thinking by
discussion.
The Board of Education recognizes that all
vital social questions are controversial in their
nature; that they are questions upon which men
honestly differ; that citizens equally worthy of a
hearing may have in regard to such questions
diverse opinions and programs of action.
In dealing with controversial issues, all reason-
able latitude will be permitted forum leaders.
No leader will in any sense, however, assume
the rl6e of an advocate or propagandist. The
Board of Education and school officials regard it
as contrary to sound public policy to use the
schools as agencies for the imposition of ideas.
It is basic to the proper conduct of public
education to secure beliefs only through genuine
freedom of investigation and discussion, not
through the suppressive methods of the dema-
gogue.
It will be required that the leader shall present
available information on all sides of any question
discussed, define the issues involved as dearly as
possible, and guide the discussion so that oppos-
ing points of view may be accorded the freest
expression. Leaders may frequently feel that in
fairness to the entire discussion they should state
their own personal conclusions in any matter of


public interest, duly recognizing the fact that
their private judgments will have an influence on
public opinion only in the same degree as the
judgments of other intelligent and fair-minded
per sons.

A staff of five leaders was appointed
to give lectures and conduct the forum
discussions on various controversial is-
sues in twenty-eight neighborhood cen-
ters. Lyman Bryson, formerly Director
of the California Association for Adult
Education, has spoken on Democracy-
What Is It? Is Prosperity a Myth?
Can We Plan for America? The Eco-
nomics of Fascism, The Economics of
Socialism, and The Economics of Com-
munism. Felix Morley of the staff of The
Brookings Institution in Washington,
D. C., has discussed Capitalism and
Frontiers, Politics versus Economics,
Community or Chaos, The Theory of
International Organization, Implications
of the Sino-Japanese Dispute, and The
Meaning of the War Debts. Discussions
led by Carroll H. Wooddy of the Univer-
sity of Chicago included the topics: Has
Democracy Collapsed? Can the Govern-
ment Give Us a New Deal? Do We
Need a New Political Party? Proposals
for Reducing Federal Expenditures, Can
We Have a Fair System of State Taxa-
tion? Should State and Local Govern-
ments be Reorganized? In the field of
agricultural economics-a subject of
high interest in Des Moines-the forum
leader originally chosen was Henry A.
Wallace, who, after the initiation of the
program, resigned to accept appointment
as Secretary of Agriculture in President
Roosevelt's Cabinet. His place has been
taken by Carl C. Taylor, a teacher and
writer in the field of rural sociology.
Mr. Taylor's subjects include The Agri-
cultural Debt Problem, Tariffs in Rela-
tion to Farm Prosperity, and Balancing
Urban and Rural Prosperity. Study






ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


outlines and short lists of books for
reading have been prepared for each of
the subjects announced.
More than 1,800 persons appeared
for the first six forums. When the ca-
pacity of some of the halls-all of them
in school buildings-was reached, it was
found necessary to turn people away. In
the third month of the experiment the
average attendance was about 4,500 per-
sons per week. The director of the ex-
periment and his staff are giving consid-
eration to the establishment of small
groups for more thorough discussion of
the subject matter presented in the
larger forums. The library system of
the city has placed its resources at the
disposal of forum members. The State
Federation of Labor and local labor or-
ganizations have given their endorse-
ment. The forums have not been re-
lated to the parent-teacher movement.
It is interesting to note that the attend-
ance of men compares favorably with
that of women.

PUBLIC SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
Continued activity on the part of the
National Commission on the Enrichment
of Adult Life, appointed by the National
Education Association under the chair-
manship of James A. Moyer, has been
evident during the year just closed. The
National Commission and the Depart-
ment of Adult Education of the N. E. A.
have together succeeded in drawing the
attention of school men throughout the
country to adult education problems.
The national gatherings of the N. E. A.
in the summer of 1932 and of the De-
partment of Superintendence in Feb-
ruary, 1933, have both devoted consid-
erable time in their programs to prob-
lems relating to the education of the
adult population. State Commissions
on the Enrichment of Adult Life have


been appointed, and some of them
embarked at once upon more or less
active campaigns of publicity.
The subsidy of $1,200 which the Car-
negie Corporation supplied on recom-
mendation of the Association at the close
of the year 1931-32 made possible the
publication of a preliminary survey of
adult education facilities in the State of
Massachusetts. This survey was carried
out by the Massachusetts State Com-
mission on the Enrichment of Adult
Life and the Prospect Union Educational
Exchange of Cambridge. The prelim-
inary report was most attractively
printed and has been given wide distri-
bution. It is to be hoped that eventually
it will bring about similar surveys in
other states.

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL
CONFERENCE
Discussions initiated by the American
Association for Adult Education in the
fall of 1930 led to the conclusion that
many central problems of adult educa-
tion revolved about some solution of oc-
cupational difficulties. Accordingly, in
December of that year, there was held
a national conference on "Unemploy-
ment and Adult Education," over which
Newton D. Baker (then President of the
Association) presided. A record of the
deliberations of this Conference, includ-
ing a symposium on economic phases of
technological unemployment, was pub-
lished in brochure form and given wide
distribution. The next step of the Asso-
ciation was to authorize a study of the
Denver Opportunity School, made in
the summer of 1931, and published in
brochure at the end of the year under
the title, "What Is This Opportunity
School?" by Fletcher Harper Swift oft
University of California and JohflU
Studebaker, Superintendent of Sc ls









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


of Des Moines, Iowa. On May 2, 1932,
the Association arranged a conference
on occupational education. It was the
sense of the conference that action should
be taken toward coordination of studies
of occupational guidance and adjust-
ment as well as of occupational educa-
tion, and that the Association, in coop-
eration with the Carnegie Corporation,
should attempt to provide the neces-
sary machinery.
On October 24, 1932, a second confer-
ence on occupational adjustment was
held, at which a definite plan for the or-
ganization of a National Occupational
Conference was given preliminary dis-
cussion. Following the conference and
by its authorization, a steering commit-
tee was appointed to devise ways and
means of bringing the National Occu-
pational Conference into existence. A
definite plan for the formation of the
Conference was evolved and forwarded
to the Carnegie Corporation. The Cor-
poration gave its approval to the plan
and followed this approval by the appro-
priation, on December 6 and December
13, 1932, of the $33,000 requested in the
tentative budget. These appropriations
were made to the American Association
for Adult Education.
The Conference is concerned with all
aspects of occupational adjustment and
with cooperativee efforts to study this
problem. It will address itself pri-
marily to the task of assembling informa-
tion about occupations, and making
such information available to the public
through effective publication. For educa-
tional institutions, libraries, and other
interested organizations it will provide a
consulting service regarding methods of
using materials published, the theory
and practice of vocational guidance, and
the results of research in occupational
adjustment and vocational education.


For several years attempts have been
made by various institutions, associa-
tions, and governmental agencies to
meet the demand for accurate informa-
tion about opportunities in various oc-
cupations. Much excellent material has
been published, but there has been unin-
tentional duplication of effort. Distri-
bution of the material often has been
limited to local areas or to specialized
professional groups. There has been
no organization with sufficient scope and
resources to attack the problem from a
national point of view. The National
Occupational Conference has been or-
ganized without implication of perma-
nence but as a present attempt to meet
urgent needs in this field not now met by
any other organization.
The National Occupational Confer-
ence is intended to serve as a clearing
house for occupational information. The
primary service of the Conference will
be maintained for administrators, teach-
ers, students, and public employment
counselors; and, accordingly, its central
program will be threefold: gathering in-
formation, distributing information, and
stimulating research.
Existing material, consisting of occu-
pational studies at all educational levels,
will be collected from other agencies,
from books and pamphlets, and from
periodical literature. Distribution of
such studies and related materials will
be made directly and through the media
of leaflets, monographs, special articles,
press releases, a periodical, and, pos-
sibly, by radio broadcasting. Further-
more, a field service is contemplated, by
means of which specific problems may
be solved or special groups may be
reached by a member of the Conference
staff.
In the field of research, the Conference
will seek to stimulate, to sponsor, and, in








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


exceptional cases only, to conduct fur-
ther investigation and inquiry in those
fields of occupational guidance where re-
search seems necessary, in occupational
education, and in personal adjustment.
As a matter of policy, the Conference will
sponsor only projects designed specifi-
cally to discover, assemble, and dissemi-
nate new and needed knowledge in the
field of occupations in its various eco-
nomic, social, and philosophical aspects.
It will be one function of the Confer-
ence to keep abreast of new develop-
ments in the occupational field. Hence
studies of occupational trends and other
economic phenomena affecting employ-
ment will come within the purview of
the Conference, as well as current dis-
coveries in vocational guidance and vo-
cational education.
As the central feature of its program,
the Conference plans to strengthen exist-
ing periodical publication in order to
bring about a wide distribution among
vocational counselors, school authorities
and officials, teachers, personnel workers
in industry, and others directly con-
cerned with vocational and educational
problems.
It is proposed that a new periodical,
to be entitled "Occupations," should be
merged at the outset with the Vocational
Guidance Magazine, the official organ of
the National Vocational Guidance Asso-
ciation. The possibility of additional
mergers with other publications appear-
ing in the general field is under considera-
tion by the committee in charge.
The membership of the Conference
consists of sixty-three men and women,
engaged in activities in the following
central fields: colleges and universities,
school administration, rural education,
vocational education, parent education,
general education, engineering, industry
and business, employers, government


personnel, labor, child labor, Negroes,
economics, and vocational guidance.
The membership will itself serve as a
General Advisory Committee on policies
of the Conference. The active work in
formulating policies of the Conference
is carried on by an Executive Committee
of nine members. In addition, a Tech-
nical Committee of nine members, con-
sisting of psychologists and personnel
experts, has been appointed. Members
of the Conference serve in their indi-
vidual capacities and not as representa-
tives of organizations with which they
may be affiliated.
It is the intention that the Conference
should remain a loosely organized, in-
formal body, wholly autonomous so far
as policy making is concerned. Ultimate
administrative responsibility rests in the
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion asa corporate body, but it is contem-
plated that the Conference in pursuing
its program should have all the freedom
of action consistent with proper account-
ing and prudent administration. The
Director of the Association serves as a
member of the Executive Committee of
the Conference.
Franklin J. Keller, Principal of the
East Side Continuation School and Di-
rector of the Vocational Survey Com-
mission of New York City, has been
appointed Director of the Conference.
Robert Hoppock, formerly Field Secre-
tary of the National Vocational Guid-
ance Association, and Raymond G.
Fuller have been chosen as Assistants to
the Director. Additional assistants will
be appointed as needed. Headquarters
offices have been opened at 522 Fifth
Avenue, New York, in space provided
by the Carnegie Corporation.
The present editor of the Vocatiol
Guidance Magazine, Fred C. Smih,
Lecturer in Vocational Education and


aS









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Guidance at Harvard University, has
been retained on the staff of the Confer-
ence in an editorial capacity on a part-
time basis.

