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Title: Annual report of the director
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1931/32
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Preceded by: Annual report of the executive director

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text











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AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION


Annual Report of the Director in Behalf
of the Executive Board
for 1931-32


common witl
concerned wit
oerican Asso
has address
r to those as
seeming
ent.
C
d
t upo
n the sums
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s ha'e I
ofsuc
e that
tifef ad
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h other organizations philosophical-with a skepticism seldom
h sgial forces, the exhibited during the boom days. They
nation for Adult Edu- are also showing a disinclination to ac-
sed itself during the cept business, governmental, or other
aspects of the economic leadership at face value which is at once
ly susceptible of edu- the despair and the hope of the democ-
In an adult popula- racy. While "Black Thursday" in
ted through mounting October of 1929 is now observed as an
through disorganiza- anniversary of a much-lamented stock
n unprecedented de- market crash, the progress of future
s normally applied to events may reveal it as the date of
ellectual welfare, an America's coming of age in both an eco-
Lade t(ive considera- nomic and an intellectual sense.
cat6nal trends. It is Those who have to do with educa-
et to judge whether tion particularly with adult educa-
been attended with a tion-are perhaps more likely than other
cess, but there is rea- groups to reflect public thought accu-
the imposing total of rately. Searchings of soul and question-
ult education organi- ings as to the validity of our socl 1 and
tions throughout the governmental institutions have not been
uted a stability factor confined to those caught directly under
tions. theteel of the capitalistic misstep. Edu- a
*sion of public thought national groups throughout the nation
s, Am the all-abeorb- have signalized the breakdown of busi-
dollar for the dollar's ness leadership by the enlightening dis-
Sezfinme oLthepain- cover of economics as a vital force in the
mnces of a prospesty business of living. True, the professional
I in anjacreased economists in the universities and colleges
f n the- se- have been able to shed little light upon
To 4mextant the national dilemma, but their defection
avellwd sweet: has gwen all themnore-reedom to the ama-
IB g iIples- teur eemomists who have sprung up on
Bcall~lridcal and every4-md armed tothe teethwith theory

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


and but feeblyclothed with fact. And not
backward among the amateurs have been
the educators. They rightly have seen
the commodities in which they deal as
the panacea for the world's ailments, but
in many cases they have wrongly esti-
mated the time required to produce an
educated body politic.
The result has been an acute mental
'colic on the part of some of the educators.
0 The leaders readily would admit that the
record of educational accomplishment
During the crisis has been small, but
would perhaps point to the increasing
use of the radio for education as one
cause contributing to the exceptional
calmness of the public in meeting finan-
cial calamity and unemployment. It is
significant that there has been no marked
diminution of faith in American educa-
tion on the part of the unemployed. We
are as yet lacking in accurate psycho-
logical information as to the state of
mind of the unemployed, considered as a
group. We have not fathomed the intri-
cacies of motive, interest, and attitude
on the part of those who perforce must
"wait for something to turn up." Still
we do know that over and above the
dominant, compelling idea of getting a
job, there have been other reasons why
many of those out of work have sought
educational opportunity for themselves
until the economic storm should have
passed. The facilities available to adults,
however, have come far from meeting
adequately the potential demand of this
large element of the population. If there
has been lack of faith, it has not been
exhibited by the unemployed but by the
very manufacturers of the educational
machine themselves. Many of them
seem to feel that the economic change, so
* profound in its nature and entailing as a
necessary concomitant the waste and
scrapping of much that has gone before, .





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should findits counterpart in th
of education.
But social change, unlike economic
change, is neither sudden nor violent; it
is the slow product of years of experi-
mentation. It is unlikely that we shall
devise overnight-or in one or two years
-a new type of school geared, as a per-
manent part of our system, to a change(
set of economic conditions. Nor is
probable that we shall even be successful
in fabricating emergency educational ac-
tivities to meet the obvious necessities
the present acute situation. Time is
too short and experimental funds ar
scarce to yield much hope in this dire
tion. It is reasonable to expect that a
new educational order, for children aM 0
adults, will emerge only after a con
able period of years, during which
imperfections in the gearing
school and after-life will become
fest, even to the less discerning a'
us.
It is inevitable, natural, and ri t
our educational thinking should
hind our economic thinking in this
traced period of change, for if our
tion is to be integrated with the busi
of living, we must first determine
economic bases upon which that li
will depend. Then, and only then,
it be safe to proceed confidently t
an education designed to mak
ing abundant to the indi
however, the serious an
individuals and organize
for education to'conc
open-mindedly and
ideas as they present s;
particularly in ad ent uVf this
ciation tedo so, tihe exW oto
it is responsible for educati
ship. There is a duty to
peiWd oltralAin 0much
and by ever3flbans at hin
o. .." i: .









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Experiments, research, studies, and
demonstrations will acquire an enhanced
importance in the years to come. But
they should not be allowed to become
part of a preconceived, foreordained
scheme of education for America. De-
duction to the exclusion of other forms of
thinking becomes a danger to a democ-
racy. Such success as we have achieved
in the past has been accomplished in-
ductively by our familiar and sometimes
wasteful "trial and error" method. We
can still afford to adhere to our distinc-
tively American and certainly non-
European mode of progress. A "five-
year plan" for education in this country
could only be put into effect by such a
ruthless disregard of the rights and
privileges of the individual as is asso-
ciated in our minds with rampant com-
munism. And if, by any miracle, such a
plan were agreed upon, it would fail
dismally. But this is not to say that in
five years-or ten-we may not achieve,
by and with the consent of the consumers
of education, a plan that will be worthy
or incorporation in our curiously local
form of educational control.
'1 Most attempts made to provide educa-
t;al facilities to meet the present emer-
gency have been random shots in the
dark. If American luck holds, a few of
them may hit the mark. From them, we
rna ie ean additions of permanent worth
to those facilities now available for
adults. It should be remembered, also,
bat misses teach their lessons as well as
%i hits. A record of failures in edu-

ts, lie similar failures during the
decade with individuals normally
oyed, may conceivably prove of the
st importance in guiding future
action.
English observer ofAmerican adult
cation on a recent Visit thought he





a--


saw widespread confusion existing here
between vocational and professional
adult education, on the one hand, and
the pursuit of knowledge for its own
sake, upon the other. Inferentially he
classifies the entire workers' education
movement of Britain in the latter cate-
gory. It might be interesting to attempt
at some time a scientific study of this
very matter. One may wonder as to the
degree in which the aspirations for
culture of the adult Briton are affected
by material, i. e., vocational or profes-
sional, considerations underlying the
desire for social and political distinction.
In a movement as closely allied with
politics as is British workers' education,
the American working man might easily
see a parallel to his own "vocational
and professional" education. It may
be that the American is merely franker
than the Briton in acknowledging his
motives.
That there is a difference of opinion be-
tween those devoted to a vocational ideal
for adult education and those interpret-
ing true education as a non-vocational or
cultural pursuit has become manifest in
the United States in the last year. The
Journal of Adult Education has pro-
vided a forum in its columns for the inter-
change of ideas on this question. Its
readers are now familiar with the varying
points of view of Abraham Flexner,
James E. Russell, Everett Dean Martin,
and others.
In America, the problem seems to
arise in a difference of emphasis rather
than from direct divergence of funda-
mental belief. Despite the contradictory
nature of the statements so far made in
print, the protagonists of the opposing
schools of thought do not seem irrecon-
cilably far apart. Each is quite willing to
admit the worth of certain arguments
made by his opponents. The vocational-


0








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ist feels the need of cultural objectives
and even goes so far as to attribute them
to his vocational program. The cultural-
ist likewise appreciates the vitalizing
effect upon cultural studies of a close re-
lationship between them and the voca-
tional interests of the individual.
The Association itself has found it un-
necessary to take a definite stand in this
matter, except to reiterate its allegiance
to a centrist position. The vocational
and the cultural seem to be inextricably
intermixed in American adult education,
and the Association must in a large
measure reflect that which is. It must
not lend itself to emphasis upon either of
these, or upon other, extremist positions.
At the same time, its function clearly is
to facilitate the definition of positions
that may be extreme but which, as a re-
sult of group thinking and interchange of
opinion, may be blended into programs
of progressive action. It would be a
sorry day for the Association if it should
fail to give currency to ideas of what
ought to be in adult education; it would
be quite as calamitous if the Association,
through its pronouncements or its course
of action, should lend itself and the
weight of its authority to untried ideas.
A central position is non-spectacular and
difficult of maintenance, but it should
nevertheless remain the ambition of the
Association steadfastly to hold to such a
golden mean.


OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION
Following the conference held in De-
cember, 1930, on Re-education Problems
arising from Technological Unemploy-
ment (described in the Annual Report of
1930-31), the Association through its
Executive Committee embarked on a
series of discussions relating to the eco-
nomic depression, unemployment, and


the possible use and development of edu-
cational means by which certain of the
prevailing conditions may be amelio-
rated. The Committee was of the opin-
ion that new emphasis should be laid on
occupational education and that a por-
tion of the experimental funds made
available by the Carnegie Corporation of
New York should be applied to studies of
existing experiments in this field and to
the holding of conferences and discus-
sions. As the first step in its considera-
tion of these problems, the Association
authorized a study of the Denver Oppor-
tunity School, an institution maintained
since 1916 by tax funds under the direc-
tion of the public school authority in the
city of Denver. Fletcher Harper Swift,
Professor of Education in the University
of California; and John W. Studebaker,
Superintendent of Schools of Des Moines,
Iowa, consented to make the study dur-
ing the late summer and early fall of
1931. The results of their first-hand
examination of the school, in its relation-
ship to the citizenry of Denver and to the
public school system of the city, are con-
tained in a bulletin published by the
Association at the close of the year under
the title, What Is This Opportunity
School? This bulletin, written in popu-
lar style and generously illustrated, was
given an edition size of 5,000 and distrib-
uted gratis to public school officials,
school boards, chambers of commerce,
service clubs and libraries, in cities and
towns of the United States of 20,000 pop-
ulation or more. The bulletin was de-
scribed as "one contribution that educa-
tion is making toward the solution of the
problems of unemployment and social
relief." Recipients were asked to con-
sider whether the study seemed to sg&
gest possibilities for local develJ
and, if so, to-bring it to the attenllff
suitable authorities and of cie and


a
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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


other organizations that might be inter-
ested.
The bulletin was accorded a most cor-
dial reception, several hundred letters of
comment and approbation being re-
ceived. In addition, the Association
learned of a few other instances or
methods of combating unemployment or
of safeguarding against unemployment
through educational means. The extent
of the usefulness of the study will not
really be known for several years or at
least until tax funds for educational pur-
poses are somewhat less scarce than at
present. The desirability is indicated of
conducting, at some future date, addi-
tional studies of related ventures in occu-
pational education, particularly exami-
nations of variations of the normal voca-
tional school routine.
Close touch has been maintained with
the comprehensive and interesting pro-
gram of the Employment Stabilization
Institute of the University of Minnesota.
The Director visited this Institute in
November 1931, and filed a report con-
cerning its "Diagnosis and Retraining"
project with the Executive Board and
with the Carnegie Corporation. The
procedure followed in this project is
highly individualistic, and it is prob-
lematical whether group handling of the
retraining problems involved will become
possible. The program has included an
exhaustive series of psychological tests,
combined with searching interviews, the
whole resulting in an "educational pro-
file" which is submitted to a "staff
ciHrt" for diagnosis. Decision made by
the staff is then transmitted by one of its
ifWbers to the individual concerned and
an attempt made to adjust his personal
problems on the advice of the combined
judgment of the expert group. Of the
cases so far examined, about one in six
ms to call for a prescription of retrain-





[f o r__


ing. As yet the practice has been largely
to route such cases to existing educa-
tional institutionsandagencies. The staff
looks forward to a time when a certain
amount of group handling may be found
advisable. Of course such group handling
would materially cut down the expenses
of retraining which are at present high.
Any attempt to appraise the Minne-
sota project from the point of view of
adult education involves a complete
abandonment of thinking in terms of
groups and the substitution therefore of
individualized educational prescriptions.
It seems probable that the Minnesota
staff will work out a testing and interview
procedure much briefer and simpler than
the one at present in vogue there. Such
a technique may prove to be applicable
in other situations which of necessity will
be less heavily subsidized from the out-
side. The results of these studies, of
course, will be quite as applicable to em-
ployed individuals as to the unemployed
so far as educational needs are concerned.
It is to be expected that a great deal will
be learned from this experiment as to the
disparity between what an individual
thinks or says his vocational interests
are and what exhaustive capability test-
ing, psychological investigation, and
sympathetic interviewing indicate are his
qualifications and hidden desires.
The Minnesota experiment is demon-
strating the need of individual vocational
and educational adjustment for adults as
a necessary preliminary to the wise pro-
vision of educational programs and facili-
ties. There is no reason to believe that
such studies of the individual should be
confined to those who are seeking occu-
pational education alone; it is likely that
similar studies of the individual would be
quite as helpful for those who wish to un-
dertake programs leading to their general
cultural development.


- ldh








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


In any development of the field of
occupational education, the inclusion of
a definite program of vocational and edu-
cational adjustment should not be over-
looked. It would be reasonable to sug-
gest also that whenever and wherever
possible, individual case studies should
precede all attempts to set up educa-
tional programs for adults. The realiza-
tion that most adult education programs
are initiated without accurate knowledge
of the interests and attitudes of the in-
dividuals to be served may be expected
to have a wholesome effect upon future
program-making.
The Association, through utilization of
a balance remaining unexpended in the
Carnegie Corporation appropriation for
studies of occupational education, has
supported the field service activities of
the National Vocational Guidance Asso-
ciation over a period of four months in
the spring of 1932. This service faced
closure because of lack of funds. It was
thought advisable to keep these activities
in operation in case it should prove de-
sirable to relate them to further develop-
ment of the field of occupational educa-
tion. The outlining of future studies
awaits consideration by a series of con-
ferences soon to be arranged.

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDUSTRY
In the fall of 1931 Nathaniel Peffer,
Field Representative of the Association,
completed his study of adult education in
industry. His year of investigation has
resulted in a volume entitled Educa-
tional Experiments in Industry, just
published by the Macmillan Company as
one of its Adult Education Series. This
book is a study in cross section of the
efforts of the modern industrial corpora-
tion to offer educational opportunities to
its employees and to train them on the
job for the job. It is a factual presenta-


tion, together with an appraisal of the
work of the industrial organizations
studied. Mr. Peffer gives some con-
sideration to the question of where pub-
lic responsibility for the education of
adults may be said to end and private
business responsibility to begin. As he
himself states, it has not been possible to
formulate a definite answer. However,
the consideration of this question is en-
lightening, both from the point of view
of the employer and of the employed.
One negative tendency brought out by the
study is especially interesting; namely,
the tendency in the last half-dozen years
to eliminate cultural or background edu-
cational opportunities for employees and
to emphasize vocational work under-
taken for the purposes of the job, often
while on the job itself.

JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION
The Journal of Adult Education has
entered upon its fourth year of publica-
tion. Measured by the quantity and
quality of contributions submitted for
its columns it may now justly claim to
provide a forum for the interchange of
adult education ideas and theories in the
United States. The Journal still rests
under the joint editorship of Mary L.
Ely and the Director, with the coopera-
tion of an editorial board of five members
and a group of sixteen associate editors.
The Journal may be considered the-most
important single activity of the Associa-
tion. It has successfully maintained
high standards in subject-matter cen-
tent, form of presentation, english style,
and typography. Despite the depression
it has kept its subscription lists prac-
tically intact-a better measure perhaps
than any other of the regard in it
is held by its readers. Comme h
the fourth volume, the Joumr ed
certain improvements in tyg hical


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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


form, not all of which were successful.
Efforts in this direction will continue, but
the general plan initiated in 1929 has
been satisfactory and will not be changed.
In particular, the distinctive color of the
cover has proved an asset. The contri-
butions of the Journal to the educational
thought of the country constitute an
achievement of the Association of which
its membership can justly be proud.
Louis R. Wilson, Librarian of the Uni-
versity of North Carolina and Dean-elect
of the Graduate Library School at the
University of Chicago, was appointed as
a member of the Editorial Board of the
Journal of Adult Education in the place
made vacant by the death of C. F. D.
Belden.

NEGRO EDUCATION
As a result of deliberations extending
over a period of more than a year and a
half, the Association has brought about
the initiation during the last year of two
experiments in Negro adult education.
Through the generosity of the Julius
Rosenwald Fund and of the Carnegie
Corporation of New York, which made
grants for the purpose of $5,000 and $10,-
000, respectively, it has been possible to
start the experiment in both a southern
and a northern city. The locations
chosen are Atlanta, Georgia and New
York City, the latter having in the
Harlem district a large population of
Negroes. In both cities a public library
devoted wholly to Negro patronage is
being used as the physical base for the
experiment. In both cases the library
gbs assumed responsibility for the actual
adiarstration of the funds. In both
cities aimittees consisting of interested
Negroes and whites have been formed to
serve in an advisory capacity to the staff
casmeen~wiith the experiment.
In Atlanta, activity started in the
th


early fall of 1931. In New York, because
of delays involved in securing qualified
personnel, it was not possible to begin
until January 1932. The field organiza-
tion work in both cities is in charge of a
competent Negro worker, supplemented
by trained library personnel. An un-
realized but nevertheless important fea-
ture of each experiment has been the
determination of the ability of a mixed
committee, Negroes and whites, to ad-
vise together concerning educational
provisions for Negroes. Neither experi-
ment has been conducted for a period
sufficient to determine whether or not it
will be successful. It is hoped to con-
tinue each experiment for two additional
years, the Rosenwald Fund already hav-
ing made financial provision to that
effect.

RADIO EDUCATION
In the report of the Director of the
Association for 1930-31 notation was
made of the organization of the National
Advisory Council on Radio in Education
as a result of the preliminary study of
this field made by the Association. It is
now possible to report that the achieve-
ments of the newly established Council
for the year 1930-31 have established a
record of distinction and have met with
enormous popular recognition. The
Council held its first annual assembly, in
cooperation with the sixth annual meet-
ing of the American Association for
Adult Education, in New York in May,
1931. This gathering was well attended
and most interesting as the first impor-
tant national conference in a hitherto un-
developed field. Since that time the
Council has gone actively on the air, and,
in cooperation with the broadcasting
chains, has presented nationally a series
of lectures on science, education, eco-
nomics, psychology, vocational guidance,








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


4abor, and government. Through the
American Library Association and the
"University of Chicago Press, printed
materials based on these lectures have
been widely distributed.
The record of the first active year of
broadcasting by the Council amply justi-
fies the initial action of the Association in
seeking to develop this field of education.
The formation of listeners' groups in
various parts of the country for the dis-
cussion of broadcast lectures is significant
from the point of view of adult education
in the United States. For the first time
the public has heard on the air authorita-
tive educational material sponsored by a
group of public-spirited citizens and edu-
cators whose motives are above question
and whose standing in their respective
fields of endeavor constitutes a guaranty
of the quality of the materials presented.
The National Advisory Council is to
hold its second annual assembly in connec-
tion with the seventh annual meeting of
the Association at Buffalo during the
week of May 16, 1932. The close co-
operation of the two bodies has proved
mutually beneficial and a continuation of
that relationship is considered advisable.


