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Title: Annual report of the director
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the director in behalf of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual report of the acting director ( 1947/48 )
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Association for Adult Education
American Association for Adult Education
Publisher: The Association
Place of Publication: New York
New York
Publication Date: 1930/31
Frequency: annual
regular
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/29-
General Note: Volume for 1947/48 has title: Annual report of the acting director.
General Note: Title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: American Association for Adult Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094186
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001807778
oclc - 02056152
notis - AJN1622
lccn - 34040891
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Preceded by: Annual report of the executive director

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY


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MERICAN ASSOCIATION
EDUCATION


FOR ADULT


S Annual Report of the Director in Behalf
of the Executive Board
for 1930-31


""IVE short absorbing years have
passed since some thirty delegates
four regional conferences on
nation gathered at the Drake
Chicago and formed, on March
926, the American Association for
tEducation. While it is the func-
this report to discuss the activi-
te Association for the year
1, it is perhaps pertinent to
y theprogress of the organ-
the quinquennium, for
of the founders was clearly
period should be regarded as
Trial and experimentation. For-
ly, this initial term has now come to
Actually it terminated two years
n, at the close of the third year
ity, the Director was able to pre-
his report for the year 1928-29,
ive evidence of the recognition
lace of adult education in the
nal scheme of the United States.
then possible to state that the
had demonstrated in three
it set out to prove in five:
education should be consid-
tgral part of American edu-
if e.
be recalled that the organiza-
g in Chicago was held as the
Sconferences-one national
onal. An examination of
conferences and of
g itself reveals
t, whi conferees were
common interests among
Ii~ r

r


the various activities which then termed
themselves adult education enterprises,
there were many and varying opinions
concerning the part which a national
association might be expected to play
in the field. The record also discloses,
interestingly enough, the service ren-
dered by Edward L. Thomdike at the
national conference held in Cleveland
on October 17, 1925, when, in his analy-
sis of the group opinions there expressed,
he visualized with almost uncanny cor-
rectness the future program of the Asso-
ciation. The policy of the Association
on such questions as size, studies, re-
search, conference, publication, repre-
sentation, etc., has followed closely, al-
though unconsciously, the Thorndike
forecast and interpretation of the group's
desires.
It seems likely that the wisest de-
cision reached by the founders in 1926
was their conclusion to leave the Asso-
ciation unfettered by either an exclusive
or an inclusive definition of adult educa-
tion. The record refers to a lengthy
evening session devoted to the attempt
to frame a satisfactory definition, which
adjourned in the early hours of the
following morning without reaching
agreement. The Conference thereupon
deliberately chose the course of permit-
ting American adult education to define
itself. As the years have progressed, the
wisdom of this action has impressed
itself again and again upon the Execu-
tive Board, staff and committees. The


a. S


78~-









JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


American definition of adult education
is still in the making, widening in scope
each year and as easily accommodating
itself to the efforts in behalf of literacy
as to the provisions made for collegiate
alumni. The initial emphasis on cul-
tural studies as contrasted with voca-
tional, quite evident in the early records,
has been tempered by time, and Amer-
icans interested in adult education have
more or less unanimously come to the
belief that the two are so closely inter-
related as to be indissoluble. It is
clear that had a definition been devised
in 1926, it would not have been able to
keep pace with the rapid advance of the
movement throughout the country.
The book has not yet been written
which successfully epitomizes American
thought upon all sides of adult education
questions. It will probably be some
years before that book appears. Five
years of experience, however, have re-
vealed the thinking of a number of in-
dividuals, which considered in the mass
approaches an adult education school
of thought. The Chairman of the Asso-
ciation, Dean James E. Russell, in the
last year has brought together the fol-
lowing terse and powerful argument for
adult education, drawn from the writ-
ings and public utterances of educational
leaders concerned with adult problems.
It is published here in its entirety, not
as an adult education creed, but as a
report of progress, albeit incomplete,
in the delineation of the problem of the
Association.


CONCERNING ADULT EDUCATION
Why adult education?
"Democracy can last on just one condition:
getting everybody educated. Schools can give
only schooling (information): education must
be mixed and seasoned with life experience
(wisdom)."
"Nobody needs to be a prophet to foresee
that the next battle in the campaign of


democracy is going to rage around the question
of the possibility and advisability of general
education for the majority of grown-ups, just as
the battle of the last century has been about the
possibility and advisability of general schooling
for all the young."
The interest of government in education is to
secure thereby (1) social stability and (2) the
promotion of civilization.
Why the present interest in adult educa-
tion?
Recognition that literacy, a mere elementary
education, is inadequate to present needs. Civil
order is maintained with difficulty, and too many
citizens are handicapped by economic and cul-
tural limitations.
"The daily job is the chief instrument for the
education of mankind. Good workmanship is
the foundation of good citizenship."
As the margin of profit in business narrows, the
need of better training increases. The broader
the education the more efficient the skilled per-
sonality.
"Adult education, which keeps minds acti.re,
is a vastly important matter, much more im-
portant than the mere question of what men are
to learn."
The new leisure in industrial life, unless wisely
used, is a menace both to personal well-being and
to public welfare.


Adult education now possible as never be-
fore
Increase of industrial power and mass produc-
tion, phenomena peculiarly American.
Census of 1869 showed average American man,
woman and child had equivalent of 12 slaves;
they now have an equivalent of 175 slaves. In
1869, 50 per cent of total available power was in
use of animals; now 97, per cent is mechanical,
and more than one-half this gain has been made
in the last 20 years.
Western civilization is a technological civil-
ization. "It affords the substance with which all
who expect to lead and teach in the modern
world must reckon."
"Mechanization has so increased production
in the United States of America that we could
make all the steel needed in America for a single
year in seven and a half months; all the plate
glass in seventeen weeks; all the boots and shoes,
all the textiles, and all the coal . in six
months."
Twenty-five per cent of our present working
population are working at jobs which did not
exist 10 years ago and within 100 years 300 dif-
ferent occupations have been altogether-sup-
planted.
Grave problem of seasonal employment.
Tendency to lay off men of 40 years and over.
"Within the year 500,000 workers in the
building trades have secured the five-day week









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


In the past 20 years, reduction of hours
of labor from 10 to 8 . has added 34,000,-
000 leisure hours to the lives of industrial work-
ers in the United States of America."
"This vastly important question of the rela-
tion of the man to the machine has become the
new focus for our adult education movement
for industrial workers in the United States of
America."
The automobile, telephone, radio, and good
roads have powerfully affected rural life, while
new machines have given the farmer greatly
increased power.
More persons arc now fitted to continue edu-
cation following schooling. In 1900 the enroll-
ment in public high schools was 519,251; in 1926
the number was 3,757,466. College students
are increasing in like proportions. The increase
in high school pupils from 1920 to 1926 was 70.8
per cent.
Quack schools and colleges spring up to meet
the demand for help in this new age. In 41
states, charters must be given to every applicant
who states intention to set up a college, 32 states
make no requirements for granting degrees by
correspondence; 38 states have no legal require-
ments whatever about the course of study; 43
states have no requirements about the teaching
force, either as to members or qualifications.
Types of adult education
Correspondence schools-some legitimate and
doing good work, generally at great expense to
the student. Many standard colleges now giving
correspondence lessons.
Seventy million dollars paid yearly for cor-
respondence lessons-as much as the total school
budget of 14 states. Enrollment about 2,000,-
000, several times as many as in all our colleges,
universities and professional schools together.
Public libraries-American Library Associa-
tion, established 1876-great advance in recent
years but "only 6/10 of a book per person in the
United States and in 12 months only 2 books per
person are circulated. One-half our population
have no library near enough for use and in rural
sections 83 per cent are without local library."
Women's clubs-parent teacher organiza-
tions-lyceums-chautauquas-university ex-
tension museums -Y. M. C. A.-Y. W. C. A.-
Y. M. H. A.-K. of C.-musical organizations-
etc., are distinct efforts to meet specific needs of
adult education. The pulpit, the press, the forum
are all means to the same great end.
Need of leadership in movement for adult
education
Philosophy waits on practice and attempts to
explain it. The philosophy of adult education is
trying to account for an extraordinary outburst
of interest in every phase of educational activity
of adults. Why is it? Who is involved? How
is it done? What does it cost? What is false and
what is true? How meet the ruthless insistence
of a technological age? What makes life better


worth living? How employ leisure to better
ends? How secure social stability and civil
order? These are some questions that await
answers.
The American Association for Adult Educa-
tion is the sole agency in this country exclusively
concerned with these problems. By research,
investigation and publication of findings it has
already-led public opinion to discriminate be-
tween some good and bad enterprises; it is sup-
porting experimental attempts to coordinate
social and educational agencies in typical urban
and rural communities; it acts as a clearing
house for information on what is being done at
home and abroad; it is a volunteer in a field that
has no paid professional constituents (as teach-
ers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, et al.) to whom
it can appeal for financial support, but, on the
other hand, it has no membership that seeks
to gain some selfish end.
"We now see opening before us a whole new
conception of what education is, what mass
education must be: daunting, discouraging,
difficult infinitely inspiriting to cour-
ageous souls."
Provisions for the dissemination of knowledge
through books, for getting new knowledge
through research and the advancement of teach-
ing, for vocational training and for the promoting
of international goodwill are all undertakings
that function in adult life, and their success de-
pends upon the extent to which their output
functions in the lives of adult American citizens.
That such effort may function advantageously
for the individual and patriotically for the state
is our aim in promoting adult education.