ADJUSTMENT SERVICE
Experience gained in the operation of
the Division of Diagnosis of the Employ-
ment Stabilization Institute of the Uni-
versity of Minnesota encouraged the
formation of an informal committee in
New York City with a view to establish-
ing a similar service. This committee
sought the support of the Emergency
Unemployment Relief Committee of
1931-32 for the provision of a vocational
diagnosis service in New York, but, be-
cause of the shortage of funds for relief
purposes, the Relief Committee found
it impossible to accede to the request.
In the fall of 1932 members of the in-
formal committee met with a subcom-
mittee of the Emergency Unemploy-
ment Relief Committee, with the result
that an allocation of $100,000 was made
to the American Association for Adult
Education from the grant made to the
Relief Committee by the Carnegie Cor-
poration of New York. This allocation
was supplemented by the promise on the
part of the Relief Committee to supply
in addition a minimum of $88,000 in
services to be made available through
the Committee's Emergency Work Bu-
reau. This action was consummated
early in January, 1933.
The Association, which by this agree-
ment became charged with administra-
tive responsibility and the public spon-
sorship of the Adjustment Service, pro-
ceeded immediately to appoint a Gen-
eral Advisory Committee of thirty-one
members, an Executive Committee
thereof of seven members, a Technical
Advisory Committee of nine members,
and a staff.


The primary purpose of the Service is
to assist the individual in discovering his
peculiar abilities and limitations; to
point out reasons for failure to the mal-
adjusted; and to assist in the formula-
tion of sound programs for reeducation
and recreation.
The secondary purpose of the project
is to demonstrate, in the complex met-
ropolitan area of New York, the social
values of an individual counseling service.
It is hoped that public realization of its
importance may result in provision for
individual diagnosis, retraining, educa-
tion, and recreation in any system of
government-controlled public placement
agencies to be established through con-
gressional action. It is contemplated
that such agencies will be supported by
federal, state, and local funds. If the
Adjustment Service succeeds in its pri-
mary objectives, a proposal for legal in-
clusion of such projects would have the
support not only of the benefited indi-
viduals but of industry and business.
The work of the Adjustment Service
was projected under three headings: a
Division of Diagnosis, a Division of
Education, and a Division of Recreation.
Provision was made for the treatment of
individuals by the three divisions as one
continuous process, thus obviating the
danger of multiple advice.
The experience of John Erskine in the
organization of the A.E.F. University of
Beaune, France, at the close of the War
-a problem similar to that confronting
the Adjustment Service-made him the
obvious person to be selected as the pre-
siding officer of the Service. He holds
the position of Chairman. Active di-
rection of the program has been placed
in the hands of Jerome H. Bentley,
Activities Secretary of the New York
Y.M.C.A., as Director. M. R. Trabue,
who has been granted leave of absence by


O. A








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the University of Minnesota and by
the University of North Carolina, was
placed in charge of the Division of Diag-
nosis; Lewis A. Wilson of the State
Board of Education at Albany, already
ini charge of the educational project of
the State's Temporary Emergency Re-
lief Administration in New York City,
assumed responsibility for the Education
Division. E. L. Thorndike of Teachers
College, Columbia University, accepted
the chairmanship of the Technical Ad-
visory Committee. In addition, staff
assistants, divisional assistants, and a
chief of the Division of Recreation were
employed.
Announcement in the newspapers
of the establishment of the Adjustment
Service brought an immediate registra-
tion of more than six hundred unem-
ployed persons. The Service did not en-
courage registration until its interviewers
and counselors had undergone a period of
training. The duration of the Service is
contemplated as fifty weeks, the exact
date of termination to be dependent
upon budgetary limitations. While it is
impossible to give exact figures, it is es-
timated that in this period from ten to
fifteen thousand individuals will have
received the benefit of the Service.
Each individual receives in interview-
ing and testing time an average of one
hour and a half. Psychological tests are
given to determine speed and accuracy,
clerical aptitude, manual dexterity, me-
chanical aptitude, and personality. Tests
for occupational interest and for voca-
tional proficiency are also applied in
some cases. The more complex and
puzzling cases are subjected to the
"clinic" treatment, which has proved
successful in Minnesota. This involves
discussion of the individual's problems
by a committee of experts. The original
interviewer assigned to a case is respon-


sible for following it up, in the attempt
to aid the individual to adapt himself to
the new program indicated as desirable.
When additional education or retraining
is necessary, the individual is placed in
existing educational institutions or agen-
cies. Where facilities are not available
(but only in such cases), the Service will
organize classes and courses and more
informal groups. In this connection,
coordination with the State emergency
educational program has proved most
important. The procedure with refer-
ence to recreational facilities closely
approximates that followed by the Ed-
ucation Division.
Actual placement of individuals is not
undertaken as a part of the Service.
Results of tests and interviews are made
fully available to the individual regis-
trant and, with his permission, furnished
to the State employment bureaus and to
other placement agencies operated not
for profit.

EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED
Efforts to meet the educational needs
of unemployed adults have resulted in
programs varying widely in merit and
unequal in geographical distribution.
National, state, and local agencies have
all concerned themselves in some way
with the problem involved: the United
States Office of Education issued an
appeal of the Federal Government to
extend educational opportunities as
widely as possible to the unemployed;
educational programs have been devel-
oped in accordance with local needs in
35 states; many communities have ex-
tended school facilities to persons wholly
or partially unemployed; some 500 col-
leges and universities have provided
special courses and lectures to riet
emergency needs; the Y.M.C.A., the
Y.W.C.A., and certain church organiza-


aS








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


tions have broadened the scope of exist-
ing educational and recreational pro-
grams; the Workers Education Bureau
has increased its activity in the past two
years; libraries throughout the country
have provided books in various subject-
matter fields, and in certain instances, at
least, have made available a Readers'
Adviser for study guidance. In addition
to existing agencies, special schools for
the unemployed, conducted by teachers
who themselves are unemployed, have
been established in several parts of the
country. Instruction ranges from agri-
cultural, industrial, and commercial sub-
jects to practical and fine arts. Some
programs are restricted to instruction
that will prepare for specific occupations
in trade or industry; some provide for
up-grading, or readjustment; others are
intended to serve as "refreshers," to
keep the specially skilled in touch with
new developments in their field; still
others look toward a deeper and broader
education as a means of offsetting a
narrow specialization. A more detailed
account of the diverse and uncoordinated
activity on behalf of education for the
unemployed will appear in the Hand-
book of Adult Education in the
United States.

LIBRARIES
It is quite clear that the librarian oc-
cupies a place of growing importance in
adult education. Perhaps no other resi-
dent or office holder in a normal Amer-
ican community is more strategically
located than is the librarian to initiate
educational activity and organization
for the adult population. Despite the
growth of children's library work, the
adult and his reading are still the chief
concern of the public library, and since
reading of non-fiction bears a close rela-
tionship to the educational activities of


the average adult, it would seem that the
legitimacy of the librarian's concern for
adult education is established. Long
years of ceaseless battering by propa-
gandists-good and bad-have made
the public exceedingly wary of new
movements labeled educational. The
library profession has succeeded notably
in keeping itself free from propaganda
entanglements. This aloofness has en-
gendered a respect and trust in the pub-
lic library on the part of the general
public which is one of the chief assets of
librarianship today. The public has con-
fidence that activities sponsored by li-
braries will be non-political, non-sec-
tarian, and non-propagandistic in nature.
This confidence places the intellectual
rehabilitation or advancement of the
community within the grasp of the li-
brary profession. Some of the more pro-
gressive librarians have seen this oppor-
tunity clearly and are moving to assert
their rightful local leadership. It is to
be hoped that increasing numbers will
realize the gravity of this responsibility.
Much of the incentive to adult educa-
tion activity among the libraries has
been energized initially from the head-
quarters of the American Library Asso-
ciation. Scarcity of funds available for
such headquarters guidance and leader-
ship this year has caused a distinct
diminution quantitatively in the effort
in this direction. It is to be hoped that,
notwithstanding administrative consoli-
dations and other economy measures at
the headquarters of the American Li-
brary Association, full recognition will
be given to adult education needs in the
year to come. In preparation for next
year's program, the secretary of the
American Library Association has called
a conference on the library and adult
education in Chicago early in June for
the purpose of surveying the present








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


status of adult education in the libraries
and considering means for further de-
velopment.
For the last five years our Association
has maintained jointly with the Amer-
ican Library Association a Committee on
Adult Reading (formerly the Committee
on the Study of Reading Interests and
Habits). This committee held an im-
portant meeting at Princeton in Septem-
ber, 1932, at which research and study
projects in adult reading were completely
reviewed. As a result of recommen-
dations emanating from the Princeton
meeting, subsequently approved by the
Executive Committee of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation allocated
$6,000 for further studies and research as-
signed in varying amounts: for continu-
ance of studies of what people want to
read about by Douglas Waples of the
Graduate Library School of the Univer-
sity of Chicago; for continuance of stud-
ies of the reading achievements and
difficulties of adults of limited education
by William S. Gray of the School of Ed-
ucation of the University of Chicago; and
for certain comparative studies of read-
ing interests in the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and in the United States
of America. These comparative studies
are being conducted in England by R. S.
Lambert of the British Broadcasting
Corporation, and will form a part of a
series with other national studies made
by Dr. Waples in continental European
countries. It is expected that the studies
conducted by Professors Waples and
Gray will be published in 1933-34.
On recommendation of the Committee
on Adult Reading, the Association has
continued certain subsidies to the read-
ers' adviser's office of the New York
Public Library, which have made pos-
sible an examination of the reading pro-
grams of a considerable group of patrons


of the New York Public Library. This
work has been carried on under the di-
rection of Jennie M. Flexner, who, with
the cooperation of Dr. Waples, expects to
publish the results of her study in the fall
of 1933.