RURAL ADULT EDUCATION
It had been expected that the Associa-
tion might announce the completion of
its three-year study of rural adult educa-
tion at the time of the 1932 annual meet-
ing. However, this has been rendered
impossible by the unfortunate and highly
regrettable death in Amherst, Massa-
chusetts, on December 22, 1931, of John
Dayton Willard, Research Associate on
the staff of the Association for three
years. Mr. Willard had been appointed
Professor of Education on the Schiff
Foundation at Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, and was in active service


there to within a few days of his death.
An examination of Mr. Willard's papers
following his death revealed in finished
form little more than an introduction to
his projected book on rural education.
The other notes were in such form that
much more than editorial work was
needed to complete the unwritten chap-
ters. It was thought advisable to pro-
cure for this work the services of a quali-
fied person with wide knowledge of the
rural adult education field. Benson Y.
Landis, Executive Secretary of the Amer-
ican Country Life Association and Asso-
ciate Secretary of the Federal Council of
Churches of Christ in America, has been
commissioned to undertake this work.
Dr. Landis commenced his duties as
Field Representative on March 1, 1932,
the duration of the appointment being
for one year.
The various state and county situa-
tions with which Mr. Willard was in
touch have been progressing under local
initiative. An interesting program has
been adopted in the State of Vermont
and only awaits the availability of funds
to bring it into realization. There is rea-
son to believe that state-wide projects,
now in their early stages, in California,
Delaware, Utah, Iowa, Minnesota, Wis-
consin, Indiana, Ohio, Virginia, and West
Virginia will develop. Naturally the
scarcity of tax funds available for educa-
tional and library purposes will interfere
with the prompt realization of such
plans, but there is every reason to be-
lieve that they will survive the present
emergency. In California, under the
leadership of the California Association
for Adult Education, a comprehensive
state plan is receiving wide support and
will probably be presented to the
lature of that state in the session
The acute and prolonged cha f
the economic depression has m l it








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


necessary for the Executive Board to re-
consider its previously announced policy
of terminating grants to ventures in
adult education when they had passed
the preliminary stage. A case in point is
the program carried on by the Chester
County Health and Welfare Council.
The surprising vitality of this experi-
ment, in the face of severe financial loss
on the part of many of its local support-
ers, seemed to justify the application of
additional funds in order to preserve the
organizational set-up. As a consequence,
the Carnegie Corporation approved the
recommendation of the Executive Board
that an additional grant of $2,500 be
made for the Chester County experiment.
The California state program was fur-
ther supported in the sum of $7,000 on
the basis of the state-wide endorsement
given to the project by a large number of
important institutions and individuals.

ALUMNI EDUCATION
Originally the Executive Board had
contemplated a follow-up study of
alumni education to be conducted during
the year 1931-32. The notable increase
in the number of universities and colleges
adopting and operating programs of
alumni education led to the belief that
sush a study would be more profitable if
postponed for another year. It is ex-
peg that any study undertaken at
that time will have the cooperation of
the American Alumni Council, which
participated in the original survey made
b Wilfred B. Shaw, now Director of
i Relations at the University of
an.
been a matter of gratification to
not cess of alumni experiments
at e college, Vassar College,
e-. the University of
te University, and the
vrens Institute of Technology. All


these projects were undertaken with the*
aid of Carnegie Corporation grants rec-
ommended by the Association. In the
course of the year the Executive Board ;
has not seen fit to change its policy of
refraining from recommending the ex-
penditure of additional funds for alumni
education experimentation, except in one
case-that of the Stevens Institute of
Technology. The somewhat extraordi-
nary success of the Stevens experiment,
carried on in cooperation with the Co-
lumbia University engineering alumni in
the summer of 1931, has led to a repeti-
tion of the subsidy for the summer of
1932, the Carnegie Corporation, on rec-
ommendation of the Association, sup-
plying $1,000. It is confidently expected
that this experiment for the benefit of
engineering alumni will have reached a
self-supporting stage at the close of the
session of 1932. Fifty-five engineers
were regularly enrolled last summer, and
an increase of enrollment to seventy-five
or a hundred in the summer to come is
anticipated. The session of 1931 dealt
largely with the field of economics in its
application to the engineering profession.
Despite the depression and its attend-
ant ills in New York, the Columbia Uni-
versity Club of that city has been able
to continue its courses during the year.
Interest has remained keen, although
enrollments decreased as had been ex-
pected. The Club plans to expand its
educational activities to include general
lectures at which both members of the
Club and their families will be welcome.
In addition, a project is under way
among the Columbia University alumni
to conduct an educational cruise in the
summer of 1932.

ADMINISTRATION
The following members of the Council
have served as officers and members of









10 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Executive Board for the year 1931-
32:
President: Felix M. Warburg*
Vice-Presidents: Ethel Richardson Allen*
L. D. Coffman*
Dorothy Canfield Fisher*
Charles H. Judd*
Everett Dean Martin*
Chairman: James E. Russell*
Secretary: Margaret E. Burton*
Treasurer: Chauncey J. Hamlin*
Executive Board
Arthur E. Bestort Jesse H. Newlon*
Harry W. Chaset Harry A. Overstreett
A. Caswell Ellist John H. Puelichert
Wil Lou Gray* Robert I. Rees*
Franklin F. Hopper* Leon J. Richardsont
William J. Hutchinst James E. Russellt
Judson T. Jennings* Elmer Scottt
Spencer Miller, Jr.* Robert E. Simont
William A. Neilsonf John D. Willardt

The following members of the Associa-
tion have served as members of the Coun-
cil during the year:
EXPIRING 1932
Newton D. Baker Alvin S. Johnson
C. F. D. Belden William H. Kilpatrick
W. S. Bittner Rhoda McCulloch
L. E. Bowman Carl H. Milam
H. F. Brigham Spencer Miller, Jr.
Marguerite H. Burnett William A. Neilson
Olive D. Campbell Agnes Nestor
A. W. Castle H. A. Overstreet
R. J. Condon James Harvey Robin-
Frank M. Debatin son
John Dewey Carl B. Roden
Helen H. Dingman Elmer Scott
C. R. Dooley Walter Dill Scott
Linda A. Eastman A. D. Sheffield
A. Caswell Ellis Mary K. Simkhovitch
John Erskine C. B. Smith
Wil Lou Gray Chester D. Snell
Walter A. Jessup Adam Strohm
Henry Suzzallo
EXPIRING 1933


Ethel Richardson Allen
Charles A. Beard
J. H. Bentley
Arthur E. Bestor
Jessie A. Charters
Alfred E. Cohn
George W. Coleman
R. L. Cooley
L. L. Dickerson
Jennie M. Flexner
Chauncey J. Hamlin
Judson T. Jennings
Parke R. Kolbe


John A. Lapp
Read Lewis
Charles R. Mann
C. S. Marsh
Jesse H. Newlon
Paul M. Pearson
J. H. Puelicher
Leon J. Richardson
James E. Russell
Belle Sherwin
Harold L. Stonier
John D. Willard
Clark Wissler


* Term expires September 30, 1932
t Term expires September 30, 1933
t Term expires September 30, 1934
Deceased


EXPIRING 1934
L. R. Alderman W. M. Lewis
Seymour Barnard E. C. Lindeman
G. F. Beck Austin H. MacCormick
W. W. Bishop Everett D. Martin
Lyman Bryson John C. Merriam
Margaret E. Burton N. C. Miller
L. D. Coffman Elmore Petersen
W. J. Cooper J. A. Randall
M. S. Dudgeon Robert I. Rees
E. C. Elliott Charles E. Rush
Sidonie M. Gruenberg Harriet Sawyer
John W. Herring Robert E. Simon
Franklin F. Hopper Hilda W. Smith
Rossiter Howard Lorado Taft
Wm. J. Hutchins E. L. Thorndike
E. C. Jenkins Levering Tyson
George Johnson Felix M. Warburg
C. H. Judd Frederic A. Whiting
F. P. Keppel John W. Withers
George B. Zehmer
Deceased


The committees appointed by the
Chairman for the year 1931-32 are as
follows:
Executive Committee: Arthur E. Bestor;
Margaret E. Burton, Franklin F. Hopper;
Harry A. Overstreet; Robert I. Rees;
Robert E. Simon; James E. Russell, Chair-
man; Morse A. Cartwright.
Committee on Studies and Research: John
D. Willard, Chairman; L. D. Coffman; A.
Caswell Ellis; Charles H. Judd; Harry A.
Overstreet.
Committee on International Relations:
Spencer Miller, Jr., Chairman; Ethel
Richardson Allen; Arthur E. Bestor;
Dorothy Canfield Fisher; Leon J. Richard-
son.
Committee on Community Projects: Elmer
Scott, Chairman; A. Caswell Ellis; Wil
Lou Gray; Chauncey J. Hamlin; Everett
Dean Martin.
Committee on Annual Meeting: Chauncey
J. Hamlin, Chairman; Arthur E. Bestor;
Franklin F. Hopper.
Committee on University Cooperation: L.
D. Coffman, Chairman; H. W. Chase;
William J. Hutchins; Charles H. Judd;
William A. Neilson.
Committee on Public School Relations:
Jesse H. Newlon, Chairman; Wil Lou Gray;
Charles H. Judd; Robert E. Simon; John
D. Willard.
Committee on Library Cooperation: Judson
T. Jennings, Chairman; Dorothy Canfield
Fisher; Franklin F. Hopper.
Committee on Art and MUseum
tion: Chauncey J. Hamlin,
Franklin F. Hopper; William J.