The central problem of any educa-
tional agency, whether or not defined,
is the production of the power of dis-
crimination in the minds of those it pur-
poses to reach, either directly or indi-
rectly. Admittedly, the American Asso-
ciation for Adult Education deals in-
directly and not directly with the great
mass of adult consumers of education.
It is not an operating organization; it
has no program of instruction; it em-
ploys no teachers; it administers no
teaching enterprise. Its whole effort
has been directed at the problem of
supplying a medium of exchange for
teachers and administrators actually in
contact with adults and their demands.
But these very individuals and the or-
ganizations behind them, responsible as
they are for the transmission of the








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


principles of discriminatory thinking
to their adult clientele, are themselves,
by their own admissions, in dire need of
development of their own powers of
discrimination. It has been and still is
a primary function of the Association
to raise professional standards, not at all
by edict or pronouncement but by the
provision of facilities for the expression
of ideas through the printed word,
through conference, through correspon-
dence and through oral interchange. It
is often stated that the process of adult
education is best illustrated when group
thinking is brought into play; it should
be borne in mind that those profes-
sionally interested in adult education,
including those who comprise the mem-
bership of the Association, themselves
constitute a group whose education is
not complete. The self-education of
this group in the subject of adult edu-
cation is in and of itself an experiment
in adult learning, an experiment and a
demonstration involving alike the presi-
dent of the Association and its latest
member. Hence the extent to which the
membership of the Association is able
to develop the ability to discriminate
between the good and the bad in adult
education, between the desirable and
the undesirable, between good taste and
bad taste, between clear thinking and
muddling through, between what L. P.
Jacks describes as the "development of
personal skills" and the mere acquisition
of information, just so far may it expect
success in its efforts with those groups
of the population for whose education
this same membership is in a sense re-
sponsible. Groups of people anywhere,
outside the field of politics, are seldom
better than their leaders.
But the sphere of influence of the
Association is not alone to be measured
within the field of adult education. The


spread of the concept of adult learning
is today showing its most marked effect
in the ranks of the heretofore uncon-
verted. The press, the pulpit, the pub-
lic schools and our extensive system of
community organizations have caught
the idea that learning is a continuous
process and no longer to be relegated
to those years of childhood and ado-
lescence encompassed by our scheme of
schooling for youth. The phenomenal
spread of this change of belief-for it
is nothing less than that-is attributable
in part to the verification by Professor
Thorndike and his associates of the
ability of adults to learn and in part
to the five years of activity of the
Association.
Already far-reaching revisions of the
curricula of elementary, secondary and
collegiate institutions are being under-
taken. These changes, in the opinion
of observant educators, are coming as the
result of pressure arising from new dis-
coveries and experimentation in two
fields; that represented by the years
before schooling and involving the "pre-
school child" and that represented by
the years following schooling and involv-
ing the adult. The school or college of
twenty-five years hence, organized in
the light of actual knowledge as to the
formed characteristics of the child when
he first knocks at its doors and further
organized with a view to arousing his
intellectual curiosity, will be institu-
tions differing widely from those we now
know. The feverish task of attempting
within a few years to cram facts enough
into a child's head to last him for a life-
time by then will have been abandoned.
The synchronization of the school sys-
tem with adult life experience will pro-
foundly alter the entire fabric of the
formal educational system. Through
that alteration will occur, as inevitable


a AM









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


consequences, expansions of the existing
facilities for adult education and their
multiplication in a variety of new and
possibly, at present, unknown forms.
Adult education and formal education
from kindergarten to college will become
more and more inseparably linked as the
nation more clearly visualizes education
as a lifelong process. And the American
Association for Adult Education in-
creasingly will be found, it is hoped, to
have played a worthy part in the new
and enlarged conception of the educative
process. Our five-year beginning has
been good: it is confidently hoped that
means will be found for the Association
to enter upon a second period of like
length. At the close of ten years of
activity the necessity will arise for those
then guiding the Association to examine
the field carefully and to determine
whether the Association is to continue
indefinitely, or whether, in the light of
an awakened public consciousness, the
compelling usefulness of the organization
is at an end. In a communication sent to
the Executive Board by the Director in
May, 1926, the statement was made:
"It will probably be ten years before
definite judgment can be entered upon
the effectiveness of the work of this
organization." That statement still
holds -true so far as the permanency or
impermanency of the organization is con-
cerned. But it is possible to pronounce
judgment upon the present effectiveness
of the Association and to state unequiv-
ocally that, in the light of the achieve-
ment of its first five years, it should be
projected for an additional period of at
least the same length:
The variety of efforts throughout the
country enrolling themselves under the
banner of adult education have multi-
plied, particularly during the last year.
An analysis of adult education activities


disclosed by one day's newspaper clip-
pings is indicative of the spread which
is constantly going on. It is presented
here as a fair cross-section of what an
average day brings forth in this rapidly
developing field:
The Wilmette (Illinois) Sunday Eve-
ning Club hears an address on Adult
Education, according to the "Chicago
Tribune"; adult education is a means
of training the unemployed, argues an
editorial in the "New York Evening
Post"; a new and ambitious North
Dakota program in adult education for
home makers is announced by the
"Grand Forks Herald"; the Federated
Women's Clubs of Southern California
discuss the history of adult education-
the "Los Angeles Record"; an educa-
tional forum is inaugurated by the
Minneapolis Council on Adult Educa-
tion-the "Minneapolis Journal"; the
library as an instrument of adult educa-
tion is discussed before the Optimist
Club-the "Watertown (New York)
Times"; a morning school for adults is
established in Kansas City-the "Kan-
sas City Times"; an article urging edu-
cation for the jobless appears in the
"New York Herald Tribune"; three
hundred members of district adult edu-
cation centers of Kent County, Dela-
ware, hold a banquet-the "Dover
Sentinel"; New York's interest in the
Denver Opportunity School is com-
mented upon by the "Toledo (Ohio)
Times"; an editorial on the Cleveland
Adult Education Association's institute
of foreign affairs is carried in the "Cleve-
land News"; a naturalist lectures before
the adult education department of the
public schools-the "Long Beach (Cal-
ifornia) Press-Telegram"; an adult class
is organized and a program adopted in
Jamestown, North Dakota, says the
"Sun" of that city; the Providence,








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


Rhode Island, Library discusses unem-
ployment and adult education in two
columns of the "Providence Bulletin";
the Rotary Club of Islip (New York)
considers an adult education program
for that community-the "Islip Press";
a feature story on a school for grown-ups
appears in the "Pittsburgh (Pennsyl-
vania) Press"; three Delaware adult
education centers announce the com-
pletion of their winter terms-the "Wil-
mington Journal"; painting is added
to the adult school courses-the "San
Jose (California) Mercury-Herald"; doz-
ens of newspapers carry the Associated
Press announcement of the Association's
symposium on unemployment and adult
education.
Although it may be argued that un-
doubtedly some of the above represent
waste effort, still the hold that the idea of
adult learning has taken upon the im-
agination of the people can not be de-
nied. The evidence of the spread and
variety of the movement in the United
States should be less a cause of congrat-
ulation to the Association than a serious
mandate upon it to afford the fullest op-
portunity for a complete flowering of the
idea. The preservation of true values,
the emphasis upon the element of dis-
crimination, the eradication of claptrap
and charlatanism, can be accomplished
only through free and independent inter-
change of ideas among those who lead
this movement in the several sections of
the country. It is in the realm of free-
dom of expression that the Association
can function most constructively.

JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION
Now that the "Journal of Adult
Education" is half through its third year
of publication, it can be said to have
emerged from the experimental stage
and to have justified its establishment.


It is far and away the most important
single activity of the Association. More
than that, it is nationally and interna-
tionally recognized as the mouthpiece
of the adult education movement in
America.
During the first two and one-half
years of its existence the publications
program of the Association centered in
occasional bulletins of the house-organ
type, adequate possibly for the dissem-
ination of brief and bare facts about
adult education but wholly inhospitable
as media for the discussion of ideas.
Volume one, number one, of the en-
larged Journal appeared in February,
1929. Both in typography and in con-
tent, the publication made an immediate
appeal to its clientele. The editors of
the Journal essayed the difficult task of
producing an effect of warmth and sin-
cerity without surrendering decent aca-
demic standards. An educational peri-
odical which aims to avoid the dull bore-
dom of technical discussion on the one
hand, and overstatement and triviality
on the other, presents a difficult problem
of steering for those responsible for its
editorial policy. The editors, editorial
board and associate editors all have
cooperated in the success of the pub-
lication. Its readers would testify over-
whelmingly that it has lived up to the
statement of its purposes as set forth in
the first issue, in the words of Dean
James E. Russell, then President of the
Association:
"The Journal of Adult Education
makes no apology for its appearance
other than to define its purpose. It has
no intention of crossing the path of any
current publication. It is not an organ
of any class, or sect, or party; it is not
directly concerned with schools or edu-
cational institutions; it is not an ex-
ponent of any particular economic
theory, social creed, or philosophy of


&M








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


education; and it offers no panacea for
the salvation of the body politic. But
it does constitute itself a medium of
expression for those who have faith in
American ideals, who believe in the per-
fectibility of our institutions and who
would increase the sum of human hap-
piness and add to our social security by
the continuing education of men and
women through worthy endeavor their
lives long. It is the open forum of the
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion which invites constructive criticism
of its aims and methods of assisting
adult learners in securing opportunity
for advancement in character, culture,
citizenship and vocational efficiency."
It is interesting to compare the 1931
Journal with that of 1929. It has grown
in size from one hundred and twelve
pages to one hundred and twenty or one
hundred and twenty-eight, and the
number of articles has increased by fifty
per cent. It is evident that the editors
have prevailed upon contributors to
state their thoughts in fewer words.
The number of departments has in-
creased by one. The ratio of articles to
news material has remained virtually
stationary. The general typographical
style, color and design of cover, etc.,
have not changed.
The Association is entitled to take
pride in the Journal and to look for-
ward to its uninterrupted continuance.
UNEMPLOYMENT AND ADULT
EDUCATION
Public attention during the year just
closed has centered largely upon the
economic depression affecting all parts
of the nation and resulting in widespread
unemployment of labor. The Execu-
tive Committee of the Executive Board
at its first meeting in the fall of 1930
sensed the fact that this situation pre-
sented problems in adult education
which ought to be faced. While it was
recognized that the current acute eco-


nomic disorder demanded economic and
not educational alleviation, still it was
felt that education might be one reme-
dial factor to be applied to that portion
of the unemployment problem which
was continuing and permanent, or semi-
permanent, in nature. The committee
was of the opinion that the Association
should address itself to the task of de-
termining, if possible, what adult educa-
tion could contribute to the prevention,
rather than the cure, of the evil.
In recent years, economists have be-
come increasingly aware of what has
been termed "technological unemploy-
ment" or "permanent lay-off," the dis-
placement of men and women in indus-
try through the introduction of ma-
chines and labor-saving devices. Quali-
fied economists in various parts of the
country had been studying technological
unemployment, although little had been
published concerning it, at least in non-
technical form. It seemed advisable
that the Association should learn from
the economists the magnitude and
character of the problem and should
examine the educational facilities in
existence for the provision of re-educa-
tion for those technologically unem-
ployed or about to become unemployed
from such causes.
Accordingly six economists were asked
to contribute to a symposium, which was
distributed in advance to some thirty
persons interested in education, includ-
ing business leaders and members of the
educational profession. At the same
time these individuals were invited to
participate in a Conference on Re-edu-
cation Problems Arising from Tech-
nological Unemployment, scheduled in
New York for December 18, 1930. The
Conference was made possible by a grant
of $1500 from the Carnegie Corporation.
A seventh economist was assigned the








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


task of making a brief, oral presentation
to the Conference of the contents of the
written symposium, together with a
statement of his own views. Under the
chairmanship of President Newton D.
Baker of the Association, an entire day
was spent in discussion of a high order
of interest, accomplishing the first com-
prehensive exposition to a lay audience
of this growing phase of unemployment,
and a constructive consideration of
means of meeting it. The Conference
attempted to define possible procedures
in attacking technological unemploy-
ment through local, state and federal
agencies. It outlined certain points at
which studies might profitably be made
to verify or to disprove the validity of
the means of approach suggested, and
furthermore discussed the advisability of
experimentation, demonstration and re-
search. It was the opinion of the Con-
ference that investigation and experi-
ment on the educational side of tech-
nological unemployment should keep
pace with similar studies by the econo-
mists.
The proceedings of the Conference,
digested and abridged, were published
in brochure form by the Association,
under the editorship of the Director.
Copies were distributed to the entire
membership of the Association, to vari-
ous other organizations and individuals
interested, and an edition of six hundred
copies placed on sale. Gratifying com-
ment from individuals and in the press
has resulted.
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, the Carnegie Corporation has made
a relatively large grant in support of a
study of various phases of unemploy-
ment, including technological, under-
taken by the University of Minnesota in
the cities of Minneapolis, St. Paul and
Duluth. In addition, similar studies


and experimentation are under way in
Rochester and in Philadelphia, and plans
are under consideration in Wisconsin
and elsewhere at this writing. Any
next steps undertaken by the Associa-
tion will wait upon results of community
experiments, particularly those in the
Minnesota cities.