RURAL ADULT EDUCATION
The completion on January 1, 1933,
of the manuscript of the Landis-Willard
Rural Adult Education marks the end
of the first stage of studies of adult edu-
cation in rural life initiated by the Asso-
ciation in 1928. These studies, it will be
remembered, were commenced by the
late John D. Willard, Research Asso-
ciate on the staff of the Association until
December, 1931. Benson Y. Landis,
Executive Secretary of the American
Country Life Association and Associate
Secretary of the Federal Council of
Churches of Christ in America, picked
up the task dropped by Professor Willard
at his death. He was able to utilize cer-
tain of Professor Willard's notes which
he supplemented by investigations of his
own. Rural Adult Education (Mac-
millan, 1933) constitutes an achievement
on the part of the Association in the face
of considerable odds. This book is the
first attempt to analyze and to set down
in cross section those educational ac-
tivities peculiar to rural residents of this
country.
Dr. Landis has kept in touch with the
various state programs, particularly in
Vermont, West Virginia, and California,
all of which have been progressing under
local initiative and despite the handicap
of lack of funds. The depression has
undeniably retarded state-wide projects
in Delaware, Utah, Iowa, Minnesota,
Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Oregon, and
Virginia, but there is reason to believe
that the movements in these areas are
not dead and that, given a return to


AMA









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


approximately normal conditions, they
will eventuate in significant state pro-
grams.
The Macmillan Company has also an-
nounced the imminent publication of
Adult Education and Social Plan-
ning, a report written by John W.
Herring on the four-year project in
county-wide adult education conducted
by the Chester County Health and Wel-
fare Council.
The Standing Committee on Rural
Education of the Association has been
augmented during the year by the addi-
tion of several non-members of the Ex-
ecutive Board. The reconstituted com-
mittee now consists of the following:
Benson Y. Landis (Chairman), Arthur
E. Bestor, Edmund de S. Brunner,
Kenyon L. Butterfield, Allen Eaton,
Grace Frysinger, Elizabeth B. Herring,
William J. Hutchins, Elizabeth C.
Morriss.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
It has been a matter of gratification to
the Executive Board to note the in-
creasing tendency on the part of urban
communities to organize for adult educa-
tion purposes. During the year some
eight organizations have come into exist-
ence, each with a program wholly unique
and directed at local problems. Organi-
zations for adult education are now
active in the following communities:
Albany, Atlanta, Brooklyn, Buffalo,
Canandaigua (New York), Chicago,
Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Des Moines,
Detroit, Flint (Michigan), Indianapolis,
Minneapolis, Nashville, New York City,
Pittsburgh, Radburn (New Jersey), and
Spokane. Adult education associations
covering sections of states or entire
states have been formed in California,
Louisiana, Minnesota, and Ohio.
The third and last of a series of three


diminishing grants was voted by the
Carnegie Corporation during the year,
on recommendation of the Association,
to the Dallas Civic Federation and
Dallas Institute for Social Education.
This grant marks the last of the support
subsidies which the Association plans to
recommend to the Corporation. The
excellent record made by the Dallas
organizations has wholly justified the
exception to the general rule made in
this case.
The continuance of the study of a
community experimental program con-
ducted in Radburn, New Jersey, for a
second and final year was assured
through the action of the Carnegie Cor-
poration in approving a recommendation
for a grant of $3,000 made in the fall of
1932. The Radburn study promises to
be of significance in revealing the atti-
tudes, needs, and desires for adult educa-
tion of persons resident in small com-
munities adjacent to large cities. A
notable increase in the number of such
communities in the last ten years-
a phenomenon dealt with in the report
of the President's Committee on Recent
Social Trends-has focused public inter-
est upon social and educational problems
related to such communities. The final
report on the Radburn study will be
available in the fall of 1933.
For some five years the Association
has maintained a policy of refraining
from initiating community organiza-
tions for adult education or from supply-
ing financial aid for their support. The
wisdom of this policy has become in-
creasingly evident. Organizations which
are brought into existence by outside
pressure and initiative and with funds
supplied from without the local com-
munity seem to have short lives. On
the other hand, where local initiative
brings about organization in response to


a0&









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


a need felt within the community, the
chances of continued existence seem to be
far greater.
An apparent exception to the well-
defined policy of the Association was
made this year. Because of the extent,
variety, and peculiar complexity of adult
education in New York City, the Execu-
tive Board recommended that the Car-
negie Corporation appropriate $5,000 to
supplement other sums contributed by
the Macy Fund, the New York Founda-
tion, the Russell Sage Foundation, and
August Heckscher toward the establish-
ment of a New York Council for Adult
Education as a central coordinating
agency. Permanent organization of the
Council has now been completed. A
survey of educational opportunities open
to adults in the metropolitan area is
under way and a bulletin of educational
events is about to make its appearance.


NEGRO EDUCATION
The Association's two adult education
programs for Negroes, initiated on an
experimental basis in 1931-32 in Atlanta
and in the Harlem district of New York,
have flourished through the year and
have presented proof of the sympathetic
attitude toward education on the part of
adult Negroes, both in a northern and in
a southern city. The committees in
charge of the two projects are most en-
thusiastic and each has formulated ex-
tensive plans for the further conduct of
the experiment.
So far the only measures of success
that have been applied to the two pro-
grams have been quantitative. During
the year, however, the Association has
taken a step which will look toward a
qualitative appraisal of the two efforts.
An allocation of $1,000 from the adult
education experimental fund, made by


the Carnegie Corporation upon recom-
mendation of the Association, has made
it possible to secure the services of
Alain Locke, Professor of Philosophy in
Howard University, as observer and ap-
praiser of the two enterprises. Dr.
Locke will make frequent visits to New
York and Atlanta from his home in
Washington, D. C., will advise with the
committees in charge in the two cities,
and at the close of the third year of the
experiments, that is, at the end of 1933-
34, will file with the Association a report
on the accomplishments of the two ex-
periments. It is obviously of great ad-
vantage to the Association to secure an
outside point of view from a Negro ed-
ucator of high standing. Dr. Locke is in
full sympathy with the objectives of the
experiments and is interested also in the
Association's desire to check the results
in a northern city against the results in a
southern city.
The continuance of the Negro educa-
tion experiments for the present year has
been made possible through grants of
$10,000 and $5,000 made by the Carnegie
Corporation of New York and the Julius
Rosenwald Fund respectively. It is con-
templated that similar grants will be
available for the year 1933-34.


ADMINISTRATION
The following members of the Council
have served as officers and members
of the Executive Board for the year
1932-33:

President: Dorothy Canfield Fisher*
Vice-Presidents: Ethel Richardson Allen*
William A. Neilson*
Adam Strohm*
Charles A. Beard*
Alvin S. Johnson*
Chairman: James E. Russell*
Secretary: Jennie M. Flexner*
Treasurer: Chauncey J. Hamlin*
Term expires September 30, 1933.











ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Executive Board
Arthur E. Bestor* Elizabeth C. Morrisst
Harry W. Chase* William A. Neilsont
Linda A. Eastmant Harry A. Overstreett
A. Caswell Ellist John H. Puelichert
Franklin F. Hoppert Robert I. Reest
William J. Hutchinst Leon J. Richardson*
C. S. Marshl James E. Russell*
Everett Dean Martin* Elmer Scott*
Spencer Miller, Jr.t Robert E. Simont

The committees appointed by the
Chairman for the year 1932-33 are as
follows:
Executive Committee: Arthur E. Bestor;
Franklin F. Hopper; Everett D. Martin;
Harry A. Overstreet; Robert I. Rees; James
E. Russell (Chairman); Robert E. Simon;
Morse A. Cartwright.
Annual Meeting: Arthur E. Bestor; Morse A.
Cartwright (Chairman); Franklin F. Hopper.
Art and Museum Cooperation: Linda A.
Eastman; Chauncey J. Hamlin (Chairman);
Franklin F. Hopper; William J. Hutchins;
Adam Strohm.
Community Projects: Linda A. Eastman; A.
Caswell Ellis: Chauncey J. Hamlin; Everett
D. Martin; Elmer Scott (Chairman).
Cooperation with Industry and Labor:
Charles A. Beard; Alvin S. Johnson; Spencer
Miller, Jr.; John H. Puelicher; Robert I.
Rees (Chairman).
International Relations: Arthur E. Bestor
(Chairman); Spencer Miller, Jr.; Leon J.
Richardson.
Library Cooperation:LindaA. Eastman (Chair-
man); Franklin F. Hopper; Adam Strohm.
Negro Education: Harry W. Chase; Franklin F.
Hopper (Chairman); Elizabeth C. Morriss.
Parent Education: Linda A. Eastman; Spencer
Miller, Jr.; Robert E. Simon (Chairman).
Public School Relations: C. S. Marsh; Eliza-
beth C. Morriss (Chairman); Robert E.
Simon.
Reading Habits: W. S. Gray; Henry Suzzallo;
E. L. Thomdike. From the A. L. A.:
Jennie Flexner; Adam Strohm.
Rural Education: Arthur E. Bestor; Edmund
de S. Brunner; Kenyon L. Butterfield; Alien
Eaton; Grace Frysinger; Elizabeth B. Her-
ring; William J. Hutchins; Benson Y. Landis
(Chairman); Elizabeth C. Morriss.
Studies and Research: A. Caswell Ellis (Chair-
man); C. S. Marsh; Harry A. Overstreet.
Term expires September 30, 1933.
STerm expires September 30, 1934.
t Term expires September 30, 1935.


Techniques of Discussion: A. Caswell Ellis;
Mary L. Ely; Everett D. Martin; Harry A.
Overstreet (Chairman); Elmer Scott.
University Cooperation: Harry W. Chase;
William J. Hutchins; William A. Neilson
(Chairman).

The-following members of the Asso-
ciation have served as members of the
Council during this year:
TERMS EXPIRE 1933
J. H. Bentley Read Lewis
Arthur E. Bestor Charles R. Mann
Jessie A. Charters C. S. Marsh
Alfred E. Cohn Jesse H. Newlon
George W. Coleman Paul M. Pearson
R. L. Cooley J. H. Puelicher
L. L. Dickerson Leon J. Richardson
Judson T. Jennings James E. Russell
Parke R. Kolbe Belle Sherwin
John A. Lapp Harold L. Stonier
Clark Wissler
TERMS EXPIRE 1934
L. R. Alderman W. M. Lewis
Seymour Barnard E. C. Lindeman
G. F. Beck Austin H. MacCormick
W. W. Bishop Everett D. Martin
Lyman Bryson John C. Merriam
Margaret E. Burton N. C. Miller
L. D. Coffman Elmore Petersen
W. J. Cooper J. A. Randall
M. S. Dudgeon Robert I. Rees
E. C. Elliott Charles E. Rush
Sidonie M. Gruenberg Robert E. Simon
John W. Herring Hilda W. Smith
Franklin F. Hopper Lorado Taft
Rossiter Howard E. L. Tborndike
Wm. J. Hutchins Levering Tyson
E. C. Jenkins Felix M. Warburg
George Johnson Frederic A. Whiting
C. H. Judd John W. Withers
F. P. Keppel George B. Zehmer
TERMS EXPIRE 1935
Newton D. Baker Mary H. S. Hayes
Remsen D. Bird John Hope
W. S. Bitter Walter A. Jessup
Scott Buchanan Henry W. Kent
Marguerite H. Burnett Robert S. Lynd
Kenyon L. Butterfield Carl H. Milam
Olive D. Campbell Spencer Miller, Jr.
S. P. Capen Fred A. Moore
Harvey N. Davis Elizabeth C. Morriss
Frank M. Debatin Thomas H. Nelson
John Dewey David K. Niles
Helen H. Dingman H. A. Overstreet
C. R. Dooley James HarveyRobinson
Linda A. Eastman Carl B. Roden
A. Caswell Ellis Elmer Scott
John Erskine Walter Dill Scott
Milton J. Ferguson A. D. Sheffield
Nat T. Frame Chester D. Snell
Wil Lou Gray John W. Studebaker
R. M. Grumman Henry Suzzallo
J. K. Hart Henry M. Wriston









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Staff changes during the year have in-
cluded the termination of the appoint-
ment of Benson Y. Landis, upon the
completion of his study of rural adult
education. Because of a marked in-
crease in the administrative load at the
headquarters office of the Association,
it has proved necessary to augment the
staff. Ralph A. Beals was appointed
Assistant to the Director, effective Feb-
ruary 1, 1933. Mr. Beals' services were
secured through the courteous action of
New York University in releasing him
until September 30, 1933, from his
duties as Instructor in English in the
Washington Square College. Mr. Beals
formerly occupied teaching and admini-
strative positions in the University of
California and Harvard University.
Changes in the clerical staff have in-
cluded the addition of one stenographer.