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Committee on Cooperation with Industry
and Labor: Robert I. Rees, Chairman;
Spencer Miller, Jr.; William A. Neilson;
John H. Puelicher; Leon J. Richardson.
Committee on Parent Education: Robert E.
Simon, Chairman; Dorothy Canfield Fisher;
Spencer Miller, Jr.
Representatives on Joint Committee (with
A.L.A.) on Studies of Reading Habits:
William S. Gray, Henry Suzzallo, E. L.
Thomdike.
Subcommittee of Executive Committee on
Negro Education: Franklin F. Hopper,
Chairman; Morse A. Cartwright.
Death has taken a heavy toll in the
membership of the Council for the year
just closed. John D. Willard was a mem-
ber of this body in addition to serving on
the Executive Board and as Research
Associate on the staff of the Association.
C. F. D. Belden, Librarian of the Boston
Public Library and a member of the
Council since 1926, died in Jamaica
Plains, Massachusetts, on October 24,
1931. Mr. Belden had also served as
Vice-President of the Association during
the year 1930-31, and was a member of
the Editorial Board of the Journal of
Adult Education. Miss Harriet Sawyer,
Aljmni Secretary at Vassar College and
a member of the Council since 1931, died
in Poughkeepsie, New York, on Novem-
ber 2, 1931. Randall J. Condon, for-
merly Superintendent of Schools of Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, and member of the Coun-
cil since 1929, died at Greenville, Ten-
nessee, on December 25, 1931. Each of
these losses has been keenly felt at the
headquarters of the Association.
Staff changes during the year have in-
cluded the termination of the appoint-
A t of Nathaniel Peffer, at the con-
of his study of educational experi-
l o dustry. He left the Associa-
t a take an engagement with
tdusation Board. The ad-
d it f of Benson Y. Landis to
fil the vacancy ldlby John D. Willard
b" refers' to aboe. In the course


of the year Miss Harriet Van Wyck has
been added to the staff for the organiza-
tion of the Association's working library
in adult education and the classification
and enlargement of the pamphlet files.
These materials are now in a condition to
prove of the greatest usefulness not only
in the work of the headquarters staff but
also in connection with an increasing
number of studies and researches in the
field of adult education conducted by
various institutions throughout the coun-
try.
The Association has been able to hold
its own in the matter of membership dur-
ing this, the second year of the economic
depression. This is a notable record, and
testimony in itself as to the degree of
interest on the part of the membership at
large. There have been some losses, of
course, as the result of reduced incomes
and unemployment, but these have been
offset by accretions to the membership.
The number of losses has been surpris-
ingly small.

PUBLICATIONS
The Association published during the
year a bulletin, described elsewhere in
this report, entitled What Is This Op-
portunity School? A Study of the
Denver Tax-Supported Institution.
The Association also prepared and dis-
tributed widely "Living and Learning:
A Brief Aid to the Seeker after Adult
Education." This pamphlet describes
various types of adult education and
appends a list of agencies to which the
adult learner may turn for aid. The
Annual Report of the Director of the
Association for 1930-31 was issued in
May 1931, as a separate bulletin, and
was later incorporated in the June num-
ber of the Journal of Adult Education.
An address on "Certain International
Aspects of Adult Education," given by








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the Director before the Adult Education
Conference in Buffalo in October 1931,
was printed in the September-October
1931 issue of "Adult Education," the
bulletin of the Department of Adult Edu-
cation of the National Education Asso-
ciation. Other articles on adult educa-
tion were prepared by the Association
for The New International Year Book
and The American Year Book.
During the twelve months since the
publication of the last annual report, the
Association has been able to distribute
publications as follows:
To Members: Journal of Adult Edu-
cation, Volume III, Numbers 3 and 4,
Volume IV, Numbers 1 and 2; What Is
This Opportunity School?, by Fletcher
Harper Swift and John W. Studebaker;
Living and Learning: A Brief Aid to the
Seeker after Adult Education; What
Subjects Appeal to the General Reader?,
by Douglas Waples, reprint from the
April 1931 issue of The Library Quar-
terly; and miscellaneous leaflets and
announcements.
To Council Members-In addition to
the above: Annual Report of the Direc-
tor for 1930-31, American Association
for Adult Education; Report of the Cali-
fornia Association for Adult Education,
1931; Bulletin of the American Library
Association, Volume 25, Numbers 4, 7,
10.
To Members of the Committee on
Public Schools-In addition to the
above: Mind and Hand in Adult Educa-
tion, British Institute of Adult Educa-
tion.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Through the late Professor Willard,
the Chairman of the Association, and the
Director, the Association has cooperated
with the public schools of the country in
their plans for promoting a program of


adult education. The organization of
the movement has progressed from the
appointment of a National Commission
on the Enrichment of Adult Life by the
President of the National Education As-
sociation to the appointment of State
Commissions in all the states of the Union.
This action has resulted in the dissemina-
tion of propaganda for adult education
among school men and women, and even-
tually will lead to an enhancement of in-
terest in adult education problems on the
part of official bodies representing the
public schools. Already the programs of
national, regional, and state educational
bodies are showing the effects of the pub-
licity given to the movement by the
National Commission.
In Massachusetts the State Commis-
sion, in cooperation with the Prospect
Union Educational Exchange of Cam-
bridge, has conducted a preliminary
study of adult education facilities avail-
able within that state. This study was
so well compiled that the Executive
Board recommended to the Carnegie
Corporation the appropriation of $1,200
to make possible the publication of the
preliminary survey. It is planned to
give this survey wide distribution in the
hope that other state commissions will
undertake similar studies.
The provision of $5,000 for the oen-
duct of a study to determine the ability
of adult illiterates to learn resulted in a
special experimental effort at the q or-
tunity schools for whites and for Negroes
maintained by the State Board of Edu-
cation of South Carolina. The experi-
ment was conducted in the summer of
1931 at two centers; one where white
illiterates were enrolled, and the other
where Negro illiterates particiA
Two thousand dollars wer us
scholarships of $20 each for one
adult students. W. S. Gray,









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


College of Education of the University of
Chicago, gave personal supervision to the
experiment, in cooperation with Miss
Wil Lou Gray of the South Carolina
Board of Education. J. W. Tilton of
Yale University was the psychologist in
charge. The results of the experiment
have been compiled and placed in manu-
script form. Through the generosity of
the Carnegie Corporation $1,500 has
been made available for the publication
of the study, which will occur before the
summer of 1932. The results achieved
were of importance and throw consider-
able light on difficult problems in the
technique of teaching handicapped adults.
The careful psychological checks made
upon the ability and achievement of the
students have yielded valuable data as to
methods of instruction, types of mate-
rials to be used, etc. The results of the
experiment will be widely distributed,
particularly in those areas of the United
States where illiteracy percentages are
high. One interesting by-product of the
study has been the emphasis that investi-
gators place on informal methods of in-
struction as opposed to total reliance
upon formal instruction in reading, writ-
ing, and arithmetic.
The Ministry of Education of New-
foundland, where like efforts to reduce
illiteracy have recently been in progress,
profited from the South Carolina experi-
ment through the participation of a staff
meimbr -in the teaching group in charge
irn e southern state. Techniques devel-
oped in South Carolina and elsewhere are
h^ applied to illiterate groups of fish-
ermenld agriculturalists in Newfound-
land. recommendation of the Aeso-
ciatio ra arnegie Corporation made
available ,000 for the support of this
work.
As a result of a resolution passed at
Shrth Annau Metting of the Asso-
Li


ciation, representations have been made
to the Department of the Interior and to
the United States Office of Education
urging that a study be made of the pub-
lic financing of adult education.

THE LIBRARIES
The acceptance by F. K. W. Drury,
Executive Assistant of the Board on the
Library and Adult Education of the
American Library Association, of the
librarianship of the public library of
Nashville, Tennessee, temporarily inter-
rupted during the year the extensive
adult education activities of the Library
Association. However, through the per-
sonal interest of the Secretary of that
Association, Carl H. Milam, library
efforts in this field have not been allowed
to languish. Meetings of the Board have
been held regularly, and efforts made to
review the entire library program in the
light of its adult education implications.
Even if the American Library Associa-
tion should merge adult education with
other and similar activities so far as its
administrative organization is concerned,
there is every reason to believe that
adult education activity within the
American Library Association will in-
crease.
The Committee on the Study of Read-
ing Interests and Habits-a joint body
appointed by our Association and the
American Library Association-has not
met during the year, although an impor-
tant gathering of this group is contem-
plated for the near future. In the course
of the year one notable result of this
joint committee's activities became avail-
able to the public in the form of a volume
entitled What People Want to Read
About by Douglas Waples and H. W.
Tyler. This volume was published
jointly by the American Library Asso-
ciation and the University of Chicago








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Press. It contains a full discussion and
description of the researches leading to
the development of the Waples "interest-
finder," which is already proving of use
to librarians and adult education groups
inquiring into the interests and attitudes
of their clientele and memberships. Dr.
Waples has spent a portion of the year in
Europe-largely in Germany-seeking
comparative data for use in his researches
which will be continued in this country
at the University of Chicago Graduate
Library School. Progress has been made
by Dean Gray of the University of Chi-
cago with his studies of the reading
achievements and difficulties of adults of
limited education. These studies will be
published in the fall of 1933.
The death in White Plains, New York,
on January 11, 1932 of Miss Sarah C. N.
Bogle, Assistant Secretary of the Ameri-
can Library Association, should be chron-
icled as a definite loss to adult education.
Miss Bogle's interest in library activity
in educational matters was great. She
served as substitute member of the Coun-
cil of the World Association for Adult
Education at the meetings held in
Sweden in 1930.
At the request of the Association,
$3,000 has been made available by the
Carnegie Corporation for the conduct of
a series of library tests to determine read-
ing interests among library patrons. The
first series of tests is being conducted in
the Readers' Adviser's office of the New
York Public Library, where case studies
of the reading experiences of patrons of
that office are being made. The studies
will extend over an initial period of six
months.