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDUSTRY
For more than thrte years the Asso-
ciation has had in mind the desirability
of undertaking a study of education in
industry and for industry. The exten-
sive programs of industrial corporations,
usually conducted through their depart-
ments of personnel management, and
the utilization of educational facilities
provided by public funds and private
educational institutions, constitute a
field of inquiry in which it seemed that
the Association might make a contribu-
tion. Accordingly, at the beginning of
the academic year, on funds provided
by the Carnegie Corporation, a one-year
study was commenced under the direc-
tion of Nathaniel Peffer, who rejoined
the staff of the Association as Field Rep-
resentative after an absence of two years
in China. Mr. Peffer will be remem-
bered as the author of New Schools for
Older Students (Macmillan, 1926) and
as the former Editor of Publications of
the Association. His findings are to be
published in the fall of 1931.
The first object of the study has been
to gather data on educational or train-
ing programs that are actually under way
in industry. To this end visits are being
made to the plants of representative
industrial and commercial enterprises.
Since it would be impracticable under
the limitations of time and personnel
to make any comprehensive record of
such efforts, it has been thought better
to select those which are representative


ag









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


of industry as to type, size and social
setting. In this way the final picture,
if not all-inclusive in detail, will be ac-
curate in perspective and balanced in
composition. The second object has
been to find what relation there is be-
tween education in industry and educa-
tion by public agencies, and what re-
lation there ought to be. Where does
public responsibility end and private
business responsibility begin? What so-
cial factors are involved? No attempt
is being made to answer these questions.
Rather the effort will be to bring out the
basic considerations involved as a foun-
dation for future thinking on the subject.

RADIO EDUCATION
The completion of the Association's
study of radio broadcasting in adult
education in the spring of 1930 was
marked by the issuance of Education
Tunes In, a report of one hundred and
twenty pages outlining the findings
of Levering Tyson and the members of
the staff associated with him in the
study. Thirty-five hundred copies of the
report were distributed in the United
States and to foreign countries, to in-
stitutions and individuals, including the
entire membership of the Association,
and an immediate interest response was
noted. Coincidentally, the newly estab-
lished National Advisory Council on
Radio in Education effected a temporary
organization. Mr. Tyson was elected
Director of the Council, headquarters
offices were leased in the building which
houses the Association in New York,
and the task of completing the mem-
bership of the Council and its several
committees was begun. The Council
has since issued Number One of its
Information Series, which contains a
complete account of the manner in
which the Council originated, a descrip-


tion of its proposed functions, an ex-
planation of membership status in the
organization, the plans for functional
committees and for local councils, a
roster of the active membership and ad-
ministrative committees, and a copy of
the constitution of the body. This
bulletin has been distributed to the mem-
bership of the Association and to a large
additional list.
It is yet too early to outline all the
ways in which the Council will function.
Without doubt, however, it is destined
to be the central clearing house for in-
formation about educational broadcast-
ing in this country. It is also engaged in
setting up a program of desirable studies
and research. Through its functional
committees selected in subject-matter
fields it will undertake to devise pro-
grams for actual broadcasting. It seems
assured of cooperation from the principal
broadcasting chains, from numerous in-
dependent stations and from universities,
colleges, and other educational institu-
tions interested in the subject. The
chief promise of success lies in the excep-
tionally high standing of the individuals
who have associated themselves with
the new organization. Those directing
the policies of the Association are wholly
content to pass on their interest in radio
adult education to the new Council, se-
cure in the belief that emphasis will be
placed continually upon high quality of
the material to be broadcast.
The Association has welcomed the
decision of the Council to hold its First
Annual Assembly in cooperation with
the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Asso-
ciation. At this time will be afforded the
first public opportunity for a recital of
the considerable accomplishments of the
Council during the first year of its ex-
istence, a time which has necessarily
been devoted largely to non-spectacular








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


but nevertheless important work of pre-
liminary organization. It is further to
be noted that the Association's sponsor-
ship of the Council has resulted in the
selection of the American Council by the
World Association for Adult Education
to head the international conference on
radio education to be held in Vienna in
August, 1931, in connection with the
annual conference of the World Associa-
tion itself.

ALUMNI EDUCATION
The spread of alumni education proj-
ects since the original study of this
field published by the Association in the
fall of 1929 has been impressively set
forth in the April, 1931, issue of the
"Journal of Adult Education," by Wil-
fred B. Shaw, Director of Alumni Rela-
tions of the University of Michigan. Mr.
Shaw made the initial study as a Field
Representative of the Association, on
leave of absence from the University
of Michigan. His progress report shows
that seventy-six universities and col-
leges now have alumni education pro-
grams actively in operation, with eight-
een additional institutions engaged in
drawing up plans for such programs.
This is indeed a gratifying result of the
Association's first interest in this matter.
The rapid progress made is attributable
in no small measure to the zeal with
which the idea has been developed by
the membership of the American Alumni
Council, which cooperated wholeheart-
edly in the Shaw study. The Executive
Board has in contemplation the possibil-
ity of making, during 1931-32, a follow-
up study, and publishing the results for
the information and guidance of univer-
sities and colleges.
The experiments at Lawrence College,
Vassar College, Lafayette College, the
University of Michigan and Ohio State


University, all undertaken with the aid
of Carnegie Corporation funds recom-
mended by the Association, have been
attended with success, and are being
carefully watched for the light which
they may be expected to throw upon the
problem. The Executive Board has
definitely reached the conclusion that
it should refrain from recommending the
expenditure of additional funds for ex-
periments in this field, since an impor-
tant factor in the validity of all alumni
education ventures lies in their financial
practicability. Future aid from the
Association, it is felt, should be confined
to analysis and subsequent dissemina-
tion of information on what is occurring.
During the year the Executive Board
has seen fit to participate in one new
project in the field of alumni education
aimed directly at a professional group.
The Stevens Institute of Technology, in
cooperation with the Columbia Univer-
sity engineering alumni, plans to offer a
ten-day summer course in the economics
of engineering in August and September
of 1931. On recommendation of the
Association the Carnegie Corporation
has supplied $1,500 to enable the ex-
periment to start. Some 75 to 100 en-
gineers are to be housed at the Stevens
Institute summer camp near Blairstown,
New Jersey. Cooperation is being ac-
corded to the project by large industries
in the New York area and by the Amer-
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers.
One other alumni education venture
is worthy of a special notation. The
Columbia University Club of New York,
which instituted courses for its member-
ship in 1929-30, on five evenings a week,
has continued those courses during the
year 1930-31. Despite the economic
depression, which caused a decrease in
enrollment of about one-third, interest
in the project has continued to be keen


IAN









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


and plans are now being made by the
officers of the Club for an enlarged pro-
gram during 1931-32.

RURAL ADULT EDUCATION
It has now been three years since the
Association first attempted to analyze
certain of the many questions surround-
ing rural adult education. During that
period John D. Willard has been a mem-
ber of its staff as Research Associate.
Mr. Willard has traveled widely in al-
most all the states of the Union. He has
conferred with "dirt farmers," with pro-
fessional educators, with land grant
college faculties and extension staffs,
with community organizers and with
officials of the United States Department
of Agriculture. There are few men in
the country so well equipped as he to
analyze rural needs. The fact that the
National Advisory Committee on Edu-
cation appointed by President Hoover
borrowed his services for a considerable
portion of the year 1929-30 is evidence
of the degree to which he is regarded as
an expert in this complicated field. With
the close of the present academic year
his service on the staff of the Association
will terminate because of his acceptance
of the Schiff Foundation Professorship of
Education in Teachers College, Colum-
bia University. His interest in the As-
sociation will not lessen, however, since
he has been elected to a three-year term
on the Executive Board.
Mr. Willard is now engaged in the
writing of his final report which the
Association expects to publish in book
form in the fall of 1931. The report has
been delayed by Mr. Willard's absence
in government service and because of
the complexity and amount of the ma-
terials which have reached his hands.
Mr. Willard has kept closely in touch
with a number of experimental ventures,


including statewide projects underway or
in the formative stage in such states as Cal-
ifornia, Utah, Iowa, Minnesota, Wiscon-
sin, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Vir-
ginia, Delaware, and Vermont; county sit-
uations as represented by experiments in
one Pennsylvania county and in two
Michigan counties; and numbers of insti-
tutional, state, and community experi-
ments elsewhere. The investment of Car-
negie Corporation funds, on recommen-
dation of the Association, in the California
state program and in the Chester County
program has afforded opportunity for
rather close observation, with results that
will be of value in the published findings.
A terminating grant of $2,500 was made
by the Carnegie Corporation to the
Chester County Health and Welfare
Council this year, a grant which would
have been unnecessary had not drought
and the economic depression precipi-
tated a crisis. The support of the Cali-
fornia program-the Association's rec-
ommendation of a $7,000 allocation for
1930-31 was approved by the Carnegie
Corporation-has been justified in that
so far the California Association for
Adult Education has been the sole func-
tioning statewide agency operating in
the general field of adult education. It
is evident that from this time on the
Minnesota Association will likewise serve
a state area and that eventually there
probably will arise a number of other
agencies of similar scope.
There is some evidence that in addi-
tion to the state, county, and community
approaches to adult education there also
may emerge a regional approach. Under
the leadership of a body of representa-
tive citizens and educators of Denver,
Colorado, plans are under way for a
Rocky Mountain regional conference on
adult education, to be held during the
summer of 1931 in Estes Park, Colorado,










JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


at the camp maintained by the Y.M.C.A.
of the Rocky Mountain region. The
success of the Estes Park Conference
will be watched with interest in several
other sections of the country.
The Executive Board has drawn to
the attention of the Carnegie Corpora-
tion evidence of a considerable need for
library and book service for rural min-
isters. Five theological seminaries in
various parts of the country have out-
lined projects designed to overcome the
cultural disadvantages suffered by min-
isters in country regions. The Execu-
tive Board has stated to the Carnegie
Corporation its belief that as part of the
library program of that body there
might well be conducted in one section
of the country an experiment in this
type of service which would serve as a
model for action elsewhere.
GOVERNMENT OF THE ASSOCIATION
Changes in the government of the
Association voted at the last annual
meeting have resulted in the introduc-
tion into the Executive Board of addi-
tional members. The new policy of main-
taining a Presidency in addition to a per-
manent active Chairmanship has proved
entirely satisfactory. The election from
year to year of Vice-Presidents who are
not necessarily holders of three-year
terms on the Executive Board has wid-
ened the membership of that body and
increased its effectiveness. The provision
of sixty days' notice of proposed amend-
ments to the Constitution has also been
incorporated in that instrument.
The Officers and Executive Board for
the year have been comprised of the
following members of the Council:
President: Newton D. Baker*
Vice-Presidents: Dorothy Canfield Fisher*
C. F. D. Belden*
Everett Dean Martin*
Leon J. Richardson*
Walter Dill Scott*