CARNEGIE ALLOCATIONS
At the opening of the year 1932-33,
the Carnegie Corporation placed in
effect a twenty per cent reduction upon
its program allocations in consequence
of increased calls made upon the Cor-
poration for relief and for other purposes
occasioned by the depression. Accord-
ingly, the allocation to the adult educa-
tion experimental fund for 1932-33 was
$80,000 as compared with $100,000 in
1931-32. The difference was offset,
however, by the action of the Corpora-
tion in supporting the Des Moines adult
education project directly from its own
funds. Through this generous action
the Association has been able to carry
on its program of studies, researches,
experiments, and demonstrations with-
out material diminution in a year when
a need for this type of activity has been
more clearly indicated than ever before.
The disposition of the Corporation to
turn to the Association for advice in the


field of adult education and in the many
marginal activities which border upon
it constitutes a gauge of its appreciation
of the assistance given by the Executive
Board of the Association. The Associa-
tion has profited throughout the year
by contact with the President of the
Corporation, Frederick P. Keppel, who
has submitted numerous constructive
suggestions.

THE JOURNAL
Through the loyal cooperation of a
very considerable body of contributors,
the Journal of Adult Education has held
its place during the last year at the fore-
front of educational periodicals. The
Journal is in reality becoming an open
forum for advancing ideals and princi-
ples, opinions and facts, practices and
procedures relating to the entire field
of adult education. Its articles are ap-
preciatively read by an increasing clien-
tele, and the Journal still marks the high
point of the Association's attack upon
the many knotty problems confronting
leaders and teachers in the entire area
of professional activity.
During the year just closed, the editors
have been forced to reject a larger quan-
tity than ever before of printable and in
many cases highly readable material sub-
mitted by competent persons genuinely
interested in the progress of adult educa-
tion. There is no question but that a
periodical which is in a position to reject
material, even when that material is of
acceptable standard, is in healthy con-
dition. The editors, with the help of
the Editorial Board, have attempted to
select those articles which presented new
points of view. In doing so it has been
necessary to refuse print to excellent
statements which on a basis of a review
of the entire history of the Journal were
repetitive in their nature.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


The continuance of the Journal during
the current year was made possible
through an allocation of $15,000 made
from the adult education experimental
fund of the Carnegie Corporation.


HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION IN
THE UNITED STATES
For some time the need for a hand-
book of adult education in the United
States has been apparent. There is now
no one volume to which the educator
or the layman can refer for information
about adult education programs of na-
tional, state, or community organiza-
tions, or for brief expository articles on
the various types of adult education.
To make this information available, the
Association is having prepared a Hand-
book of Adult Education in the
United States, under the editorship of
Dorothy Rowden, Assistant Editor of
Publications.
The annotated lists of organizations
appearing in the Handbook will by no
means be complete. An effort is being
made to list all national organizations
whose adult education programs seem to
merit it, and to include a representative
list of state and community organiza-
tions. To assure the publication of the
latest data, questionnaires were sent to
hundreds of organizations in the various
fields of adult education and certain
national organizations have cooperated
to the extent of preparing and mailing
estionnaires to their constituencies.
response to the questionnaires has
ost gratifying. Many national
Stations, including the American
on of Arts, the National Rec-
reati nation, and the American
Library l nation have undertaken the
preparafl f articles for the book.
Among the subjects to be covered are


unemployment and adult education,
alumni education, agricultural extension
work and rural adult education, art edu-
cation, music, private correspondence
schools, chautauquas, forums, education
for the handicapped, adult education
among Negroes, vocational guidance, edu-
cation for recreation, parent education,
adult education through the churches
and religious organizations, visual edu-
cation, education for the foreign born,
university extension, workers' education,
tax supported adult education, adult edu-
cation through museums and libraries,
political education, education by radio,
adult education through the little theater
and through puppetry, and education for
adult prisoners.
It is expected that the Handbook will
be issued in the late summer or early fall
of 1933.

PUBLICATIONS
The Association published in June,
1932, a bulletin entitled The Oppor-
tunity Schools of South Carolina,
a report of an experiment, described in
the Annual Report for 1931-32, to de-
termine the ability of adult illiterates to
learn. Four thousand copies of this
bulletin were printed and given wide
distribution by the Association. The
Annual Report of the Director of the
Association for 1931-32 was issued in
May, 1932, as a separate bulletin, and
was later incorporated in the June num-
ber of the Journal of Adult Education.
Articles on adult education have been
prepared by the Association for India
and the World, The American Year
Book, and The New International
Year Book.
During the twelve months since the
publication of the last annual report the
Association has been able to distribute
publications as follows:









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


To Members-Journal of Adult Ed-
ucation, Volume IV, Numbers 3 and
4, Volume V, Numbers 1 and 2; The
Opportunity Schools of South Caro-
lina, by W. S. Gray, Wil Lou Gray, and
J. W. Tilton; and miscellaneous leaflets
and announcements.
To Organization Members-In addi-
tion to the above: Educational Ex-
periments in Industry, by Nathaniel
Peffer; Annual Report of the Di-
rector for 1931-32, American Associa-
tion for Adult Education; National
Theatre Conference, reprint from the
April, 1932, issue of Theatre Arts
Monthly.
To Council Members-In addition to
the above: Adult Education and Un-
employment, World Association for
Adult Education; Adult Education in
Massachusetts, The Massachusetts
Commission on the Enrichment of Adult
Life; Des Moines Public Forums An-
nouncement, Board of Education of the
Des Moines Public Schools.
To Members of the Executive Board
and Officers-In addition to the above:
Rural Adult Education, by B. Y.
Landis and J. D. Willard; University
Teaching by Mail, by W. S. Bittner
and H. F. Mallory; The American
Theatre in Social and Educational
Life, by Edith J. R. Isaacs; Summary
of Grants in the Interest of Adult
Education During the Period Janu-
ary 1, 1924, to December 31, 1931, by
Morse A. Cartwright.

PUBLICATIONS FUND
As announced in the 1931-32 annual
report, all income from royalties and
from sale of publications beginning with
October, 1932, has been credited to the
revolving publications fund of the Asso-
ciation. The balance in this fund has
grown from $1,849.17 as of October 1,
1932, to $4,258.48 on March 31, 1933,
the increase being largely due to the
generous action of the Carnegie Corpora-
tion in releasing to the Association ac-
cumulated royalties held by the Mac-


millan Company on the five initial vol-
umes in the adult education series.

RADIO EDUCATION
Contact of the Association with the
National Advisory Council on Radio in
Education has continued cl6se through-
out the last year. A reduction in the
amount of money available for program
experimentation and demonstration on
the part of the Council has necessarily
cut down its time on the air. However,
there has been a steady improvement in
the quality of the programs offered, and
the committees of the Council are busily
engaged on studies not only of future
presentations in various subject-matter
fields but of the techniques involved in
radio presentations.
As yet no successful means has been
devised for determining the effectiveness
of educational broadcasts. It is the in-
tention of the Council to address itself
to the task of enlisting listeners' groups
in some form of loose coalition which will
permit of observation and report. Not
only is information concerning the re-
ception of all broadcast programs desir-
able as a guide to the types of lectures
that should be nationally broadcast, but
it is felt that such information would be
of extraordinary value in stimulating
listeners, both individually and as groups,
to sustained study and reading based
upon the subjects dealt with in such
broadcasts.
It seems probable that the Council
will find it necessary to establish at the
earliest possible moment radio education
committees or councils located in various
key cities of the broadcasting districts
of the United States. Such local coun-
cils would serve as regional focal points
for the amassing of criticism or commit
on broadcasts, and they would serve the
purpose of making vocal that portion of


aS









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the radio audience interested in educa-
tion-a contingent known to be singu-
larly reticent in sending the "fan mail"
through which broadcasters ordinarily
learn the temper of their audiences. It
seems likely that the future of radio ed-
ucation in the United States may de-
pend upon the building of a radio educa-
tion constituency of this nature. Ob-
viously, the National Council is the body
to bring about such organization, since
it has no axe to grind and because of the
high quality of its active membership
and committees.
The original plan of the Council pro-
vided for a clearing house for informa-
tion rather than for a body to be con-
cerned primarily with subject-matter
broadcasts. The justification for broad-
casts that have been made in the past
and that will be made in the future lies
in considering them as experiments. The
function of the National Council as a
clearing house would assume high im-
portance, once the local councils or
committees were established. It is
highly probable that such local councils
and committees in many cases would be
branches or sections of community or
state organizations for adult education.

ALUMNI EDUCATION
Since the original study of alumni ed-
ucation made by the Association in 1929
the increase in the number of educa-
tional ventures conducted by colleges
and universities for their alumni has
been notable. A partial check of such
activities made by Wilfred B. Shaw, the
Director of Alumni Relations at the
University of Michigan in 1932, indi-
cated that there were ninety-six alumni
education ventures under way or in im-
mediate contemplation at that time.
Some of the alumni education projects
have grown into continuous services, par-


ticularly in the realm of reading courses.
Other projects have been confined to
"alumni institutes" or "alumni colleges"
held for various spaces of time, ranging
from a few days to two weeks, usually
following commencement exercises. That
most of these ventures have proved ad-
vantageous, from the point of view both
of the attendants and of the colleges,
seems evident. On the other hand, cer-
tain of them have proved to be passing
enthusiasm and have died natural
deaths.
It is planned that during 1933-34
some effort will be made on the part of
the Association, perhaps in cooperation
with the American Alumni Council, to
conduct a careful inventory and ap-
praisal of alumni ventures throughout
the country. Such a general report
would be of considerable value to uni-
versity administrative officers and to
alumni secretaries in determining fu-
ture policies of their respective institu-
tions.
Accounts of certain of the more inter-
esting alumni education ventures have
been carried from time to time in the
columns of the Journal of Adult Educa-
tion. The economic conferences for en-
gineers held by the Stevens Institute of
Technology at its summer camp near
Blairstown, New York, have demon-
strated the practicability of arranging
alumni education conferences on a voca-
tional basis. Reading experiments at
Lawrence College, the University of
Michigan, Lafayette College, the Uni-
versity of North Carolina, and Ohio
State University have been especially
successful during the years under exam-
ination. The women's colleges, particu-
larly Smith, Vassar, and Wellesley, have
arranged institutes and conferences of
highly interesting and important content
for their alumnae and other qualified









20 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


persons. Certain of the educational
groups meeting regularly at the Colum-
bia University Club in New York have
continued to thrive despite the depres-
sion. There is a growing disposition on
the part of the colleges to admit that
their responsibility for their students
does not end at graduation, and that it
is the proper function of such an insti-
tution to continue to provide intellectual
stimulus throughout the lives of its
graduates.