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
The Executive Board, and later the
Trustees of the Carnegie Corporation,
acted favorably upon a proposal emanat-


ing from a special research committee of
the University of Minnesota for the con-
duct of a study of the mental ability and
achievements of university extension
class students as compared with regu-
larly enrolled college students. The sum
of $10,000 has been made available for
this study. The data will be handled at
the University of Minnesota, but the
plan calls for cooperation with certain
other university extension groups, not-
ably those at the University of Wiscon-
sin, the University of California, and the
University of Virginia. Work upon this
project will start in the near future. The
procedure outlined at the University of
Minnesota includes a considerable pro-
gram of psychological testing designed to
show: (1) The ability of extension stu-
dents (a) as compared with other uni-
versity students, (b) according to age,
(c) in terms of motives and interests, (d)
in relation to college ability and inter-
rupted education, (e) certain mental
processes as a function of age; and (2)
the actual classroom achievement of ex-
tension students (a) in terms of accepted
academic standards, and (b) in relation
to measured aptitude and years of schael-
ing. Through the investigation it is
hoped to establish some of the more im-
portant psychological principles that
underlie adult education on the univ -
sity level.
During the year the Association has
maintained contact with the National
University Extension Agociation and
the Eastern Association for Bl ion
Education. Both of these oagalif s
have undertaken progfomc ormpastanae
in the university--teneien field. T4e
trend toward-en-credit- courses inA
versity extension6as become
noticeable during the year.
University andc-te Uni t
consin, as instances of this trend









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


that a majority of their extension stu-
dents are now enrolled in non-credit
courses.
In January of 1932 the Director spent
ten days in North Carolina engaged in a
study of university extension and adult
education services conducted in that
state by three state institutions: the
University of North Carolina, the North
Carolina College for Women, and the
State College for Agriculture and Engi-
neering. The study of these facilities
contemplates the establishment of a
consolidated state extension and adult
education service. A report has been
filed with the committee in charge of the
study, of which George A. Works of the
University of Chicago is Chairman, and
will be submitted later to a legislative
commission.

WORKERS' EDUCATION
The Association has been concerned
with the program of the Workers Educa-
tion Bureau of America during the year
just closed. The defection of donors to
the budget of the Bureau, both private
individuals and constituent unions of the
American Federation of Labor, because
of the depression, seriously endangered
the continuance of national endeavor in
this important section of the field of
adehtr ication. In order that the mo-
mertiM n gained by the workers' educa-
tioflhovement in the ranks of organized
labor in America should not be lost, the
Executive Board recommended to the
C egie Corporation the provision of
00 for the support of the Bureau.
stees of the Corporation acted
Supon the recommendation,
arth gy has been supplied, thus
preserving the Bureau from too great
firntial embarrassment. A portion of
tle- sum granted is to be diverted to a
adcast program in the field of labor


economics to be sponsored jointly by the
Workers Education Bureau and the Na-
tional Advisory Council on Radio in
Education.
The exceptional vitality of the pro-
gram of the Workers' Educational Asso-
ciation'of Ontario, Canada, led the Ex-
ecutive Board to recommend a grant of
$5,000 to that Association for the support
of its program. This grant was later
approved by the Corporation. The pro-
gram in Ontario has been worked out in
cooperation with the University of
Toronto, which itself has made material
financial contributions to it.

PARENT EDUCATION
Feeling that the work of a parent ed-
ucation organization of national signifi-
cance-the United Parents' Associations
of New York-should be permitted to
continue despite lack of adequate public
support, the Executive Board exercised
its recommendatory privilege to the Car-
negie Corporation in its behalf. As a re-
sult, $5,000 was made available. Friendly
contact with the National Council of
Parent Education has been maintained
throughout the year.

PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES
Partly as a result of recommendations
made by the Association, the Carnegie
Corporation has agreed to support cer-
tain further studies in the "fundamentals
of interest and motive" to be conducted
by the Institute of Educational Research
of Teachers College, Columbia Univer-
sity. Professor E. L. Thorndike and his
associates will be engaged upon these
studies over a period of three years. Re-
sults are not expected to be announced
before the close of that period.
The British Institute of Adult Educa-
tion has made excellent progress in a
series of case studies of former adult edu-









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


cation students in England. The results
so far obtained are most encouraging,
and seem bound to throw light on the
effect of adult education upon British
workingmen. The studies are in the
charge of a research committee of the
Institute, of which A. E. Heath, Pro-
fessor of Philosophy in University Col-
lege, Swansea, Wales, is chairman. Other
members include H. L. Beals of the Lon-
don School of Economics, and H. W.
Fleming of the Educational Settlements
Association of London. The studies so
far have been conducted with former stu-
dents of Ruskin College at Oxford and
former tutorial class and other students
in North Staffordshire and other English
industrial areas. It is contemplated that
similar studies will be made of groups of
persons who have had no formal adult
educational advantages.

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
A study has been made by the Na-
tional Council of the Young Men's Chris-
tian Associations of educational facilities
available in small cities, and of the educa-
tional interests manifested by residents
of such cities. The place chosen for the
study was Meriden, Connecticut, where,
at the instigation of the Young Men's
Christian Association, a committee con-
sisting of several score of citizens was or-
ganized and cross-section examinations
of the population made. An adaptation
of the Waplts interest-finder was con-
structed and applied to numerous groups
until in the opinion of the local commit-
tee a fair cross section of the population
of Meriden had been obtained. The re-
sults have not yet been fully tabulated
because of lack of funds, but the pre-
liminary compilations indicate valuable
data concerning the actual need and
interests of residents of small industrial
cities.


In the course of the year the Carnegie
Corporation, on recommendation of the
Association, has made a continuation
grant of $5,000 to the National Board of
the Young Women's Christian Associa-
tions. These funds are being applied to
experimentation with educational meth-
ods with groups of young business and
professional women. The results of the
first year's experimentation are so prom-
ising that the Young Women's Christian
Association feels encouraged to continue
them for a second year, when the findings
will be announced.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
The second of a series of three dimin-
ishing grants was voted during the year
in the sum of $4,000 to the Dallas Civic
Federation and the Dallas Institute for
Social Education. Because of the high
quality of their programs, these two or-
ganizations continue to rank among the
most interesting of the community or-
ganizations for adult education. The
Association has also maintained contact
with community organizations in various
other cities including Buffalo, Cleveland,
Chicago, New York, Brooklyn, Nash-
ville, Denver, Minneapolis, and Wash-
ington. In addition, it has welcomed the
organization of the Detroit Institute of
Adult Education, which has develoed
an interesting program in the face -f
what is probably the most acute financial
depression that any American city-has
suffered from. This organization ~ s
been brought into existence laly
through the efforts of Mrs. H. H. Samger.
It has likewise observed with pleasure
the formation of The Association for
Adult Education in Indianapolis,
the chairmanship of L. L. Die
and of the Pittsburgh Co
Education, under the
Vincent W. Lanfear.








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


The Association has lent its support to
a community experimental program con-
ducted in Radburn, New Jersey, the
model suburban village built by the City
Busing Corporation of New York. This
exceptional community consists largely
of young married people of a median age
in the early thirties and of an exception-
ally high degree of educational experi-
ence and background. Theadultmembers
of this community hold membership in
the Radburn Association, an organiza-
tion which they themselves control and
which is engaged in offering educational
and recreational facilities to residents of
the community. There is a high degree
of participation in these programs, and
an excellent opportunity is afforded to
measure adult needs and interests for an
entire community. Varied types of in-
struction have been offered and, as a re-
sult of a grant of $6,000 made by the
Carnegie Corporation on recommenda-
tion of the Association, it will be possible
to conduct a careful check on the results
obtained. A report upon the Radburn
expiment will be issued in the fall of
1932.

OTHER URBAN VENTURES
The People's Institute of New York,
from many points of view a unique adult
oalcatjia venture, has been going
thWpgh a period of severe financial em-
bassssent. Its program has been
mtniwUj deduced, but on the other
Wd its attendance and enrollment have
aar&& y increased during-the year. The
WmivEi-,iw Dean Martin, the
iof 4Le Inetsute, during a por-
m gela ahas been a seriou-lass,
but el etpn to- active service
t redan to believe
th~a B will retain its place
MoreflWt h~titutions for
W on in New Yore. Recom-


mendations made by the Executive
Board to the Carnegie Corporation have
aided in maintaining the organization
of the People's Institute, a grant of
$6,500 being supplied for 1931-32 in
addition to subsidies previously pro-
vided. -
Close contact has been maintained
with the New School for Social Research
in New York, which proved an admirable
host to the Association at its Sixth An-
nual Meeting held in May of 1931. Paid
enrollments in the New School, as in
other institutions elsewhere, have de-
creased because of unemployment and
wage and salary reductions. However,
the institution may be expected to
weather the storm and to retain its out-
standing position as an adult education
enterprise of high merit.
The Labor Temple School of New
York has continued to maintain an in-
teresting and worth-while program in a
region of the city not adequately pro-
vided with educational opportunities for
adults. The Carnegie Corporation, on
recommendation of the Association, has
repeated its general support grant of
$2,000 for the School for the current year.
This is a terminating grant.


PUBLICATIONS FUND
Through action of the Executive Com-
mittee;-all income from royalties and
from sales of publications other than the
Journal, commencing with the fiscal year
1932-33 will be credited to the revolving
publications fund of the Association.
This fund has made possible the publica-
tion of the study, The Making of Adult
Minds in a Metropolitan Area, con-
ducted under the auspices of the Brook-
lyn Conference on Adult Education, and
was used to make possible also the publi-
cation of a brochure on adult education








18 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


and unemployment distributed by the
Association during the year 1930-31.
The Association has been in receipt
during the year from the Macmillan
Company of $329.49 as royalties on
books sold from the adult education
series of that company for the year end-
ing April 30, 1931.