Chairman: James E. Russell*
Secretary: Margaret E. Burton*
Treasurer: John H. Puelicher*
Executive Board
Arthur E. Bestort Everett Dean Martin*
Margaret E. Burton* Spencer Miller, Jr.t
Kenyon L. Butterfield*Jesse H. Newlont
Harry W. Chaset Howard W. Odum*
L. D. Coffman* Robert I. Reest
Wil Lou Grayf Leon J. Richardsont
Franklin F. Hoppert James E. Russellt
Judson T. Jenningst Elmer Scottl
E. C. Lindeman* John D. Willardt
The Council for the year has consisted
of the following members of the Asso-
ciation:
EXPIRING 1931 Marguerite H. Bur-
L. R. Alderman nett
Seymour Bamard Olive D. Campbell
G. F. Beck A. W. Castle
W. W. Bishop R. J. Condon
Margaret E. Burton Frank M. Debatin
Kenyon L. Butterfield John Dewey
Samuel P. Capen Helen H. Dingman
L. D. Coffman C. R. Dooley
Robert C. Deming Linda A. Eastman
Daphne Drake A. Caswell Ellis
M. S. Dudgeon John Erskine
Edward C. Elliott Wil Lou Gray
Joel B. Hayden Walter A. Jessup
W. D. Henderson Alvin S. Johnson
John W. Herring William H. Kilpatrick
Robert T. Hill Rhoda McCulloch
Franklin F. Hopper Carl H. Milam
Edward C. Jenkins Spencer Miller, Jr.
F. P. Keppel William A. Neilson
Fiske Kimball Agnes Nestor
E. C. Lindeman H. A. Overstreet
Everett Dean Martin James Harvey Robin-
John C. Merriam son
Fred A. Moore Carl B. Roden
Howard W. Odum Elmer Scott
William A. Orton Walter Dill Scott
J. A. Randall A. D. Sheffield
Robert 1. Rees Mary K. Simkhovitch
Charles E. Rush C. B. Smith
Herman Schneider Chester D. Snell
Hilda W. Smith Adam Strohm
Lorado Taft Henry Suzzallo
E. L. Thordike
Levering Tyson EXPIRING 1933
Edna N. White Ethel Richardson Allen
George F. Zook Charles A. Beard
EXPIRING 1932 J. H. Bentley
EXPIRING 1932 rtu Bastor
Newton D. Baker Jessie A. Charters
C. F. D. Belden Alfred E. Cohn
W. S. Bittner George W. Coleman
L. E. Bowman R. L. Cooley
H. F. Brigham L. L. Dickerson
* Term expires September 30, 1931
t Term expires September 30, 1932
1 Term expires September 30, 1933








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


Jennie M. Flexner Paul M. Pearson
Chauncey J. Hamlin J. H. Puelicher
Judson T. Jennings Leon J. Richardson
Parke R. Kolbe James E. Russell
John A. Lapp Belle Sherwin
Read Lewis Harold L. Stonier
Charles R. Mann John M. Thomas
C. S. Marsh John D. Willard
Jesse H. Newlon Clark Wissler
Note: Declination of appointment to the
Council was received from the Reverend John
J. Burke, elected at the 1930 Annual Meeting.
His declination was accepted by the Executive
Committee on behalf of the Executive Board
and Council. The resignation of former Presi-
dent John M. Thomas of Rutgers University,
as a member of the Council, submitted under
date of October 8, 1930, was likewise accepted.

Committee appointments for the year
1930-1931 have stood as follows:
Executive Committee: James E. Russell
(chairman), Arthur E. Bestor; Margaret E.
Burton; Franklin F. Hopper; Everett D.
Martin; Spencer Miller, Jr.; Robert I.
Rees; (Morse A. Cartwright).
Committee on Studies and Research: John
D. Willard (chairman); L. D. Coffman;
E. C. Lindeman; Jesse H. Newlon; Howard
W. Odum.
Committee on International Relations:
Arthur E. Bestor (chairman); Dorothy Can-
field Fisher; E. C. Lindeman; Spencer
Miller, Jr.; Leon J. Richardson.
Committee on Community Projects: Elmer
Scott (chairman); C. F. D. Belden;
Margaret E. Burton; Wil Lou Gray;
John H. Puelicher.
Committee on Annual Meeting: Franklin F.
Hopper (chairman): Arthur E. Bestor;
Margaret E. Burton; Everett D. Martin;
Robert I. Rees.
Committee on University Cooperation:
Walter Dill Scott (chairman); Harry W.
Chase; L. D. Coffman.
Committee on Public School Relations:
Jesse H. Newlon (chairman); L. D. Coff-
man; Wil Lou Gray; John H. Puelicher;
John D. Willard.
Committee on Library Cooperation:
C. F. D. Belden (chairman); Franklin F.
Hopper; Judson T. Jennings.
Committee on Reading Habits Study: W. S.
Gray; Henry Suzzallo; E. L. Thorndike.
Accretions to the membership during
the year have almost precisely kept pace
with those whose names have necessarily
been dropped for non-payment of dues.
It is significant that there has been no


drop in membership at a time of eco-
nomic depression and that the number
of delinquents on account of dues has
actually decreased during the year.
Other than the addition to the staff
of Mr. Peffer noted above, there have
been no changes in the headquarters
personnel during the year.
Extensive recataloguing and reclas-
sification of the library and subsidiary
collections have taken place during the
year under the direction of Mary L. Ely
as Editor of Publications. Increasing
numbers of students make use of these
collections, in addition to numbers of
visitors both from other sections of the
country and from foreign countries.

PUBLICATIONS
As described elsewhere in this report,
the Association published, during the
year, Education Tunes In, A Study of
Radio Broadcasting in Adult Edu-
cation, and Unemployment and
Adult Education. The Annual Re-
port of the Director of the Association
for 1929-30 was issued in May, 1930, as a
separate bulletin, and was later incor-
porated in the June number of the
"JournalofAdult Education." An article
on "Trends in Adult Education" was
prepared by the Director for publica-
tion in The Adult Bible Class Monthly."
Other articles on adult education were
prepared by the Association for The
New International Year Book and for
The American Year Book.
During the twelve months since the
publication of the last annual report,
the Association has been able to dis-
tribute publications as follows:
TO MEMBERS-Journal of Adult Edu-
cation, Volume II, Numbers 3 and 4,
Volume III, Numbers 1 and 2; Educa-
tion Tunes In, A Study of Radio
Broadcasting in Adult Education, by








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


Levering Tyson, American Association
for Adult Education; Unemployment
and Adult Education, A Symposium,
Morse A. Cartwright, Editor, American
Association for Adult Education; In-
formation Series, Number 1, The Na-
tional Advisory Council on Radio in
Education; and miscellaneous leaflets
and announcements.
To COUNCIL MEMBERS-In addition
to the above: The Scope and Practice
of Adult Education, Adult Education
Committee, British Board of Education;
"The Use of Leisure," by Henry Suz-
zallo, reprint from the April, 1930, issue
of the Journal of the National Educa-
tion Association; Third General Bulle-
tin, Bureau of Alumni Relations, Uni-
versity of Michigan; Report of Dr.
Kenyon L. Butterfield on "Rural Con-
ditions and Sociological Problems in
South Africa," Carnegie Corporation
of New York; Adult Education and the
Library, Volume V, Numbers 2, 3, 4;
Bulletin of the American Library Asso-
ciation, Volume 25, Number 1.
To MEMBERS OFEXECUTIVE BOARD
-In addition to the above: The Educa-
tion of Adult Prisoners, by Austin H.
MacCormick, National Society of Penal
Information.

LIBRARY COOPERATION
Close cooperation with library organi-
zations and with the American Library
Association in particular has been a
marked feature of the Association's pro-
gram during the five years of its exist-
ence. It is a pleasure to report that this
cooperation has been especially cordial
during the year 1930-31. The Director
was invited to participate in the two-
day conference of the Board on the Li-
brary and Adult Education of the
American Library Association held in
Cleveland in December, 1930. At that


time the entire library program in adult
education was reviewed, and steps were
taken toward correlating it more closely
with the program of this Association.
Specific plans contemplate the establish-
ment of an adult education speaker ser-
vice for library gatherings, local, state,
regional and national, and the arrange-
ment of a conference on simple "hu-
manized" books for inexperienced adult
readers. Such a conference would in-
clude librarians, adult education repre-
sentatives, publishers, and authors.
The committee jointly appointed by
the American Library Association and
our Association on the study of reading
interests and habits has continued its
activity during 1930-31. A meeting was
held in New York on December 4, 1930,
when recommendations subsequently ap-
proved by the Executive Board and by
the Trustees of the Carnegie Corporation
made available: (1) $5,000 for the con-
duct of a study to determine the ability
of adult illiterates to learn (dealt with
elsewhere in this report); (2) $2,000 to
the College of Education of the Univer-
sity of Chicago for support of a study of
the reading achievement and difficulties
of adults of limited education; (3)
$2,000 to the Graduate Library School
of the University of Chicago for the
completion of the Waples technique for
determining reading interests and habits
of groups of adults; and (4) $1,000 for a
two-day conferenceof the committee and
invited guests for a discussion of research
problems connected with reading inter-
ests and habits, to be held in December,
1931.
The purposes of the study to be con-
ducted under the direction of Dean W.
S. Gray of the College of Education of
the University of Chicago are (a) to
determine the nature of the materials
chosen for free reading by adults of


Am"1








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


different levels of reading achievement,
and to use these findings as an aid in
developing standards which may serve
as guides in preparing books and printed
materials for adults of limited reading
achievement; and (b) to develop a
scale of reading paragraphs by which it
would be possible for librarians to deter-
mine quickly the general level of reading
material which adults who are not facile
readers could read with reasonable ease
and comprehension.
The provision of $2,000 for the com-
pletion of the Waples "interest-finder"
contemplates that $1,500 additional
is to be supplied by the University of
Chicago for the same purpose. In the
opinion of the joint committee Dr.
Waples' findings to date, as represented
in the application of his technique to
various groups of adults, gave sufficient
evidence of validity to justify the ex-
penditure of an additional sum for the
extension of his study. The plan con-
templates the application of Dr. Waples'
technique to other groups, so chosen
that a representative cross-section of the
population of the country may be ob-
tained.

WORKERS' EDUCATION
Last year's annual report drew atten-
tion to an allocation of $5,000 from the
adult education experimental fund to
aid the Workers Education Bureau in
establishing correspondence courses for
members of labor unions. Because of
the economic depression it seemed un-
wise to inaugurate such an activity dur-
ing the present year. Therefore, on
recommendation of the Executive Board,
the $5,000 grant was transferred to the
general purposes of the Workers Educa-
tion Bureau and was supplemented by
an additional sum in like amount pro-
vided by the Carnegie Corporation.