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Although there are few concrete stud-
ies to substantiate it, there is a theory
current among the more acute of the
directors of university extension through-
out the country that non-credit univer-
sity extension courses are in the ascend-
ancy. An investigation made at the
University of Wisconsin by Chester D.
Snell, Dean of the Extension Division,
indicates that more students in the ex-
tension division at that university are
undertaking extension work not for
credit than are enrolled for academic
recognition. It probably would be prof-
itless to make too careful a study of this
situation, for it seems quite impossible
actually to determine the motives of
students who may be enrolled for courses
given for credit. However, it is inter-
esting and significant that universities
through their extension divisions are
increasingly regarded by the public as
sources of education for education's sake
rather than for credit advancement. Of
course, the suspension of various "re-
fresher" courses, ordinarily insisted upon
by state boards of education but elimi-
nated because of the depression, may
have something to do with the change
in the university extension student
bodies. However, there is considerable
evidence to show that the trend was


under way before the suspensions be-
came effective.
The University of Minnesota during
the year has commenced its inquiry into
the mental ability and achievements of
university extension class students as
compared with regularly enrolled college
students. This study is being conducted
under the auspices of a special research
committee of the University of Min-
nesota to which $10,000 has been granted
by the Carnegie Corporation on recom-
mendation of the Association. The
study involves a considerable amount of
psychological testing, most of which is
now under way. It is expected that the
results of this study will give more in-
formation than hitherto has been avail-
able as to the actual character of the
adult education student body at the
university level.
During the year Herbert Sorenson of
the University of Minnesota has pub-
lished the results of a related psychologi-
cal study under the title, Adult Abili-
ties in Extension Classes, University
of Minnesota Press, 1933. This study
is based on eleven thousand tests ap-
plied to members of extension classes a
at the University of Minnesota. The
larger study referred to above is being
carried out by the University of Minne-
sota in cooperation with a half dozen
universities maintaining extension di-
visions, and with the cooperation of the
psychology departments in those uni-
versities.
The study of university correspond-
ence instruction made by W. S. Bittner,
Associate Director of the Indiana Uni-
versity Extension Division, and H. F.
Mallory, Secretary, Home Study Depast-
ment, University of Chicago, ha -mp
published by the Macmillan Comspe
its adult education series undeMrc+
University Teaching by Mtil. e









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


study represents a careful review and
analysis of correspondence instruction as
conducted by the universities. It pre-
sents evidence as to the efficacy of col-
lege instruction by the method of mailed
assignments. The book seems destined
to have importance in convincing educa-
tors, and particularly the members of
university faculties, of the soundness of
the correspondence method in certain
subject matter fields.
The attention of the Association has
been drawn to certain experiments in
supervised correspondence study carried
on by the University of Nebraska under
the direction of Knute O. Broady. The
feasibility of combining classroom super-
vision at stated intervals with individual
study conducted in the interim seems to
be demonstrated in these experiments.
If the Nebraska studies finally show the
results that now appear to be indicated,
it would seem that an effective econom-
ical teaching device has been discovered.
The Association has kept in touch
with the activities of the National Uni-
versity Extension Association and with
the Eastern Association for Extension
Education.

WORKERS' EDUCATION
Important services have been per-
formed during the last year by the Work-
ers Education Bureau of America, par-
ticularly in the labor institutes arranged
by the Bureau in various parts of the
United States. The institutes are jointly
avembled by the State Federations of
Lamer and by universities and colleges
tFfi!'the state areas. Valuable discus-
sionW of employer-employee relation-
sltP, ariof economic changes affecting
labor 9hd employment on the one hand
and industry and business on the other
engaged the attention of the conferees for
several days. The Association has kept


closely in touch with the program of
the Workers Education Bureau, and
Spencer Miller, Jr., Executive Secretary
of that Bureau, has continued to serve
as a member of the Executive Board of
the Association. The Workers Educa-
tion Bureau is still facing a serious finan-
cial situation attributable not only to
decreases in private donations made for
the support of its work but to the fact
that the labor unions, which ordinarily
supply approximately fifty per cent of
the funds required for expenses of the
Bureau, have perforce cut down their
contributions because of the heavy re-
lief programs which they carry. Finan-
cial embarrassment of the Bureau has
been avoided through a grant of $17,000
for the support of its activities made by
the Carnegie Corporation and warmly
endorsed by the Executive Committee
of the Association.

PARENT EDUCATION
As a final appropriation in order to
carry the United Parents Associations of
New York through the worst of the de-
pression, the Executive Board recom-
mended to the Carnegie Corporation
that the former grant of $5,000 be con-
tinued for the year 1932-33. This al-
location was made for support purposes
and charged against the experimental
fund for 1932-33 on the understanding
that reriewal would not be requested. It
is hoped that adequate public support
will be forthcoming in order that the
largest and in many ways the most ex-
cellent of the urban parent-teacher or-
ganizations may be enabled to carry on
its program.
Officers of the Association have con-
ferred from time to time with officers and
leaders of two national parent-teacher
organizations, the National Council of
Parent Education and the National Con-








22 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


gress of Parents and Teachers. There
is every disposition on the part of the
Executive Board to consider parent edu-
cation an important section of the adult
education field.

NATIONAL THEATRE CONFERENCE
The National Theatre Conference, in-
augurated last year as the result of two
national gatherings made possible by
a grant from the Carnegie Corporation,
has been assisted this year by a further
grant of $5,000 from the Corporation
made through the Association. The
Conference has maintained a library
service, employment register, play pro-
duction and royalty service, information
bureau, etc., and has, in addition, pro-
moted regional conferences, initiated a
survey of material in reference and loan
libraries, and arranged for exhibitions of
costume design, stage design, and stage
architecture. Edith J. R. Isaacs has
continued as Secretary of the Confer-
ence.

RESEARCH COMMITTEE
The standing committee on research
and studies, headed during the current
year by A. Caswell Ellis, Director of
Cleveland College, Western Reserve
University, has applied itself to the
task of publishing the results of the de-
liberations of the committee extending
over the last six years. This committee
was under the leadership, first, of the
late Robert J.Leonard, Teachers College,
Columbia University. It then passed
to Henry Suzzallo, President of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advance-
ment of Teaching, and later was in the
hands of John D. Willard, whose death
in 1932 occurred at a time when the
committee had commenced seriously to
consider the publication of its findings.
Dr. Ellis in his chairmanship has not


confined himself to the findings of his
predecessors, however, but has thrown
out a dragnet in the United States and in
foreign countries with the object of se-
curing suggestions as to proper content
for an inclusive program of research and
study in the entire field of adult educa-
tion. More than one hundred and fifty
people already have contributed ideas
to the research program. Dr. Ellis will
attempt to synthesize this material for
publication in the fall of 1933. On rec-
ommendation of the Association, the
Carnegie Corporation has made avail-
able a subsidy of $2,000 to cover the
cost of preparation and of publication.

LECTURE-FIELD STUDY
In the belief that the field of public
lectures constitutes an important ac-
tivity in adult education, the Executive
Board has decided to initiate a study of
that field in the near future. On recom-
mendation of the Association, the Car-
negie Corporation has supplied $3,000
to cover the costs of the investigation
and such publication as may be deemed
necessary and wise. The request for a
study of the lecture field originated with
a group of representatives of local lecture
organizations which procure their lec-
turers through the national lecture
bureaus. It is the desire of the local
managers to take some concerted action
that will assure lower costs to the public,
a higher rate of remuneration to the lec-
turers, and elimination, in part at least,
of the high percentages exacted by the
managers of the national bureaus for
their services as middlemen. The Asso-
ciation is not committed to any organi-
zation plans whatsoever so far as the
local managers are concerned, nor is it
committed to the publication of the
findings of the study. It does intend,
however, to make such facts as are cj-





AAN









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


piled available to the local managers to
use as they may see fit.

THE ANNUAL MEETING
For its Seventh Annual Meeting the
Association convened in Buffalo, New
York, May 16, 17, and 18, 1932. The
program provided one general session,
five panel-discussion periods, one lunch-
eon forum, two business meetings, and
a dinner meeting which closed the con-
vention of the Association and opened
the Second Annual Assembly of the
National Advisory Council on Radio
in Education. These scheduled events
were supplemented by a number of im-
promptu conferences, called and con-
ducted by special-interest groups.
The total number of persons who were
assigned places on the program was 68,
and more than 30 others were identified
in the reports of the panel discussions.
If the sum of these figures-leaving out
of account the many unrecorded con-
tributors to the program-is compared
with the total number registered, ap-
proximately 175, it is at once apparent
that a remarkably large proportion of
the assemblage participated actively in
the development of the program.
The meeting furnished a clear illus-
tration of the process known in the field
of anthropology as "convergence"-the
development of a surprising degree of
similarity in cultural elements dissimilar
in their origin and evolution. Although
the enterprises and interests in adult
education that were represented at the
convention were numerous and varied,
there was readily discernible in the ad-
dresses and in many of the discussions a
trend-toward a single conclusion; namely,
that tlwonly way by which either indi-
viduals or groups can avert the disasters
that arise out of their own lack of fore-
sight and control is to cultivate the


power to foresee and to plan, through a
program of education. This education
should be made available as fully as pos-
sible to everyone capable of profiting
from it.
Such a program of education, the
members of the Association agreed,
though nation-wide in its application,
should spring from local needs and re-
sponses and be subject to individual
freedom of choice. The principle of
self-determination in adult education
thus set forth at the Buffalo meeting is
one which the Association has upheld
from the beginning and which it has had
occasion, during recent months, to re-
affirm with emphasis. Not unnaturally,
the pressing demands for concerted
thought and action in regard to current
national problems, together with the
feeling that quick results are imperative,
have suggested to many minds the desir-
ability of a country-wide dictatorship of
ideas and a regimentation of thought to
meet the present crisis. In the opinion
of the Association such a campaign,
now being promoted by numerous indi-
viduals and educational groups, would
stultify rather than develop the capacity
for considered thought and action, which
is the ultimate aim. However admirable
may be the intent of its advocates, the
proposed program is in essence not one
of education but of propaganda. And
like all propaganda it has no chance of
producing results that will be permanent
or even temporarily desirable.
The panel type of discussion, which
was tried by the Association for the
first time at the Buffalo meeting, was
found to be, in general, satisfactory, not
because any final conclusions were
reached but because thinking was clari-
fied in the clash of mind against mind.
The merit of the results varied consider-
ably, of course, with the nature of the








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


questions discussed and the character
of the leadership. The best of the dis-
cussions took place when the question
under consideration was more largely one
of opinion than of fact, when it was of
general interest to everyone and of
special interest to the persons selected as
members of the panel, and when the
leader spurred the group to think for
themselves instead of trying to indoc-
trinate or instruct them.