CORRESPONDENCE STUDY
The University of Chicago has turned
over to the Association $1,028.96 remain-
ing unexpended in the fund originally
supplied by the Carnegie Corporation
for a study of university correspondence
instruction. This study has now been
completed by W. S. Bittner of Indiana
University, the Secretary of the National
University Extension Association. The
manuscript is undergoing final revision
by the author but should be available in
book form by the fall of 1932 under the
title, University Teaching By Mail.

RECREATION
A careful study of a suburban area ad-
jacent to a large city is being conducted
during the year under the auspices of the
Columbia University Council of the So-
cial Science Research Council. A com-
plete inventory of educational and rec-
reational facilities available in West-
chester County, New York, has been
made, together with a series of case stud-
ies representing a cross section of the
County. Results so far obtained indicate
the advisability of the development of
educational opportunities in the fine arts.
The final results of the study will become
available during the year 1932-33. The
Association has participated in this
study through its recommendation, sub-
sequently approved by the Carnegie Cor-
poration, of a grant of $5,000 for tlis
purpose.


LITTLE THEATER MOVEMENT
The Association, through the financial
cooperation of the Carnegie Corporation,
has made possible the holding of two
national conferences of representatives
of little theaters and university theaters.
As a result there has been formed the
National Theater Conference, with head-
quarters in New York in cooperation
with the "Theatre Arts Monthly." Mrs.
Edith J. R. Isaacs has taken over the
active secretaryship of the organization
and, upon recommendation of the Asso-
ciation, the Corporation has made avail-
able $4,000 which will be used in pre-
paring a number of leaflets and brochures
for distribution to little theaters, com-
munity theaters, dramatic groups, col-
leges, and schools. This service will be
financed for an initial period on a trial
basis, and an effort made during that
period to determine future means of
financing.

PRISON EDUCATION
The Association has continued it1in-
terest in prison education through-oWl-
tribution of $500 made to a committee of
the American Prison Association for the
publication and distribution of a hand-
book and book list to librarians of pial
institutions. This activity follows upon
the study made by Austin H. MacCor-
mick for the National Society of Penal
Information, resulting in the volume,
The Education of Adult Prisoners.

MISCELLANEOUS PROJECTS ,
In cooperation with the Welfare Cnm-
cil of New York City, the- Assowinon
initiated during the year an expemaent
with an age-group hitherto not-em-l
by adult education. This vopo
consists of an instr"etie t
arts and ha~icrafts condu
Welfare Coancil in -homes









AWUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


the New York metropolitan area. The
individuals participating are from sixty
to eighty years of age. The amount of
the grant is $3,600 and it has been sup-
plied by the Carnegie Corporation for
one year only, in the hope that a success-
ful demonstration over this period will
evoke such interest in the boards of
trustees of the homes for the aged as to
insure the continuance of the plan be-
yond that period.
The Executive Board repeated for a
second year its recommendation to the
Carnegie Corporation for a continuation
grant of $3,000 to the Art Workshop of
New York. This is an effort to provide
cultural and artistic outlets for working
girls. It was felt advisable to continue
financial cooperation because of the in-
creased needs for such services arising
out of the unemployment situation.
The Executive Board presented to the
Cawegie Corporation a favorable recom-
sratien for a grant of $1,000 in be-
Ialf of the work of the Foreign Affairs
Perum of New York, which has been
oM acting experimental programs in
international relations for groups of
people not hitherto reached by services
in this field elsewhere available.
The Executive Board joined with the
director, following his trip of inspection
to~..land College of Western Reserve
1&versity, in recommending to the Car-
rptoi ion a grant of $50,000 to
eft m its general support during
r me ewm It war-felt that the
a '" of ~Cleveland Col-
edwtietrrnjeified the ex-
altok* at a time when its
ree e rioAy- depleted
e reases.
cive Board,

year the petltion of
Professor of Education at Teaeh-


ers College, Columbia University, carry-
ing on the courses in adult education that
had been left without an instructor
through the death of Professor Willard.

CARNEGIE ALLOCATIONS
The action of the Trustees of the Car-
negie Corporation in voting a grant of
$150,000 for the general maintenance of
the American Association for Adult Edu-
cation for the five-year period commenc-
ing October 1, 1931, constitutes, of
course, an action of major importance to
friends of the adult education movement.
The confidence of the President and
Trustees of the Corporation in the leader-
ship of the Association in this field is a
matter upon which the membership of
the Association may congratulate itself.
The Executive Board sent to the Presi-
dent of the Carnegie Corporation a state-
ment setting forth their gratitude at the
action taken, and expressing the hope
that the work of the Association might
justify this considerable appropriation of
funds.
The Trustees also set aside as an adult
education experimental fund for the aca-
demic year 1931-32 a total amount of
$100,000, to whichwas added the amount
remaining unexpended in the similar
fund for 1930-31, making a total avail-
able for the fiscal year of $104,500. This
amount has been allocated during the
year by the Corporation upon recom-
mendation of the Association.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
More than a hundred invited guests
and members of the Council of the World
Association for Adult Education met
during the week of August 16, 1931, in
Vienna, Austria, to consider business of
the World Association and to participate
in two working conferences-one on
adult education in relation to unemploy-








20 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ment, and the second on the radio in re-
lation to adult education. Those present
included Spencer Miller, Jr., and the
Director, as regularly constituted mem-
bers of the Council; and J. Walter Dietz
of the Western Electric Company and
Levering Tyson of the National Advisory
Council on Radio in Education, as sub-
stitute members of the Council of the
World Association. The expenses of Mr.
Miller and Mr. Dietz were met from a
grant made by the Carnegie Corporation
for the purpose. Mr. Dietz and Mr.
Miller both presented papers at the un-
employment conference, and Mr. Tyson
officiated as chairman and organizer of
the radio conference.
An accord was reached with reference
to the expenditure of the Carnegie Cor-
poration grant for the publications pro-
gram of the World Association to the
effect that the Bulletin of that Associa-
tion is to be revamped into a quarterly
periodical. This periodical will be in
charge of an editorial committee of three,
consisting of one Englishman, one Ger-
man, and one American. Dover Wilson
of the University of London, W. Pflei-
derer of the University of Stuttgart, and
Spencer Miller, Jr., have been named on
this board. The English member will
serve as the chairman of the group. Fur-
ther arrangements with regard to the
publications program of the World Asso-
ciation were made in order to permit the
publication of certain reports of standing
committees, the costs of publication to
be made chargeable against the Carnegie
grant to the World Association.
American representation on the Coun-
cil of the World Association remains un-
changed, and the Director continues to
serve as the American member of the
Executive Committee.
No working conferences of the World
Association will be held during the sum-
s


mer of 1932 because of the world-wide
depression. However, a meeting of the
Council will be held, probably in Eng-
land, in August, 1932.

ANNUAL MEETING
The Sixth Annual Meeting of the Asso-
ciation was held in New York City at
the New School for Social Research, May
18-21, 1931. There were more than six
hundred registered attendants, and an
actual attendance of about a thousand.
The success of the program was attested
by many letters received at Association
headquarters. The Annual Meeting was
immediately followed by the First An-
nual Assembly of the National Advisory
Council on Radio in Education. A joint
session with the Annual Conference of
the American Federation of Arts, assem-
bled in Brooklyn, was an enjoyable fea-
ture.
The program of the Sixth Annual
Meeting centered about twopropositions,
each of which was approached from many
points of view and reinforced by-the
testimony of many witnesses. Thefmt-of
these propositions is that the concept of
adult education must be broadened to in-
clude all the activities that can promote
the mental, physical, and spirital
growth of mature men and women; We
have tended to define it teo narrowly in
the past.
The second proposition is that the pur-
pose of adult education should be ex-
pressed in terms not of desirability but
of necessity. Our intellect is tie onl.in-
strument that we possess vdmeby we
may hope to direct our own lives en-to
meet intelligently the situations -at
confront us. It is therefore imperam k
for every one of us to be unre
his efforts to train his judgment,
to his knowthdge, and to incre
wisdom.


..N








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Newton D. Baker's presidential ad-
dress, in which he presented this second
proposition with great force and clarity,
was enthusiastically approved by the
meeting and widely reported and ac-
claimed outside.


CONCLUSION
It is to be hoped that the opening of
the year 1932-33 will see a distinct im-
provement in economic conditions, not
only in the United States but all over the
world. Undeniably, the program of the
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion has been retarded during the year
1931-32 by the necessity of devoting
funds and energies to situations arising
out of the unemployment crisis and the
economic breakdown. The Executive
Board has rightly judged that its first
duty lay in the maintenance of existing
adult education programs. The offerings
of adult education organizations have
perhaps been more needed during the
crisis than ever before.
If the country manages to turn the
economic corer by the fall of 1932, it
should be the function of the Association
to develop to the fullest extent possible
its program of studies, researches, ex-
periments, and demonstrations. It is to
be hoped that eventually the adult edu-
cation experimental fund can prove in
fact to be an experimental fund, and that
its resources may not be tapped for pur-
poses of general support of operating or-
ganizations. The far-reaching impor-
tance of such studies as the Association
may find it possible to sponsor and ini-
tiate will be manifest in the days of re-
construction that lie ahead.