The Association has maintained close
contact with the Workers Education
Bureau during the course of the year, and
gratefully acknowledges the aid and
advice given by the Secretary of the Bu-
reau in. connection with the conference
on unemployment and adult education.
The progress of workers' education in
the various British dominions and colo-
nies has been a matter of concern to the
Executive Board because of requests
from the Carnegie Corporation for ad-
vice in regard to expenditures there.
The continued existence of workers'
education enterprises in Australia has
been seriously threatened during 1930-
31 by reason of the acute financial de-
pression. On recommendation of the
Association, the Carnegie Corporation
has set aside a sum of money, $12,500 of
which has been made immediately
available for the Workers' Educational
Association programs in five of the
chief subdivisions of the Australian
Commonwealth. In addition, the Exec-
utive Board has recommended the
renewal of the $5,000 grant made to the
Workers' Educational Association of
Ontario, Canada.
The need for an international study of
workers' education, which might be
extended to include all types of adult
education, is becoming more and more
apparent. The Executive Board has
had under consideration the advisability
of initiating such a study in the future in
case funds should become available.
On recommendation of the Association
a final grant of $2,500 was made toward
the support of the Affiliated Summer
Schools for Women Workers in In-
dustry. This organization, like other
adult education enterprises, has suf-
fered because of the depression. In
addition an allocation of $3,000 was
made to the Art Workshop of New York,








JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


operated in close connection with the
Affiliated Summer Schools. The Art
Workshop is an effort to make possible
the development of personal skills by
women workers, and as an experiment
has proved of exceeding interest.
PARENT EDUCATION
The expiration of the Spelman Fund
grant for the support of the National
Council of Parent Education during the
year has terminated the formal rela-
tionship between the Council and the
Association. The Council is now in-
corporated and receives its support
direct. The election of Spencer Miller,
Jr., to the directorship of the Council on
a part-time basis has proved a contribu-
tion to the effectiveness of the staff, and
the Association looks forward to con-
tinued cordial relations with the Council.
The Executive Board is glad that it
has had some share in the success of the
United Parents' Associations of New
York. This Association is one of the
most effective parents' organizations
in the United States, maintaining as it
does a research staff and service bureaus
of vital importance to its constituency.
The participation of the United Parents'
Associations in the work of the Com-
mittee on the Training of Lay Leaders in
New York is an especially noteworthy
feature of its program. The Carnegie
Corporation, on recommendation of the
Association, has made a grant of $2,500
during the year to the United Parents'
Associations.
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
The part that the public schools must
play in the development of adult educa-
tion in America has been recognized this
year by the National Education Associa-
tion through its appointment of a Na-
tional Commission on the Enrichment
of Adult Life. The Chairman of our


Association and two members of its
Executive Board hold membership on
this Commission. It is the primary
function of the Commission to promote
the idea of adult education among the
members of the N. E. A. and to invite
them to institute various state and
local experiments. The National Com-
mission contemplates eventually the
appointment of forty-eight state com-
missions on the enrichment of adult life.
The most noteworthy state experi-
ment in promoting literacy is that of the
Board of Education of the State of
South Carolina under the direction of
Wil Lou Gray. Through recommenda-
tion to the Carnegie Corporation the
Association has brought about the
provision of $5,000 for the conduct of a
study to determine the ability of adult
illiterates to learn. This experiment is to
be conducted during the summer of 1931
at centers that will be maintained as
resident institutions by the State of
South Carolina. Two thousand dollars
of the sum provided will be devoted to
scholarships of twenty dollars each for
one hundred adult students; the re-
maining sum is to be used for supervision,
the salary of a psychologist, materials of
instruction and measurement, and texts.
William S. Gray personally will super-
vise the experiment, in cooperation with
Miss Gray, and the psychologist in
charge will be J. W. Tilton of Yale Uni-
versity.
Excellent progress has been reported
by the Ministry of Education of New-
foundland, where, in years past, the
adult education program has been aided
by the Carnegie Corporation in the form
of grants recommended by the American
Association. During the course of the
year Miss Gray of South Carolina visited
Newfoundland and gave valuable ad-
vice on the establishment of schools for








ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


literacy. Since her visit the Deputy
Minister of Education has been able to
establish five such schools.

PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES
The success which the researches of
Professor Thorndike and his associates
at Teachers College, Columbia Univer-
sity, met in the verifications of the abilities
of adults to learn has encouraged the
Association to submit recommendations
to the Carnegie Corporation for the sup-
port of certain other studies of a related
nature. The Corporation has recently
taken favorable action on a proposal
made by Professor Thorndike to conduct
a study to deal with the "fundamentals
of interest and motive-the forces which
make people want to learn and to excel,
which make them willing to change their
habits and points of view, which deter-
mine their cravings and ideals." It is
probable that the Institute of Educa-
tional Research of Teachers College will
be engaged upon this study for the next
three years. The results obtained may
be expected to be of far-reaching im-
portance to those professionally inter-
ested in adult education.
The Association, through action of
the Carnegie Corporation in appropriat-
ing $15,000 for the purpose, will be able
to participate in a cooperative psy-
chological study to be conducted by the
British Institute of Adult Education
with headquarters in London. A com-
mittee of the Institute, headed by A. E.
Heath, Professor or Philosophy, Swansea
College, University of Wales, has out-
lined a plan for a series of case studies
of former adult education students, in
several groups within the United King-
dom. The need is great in America for re-
liable data demonstrating the effect of
adult education uponindividuals. Unfor-
tunately, American adult education en-


terprises are still too young and many of
them too informal in nature to furnish
a body of data which may be inquired
into. In the United Kingdom and in
England particularly, where adult educa-
tion experience has extended over a
much longer period and where careful
records have been kept, there exists
opportunity, not only through institu-
tional records but by means of personal
interviews, to explore the richest col-
lection of adult education material of
this character in existence. The nego-
tiations leading up to this proposed study
have extended over a period of three
years. It is planned that the study shall
commence with three investigators in
the field in the spring of 1931. During
the first stage of the study the efforts
will be confined to former students of
Ruskin College at Oxford and to former
tutorial class students in North Stafford-
shire. If atthe end of one year the results
have proved interesting enough to justify
comparison with results to be derived
from other adult education groups in
England, similar studies will be conducted
in the year following within other univer-
sity tutorial class groups, the workers'
education group, possibly the Y. M. C. A.,
and one group of persons who have had
no formal adult education advantages.
American participation in the study will
consist in the appointment of a com-
mittee of American psychologists to
whom results will be sent and with whom
conferences will be arranged during the
second year of the study.
A third psychological study, which
has received a subvention of $5,000 from
the Carnegie Corporation, on recom-
mendation of the Association, is that
which is being conducted by the Divi-
sion of Educational Research of the
Chinese Mass Education Movement.
This study deals with the durability of







JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


adult learning. The work is being con-
ducted under the leadership of Eugene
Shen and a group of American-trained
psychologists.

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
On recommendation of the Associa-
tion, a Carnegie Corporation grant of
$5,000 has been made to the National
Council of Young Men's Christian Asso-
ciations for the conduct of a survey of
educational facilities in a small city.
The location chosen for this study is
Meriden, Connecticut, where the appli-
cation of an "interest-finder" to a series
of groups representing a fair cross-
section of the city has been made. A
representative community committee has
sponsored the effort. The results are be-
ing made known to the various organiza-
tions represented on the central com-
mittee (numbering about eighty) and it is
expected that these organizations, in-
cluding the Y. M. C. A., will attempt
to shape their programs to meet the
needs and interests disclosed.
The Corporation, likewise on recom-
mendation of the Association, has made
a subvention of $5,000 to the National
Board of the Young Women's Christian
Associations. This fund is to be used for
experimentation in the useof modem edu-
cational methods with groups of young
business women. The series of experi-
ments involved has just begun.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
During the year the Carnegie Cor-
poration, on recommendation of the
Association, has voted the first of a series
of three grants to the Dallas Civic
Federation and the Dallas Institute of
Social Education. The amount involved
for 1930-31 is $5,000. It is contem-
plated that this will be followed by


grants of $4,000 and $3,000 in the two
years succeeding and that financial sup-
port of the program from the Carnegie
Corporation then will cease. The pro-
gram of the Dallas Civic Federation con-
tinues to be in many ways the most in-
teresting of the community organiza-
tion efforts.
A proposal that a study of urban com-
munity projects be undertaken by the
Association was made in the course of
the year, but the feeling of the Executive
Board was that such a study at this
stage in the development of community
projects would be premature, and they
voted, therefore, that it be postponed.
Few of the community enterprises have
run for a space of time long enough to
present measurable results. It is pos-
sible, however, to report that community
organization progress is being made in
Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, Nashville,
Denver, Minneapolis, Duluth, Washing-
ton, New York and Brooklyn.
The study of the adult education
facilities and needs of Brooklyn under-
taken by the Brooklyn Conference on
Adult Education has been completed
with excellent results under the direction
of Frank W. Lorimer. This is the first
significant attempt to determine the
adult education needs of a large city in
terms of the expressed desires of a cross-
section of the population. The report of
the study is in press and will shortly be
published by the Macmillan Company in
the Adult Education Series under the
title The Making of Adult Minds in a
Metropolitan Area. The Brooklyn
Conference is engaged in working out a
series of organizational self-surveys to be
brought before the members of the Con-
ference in an effort to project their pro-
grams over a period of years. These
self-surveys may be considered as direct
results of the Conference study.







it 16







ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


PUBLICATIONS FUND
As the years progress the Association
finds itself more and more often called
upon to provide the means for publishing
studies and other materials related to
adult education which otherwise would
not see print. In recognition of this
function of the Association the Carnegie
Corporation has generously supplied
$2,500 to serve as the nucleus of a re-
volving fund for publications. The
publication of the Brooklyn study above
referred to has been made possible by
this fund, as has also been the brochure
on adult education and unemployment.
This provision of the Carnegie Corpora-
tion is of course in addition to the annual
grant of $15,000 made for the support of
the "Journal of Adult Education."
The net sum received from royalties
from books published in the trade for the
Association was $1,092.60. Moneys so
received are placed in the general funds
of the Association but are available for
special publication ventures as they may
arise.
URBAN ENTERPRISES
The Carnegie Corporation, on recom-
mendation of the Association, has re-
newed a grant of $2,000 previously made
to the Labor Temple School of New
York. The program of this School is
being competently directed by G. F. Beck.
The relations of the Association with
the People's Institute of New York and
with the New School for Social Research
in New York have been close. These
institutions furnish two outstanding ex-
amples of the high degree of success which
urban adult education enterprises may
attain. The financial cooperation of the
Carnegie Corporation in the new and very
modern home of the New School has been
a source of gratification to the Associa-
tion. The Director of the New School,
Alvin S. Johnson, and his associates have


generously made possible the location of
the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Associa-
tion at the School.
The People's Institute has been seri-
ously embarrassed by the economic de-
pression, and its program has been
severely cut for the year 1931-32. How-
ever, there is hope that it may assume
normal size in the year following.