ADULT EDUCATION FOR PROFIT
The steady growth of the adult educa-
tion movement in the United States,
and an increased newspaper press deal-
ing with the subject in the last two
years, have combined to tempt the
purveyors of adult education for profit.
Accordingly, there have grown up, par-
ticularly since 1929, as many as twelve
or fifteen so-called educational agencies,
all of them concerned with financial
profit, catering to the needs of the adult.
These have taken certain familiar forms,
such as the subscription book publishing
business, the correspondence course,
and a hybrid form in which the sale of
subscription books is enhanced through
the offer of study courses based on the
books. They have also taken certain
new forms, such as the adult education
sorority and fraternity, of which there
are no less than a half dozen at the
present time. The organization of these
Greek-letter societies is furthered by pub-
lishing houses or correspondence schools,
in every case established for the primary
purpose of making a profit out of the fees
derived from subscribers and students.
Particularly have these schemes thrived
in the Middle West and Southwest,
although similar activities have been
attempted in the Southeast and in the
Middle Atlantic States. They have been


formed for the sole purpose of providing
molasses with which to catch flies.
It is greatly to be regretted that there
are no effective federal or state laws for
the protection of the ingenuous persons
who thirst after knowledge and seem to
feel that gold seals, jewelry, and em-
bossed certificates are the veritable badge
of education.
In the course of the year there has
been one direct infringement on the name
of the American Association for Adult
Education. Nearly all of the profit-
making organizations use the term
Adult Education in their literature, and
often without doubt they are successful
in selling their wares because the public
misunderstands the source from which
the material emanates. Obviously it
should be the duty of those concerned
with legitimate adult education to see
that these money changers in the temple
should be discouraged in every way pos-
sible and eliminated if legal means can
be found. While it may be argued that
certain of the published books of such
organizations contain contributions by
reputable authorities and that they do in
fact constitute educational material of
value, it still remains true that in most
of the cases so far investigated by this
Association and others interested in the
problem, the price charged the con-
sumer is so unreasonable as to constitute
"racketeering."

NATIONAL PARKS PROGRAM
During the last year the Director of
the Association has served on the Execu-
tive Committee and the Board of Trus-
tees of the National Parks Association.
This organization, through its Commit-
tee on the Educational and Inspirational
Use of National Parks, and through
intimate contact with the National P
Service, gives large consideration toie









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


use of the National Park areas for educa-
tional as well as for recreational pur-
poses. The use of the outdoors for ed-
ucation of a new type, particularly in
science and in art, presents a section of
the field of adult education as yet only
slightly developed but one which seems
to be destined to become increasingly
important.

RECREATION
Since 1931 a careful sociological study
of Westchester County, New York, has
been conducted under the auspices of
Columbia University Council for Re-
search in the Social Sciences, in coopera-
tion with the Westchester County Rec-
reation Commission. The Director
of the Association has served on an
informal advisory committee and,
upon recommendation of the Association
through its Executive Board, the Car-
negie Corporation has granted financial
support which has been of material as-
sistance. The study includes an analysis
of a cross section of the population of
the county, a careful organizational in-
ventory and appraisal, and a survey of
the manner in which the residents of the
county spend their time, particularly for
recreation and education. The results
of this study, which will be available in
published form in the fall of 1933, are
expected to be comparable in interest
with the results of the study of Middle-
town made by Robert S. Lynd and his
associates. Professor Lynd is a member
of the committee in charge of the West-
Aster study.

SPECIAL URBAN SCHOOLS
Contacts of the Association with the
People's Institute of New York and the
New School for Social Research have
continued to be close. Both organiza-
tions have suffered certain curtailrpents


in their programs as a result of the finan-
cial stringency. The recent action of
the Trustees of Cooper Union in lending
support to the People's Institute is an
evidence of the high esteem in which the
Institute and its Director, Everett Dean
Martin, are held. The New School con-
tinues to be the nearest approach to a
community adult education center in
New York City.

MISCELLANEOUS PROJECTS
The Executive Board presented to the
Carnegie Corporation a favorable rec-
ommendation for a grant of $5,000 in
behalf of People's Institute, United
Neighborhood Guild (Inc.) of Brooklyn,
to be used in developing a program for
adults who, by reason ofnadequate
training or unawakened interest, fail to
take advantage of established educa-
tional opportunities in Brooklyn. The
plan provides for twenty-four neighbor-
hood groups for whom study outlines and
bibliographies will be prepared, and in-
struction afforded by a staff of lecturers
under the direction of a full-time staff
member.
A grant of $5,000 was received by the
Executive Board from the Carnegie Cor-
poration to be expended by the Brother-
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Engi-
neers in conducting an educational pro-
gram, with particular reference to rela-
tion of war debts to labor and the prob-
lem of unemployment.
A supplemental grant of $100 was
made to a committee of the American
Prison Association to assist in publishing
and distributing a list of books suitable
for prison libraries.
Experimentation with educational
methods among groups of young busi-
ness and professional women has been
continued by the Young Women's Chris-
tian Association under the grant of


I I *









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


$5,000 made last year by the Carnegie
Corporation upon the recommendation
of the Association. A report on the two-
year study and experiment is expected
to be available by the end of the summer
of 1933.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Because of the world-wide economic
depression, the Executive Committee
of the World Association for Adult Ed-
ucation decided in the spring of 1932 to
abandon its plans for a Working Confer-
ence at Prague in the summer of 1932.
Business meetings of the Council of the
World Association and of the Executive
Committee were held at Durbuy-sur-
Ourthe, August 23 and 24, 1932. No
American member of the Council was
able to attend, although three substitute
members from this country participated.
The three substitutes were Mary L. Ely
of the staff of the Association, C. S.
Marsh of the University of Buffalo (a
member of the Executive Board), and
Fred A. Moore of the Chicago Adult
Education Council (a member of the
Council of the Association).
Plans have been made for a working
conference to be held in the summer of
1933 at Prague, Czechoslovakia. Two
subjects of discussion have been an-
nounced: Rural Adult Education, and
Mechanical Aids to Learning. A con-
siderable American delegation will prob-
ably be present, particularly since an
international conference on Rural Life
is to be held in Berlin immediately pre-
ceding the World Association conference.
The American Association has con-
tinued to participate in the affairs of the
World Association through representa-
tion of its officers and members of its
Executive Board on the committees and
Council of the World Association. Spen-
cer Miller, Jr., has been designated as


the American member of the Editorial
Board of the newly enlarged Interna-
tional Quarterly of Adult Education,
the official publication of the World
Association, which has supplanted the
Bulletin formerly published. The ex-
pansion of this publication has been
made possible through previously re-
ported grants to the World Association
for its publications program.
The American Association has re-
ceived reports of progress from the
British Institute of Adult Education,
which is engaged upon a study of former
adult education students in England
and Wales. It is expected that publica-
tion of this study will occur in 1933-34.

CANADIAN SCHOLARSHIPS
By action of the Trustees of the Car-
negie Corporation a grant of $6,000 was
made to the Association for the purpose
of aiding Canadians interested in rural
life to study Scandinavian Folk High
Schools. In the summer of 1932 awards
were made to two Canadian students,
A. T. Sinclair of the University of
Alberta and H. H. Hannam of the
United Farmers of Ontario. For the
summer of 1933 six scholars have been
appointed to study at the International
People's College at Elsinore, Denmark,
and to visit a number of the outstanding
Folk High Schools in Denmark, Sweden,
and Norway. Those appointed for 1933
are: Donald Cameron, University of
Alberta, Edmonton; H. Trevor Lloyd,
Ravenscourt School for Boys, Winnipeg;
Andrew Moore, Inspector of Schools,
Winnipeg; John E. Robbins, Educa-
tional Statistician, Ottawa; Fred Scott,
Stanstead College, Stanstead; and Lloyd
W. Shaw, Prince of Wales College,
Charlottetown.
In selecting the 1933 scholars from
some thirty applicants, the Association


aS









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


had the advice of a Committee on Awards
comprising Robert C. Wallace, President,
University of Alberta; G. S. H. Barton,
Dominion Deputy Minister of Agricul-
ture, Ottawa; and H. F. Munro, Su-
perintendent of Education for Nova
Scotia.


CONCLUSION
The foregoing report indicates the
wide extent to which the Association's
interest and concern have spread in the
seven years of its existence. No one as
yet has successfully maintained against
the Association a charge of a narrow and
limited program. In fact, friendly critics
have averred that our definition of adult
education is too broad and too inclu-
sive to permit of clear recognition. These
assertions, if true, indicate a point of
view on the part of the Association that
constitutes an asset rather than a lia-
bility. If adult education is to be syn-
chronous with adult life, it is necessary
that the interests of its representative
Association should be as broad as adult
life itself. Since the organization is
neither propagandistic in its nature nor
functionally an operating body in any
subject matter field, it would seem that
the danger of too great diffusion in its
efforts is not real. It is not the ambition
of the Association to make over the
world-it could not if it tried-but its
members and its executive groups alike
feel that the Association may play a
constructive part in the efforts of the
world to make over itself, in so far as
the American social scene is concerned.
At least the Association can be ready
to serve intelligently as it is called upon.
Respectfully submitted,
Morse A. Cartwright.
April 28, 1933
New York, N. Y.


FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, September
30, 1932; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1932; Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year Ended Sep-
tember 30,1932; Summary of Total Income
and Total Expenses for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1932; and Appro-
priations Received for Account of Other
Organizations for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1932.
(As audited by Frederick Fischer, Jr., Member,
American Institute of Accountants and American
Society of Certified Public Accountants.)
II. Statement of Financial Condition, March 31,
1933; Statement Showing Changes in Funds
for the Six Months Ended March 31, 1933;
Statement of Income and Expenses for the
Six Months Ended March 31, 1933; Sum-
mary of Total Income and Total Expenses
for the Six Months Ended March 31, 1933;
and Appropriations Received for Account
of Other Organizations for the Six Months
Ended March 31, 1933.
I
Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director,
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion
60 East 42nd Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have
audited the books and accounts of the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
for the fiscal year ended September 30,
1932, and present herewith the following
four Exhibits and one Schedule:
Exhibit "A"-Statement of Financial Con-
dition, September 30, 1932.
Exhibit "A"-Schedule "l"-Statement
Showing Changes in Funds
for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1932.
Exhibit- "B"-Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1932.
Exhibit "C"-Summary of Total Income
and Total Expenses for the
Fiscal Year Ended Septem-
ber 30, 1932.
Exhibit "D"-Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organiza-
tions for the Fiscal Year
Ended September 30, 1932.
Very truly yours,
Frederick Fischer, Jr.,
Certified Public Accountant.
New York, N. Y.
October 18, 1932










28 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1932

Assets
Cash:
Capital Account..................................... ........... $35,246.62
Managing Account ............................................ 21,878.67
TotalAssets ................................................... $57,125.29

Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ........................................ $492.34
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education................. 256.75
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "D"....................................... 10,000.00
Total Liabilities ................................................. 10,749.09
Net Asset Value .............. ............................... ....................... $46,376.20

The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds, per Schedule "1" ..................... ........... $13,238.46
Publication Funds, per Schedule "1" ..................................... 9,723.33
Special Study and Conference Funds, per Schedule "1" ..................... 23,414.41
Total Funds..................... ......... ........... $46,376.20





EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1932
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September 30, 1931..................................... $10,626.81
Add:
Excess of Maintenance Income over Expenses, September 30,
1932, per Exhibit "C"............................... $2,563.94
Excess of Journal of Adult Education Income over Expenses,
September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "C".................. 47.71 2,611.65
$13,238.46
Deduct-Transferred to Administrative Reserve ..................... 5,000.00
Balance, September 30, 1932 .............................................. $8,238.46

Administrative Reserve
Add-Transferred from General .................................. $5,000.00
Balance, September 30, 1932 ............................................... 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "A" .......... $13,238.46
Publication Funds
International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1931..................................... $11,902.20
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1932, per
Exhibit "C"........................ ....................... 4,857.50
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................................... $7,044.70
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30,1932, per Exhibit "C".... $828.96
Balance, September 30,1932 ................................................ 846







a"










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 29

Publication Funds-continued
Revolving Fund For Publications
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $1,287.25
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit
"C"........................................................ 562.42
Balance, September30,1932 ................................................ $1,849.67
Total Publication Funds, September 30,1932, per Exhibit "A" .......... $9,723.33

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "C".... $4,289.80
Balance, September 30, 1932............................................... $4,289.80
International Conference Travel Fund
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $587.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1932, per
Exhibit "C" ..................................... ............ 150.00
Balance, September 30, 1932 ............................................... 437.00
Industrial Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1931 ..................................... 1,975.60
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1932, per
Exhibit "C" ............................................... 1,654.42
Balance, September 30, 1932 ................................................... 321.18
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... 5,284.38
No change ....................................
Balance, September 30, 1932 ................................................. 5,284.38
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "C".. 8,200.00
Balance, September 30, 1932 ................................................. 8,200.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "C".. 250.00
Deficit, September 30, 1932.............................. .................... 250.00*
Adult Reading Study
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... 1,730.43
No change. .................................................
Balance, September 30, 1932............................................... 1,730.43
Adult Reading Study, Library Experiments
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1932, per Exhibit "C".. 700.00
Balance, September 30, 1932.................... ............................ 700.00
Rural Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1931...................................... 2,154.13
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1932, per
Exhibit "C" ............................................... 266.38
Balance, September 30, 1932................................................ 1,887.75
Study of Opportunity Schools
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30,1932, per Exhibit "C".... 813.87
Balance, September 30, 1932................................................ 813.87
Total Special Study and Conference Funds, September 30, 1932, per
Exhibit "A"..................................................... $23,414.41
Note:
This deficit due to disbursement from Maintenance Funds for the account of Negro Adult
Education Experiments Fund anticipating payment of unpaid balance of $2,500.00 on appropriation
of $5,000.00 pledged by the Julius Rosenwald Fund for the fiscal year 1931-32.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1932


Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ................... $30,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual......................................... $2,053.00
Organizational....................................... 951.26 3,004.26
Journal of Adult Education:
Subscriptions and sales of single copies .................. $783.98
Advertising sales..................................... 114.39 898.37
Royalties from publications ....................................... 470.66
Interest on bank balances ........................................ 653.73
Publications
Journal of Adult Education:
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation..................... 15,000.00
University Correspondence Teaching Study:
Balance on Carnegie Corporation Appropriation received from Uni-
versity of Chicago.................................. ........ 1,028.96
South Carolina Opportunity Schools Report:
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ......................... 1,500.00
Revolving Fund for Publications:
Sales of publications.................................. $43.10
Royalties on publications ............................. 456.84
Received from Brooklyn Council of Adult Education...... 83.32 583.26
Special Studies and Conferences
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ......................... $6,000.00
Community and Little Theatre Drama Conference
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ............... 1,000.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation................. ......... 8,200.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation................$10,000.00
On account of appropriation from Julius Rosenwald Fund.. 2,500.00 12,500.00
Reading Habits Study Library Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ........................ 3,000.00
Rural Adult Education Studies
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation......................... 2,500.00
Study of Opportunity Schools
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ......................... 7,500.00


$35,027.02


18,112.22


40,700.00


Total Income. .................................................. $93,839.24
Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments ..................................... $984.84
Attorneys' and accountants' fees ......................... 125.00
Incidentals............................................. 467.51
Insurance ........................................ .... 53.06
Office library .......................................... 209.93
Office furniture and equipment...................... ......... 23230
Office supplies................... ...................... 429.32
Postage .................. ........................... 439.32
Printing, publications and publicity ...................... 2,667.32
Rent................................................. 2,899.98
Repairs and maintenance ................................ 164.06
Salaries............................................... 21,100.00
Stationery, mimeographing, etc......................... 413.46
Telephone and telegraph ................................ 647.01
Travel. ..................................... ........ 1,447.35
Miscellaneous minor projects ............................ 182.62 $32,463.08







AS










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 31

Expenses-continued
Publications
Journal of Adult Education................. .............. $14,952.29
International Review of Adult Education.................. 4,857.50
University Correspondence Teaching Study................ 200.00
South Carolina Opportunity Schools Report................ 1,500.00
Revolving Fund for Publications........................ 20.84 $21,530.63
Special Studies and Conferences
Canadian Scholarship Fund.............................. $1,710.20
Community and Little Theatre Drama Conference.......... 1,000.00
Industrial Education Study. ............................. 1,654.42
International Conference Travel Fund..................... 150.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments ...................... 12,750.00
Reading Habits Study, Library Experiments.............. 2,300.00
Rural Adult Education Studies .......................... 2,766.38
Study of Opportunity Schools ........................... 6,686.13 29,017.13
Total Expenses..................................................... $83,010.84
Excess of Income over Expenses ............................................. $10,828.40





EXHIBIT C
SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL
YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1932
Maintenance
Income....................................................... $35,027.02
Expenses....................................................... 32,463.08
Excess of Income Over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. $2,563.94

Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Income................................................ .......... 15,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 14.952.29
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 47.71
International Review of Adult Education
Income................................ .. .. .................. .
Expenses.................................................... 4,857.50
Excess of Expenses Over Income, per Exhibit "A, "Schedule "1"............. 4,857.50**
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Income...................................................... 1,028.96
Expenses...................................................... 200.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 828.96
South Carolina Opportunity Schools Report
Income................................................... ... 1,500.00
Expenses...................................................... 1,500.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income.................................................... 583.26
Expenses....................................................... 20.84
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "................. 562.42

Note:
** The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset in each case by unexpended prior
period balances of the respective funds.


AL









32 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Studies and Conferences
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Income..................................... $6,000.00
Expenses .............................. .. ....... ............. 1,710.20
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. $4,289.80
Community Little Theatre Drama Conference
Income............................. ......................... 1,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 1,000.00
Industrial Education Study
Income ................................................... ..
Expenses ..................................................... 1,654.42
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"............. 1,654.42**
International Conference Travel Fund
Income.......................................................
Expenses....................... ..... .................... ... 150.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 150.00**
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Income....................................................... 8,200.00
Expenses..................................................... ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 8,200.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income..................................................... 12,500.00
Expenses .................................................... 12,750.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"............. 250.00*
Reading Habits Study, Library Experiments
Income....................................................... 3,000.00
Expenses..................................................... 2,300.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 700.00
Rural Adult Education Studies
Income. ...................................................... 2,500.00
Expenses..................................................... 2,766.38
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............. 266.38**
Study of Opportunity Schools
Income. ...................................................... 7,500.00
Expenses...................................................... 6,686.13
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".............. 813.87
Total Excess of Income over Expenses............................ $10,828.40

Note:
The excess of expenses over income, due to disbursement from Maintenance Funds for the
account of Negro Adult Education Experiments Fund anticipating payment of unpaid balance of
$2,500.00 on appropriation of $5,000.00 pledged by the Julius Rosenwald Fund for the fiscal year
1931-32.
** The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset in each case by unexpended prior
period balances of the respective funds.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 33

EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1932
Balance, September 30, 1931
Payable to:
National Advisory Council on Radio
In Education ...................................... ................ $9,500.00

Receipts
Appropriations received from Carnegie
Corporation for account of:
Art Workshop of New York .......................... $3,000.00
California Association for Adult Education ............. 7,000.00
Chester County Health and Welfare Council........... 2,500.00
Civic Federation of Dallas........................... 4,000.00
Foreign Affairs Forum............................... 1,000.00
Labor Temple School............................... 2,000.00
Massachusetts Commission on the Enrichment of Adult
Life........................................... ........ 1,200.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education...... 36,250.00
National Board of the Y. W. C, A.. .................. 5,000.00
National Theatre Conference ......................... 4,000.00
Peoples Institute of New York....................... 6,500.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association.................... 6,000.00
Stevens Institute of Technology...................... 1,000.00
University of Minnesota ............................. 10,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York............. 5,000.00
Welfare Council of New York............... ......... 3,600.00 $98,050.00
Appropriation received from John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
for Account of:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................ 11,250.00
Contribution from Mrs. C. C. Rumsey for
Account of:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................ 5,000.00
Total Receipts ................................................... 114,300.00