Respectfully submitted,

Morse A. Cartwright.
eril 30, 1932


FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, Septem-
ber 30, 1931; Statement Showing Changes
in Funds for the Fiscal Year Ended Sep-
tember 30, 1931; Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1931; and Appropriations
Received for Account of Other Organiza-
tions.
(As audited by Frederick Fisher, Jr., Member.
American Institute of Accountants and Ameri-
can Society of Certified Public Accountants.)
II. Statement of Financial Condition, March 31,
1932; Statement Showing Changes in
Funds for the Six Months Ended March
31, 1932; Statement of Income and Ex-
penses for the Six Months Ended March
31, 1932; and Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organizations.
I
Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion
60 East 42d Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have
audited the books and accounts of the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
for the fiscal year ended September 30,
1931 and present herewith the following
three Exhibits and one Schedule.
Exhibit "A"-Statement of Fi-
nancial Condition,
September 30, 1931.
Exhibit "A"-Schedule "1"-
Statement Showing
Changes in Funds
for the Fiscal Year
Ended September
30, 1931.
Exhibit "B"-Statement of In-
come and Expenses
for the Fiscal Year
Ended September
30, 1931.
Exhibit "C"-Appropriations Re-
ceived for Account
of Other Organiza-
tions-Fiscal Year
Ended September
30, 1931.
Very truly yours,
Signed: Frederick Fischer, Jr.
New York, N. Y., October 23, 1931.


iAk








22 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1931
Assets
Cash:
Capital Account.......... ........................... $27,449.50
Managing Account.................................... 17,070.15 $44,519.65
Accounts receivable-Refunds on travel advances ................... 587.00
Deferred expense:
Travel expense-Study of Opportunity Schools ................. 850.00
Total Assets ........................... .................... $45,956.65
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ........................................ $602.10
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................ 306.75
Balance payable on appropriations received for other organizations, per
Exhibit "C"................. .............................. 9,500.00
Total Liabilities ................................................. 10,408.85
Net Asset Value ............................................................. $35,547.80
The net asset value comprises the following funds:
Maintenance Fund, per Schedule "l "................................ $10,626.81
Publication Funds, per Schedule "I"................................ 13,189.45
Special Study and Conference Funds, per Schedule "1"............... 11,731.54
Total Funds ................................................... $35547.80


EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE I
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1931
Maintenance Fund
Balance, September 30, 1930............................ ................ $10,503.47
Deduct:
Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "B" $457.55
Transfer to Study of Little Theater Movement to offset Deficit of
September 30, 1931 ........................................ 212.56 670.11
$9,833.36
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses-Publication of Journal of Adult Education
per Exhibit "B"....................................................... 793.45
Balance, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "A"............................ $10,626.81
Publication Funds
International Review of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit
"B".......... ............................................ $11,902.20
Balance, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "A". .......................... $11,902.20
Revolving Fund for Publications
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30,1931, per Exhibit
"B" ...................................................... $1,287.25
Balance, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "A" .......................... 1,287.25
Total Publication Funds-Per Exhibit "A"........................ $13,189.45
Special Study and Conference Funds
Reading Habits Study
Balance, September 30, 1930 .................................... $1,247.89
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit
"B "....................................................... 482.54
Balance, September 30, 1931............................................... $1,730.43
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "B".. $5,284.38
Balance, September 30, 1931 ................................................ 5, 8
Industrial Education Study 1
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "B"................. $1,975.60
Balance, September 30, 1931............................................... qbs






^I










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 23

Special Study and Conference Funds-continued
International Conference Travel Fund
Excess of Income over Expenses per Exhibit "B" .................... $587.00
Balance, September 30, 1931 ................................................ $587.00
Study of Little Theater Movement
Deficit, September 30, 1930..................................... $648.85
Deduct-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1931, per Ex-
hibit "B ".................................................... 436.29
Deficit, September 30, 1931 ..................................... $212.56
Transfer from Maintenance Fund to offset Deficit, September 30,
1931.............................................. ........... 212.56
Balance, September 30, 1931 ..............................................
Radio Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1931 ....................... ............. $639.23
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1931, per Ex-
hibit "B"..................................................... 639.23
Balance, September 30, 1931 .................. .............................
Rural Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1930........................................ $5,995.61
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "B" ............ 3,841.48
Balance, September 30, 1931................................................ 2,154.13
Total Special Study and Conference Funds, per Exhibit "A"........... $11,731.54




EXHIBIT B

STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1931
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation .................. $25,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual........................................ $2,231.00
Organizational ..................................... 1,034.66 3,265.66
Contribution .................................................. 10.00
Journal of Adult Education:
Subscriptions and sales of single copies ................ $811.00
Advertising....................................... 224.95 1,035.95
Sales of publications other than Journal of Adult Education........... 101.40
Royalties from publications ...................................... 1,092.60
Interest on bank balances ........................................ 649.05 $31.154.66
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation.... ........... $15,000.00
International Review of Adult Education
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ 12,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ...... $2,500.00
Received from Brooklyn Council on Adult Education ... 156.68
Sales of publications ................................ 189.57 2,846.25 29,846.25
Special Studies and Conferences
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation:
Reading Habits Study............................. $5,000.00
International Psychological Study of Adult Education. 15,000.00
fkial Education Study ....................... 10,000.00
I-nte tional Conference Travel Fund............... 2,000.00
Conference on Community and Little Theater ........ 2,500.00
Conference on Unemployment and Adult Education .. 1,500.00 $36,000.00
Contribution for Study of Little Theater Movement............... 436.29 36,436.29
Total Income................................. .................. $97,437.20







.il









24 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments................................... $864.96
Attorneys' and accountants' fees ....................... 125.00
Incidentals ........................................... 470.17
Insurance ........................................... 49.00
Office furniture and equipment ........................ 200.00
Office library........................................ 160.02
Office supplies ........................................ 422.22
Postage........................... ... ...... ......... 492.25
Printing, publications and publicity ..................... 3,442.84
Rent............................................... 2,900.04
Repairs and maintenance .............. ............... 143.52
Salaries ..................................... ........ 18,500.00
Stationery, mimeographing and addressographing.......... 589.48
Telephone and telegraph .............................. 647.83
Travel............................................. 2,604.88 $31,612.21
Publications
Journal of Adult Education............................ $14,206.55
International Review of Adult Education................ 97.80
Revolving Fund for Publications ........................ 1,559.00 15,863.35
Special Studies and Conferences
Reading Habits Study................................ $4,517.46
International Psychological Study of Adult Education..... 9,715.62
Industrial Education Study............................ 8,024.40
International Conference Travel Fund................... 1,413.00
Conference on Community and Little Theater............ 2,500.00
Conference on Unemployment and Adult Education....... 1,500.00
Radio Adult Education Study.......................... 639.23
Rural Adult Education Study.......................... 3,841.48 32,151.19
Total Expenses.................................................... $79,626.75
Excess of Income over Expenses............................................. $17,810.45



SUMMARY OF INCOME AND EXPENSES
Maintenance
Income......................................................... $31,154.66
Expenses ................................... ...................... 31,612.21
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"............ $457.55*
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Income. ............................ ................... ... ....... $15,000.00
Expenses ..................................................... 14,206.55
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "......... 793.45
International Review of Adult Education
Income....................................................... $12,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 97.80
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I "....... 11,902.20
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income ...................................................... $2,846.25
Expenses.................................................... .1,559.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 1,287.25
Special Studies and Conferences
Reading Habits Study
Income...................... ................................ $5,000.00
Expenses .................................................... ... 4,517.46
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" ......... 482.54
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Income ....................... ..... ........................... .... $15,000.00
Expenses ........................................................ 9,715.62 f
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... S -8
Inoe.............................$5000










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 25

Industrial Education Study
Income............... ...................................... $10,000.00
Expenses................................................... .... 8024.40
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... $1,975.60
International Conference Travel Fund
Incom e........................................................ $2,000.00
Expenses ...................... ......... ............ 1,413.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 587.00
Conference on Community and Little Theater
Income....................................................... $2,500.00
Expenses................................ ..................... 2,500.00
Conference on Unemployment and Adult Education
Income....................................................... $1,500.00
Expenses ........................... ........................... 1,500.00
Study of Little Theater Movement
Income........................................................ $436.29
Expenses .................................................... ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"......... 436.29
Radio Adult Education Study
Income........................................................ ..
Expenses ...................................................... $639.23
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" ......... 639.23*
Rural Adult Education Study
Income .......................................................
Expenses ...................................... ........... $3841.48
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I "......... 3,841.48*
Total Excess of Income Over Expenses............................... $17,810.45
*The excess of expenses over income for the Fiscal Year ended September 30, 1931, of Maintenance, Radio Adult
Education Study and Rural Adult Education Study. is offset in each case by unexpended prior period balances of the
respective funds.
EXHIBIT C
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS-
FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1931
Balance, September 30, 1930
Payable to:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc ......................... $500.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ................... 500.00
University of Kansas-Research Problems of the Blind .............. 1,250.00 $2,250.00
Receipts
Appropriations received from:
Spelman Fund of New York for:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc ....................... $14,310.99
Carnegie Corporation for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education....... $22,500.00
Chester County Community Study.................... 2,500.00
Council on Adult Education for Foreign-Bor ........... 2,000.00
United Parents Associations........................... 2,500.00
29,500.00
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................. 22,500.00
Total Receipts...................................................................66,310.99
$68,560.99
Disbursements:
Paymnents to:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc........................... $14,810.99
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................... 36,000.00
Chester County Community Study ............................. 2,500.00
Council on Adult Education for Foreign-Born....................... 2,000.00
United Parents Associttions ...................................... 2,500.00
University of Kansas-Research Problems of The Blind .............. 1,250.00
Total Disbursements ................................................ 59,060.99
Bdlaance, September 30, 1931, per Exhibit "A"................................ $9,500.00
bnce, September 30, 1931, Payable To:
I national Council on Radio in Education............................. $9,500.00




kA ' *


a









26 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1932
Assets
Cash:
Capital Account................................................ $55,293.43
Managing Account............................................ 41,867.54
Total Assets.................................................... $97,160.97
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ................. ......................... $171.43
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education................... 120.50
Balance payable on appropriations received for other organizations, per
Exhibit "C". ................................................... 29,900.00
Total Liabilities ................................................ 30,191.93
Net Asset Value ............................................................. $66,969.04
The Net Asset Value Comprises the Following Funds
Maintenance Fund, per Schedule "1" .................................... $21,829.04
Publication Funds, per Schedule " ............................ .... 18,787.19
Special Study and Project Funds, per Schedule "1 "........................ 26,352.81
Total Funds.................................................... $66,969.04




EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN FUNDS FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1932
Maintenance Fund
Balance September 30, 1931........................................ $10,626.81
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B"... 11,402.23
$22,029.04
Deduct-Fund Set Aside by Executive Committee, American Association
for Adult Education, for Miscellaneous Minor Projects ............... 200.00
Balance, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "A" .................................. $21,829.04
Publication Funds
International Review of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $11,902.20
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit
"B"......................................................... 4,857.50
Balance, March 31, 1932............................. ....................... $7,044.70
Journal of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B"...... $7,832.30
Balance, M arch 31, 1932.............................. ...................... 7,832.30
Revolving Fund for Publications
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $1,287.25
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B" 93.98
Balance, March 31, 1932 ................................................... 1,381.23
South Carolina Illiteracy Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B "..... $1,500.00
Balance, March 31, 1932........................................ .. 1,500.00
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B"..... $1,028.96
Balance, M arch 31, 1932 ... ................................................. 1,028.96
Total Publication Funds, per Exhibit "A". .............................. $18,787.19
Special Study and Project Funds
Industrial Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $1,975.60
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit
"B ......................... .... ............................ 335.00
Balance, March 31, 1932................ ................................. ... t0.60





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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 27

International Conference Travel Fund
Balance, September 30, 1931 ...................................... $587.00
Balance, March 31, 1932.................................................... $587.00
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1931 ..................................... $5,284.38
Balance, March 31, 1932.................................................... 5,284.38
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B"..... $7,250.00
Balance, March 31, 1932 ................................................... 7,250.00
Study of Opportunity Schools
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B" .... $1,765.67
Balance, March 31, 1932................................................... 1,765.67
Reading Habits Study
Balance, September 30, 1931..................................... $1,730.43
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B". 1,800.00
Balance, March 31, 1932................................................... 3,530.43
Rural Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1931.................................... $2,154.13
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B". 1,790.60
Balance, March 31, 1932 ........................................ ........ 3,944.73
Miscellaneous Minor Projects
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B".... $150.00
Balance, March 31, 1932 .................................................. 150.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "B".... $2,200.00
Balance, March 31, 1932 ................................................. 2,200.00
Total Special Study and Project Funds, per Exhibit "A". .............. $26,352.81




EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1932
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation .................. $22,500.00
Membership dues:
Individual........................................ $1,792.75
Organizational ..................................... 853.67 2,646.42
Journal of Adult Education:
Subscriptions and sales of single copies................ $733.75
Advertising .................................... .. 50.82 784.57
Royalties from publications ...................................... 329.49
Interest on bank balances ........................................ 427.64 $26,688.12
Publications
Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ $15,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications
Received from Brooklyn Conference on Adult Education $83.32 (
l9es of publications .................. .......... 31.50 114.82
South Carolina Illiteracy Study
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ............... 1,500.00
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Balance of Carnegie Corporation appropriation to University of Chi-
cago...................................................... 1,028.96 17,643.78









28 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Special Studies and Projects
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Appropriations received from
Carnegie Corporation............................. $10,000.00
Julius Rosenwald Fund............................ 2,500.00 $12,500.00
Study of Opportunity Schools
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ 7,500.00
Reading Habits Study
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ................ 3,000.00
Rural Adult Education Study
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ................ 2,500.00
Miscellaneous Minor Projects
Fund set aside by Executive Committee ........................ 200.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation................ 2,200.00 $27,900.00
Total Incom e..................................... ............... $72,231.90
Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments .................................... $492.42
Attorneys' and accountants' fees ........................ 125.00
Incidentals ........................................... 310.02
Insurance............... .... ............................. 53.06
Office furniture and equipment ......................... 29.90
Office library ......................................... 172.03
Office supplies ........................................ 191.40
Postage ............................................. 225.00
Printing, publications and publicity ..................... 550.82
Rent..................................... .......... 1,450.02
Repairs and maintenance. ............................. 46.66
Salaries .............................................. 10,199.96
Stationery, mimeographing, and addressographing ........ 272.09
Telephone and telegraph............................... 338.19
Travel............. ............. ....................... 829.32 $15,285.89
Publications
Journal of Adult Education............... ............ $7,167.70
International Review of Adult Education................ 4,857.50
Revolving Fund for Publications ........................ 20.84 12,046.04
Special Studies and Projects
Industrial education Study .......................... $335.00
Negro Adult Education Experiments ................... 5,250.00
Study of Opportunity Schools......................... 5,734.33
Reading Habits Study................................ 1,200.00
Rural Adult Education Study......................... 709.40
Miscellaneous Minor Projects............................ 50.00 13,278.73
Tota Expenses ..................................................... 40,610.66
ABcess of Ind me over Expenses............................................ $31,621.24





















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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 29
e
SUMMARY OF INCOME AND EXPENSES
Maintenance
Income...... ...... ......................................... $26,688.12
Expenbes.......................................................... 15,285.89
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit A," Schedule" "............. $11,402.23
Publications
International Review of Adult Education
Incom e .......................................................
Expenses ... ................................... ............. $4,857.50
Excess of ExExpenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"......... 4,857.50*
Journal of Adult Education
Income........................ .................. $15,000.00
Expenses ....... ........ .................................... ... 7,167.70
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 7,832.30
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income ......................... ............................. $114.82
Expenses ..................................................... 20.84
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I "........... 93.98
South Carolina Illiteracy Study
Income..................................... .................. $1,500.00
Expenses. ...................................................... .
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit A," Schedule "1"......... 1,500.00
University Correspondence Teaching Study
Incom e.................................... ............ .. ..... $1,028.96
Expenses..................................................... ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1".......... 1,028.96
Special Studies and Projects
Industrial Education Study
Income. ........................... ................. .....
Expenses .... ................................. $335.00
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule 1" ......... 335.00'
Negro Adult Education Experiments
Income............................. ........................ $12,500.00
Expenses ..................................................... 5,250.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 7,250.00
Study of Opportunity Schools
Income ...................................................... $7,500.00
Expenses....................................................... 5,734.33
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1". ........ 1,765.67
Reading Habits Study
Incom e.............................. .. ..................... $3,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 1,200.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" ........ 1,800.00
Rural Adult Education Study
Income............................... ..... $2,500.00
Expenses...................................................... 709.40
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 1,790.60
Miscellaneous Minor Projects
Income....................................................... $200.00
Expenses.................................................. ... 50.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I"......... 150.00
Miscellaneous Studies and Projects
Incom e.................... .....................:............. $2,200.00
Expenses...................................................... .
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1"......... 2,200.00
Total Excess of Income over Expenses ............................... $31,621.24

SThe ecer of expcnes over income for the six months ended March 31, 1932, of International Review of Adult
ftluotion and Industrial Education Study i offset in each cae by unexpended prior period balances of the respec-
tive funds.







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30 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

EXHIBIT C
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS-
SIX MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 1932
Balance, September 30, 1931
Payable to:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ............................. $9,500.00
Receipts
SAppropriations received from:
Carnegie Corporation for:
Art Workshop of New York........................... $3,000.00
California Association for Adult Education.............. 7,000.00
Chester County Health and Welfare Council............ 2,500.00
Civic Federation of Dallas.......................... 4,000.00
Foreign Affairs Forum............................... 1,000.00
Labor Temple School .............................. 2,000.00
Massachusetts Commission on the Enrichment of Adult
Life .... ......................................... 1,200.00
University of Minnesota .............................. 10,000.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education....... 36,250.00
National Theater Conference ......................... 5,000.00
People's Institute of New York....................... 6,500.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association..................... 6,000.00
Stevens Institute of Technology ....................... 1,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York.............. 5,000.00
Welfare Council of New York ......................... 3,600.00
National Board of the Y. W. C. A ..................... 5,000.00 $99,050.00
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................. 7,500.00
Total Receipts...................................................... 106,550.00
$116,050.00
Disbursements
Payments to:
Art Workshop of New York....................................... $3,000.00
California Association for Adult Education.......................... 7,000.00
Chester County Health and Welfare Council........................ 2,500.00
Civic Federation of Dallas ........................................ 4,000.00
Foreign Affairs Forum ........................................... 1,000.00
Labor Temple School............................................ 2,000.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................... 48,000.00
National Theater Conference ..................................... 2,000.00
People's Institute of New York ................................... 6,500.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association................................. 3,000.00
Stevens Institute of Technology................................... 1,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York ........................... 3,750.00
Welfare Council of New York ..................................... 2,400.00
Total Disbursements ............................................... 86,150.00
Balance, March 31, 1932, per Exhibit "A"..................................... $29,900.00
Balance, March 31, 1932, Payable to:
Massachusetts Commission on the Enrichment of Adult Life............ $1,200.00
University of Minnesota ........................................... 10,000.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ..................... 5,250.00
National Theater Conference........................................ 3,000.00
Radburn, New Jersey, Association .................................. 3,000.00
United Parents Associations of New York............................. 1,250.00
Welfare Council of New York....................................... 1,200.00
National Board of the Y. W, C. A.................................... 5,000.00 $29,900.00


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