NEGRO ADULT EDUCATION
For more than a year the Association
has been conducting discussions with vari-
ous organizations and individuals rela-
tive to the advisability of embarking upon
certain experiments in Negro adult edu-
cation. These discussions have brought
out the desirability of attempting one
experiment in a northern city with a
large Negro population, and another,
to serve as a check against it, in a
southern city. The lHarlem district of
New York City for the one, and At-
lanta, Georgia, for the other, probably
will be the locations chosen. In each
case it is contemplated that the experi-
ment shall be conducted from a public
library base, with the cooperation of
interested educational institutions and
on funds to be provided from various
foundation sources. In the northern
experiment the cooperation of the Na-
tional Urban League will be sought. In
the southern experiment it is hoped that
the University of Atlanta will be the
cooperating body with the Negro Branch
of the Public Library. The plans have
been delayed because of the necessity of
securing adequate financial backing both
for the work of organization and for the
development of the library collections
which are basic to such efforts. It is
hoped to interest three national founda-
tions in these enterprises, two of which
have already informally expressed their
willingness to participate.







JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


FOREIGN LANGUAGE GROUPS
At the close of the year 1929-30 the
Association recommended a continuance
for one year only of the Carnegie Cor-
poration grant of $10,000 made to the
Foreign Language Information Service
for the support of its experimental work
in education with foreign language or-
ganizations. This action was in con-
formity with the principle that continu-
ing grants to organizations should termi-
nate upon the emergence of any given
project from the initial experimental
stage. The Service has been unusually
successful in providing educational guid-
ance for a dozen or more foreign language
organizations, but has concentrated its
efforts particularly upon three of the
larger ones. In addition, the Service has
issued at regular intervals a printed
bulletin entitled "Fraternity" which has
received wide distribution among foreign
language groups throughout the country.
The Association has reached the con-
clusion that further subsidies to this
Service from the experimental fund are
not justified, but it has expressed the
hope, because of the worthwhile charac-
ter of this work, that other sources of
income may be found for this type of
endeavor.
The Association has also received from
the Carnegie Corporation a grant of
$2,000 which it has turned over to the
support of the Council on Adult Educa-
tion for the Foreign-Born of New York.
The Council has been undergoing reor-
ganization during the year and is at
present attempting to formulate its pro-
gram for the future. The possible rela-
tionship of the Council to a general
Council on Adult Education, if and when
formed in New York, has been much dis-
cussed by the Trustees of the present
Council. A special committee of the
New York Conference on Adult Educa-


tion has also been discussing the question
of a general council, so far without
definite action.
CORRESPONDENCE STUDY
Although delayed for a year, the
Association is assured by the University
of Chicago that the study of university
correspondence instruction sponsored by
that institution on a grant from the
Carnegie Corporation, recommended by
the Association, will be published during
the late spring of 1931. This study has
been conducted by W. S. Bittner of
Indiana University, Secretary of the
National University Extension Associa-
tion. The appearance of the study in
published form will be of peculiar inter-
est to the Association not only because
of its subject matter but also because of
proposals now pending before the Asso-
ciation for a study of private corre-
spondence school instruction and for a
study of extension class procedure as
conducted by universities.
RECREATION
The idea that recreation forms an
integral part of the program of adult
education in the United States has
gained more and more credence during
late years. The Association has been
able to cooperate with the National
Recreation Association, and hopes to
emphasize the relationship between the
two fields of effort at its Sixth Annual
Meeting.
The Executive Board has acted favor-
ably upon a request for aid received from
the Westchester County Recreation
Commission, the activities of which are
soon to be made the subject of a year's
careful study. The Columbia Univer-
sity Council of the Social Science Re-
search Council is in general charge of the
study, and the Association has been
asked to assume responsibility for that









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


portion dealing with the arts and handi-
crafts programs.
SUMMER SESSIONS
"Adult Education-Proposals, Under-
takings, and Accomplishments" was the
title of a six-weeks course given at
Teachers College, Columbia University,
under the joint auspices of the College
and the Association, July 7 to August 15,
1930. The purpose of the course was
to present as clear and as comprehensive
a picture as possible of the broad and
varied field of adult education in the
United States. The course was made
possible through the utilization of the
balance of the fund appropriated by the
Carnegie Corporation for the same pur-
pose during the summer session of 1929.
The faculty for the course was composed
of A. Caswell Ellis, Director of Cleve-
land College; Spencer Miller, Jr., Sec-
retary of the Workers Education Bureau;
Annette T. Herr of the Home Economics
Extension staff of Massachusetts, and
Mary L. Ely of the Association staff.
Teachers College has announced cour-
ses in adult education for the summer ses-
sion of 1931 as an established part of its
program, financial assistance from the
Association no longer being necessary.
The Association has expressed in-
terest in the type of residential summer
session course in adult education con-
ducted by the University of California
during the last three years under the
leadership of Harry A. Overstreet, Pro-
fessor of Philosophy, College of the City
of New York. It is thought that because
of the success of the California experi-
ment this type of residential instruction
may spread to numerous other university
and college summer sessions.
LITTLE THEATER MOVEMENT
An attempt made by Kenneth Mac-
gowan, as a result of his study for the


Association of the little theater move-
ment published under the title Foot-
lights Across America, to bring about
the formation of a national little theater
council suffered a temporary setback
because -of the economic depression.
The Carnegie Corporation, however, on
recommendation of the Association, has
made available $2,500 for the holding of
a national conference of little theater
directors, now scheduled for June 18
and 19, 1931. The meeting is to be
held at Evanston, Illinois, with North-
western University as the host. Plans
will be made at this time looking toward
the establishment of certain national
services for the little theater group and
it is not unlikely that the eventual re-
sult will be a national organization.
SCIENCE LEAFLETS
A committee of the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science
headed by Joseph L. Wheeler of the
Baltimore Public Library has been en-
gaged during the last two years in the
preparation of a series of pamphlet
reading lists on science for distribution
in libraries, museums, etc. The Car-
negie Corporation, on recommendation
of the Association, has supplied $4,000
for the publication and dissemination
of these lists. It is expected that they
will be placed in circulation during the
next few months.
PROBLEMS OF THE BLIND
At the request of the Carnegie Cor-
poration the Association received and
disbursed to the University of Kansas
a fund of $2,500 provided for research
in problems of the blind. It is too early
to report upon the results of these in-
vestigations, but it is hoped that they
will prove of importance. The Associa-
tion feels a special responsibility for the
adult education of various handicapped









JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


groups. There is no field where the need
for study and investigation is more press-
ing than in that of the problems of
the blind. The Association has invited
a group of blind players to participate
in its Sixth Annual Meeting as a demon-
stration of certain of the possibilities in
this connection.
PRISON EDUCATION
The Education of Adult Prisoners,
a survey and a program prepared for
the National Society of Penal Informa-
tion by Austin H. MacCormick, now
Assistant Director of the United States
Bureau of Prisons, has been published
during the year. This study, the first
attempt to deal with the educational
problems of this handicapped group, was
financed by a Carnegie Corporation
grant of $5,000 recommended by the
Association. The book has received en-
thusiastic press comments and is prov-
ing of value to students both of educa-
tion and of prison reform.

NATIONAL PARKS
The National Parks Association in the
last year has visualized itself largely as
an educational organization. Its form
of government has been revised, and by
permission of the Executive Board the
Director of the Association has accepted
a place on its Council. The possibilities
of general education through proper
utilization of the national park areas
are great, and in the opinion of the
Executive Board the Association should
stand ready to aid in this important
work when requested.

POLITICAL SCIENCE
The Association is cooperating with a
special committee of the American Politi-
cal Science Association, which is plan-
ning a series of state and regional con-
ferences on domestic government. These


conferences are to include experts, politi-
cians, and interested citizens. It is
significant that a national academic body
should be attempting an experiment in
adult education within its own subject-
matter field.
OPPORTUNITY SCHOOLS
The Executive Board has under dis-
cussion at the present time proposals
to make special studies of the possibili-
ties of "opportunity schools" operated
under tax funds. At the request of the
Association Robert T. Hill, formerly
Director of the Council on Adult Edu-
cation for the Foreign-Born of New
York, made an inspection of the Op-
portunity School at Denver, Colorado,
which has been in operation for fifteen
years. In addition to being the earliest
organized, the Denver Opportunity
School seems to be the most successful.
It is thought that possibly certain of the
features of the Denver project may be
applicable to other communities and
that the contribution of the Association
may well lie in bringing detailed in-
formation concerning opportunity school
experience to the attention of unserved
communities.
ANNUAL MEETINGS
The Fifth Annual Meeting of the
Association was held at the Edgewater
Beach Hotel, Chicago, May 12 to 15,
1930. Rural adult education, alumni
education, and radio adult education
were the principal themes. While the
interest response to the subject of rural
education was in a sense disappointing,
this was more than offset by the keenness
of interest manifested in alumni educa-
tion and in radio education. In addi-
tion, the meeting devoted itself to a
series of excellent sectional discussions
of a score of subjects lying within the
scope of adult education. The attend-









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


ance at the meeting was about two
hundred, and although this was less than
might have been expected at such a
center as Chicago, the small number
may in part be accounted for by the
somewhat remote location of the hotel
chosen for the meeting.
Decision to hold the Sixth Annual
Meeting in 1931 in New York was
reached during the course of the year,
based upon the preferences of the dele-
gates at the 1930 meeting.
SCHOLARSHIPS
Appeals from various sources in the
last few years have convinced the
Executive Board of the necessity for
considering seriously the possibility of
obtaining funds for exchange scholar-
ships in adult education. The Board
is of the opinion that if such funds
were to become available they should
be applied to the needs of teachers, ad-
ministrators and investigators rather
than to those of adult students. It
would be particularly desirable, in the
opinion of the Board, that a scholarship
fund, if it were established, should be
used for the exchange of adult education
leaders with foreign countries.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The American Association has con-
tinued to bear its share of the respon-
sibility for the work of the World Asso-
ciation for Adult Education. During
the last year the Director has served as
the American representative on the
Executive Committee of Five of the
World Association, and has conducted a
large amount of correspondence dealing
with the affairs of that body. The an-
nual conference of the World Associa-
tion was held during the last week of
August, 1930, at the Brunnsvik Folk
High School in Dalecarlia, Sweden.
Dorothy Canfield Fisher and the Di-


rector were in attendance as two of the
five regularly constituted members of
the Council of the World Association.
Sarah C. N. Bogle, Charles E. Rush, and
Levering Tyson were named as substi-
tute members of the Council to take the
place of the American absentees. In
connection with the various business
meetings a special conference on "The
Relation of the State to Adult Educa-
tion" resulted in a highly interesting
discussion which has been set forth in
the columns of "The Journal of Adult
Education." The satisfactory condition
of the World Association since the adop-
tion of its new and international form of
government was evident.
Plans were made to hold the 1931
meeting in Vienna, where the subject
for the special conference will be "Un-
employment and Adult Education." In
addition, a special conference, with
Levering Tyson as the leader, will be
held on radio adult education. Tenta-
tive agreement was reached upon a
second world conference on adult edu-
cation, to be held probably in 1934.
Financial participation of the Amer-
ican Association in the affairs of the
World Association received careful con-
sideration. As a result of the report
submitted by the Director after his re-
turn from the conference in Sweden, the
Executive Board recommended to the
Carnegie Corporation the provision of
$12,000 for the publications program of
the World Association. This money is
to be made available over a period
of three years in amounts of $5,000,
$4,000 and $3,000 respectively. The
expenditure of the funds is contingent
upon the ability of the World Associa-
tion to agree upon a publications policy
and to establish a quarterly publication
of high standards. The negotiations
looking toward editorial and managerial









JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION


control of such a publication are now
going forward. It is hoped that definite
announcement of the plans may be
made at the Vienna meeting in August.