$123,800.00
Disbursements
Payments to:
Art Work Shop of New York.................................... $3,000.00
California Association for Adult Education ......................... 7,000.00
Chester County Health and Welfare Council....................... 2,500.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ....................................... 4,000.00
Foreign Affairs Forum........................................... 1,000.00
Labor Temple School ........................................... 2,000.00
Massachusetts Commission on the Enrichment of Adult Life ........... 1,200.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education .................. 62,000.00
National Board of the Y. W. C. A................................. 5,000.00
National Theatre Conference..................................... 4,000.00
Peoples Institute of New York................................... 6,500.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association ................................ 6,000.00
Stevens Institute of Technology.................................. 1,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York.......................... 5,000.00
Welfare Council of New York ................................... 3,600.00
Total Disbursements................... ........................... 113,800.00
Balance, September 30, 193.......................................................... $10,000.00
Balance, September 30, 1932, Payable to:
University of Minnesota ................................................. $10,000.00










34 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1933
Assets
Cash:
Capital Account............................ ........ ...... $142,767.36
Managing Account............................................ 32,539.45
Total Assets..................................... ......... $175,306.81
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ...................................... $151.84
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education............... 100.50
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organ-
izations, per Exhibit "D". .................................. 86,500.00
Total Liabilities............................................... 86,752.34
Net Asset Value................................................. ........ $88,554.47

The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Funds, per Schedule "1". .............................. $24,910.06
Publication Funds, per Schedule "I"................................. 24,348.00
Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, per Schedule "1"...... 39,296.41
Total Funds .............. .................................... .. $88,554.47





EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1933
Maintenance Funds
General
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................... $8,238.46
Add:
Excess of Maintenance Income over Expenses, March 31,
1933, per Exhibit "C"............................. $7,768.55
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects Fund, Transferred to
General Maintenance Fund ....................... 3,200.00
Balance Opportunity School Study Fund, Transferred to
General Maintenance Fund ........................ 703.05 11,671.60
Balance, March 31, 1933............................................... $19,910.06
Administrative Reserve
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................. 5,000.00
No change.....................................
Balance, March 31, 1933................................................ 5,000.00
Total Maintenance Funds, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit "A"............ $24,910.06
Publication Funds
Handbook of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C "..................................................... 2,446.08
Balance, March 31, 1933.................................................... 2,446.08
International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................. 7,044.70
Ito change. ............................................... ..
Balance, March 31, 1933........................................ ...... 7,044.70






AAd










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Publication Funds-continued
Journal of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit "C"... $7,769.78
Balance, March 31, 1933.................................................. $7,769.78
Research Report
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit "C"... 2,000.00
Balance, March 31, 1933................................................... 2,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1932 ................................... 1,849.67
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C"....................................................... 2,408.81
Balance, March 31, 1933 .................................................. 4,258.48
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Balance, September 30, 1932 ...... ............ ................. 828.96
No change ...................................................
Balance, March 31, 1933.................................................. 828.96
Total Publication Funds, March 31, 1933............................. $24,348.00
Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................. $1,730.43
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per
Exhibit "C" ................... .......................... 618.84
Balance, March 31, 1933 ............................................... $1,111.59
Library Experiments
Balance, September 30, 1932................................... 700.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per
Exhibit "C". .............................................. 600.00
Balance, March 31, 1933................................................. 100.00
Studies
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31,1933, per Exhibit "C"... 200.00
Balance, March 31, 1933......................... ..................... 200.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................... 4,289.80
Add-Refund of Part of Scholarship Granted prior to September 30,
1932 .................................. .. ............... 120.00


4,409.80
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C"......................... ...... ........................ 87.57
Balance, March31,1933.................................................
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit "C".... 10,000.00
Balance, March 31,1933................... ................................
Industrial Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1932 ................................... 321.18
No change ....................................
Balance, March 31, 1933.......................... ......................
International Conference Travel Fund
Balance, September 30, 1932....................................... 437.00
No change...................................................
Balance, March 31, 1933....................................................
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1932.................................... 5,284.38
No change..................................................
Balance, March 31, 1933............. .... ..............................


4,322.23



10,000.00



321.18




437.00




5,284.38


a









36 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds-continued
Miscellaneous Conferences
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31,1933, per Exhibit "C"..... $2,000.00
Balance, March 31, 1933 ..................................................
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Balance, September 30, 1932..................................... 8,200.00
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C"........................................................ 2,500.00

5,700.00
Transfer to General Maintenance Fund, March 31, 1933............ 3,200.00
Balance, March 31, 1933............ ....................................
National Occupational Conference
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit "C"..... 4,640.83
Balance, March 31, 1933 ...............................................
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Deficit September 30, 1932 ...................................... 250.00
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C" ... ..... ........................................... ... 7,500.00
Balance, March 31, 1933...................................................
Study of Opportunity Schools
Balance, September 30, 1932 .................................... 813.87
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C" ....................... ............................... 110.82
703.05
Transfer to General Maintenance Fund, March 31,1933.............. 703.05
Balance, M arch 31, 1933 .. ................................................
Rural Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1932............... ..................... 1,887.75
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1933, per Exhibit
"C".................................... .................. 758.55
Balance, March 31, 1933 .................................................
Total Special Project, Study, and Conference Funds, March 31, 1933,
per Exhibit "A" .. ................................................


$2,000.00







2,500.00


4,640.83




7,250.00












1,129.20

$39,296.41


EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1933


Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................. $22,500.00
Membership dues:
Individual....................................... $1,461.19
Organizational ..................................... 749.63 2,210.82
Journal of Adult Education subscriptions........................ 667.68
Interest on bank balances..................................... 266.15
Publications
Handbook of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... $4,000.00
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ...................... 15,000.00
Research Report
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 2,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Sales of publications............................... $15.05
Royalties on publications............................ 2,393.76 2,408.81


$25,644.65


23,408.81


a










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Income-continued
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study-Studies
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... $6,000.00
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 20,000.00
Miscellaneous Conferences
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation....................... 2,000.00
National Occupational Conference
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation ....................... 10,000.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriation from Carnegie Corporation............. $10,000.00
Appropriation from Rosenwald Fund.................. 5,000.00 15,000.00 $53,000.00
Total Income.................................................. $102,053.46

Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments .................................... $555.74
Attorneys' and accountants' fees........................ 375.00
Incidentals.......................................... 287.99
Insurance ............................................ 36.55
Office library ......................................... 79.54
Office furniture and equipment ........................ 896.02
Office supplies ........................................ 216.20
Postage ............................................. 311.90
Printing, publications, publicity........................ 700.65
Rent ........................ ..... .................... .... 1,574.96
Repairs and maintenance ............................. 283.00
Salaries............................................ 11,816.62
Stationery, mimeographing, etc......... ............. 241.59
Telephone and telegraph ............................... 355.12
Travel .............................................. 95.22
Miscellaneous Minor Projects............................ 50.00 $17,876.10
Publications
Handbook of Adult Education......................... $1,553.92
Journal of Adult Education ........................... 7,230.22 8,784.14
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study
Conferences ....................................... $618.84
Library Experiments ................................ 600.00
Studies........................................... 5,800.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund ............................ 87.57
Des Moines Adult Education Project ................... 10,000.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects..................... 2,500.00
.National Occupational Conference ...................... 5,359.17
Negro Adult Education Experiments ................... 7,500.00
Study of Opportunity Schools.......................... 110.82
Rural Adult Education Study ....................... .. 758.55 33,334.95
Total Expenses ..................................................... 59,995.19
Excess of Income over Expenses............................................ $42,058.27


S




S


38 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT C
SUMMARY OF TOTAL INCOME AND TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1933
Maintenance
Income......................................................... $25,64465
Expenses ........................................................ 17,876.10
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ............ $7,768.55
Publications
Handbook of Adult Education
Income ........................................................ 4,000.00
* Expenses................... ................................... 1,553.92
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" .......... 2,446.08
Journal of Adult Education
Income....................................................... 15,000.00
Expenses....................................................... 7,230.22
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 7,769.78
Research Report
Income........................................................ 2,000.00
Expenses..................................................
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" .......... 2,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income......................................................... 2,408.81
Expenses ....................................
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" .......... 2,408.81
Special Projects, Studies, and Conferences
Adult Reading Study
Conferences
Incom e ..... ...............................................
Expenses ..................................................... 618.84
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ........ 6.18.84*
Library Experiments
Income......... ... .... ....................
Expenses. .................................................... 600.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" ....... 600.00*
Studies
Income....................................................... 6,000.00
Expenses .................................................... 5,800.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"....... 20.00
Canadian Scholarship Fund
Income................................. ........................
Expenses..................................................... 87.57
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" .......... 87.57*
Des Moines Adult Education Project
Income ........................................................ 20,000.00
Expenses....................................................... 10,000.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 10,000.00
Miscellaneous Conferences
Income......................................................... 2,000.00
Expenses....................... ................................ ... .. I *
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "'" .......... 2,,09Q
*The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset in each case by unexpended pAl
period balances of the respective funds.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 39

Special Projects, Studies and Conferences-continued
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Income........................................................
Expenses...... ............................................... $2,500.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... $2,500.00*
National Occupational Conference
Income......................................................... 10,000.00
Expenses........................... ........................... 5,359.17
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 4,640.83
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income.......................................................... 15,000.00
Expenses........................................................ 7,500.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 7,500.00
Study of Opportunity Schools
Income....................................................
Expenses ....................................................... 110.82
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I".......... 110.82*
R al Adult Education Study
income ......................................................
Expenses ............... ........... ....... ...... 758.55
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 758.55*
Total Excess of Income over Expenses............................... $42,058.27

*The excess of expenses over income of these funds is offset in each case by unexpended prior
period balances of the respective funds.

EXHIBIT D
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE
SIX MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 1933
Balance, September 30, 1932
Payable to:
University of Minnesota ................................................. $10,000.00
Receipts
AppropAiations received from Carnegie Corporation for account of:
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen...... $5,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas............................. 3,000.00
National Theatre Conference........................... 5,000.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association...................... 3,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York................ 5,000.00 $21,000.00
Appropriation received from Emergency Unemployment Relief Commit-
tee of New York, for account of:
Adjustment Service for the Unemployed........................... 100,000.00
Total Receipts ................................................... 121,000.00
$131,000.00
Disoursemnets
Payments'fo:
*-Adjustment Service for the Unemployed .......................... $25,000.00
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen ............... 5,000.00
Civic Federation of Dallas................................... .......... 3,000.00
nversity of Minnesota.................. ....................... 5,000.00
tional Theatre Conference .................................... 2,500.00
bum, New Jersey, Association ............................... 1,500.00
Parents Associations of New York ........................ 2,500.00
tal Disbursements............................................... 44,500.00 t
S Balanc h 31, 1933, per Exhibit "A"................................... $86,500.00
SBalance, SWHch 31, 1933, Payable to:
Adjustment Service.~f the Unemployed............................ $75,000.00
University of Minnelota........................................ 5,000.00
Natioral.Theatre Conference ..................................... 2,500.00
Radburn Association............................................. 1,500.00
Unlite.Parents Associations of New York ........................... 2,500.00 $86,500.00





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