FUTURE PROGRAM
The Committee on Research and
Studies of the Executive Board has
been engaged for the last six months
in an attempt to formulate a fairly
comprehensive list of desirable study
and research projects in the field of
adult education. The aid of qualified
experts in various universities has been
solicited and it is hoped that during
the year 1931-32 the Committee may
be able to make a public statement of
its recommendations. In addition, the
Committee has had under consideration
the compilation of a list of topics for
theses which may be expected to grow out
of the general research program. Nu-
merous problems suitable for study and
research have arisen as a result of pre-
vious interests and studies of the Asso-
ciation. In addition, new fields are
opening up, such as that represented by
motion pictures with sound and their
possible relation to the instruction of
adults.
The provision of $100,000 by the
Carnegie Corporation as an adult edu-
cation experimental fund for 1930-31
without doubt has been the most im-
portant contribution to adult education
during the year. Expenditures from
this fund have all been made on recom-
mendation of the American Association
for Adult Education as set forth in the
body of the report above. The confi-
dence shown by the Trustees of the Car-
negie Corporation in the American Asso-
ciation has been a matter of gratification
to the Executive Board as it should be
also to the entire membership of the
Association.


CONCLUSION
In the objectives set forth for the
year 1930-31 in the last year's report,
the writer of the report stated his opinion
that the year should be devoted to a
careful consolidation of the position of
the Association in the educational world
of America. It has been the effort of
the Executive Board and staff to carry
through that consolidation, and it is
reasonable to assume that in fact it has
been effected. With the assurance that
the Association shall have at least five
years more of existence, it will devolve
upon the Executive Board to indicate
those points at which studies and re-
search, demonstration and experiment,
most profitably may be made. The day
of propaganda for adult education,
even indirect, seems to have passed. It
may be assumed that adult education
in America will now strike its own gait.
The efforts of the Association may well
be directed at critical analyses of the
progress made rather than at the accel-
eration of the rate of progress. The
American tendency is to proceed too
quickly. Although the Association
should not retard the advance, it should
recognize its serious responsibility for
leadership in expressing new ideas and in
emphasizing quality of performance.
Respectfully submitted,
Morse A. Cartwright.

April 25, 1931.


FINANCIAL SUMMARY
I. Statement of Financial Condition, Septem-
ber 30, 1930; Statement Showing Changes
in General Fund for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1930; Statement of Income
and Expenses for the Fiscal Year Ended
September 30, 1930; and Appropriations
Received for Account of Other Organiza-
tions.
(As audited by Frederick Fischer, Jr., Member,
American Institute of Accountants.)









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


II. Statement of Financial Condition, March 31,
1931; Statement Showing Changes in
General Fund for the Six Months Ended
March 31, 1931; Statement of Income and
Expenses for the Six Months Ended March
31, 1931; and Appropriations Received for
Account of Other Organizations.

I

Mr. Morse A. Cartwright, Director
American Association for Adult Educa-
tion
60 East 42d Street
New York, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Pursuant to engagement, I have
audited the books and accounts of the

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT
EDUCATION
for the fiscal year ended September 30,
1930, and present herewith the following
three Exhibits and one Schedule.


Exhibit "A"-Statement of Fi-
nancial Condition,
September 30, 1930.
Exhibit "A"-Schedule "I"-
Statement Showing
Changes in General
Fund for the Fiscal
Year Ended Sep-
tember 30, 1930.
Exhibit "B"-Statement of In-
come and Expenses
for the Fiscal Year
Ended September
30, 1930.
Exhibit "C"-Appropriations Re-
ceived for Account
of Other Organiza-
tions.

Very truly yours,
Signed: Frederick Fischer, Jr.

New York, N. Y., October 18, 1930.


EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, SEPTEMBER 30, 1930
Assets
Cash
Capital Account................................................. $13,074.71
M managing Account ............................................... 7,214.40
Account of National Council of Parent Education, Inc................ 500.00
TotalAssets....................................................... $20,789.11

Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues ..................................... .. $609.01
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................. 192.75
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "C"....................................... 2,250.00
Total Liabilities..................................................... 3,051.76
Net Asset Value ......................................................... $17,737.35
General Fund
Maintenance, Balance, September 30, 1930, per Schedule "1"................... $10,503.47
Special Study Funds, Balance, September 30, 1930, per Schedule "1 "............ 7,233.88
General Fund Balance, September 30, 1930 ........................... $17.737.35

EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE I
STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN GENERAL FUND FOR FISCAL YEAR
ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1930
General Fund
Maintenance
Balance, September 30, 1939.............................................. $12,901.00
Deduct-Prior period adjustment-excess of expenses over appropria-
tions-September 30, 1929-General Publications ............................ 1,974.22
Adjusted Balance, September 30, 1929................................... $10,926.78









26 JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION

General Fund, Maintenance-continued
Deduct
Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1930, per Exhibit "B" $830.00
Collegiate Alumni Study-Deficit September 30, 1930.............. 267.09 1,097.09
$9,829.69
Add
Journal of Adult Education-Excess of Income over Expenses Septem-
ber 30, 1930, per Exhibit "B"................................. $480.29
Summer Session Course in Adult Education, Balance, September 30,
1930, transferred ........................ ..................... 193.49 673.78
Maintenance, Balance, September 30, 1930, per Exhibit "A"............... $10,503.47

Special Study Funds
Reading Habits Study
Balance, September 30, 1929 ...................................... $562.97
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1930, per Exhibit
"B "...... ....................... .............. ... ........... 684.92
Balance, September 30, 1930 ............................................... $1,247.89

Rural Community Studies
Balance, September 30, 1929 ................................ ..... $4,812.73
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1930, per Exhibit
"B"......................................................... 1,182.88
Balance, September 30, 1930 ................................................ 5,995.61

Summer Session Course in Adult Education
Balance, September 30, 1929 ..................................... $446.05
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1930, per Ex-
hibit "B" .................................................... 252.56
Balance, September 30, 1930..................................... $193.49
Deduct-Balance transferred to maintenance....................... 193.49
Balance, September 30, 1930 .....................................
Radio Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1929 .................................. $13,519.70
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1930, per Ex-
hibit "B" ................................................... 12,880.47
Balance, September 30, 1930............................................. $639.23
Collegiate Alumni Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1929 .................................... 2,578.82
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1930, per Ex-
hibit "B "................... ............... ... ................ 2,845.91
Deficit, September 30, 1930 ...................................... $267.09*
Deficit, September 30, 1930, transferred to Maintenance............. 267.09
Balance, September 30, 1930 .....................................

Publication of Bryn Mawr Study
Balance, September 30, 1929..................................... $1,703.17
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, September 30, 1930, per Ex-
hibit "B"................ ............................. .. .. .. ............ 1,703.17
Balance, September 30, 1930 .....................................

Study of Little Theater Movement
Deficit, September 30, 1929 .................................... $882.85*
Deduct-Excess of Income over Expenses, September 30, 1930, per Ex-
hibit "B ". ................................................... 234.00
Deficit, September 30, 1930 ............................................ 648.85*
Special Study Funds, Balance, September 30, 1930, per Exhibit "A" ....... $7,233.88

*Note: Deficits-The excess of expenses over income for the fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1930, of Maintenance
and Special Study Funds, is offset by uncpenrded prior period balances of the respective funds.
: .' .. t









ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 27

EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
SEPTEMBER 30, 1930
Income
Maintenance:
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation .................. $25,000.00
Membership dues:
Individual........................................ $2,031.50
Organizational.................................. ... 830.74 2,862.24
Journal of Adult Education:
Subscriptions and sales of single copies ................ $506.55
Advertising ....................................... 530.16 1,036.71
Sales of other publications ........................................... 341.20
Royalties from publications ..................................... 1,013.57
Interest received on bank balances ................................ 854.87
Total Maintenance Income.......................................... $31,108.59
Publication-Journal of Adult Education
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ............................ 15,000.00
Special Studies
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for:
Reading Habits Study............................. $2,500.00
Rural Community Studies ............................ 10,000.00 $12,500.00
Contribution from Teachers College for Summer Session Courses in Adult
Education...................... ............................. 1,000.00
Contribution for Study of Little Theater Movement ................. 240.00
Total Special Studies Income ........................................ 13,740.00
Total Income.................................................... $59,848.59
Expenses
Maintenance:
Annuity payments ................................... $939.96
Attorneys' and accountants' fees ...................... 125.00
Incidentals ........................................... 507.59
Insurance ............................................ 50.61
Office furniture and equipment ......................... 1,275.57
Office library ......................................... 63.88
Office supplies ........................................ 355.57
Postage....................................... 674.89
Printing and publications-general office ................ 1,294.43
Rent............................................... 2,274.96
Repairs and maintenance.............................. 122.50
Salaries ............................................ 19,005.49
Stationery, mimeographing, multigraphing and addresso-
graphing ........................................... 830.17
Telephone and telegraph ............................... 506.77
Travel .............................................. 3,911.20
Total Maintenance Expenses ............................. $31,938.59
Publication Expenses
Journal of Adult Education ...................................... 14,519.71
Special Studies
Reading Habits Study................................ $1,815.08
Rural Community Studies ............................. 8,817.12
Summer Session Course in Adult Education .............. 1,252.56
Radio Adult Education Study .......................... 12,880.47
Study of Little Theater Movement...................... 6.00
Collegiate Alumni Adult Study......................... 2,845.91
Publication of Bryn Mawr Study ....................... 1,703.17
Total Special Studies Expenses............................ 29,320.31
Total Association Expenses........................................... $75,778.61
Excess of Expenses Over Income .......................................... $15,930.02'

*Note: Deficits-The excer of expenses over income for the fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1930, of Maintenance
and Special Study Funds, is offset by unexpended prior period balances of the respective funds.









28 JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION

SUMMARY OF INCOME AND EXPENSES
Maintenance
Incom e.................................... ......... ........ $31,108.59
Expenses .. ............................ ...... 31,938.59
Excess of Exs penses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I .......... $830.00*
Publication-Journal of Adult Education
Income.............................. .......................... $15,000.00
Expenses...................................................... 14,519.71
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "" ........... 480.29
Special Studies
Reading Habits Study
Income............................................. $2,500.00
Expenses ............................................ 1,815.08
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" $684.92
Rural Community Studies
Income .............................................. $10,000.00
Expenses............................................ 8,817.12
Excess of Income over Expenses per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 1,182.88
Summer Session Courses in Adult Education
Income........................................... $1,000.00
Expenses......................................... 1,252.56
Expenses ................... ................ .... 1,252.56
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" 252.56*
Study of Little Theater Movement
Income.................................... ...... $240.00
Expenses........................................... .. 6.00
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 234.00
Radio Adult Education Study
Incom e.................................. ..........
Expenses......................................... $12,880.47
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 12,880.47*
Collegiate Alumni Education Study
Incom e................................... ......
Expenses ....................................... $2845.91
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 2,845.91*
Publication of Bryn Mawr Study
Incom e .............................................
Expenses............................................ 1,703.17
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 1,703.17*
Total Special Studies Excess of Expenses Over Income ................. 15,580.31*
Total Excess of Expenses over Income.................................. $15,930.02*
EXHIBIT C
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Balance, September 30, 1929
Payable to:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc ................................... $500.00
Receipts
Appropriations received from:
Spelman Fund of New York for:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc........................ $21,795.17
Carnegie Corporation for:
Chester County Community Study .................... $5,000.00
Federal Radio Education Committee................... 7,000.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ...... 6,250.00
University of Kansas-Research Problems of the Blind... 2,500.00
Chinese National Association, Mass Education Movement-
Study. ........................................... 5,000.00 25,750.00
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ................. 6,250.00
Total Receipts........................... ................ ......... 53 95
$54,295.17
SNote: Deficits-The excess of expenses over income for the fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 1930, of Maintenance
and Special Study Funds, is offset by unexpended prior period balances of the respective funds.










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 29

Disbursements
Transfers to:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc.......................... 21,795.17
Chester County Community Experiment .......................... 5,000.00
Federal Radio Education Committee............................... 7,000.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ................... 12,000.00
University of Kansas-Research Problems of Blind .................. 1,250.00
Chinese National Association, Mass Education Movement-Study ...... 5,000.00
Total Disbursements .............................................. 52,045.17
Balance Payable on Appropriations Received for Account of Other Organizations,
per Exhibit "A"............................................................................... $2,250.00
Balance Payable on Appropriations Received for Account of Other Organizations
Comprises the Following:
Payable to:
National Council of Parent Education, Inc .......................... $500.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................... 500.00
University of Kansas-Research Problems of the Blind ............... 1,250.00
$2,250.00

II
EXHIBIT A
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL CONDITION, MARCH 31, 1931
Assets
Cash:
Capital Account ................................................. $65,704.10
Managing Account ..................................... ........ 12,589.79
Account of National Council of Parent Education.................... 500.00
Total Assets............................................... .. .. $78,793.89
Liabilities
Prepaid membership dues......................................... $190.84
Prepaid subscriptions to Journal of Adult Education ................... 123.00
Balance payable on appropriations received for account of other organiza-
tions, per Exhibit "C"........................................... 14,000.00
Total Liabilities .................................................... 14,313.84
Net Asset Value............................................................ $64,480.05
General Fund
Maintenance, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Schedule "1". ....................... $14,189.21
Publication Funds, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Schedule ".................... 22,397.23
Special Study Funds, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Schedule "1".................. 27,893.61
General Fund Balance, March 31, 1931 ............................... $64,480.05

EXHIBIT A-SCHEDULE 1

STATEMENT SHOWING CHANGES IN GENERAL FUND FOR SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1931
General Fund
Maintenance
Balance, September 30, 1930............................................... $10,503.47
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B. ........ 3,685.74
Maintenance, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "A".................. $14,189.21
Publication Funds
Journal of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B "............. $8,377.95
Revolving Fund for Publications
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B"........... 2,019.28
International Review of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B"........... 12,000.00
Publication Funds, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "A"............. $22,397.23
LA










30 JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION

Special Study Funds
Conference on Community and Little Theaters
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B"........... $2,500.00
Industrial Education Study
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B"....... 5,918.88
International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "B" ........... 15,000.00
Study of Little Theater Movement
Deficit, September 30, 1930 .................................... $648.85*
No Income or Expenses, March 31, 1931.......................... ..
Balance, M arch 31, 1931 ................................... ... ......... 648.85*
Radio Adult Education Study
Balance, September 30, 1930................................... $639.23
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit
"B" ....................................................... 181.51
Balance, M arch 31, 1931 ................................................. 457.72
Reading Habits Study
Balance, September 30, 1930.................................. $1,247.89
Add-Excess of Income over Expenses, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit
"B"...................................................... 627.85
Balance, M arch 31, 1931 .................................... .......... .. 1,875.74
Rural Community Studies
Balance, September 30, 1930 ................................... $5,995.61
Deduct-Excess of Expenses over Income, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit
"B".......................................... .......... 3,205.49
Balance, M arch 31, 1931 ........... ............. ........... .............. 2,790.12
Special Study Funds, Balance, March 31, 1931, per Exhibit "A"......... $27,893.61

EXHIBIT B
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31, 1931
Income
Maintenance
Appropriation received from Carnegie Corporation ................... $12,500.00
Membership Dues;
Individual. .................................. .... $1,914.75
Organizational ....................................... 938.17 2,852.92
Journal of Adult Education
Subscriptions and sales of single copies .................. $685.75
Advertising .................................... .. 128.32 814.07
Sales of other publications ........................................ 62.25
Royalties from publications ....................................... 1,092.60
Interest received on bank balances. ................................ 399.32
Total Maintenance Income.................................. .............. $17,721.16
Publication
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for:
Journal of Adult Education.................................... $15,000.00
Revolving Fund for Publications ................................ 2,500.00
International Review of Adult Education ........................ 12,000.00
Total Publication Income .. ........... ............ ................. 29,500.00
Special Studies
Appropriations received from Carnegie Corporation for:
Conference on Community and Little Theaters.................... $2,500.00
Industrial Education Study ..................................... 10,000.00
International Psychological Study of Adult Education............. 15,000.00
Reading Habits Study.......................................... 5,000.00
Conference on Technological Unemployment and Adult Education... 1,500.00
Total Special Studies Income ................... .................... 34,000.00
Total Incom e....................... ........ ...................... $81,221.16
*Note: Deficits-The excess of expenses over income for the six months ended March 31, 1931, of Special Study
Funds, is offset by unexpended prior period balances of the respective funds.







AL










ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 31

Expenses
Maintenance
Annuity payments.................................... $432.48
Attorneys' and accountants' fees ........................ 125.00
Incidentals............................................ 334.35
Insurance............................................ 49.00
Office furniture and equipment ............... ....... 70.50
Office library .......................................... 112.12
Office supplies ........................ ................ 215.31
Postage .............................................. 226.34
Printing, publications and publicity-general office.......... 548.44
Rent ................................................. 1450.02
Repairs and maintenance............................... 61.67
Salaries............................................... 9,250.02
Stationery, mimeographing, multigraphing and addresso-
grahhing......................................... ... 341.67
Telephone and telegraph ............................... 314.48
Travel............................................... 504.02
Total Maintenance Expenses............................... $14,035.42
Publication Expenses
Journal of Adult Education ............................ $6,622.05
Revolving Fund for Publications........................ 480.72
Total Publication Expenses .................... ........... 7,102.77
Special Studies
Industrial Education Study............................. $4,081.12
Radio Adult Education Study ........................... 181.51
Reading Habits Study.............................. ..... 4,372.15
Rural Community Studies.............................. 3,205.49
Conference on Technological Unemployment and Adult Edu-
cation.............................................. 1,500.00
Total Special Studies Expenses .............................. 13,340.27
Total Association Expenses........................................... 34,478.46
Excess of Income over Expenses ................................... ........... $46,742.70

SUMMARY OF INCOME AND EXPENSES
Maintenance
Income ............................................................. $17,721.16
Expenses. ......................................................... 14,035.42
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule ""............... $3,685.74
Publication
Journal of Adult Education
Income. ................................. .......... $15,000.00
Expenses ............................................. 6,622.05
Excess of Incomeover Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "I" $8,377.95
Revolving Fund for Publications
Income .............................................. $2,500.00
Expenses... ......................................... 480.72
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 2,019.28
International Review of Adult Education
Income .. ......................................... $12,000.00
Expenses ............................................. ..
S Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 12,000.00
Total Publication Excess of Income over Expenses ...................... 22,397.23
akpeaSt studies
Conference on Community and Little Theaters
Income............................................ $2,500.00
Expenses. .................. ......................... ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 2,500.00
Industrial Education Study
Income ............................................. $10,000.00
,Expenses ......................... ................ 4,081.12
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 5,918.88






IL









32 JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION .

International Psychological Study of Adult Education
Income.............................................. $15,000.00
Expenses. ... ........................................ ..
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 15,000.00
Radio Adult Education Study
Income.......... ............................... .
Expenses ............................................. $181.51
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 181.31
Reading Habits Study
Income............................................. $5,000.00
Expenses ............................................ 4,372.15
Excess of Income over Expenses, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 627.85
Rural Community Studies
Income.......... ................................ .
Expenses............................................ $3,205.49
Excess of Expenses over Income, per Exhibit "A," Schedule "1" 3,205.49*
Conference on Technological Unemployment and Adult Education
Incom e............................................. $1,500.00
Expenses ............................................ 1,500.00
No excess of Expenses or Income .............................. .
Total Special Studies Excess of Income over Expenses .................. 20,ti59
Total Excess of Income over Expenses ...................................,7

EXHIBIT C
APPROPRIATIONS RECEIVED FOR ACCOUNT OF OTHER ORGANIZATION
Balance, September 30, 1930
Payable to:
National Council of Parent Education............................. $500.00
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education................... 500.00
University of Kansas-Research in Problems of the Blind............. 1,250.00.
Total Bbance, September 30, 1930 .............................
Receipts
Appropriations received from:
Spelman Fund of New York for:
National Council of Parent Education.......................... $13,857.56
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ................ 12,500.00
Carnegie Corporation for:
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education....... $12,500.00
Chester County Community Study .................... 2,500.00
United Parents Associations ....................... 2,500.00
Council on Adult Education for the Foreign-Born......... 2,000.00 19,500.00
Total Receipts................................. .......... ........... -

Disbursements
Transfers to:
National Council of Parent Education............................. $13,857.56
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education ................... 12,00.00
Chester County Community Study .............................. 2,500.
United Parents Associations ..................................... 2,500
Council on Adult Education for the Foreign-Born.................... 2,0
University of Kansas-Research in Problems of the Blind ............. 1,2
Total Disbursements................ ....................
Balance Payable on Appropriations Received for Account of Other Organ
Balance Payable on Appropriations Received for Account of Other
Comprises the Following:
Payable to:
National Council of Parent Education ...................... .....
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education .................... 13, A
$14,

*Note: Deficits-the excess of expenses over income for the six months ended March 31, I
Funds, is offset by unexpended prior period balances of the zrepective funds.


a




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