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MUSIC 15Classics at the Centre Calypso at Home RESEARCH 10Decriminalize it? Marijuana and the Law ART 14 Change Agents Dynamic Duo put Art on the Mind Whoa donkey!No place does it better than the Gayelle when the Department of Creative and Festival Arts sets up for its annual Old Yard presentation. Town cannot say it has ever seen a ner collection of traditional carnival characters all gathered in one place. If the artform is dying as is the popular cry, then more people just have to come to the event to see how and why it should be preserved. For more Old Yard images, please turn to Page 4. PHOTO: ANEEL KARIM RESEARCH 08e Rocking Years A Seismic 60
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 3 EDITORIAL TEAMCAMPUS P RIN CIP AL Professor Clement Sankat D IRECT OR OF MARKE TIN G AND CO MMUNICATI ONS Mrs. Dawn-Marie De Four-Gill D IRECT OR OF MARKE TIN G AND CO MMUNICATI ONS Ag.) Mrs. Wynell Gregorio E DIT OR Ms. Vaneisa Baksh C ONTACT US The UWI Marketing and Communications Ofce Tel: (868) 662-2002, exts. 82013 / 82014 Or email: firstname.lastname@example.org CAMPUS NEWS e Humanity of the University FROM THE PRINCIPAL When we speak about a new workforce agenda, we must be aware of those attributes which our workforce must possess in order to propel our region forward in a globally competitive and challenging environment. Todays competitive world demands that our workforce be made up of lifelong learners. is is how Trinidad and Tobago and the wider Caribbean region will stimulate growth and development, by having a workforce that can think creatively, innovatively, and analytically. We are careful to ensure that there is a balance between those students enrolled in Science and Technology (in F aculties such as E ngineering, Science and Technology and Medical Sciences) and those enrolled in Social Sciences, Humanities and E ducation and Law. In fact, in the last academic year (2011-2012), statistics show that students enrolled in Science and Technology accounted for 49% (8,995) of total enrolment, while students enrolled in Social Sciences, Humanities and E ducation and Law accounted for 51% (9,711) of total enrolment. While we recognize that science, engineering and medicine have pivotal roles to play in the advancement of technology and innovation for our country and region, we also recognize the valuable contribution which our graduates in Humanities and E ducation, Law, the Arts, Social Sciences and our Business School, the Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business have made and continue to make to society. Teaching, learning and research in these areas contribute to our cultural and intellectual well-being as these areas help us to understand our heritage, our culture, and those of others. e humanities, law and social sciences also play an important role in developing critical and independent thinking, nurturing tolerance and respect for human rights, all of which are key to building a healthy and vibrant democracy. R esearchers in these elds have helped to change the way in which society views itself. e research conducted in humanities and education and the arts has also contributed to important sectors of the economy, such as the creative and cultural industries, cultural heritage and tourism and most importantly training the educators for future generations. O ur graduates from these faculties are nding new ways of self-expression: journalists and writers, graphic artists, lm producers, painters, musicians, and so on; young professionals who enrich our literary and cultural landscape they brighten and illuminate our lives. Academic disciplines collectively help to shape the type of society we wish to be a part of, to anticipate, and respond to challenges and change, and to build a nation in its fullest sense. So while it is important to collect and analyze the data and to anticipate labor market trends, let us always keep in mind that the role of our higher education institutions and particularly our research units, goes beyond the training of a qualied and adaptable workforce. It is also about enriching our societies.CLEME N T K. S ANKA TPro Vice Chancellor & Principal Financially L iterateJust before Carnival, there was something else to jump about for both U WI students and the Central Banks N ational Financial Literacy P rogramme. e rst cohort (67 students from the F aculty of Social Sciences) from its Train the Trainer component graduated and received Certicates of P articipation at the St Augustine O ce of the Campus P rincipal, P rof Clement Sankat. Mr. Adrian Saunders, Assistant Manager, NF L P and Ms. Christine Sahadeo, lecturer, UWI were the lead organizers of the project, while Mr. Carl Morton delivered the training and was supported at each session by Ms. N arissa Lezama of the NFLP department. P articipants are trained as Trainers in key financial literacy concepts, with the understanding that they, in turn, will deliver nancial literacy sessions to their colleagues. NGC sponsors Chair in Innovation and E ntrepreneurshipIt was a good moment for research when e UWI and the N ational Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago came together to sign a ve-year M OU in early F ebruary to nalise yet another aspect of a partnership that has been going on for almost two decades. Among the elements covered by this agreement, are a P rofessorial Chair in Innovation and Entrepreneurship, a R esearch F orum, which features an annual distinguished lecture, and as the U WIs R esearch Awards enter their second year, the N GC will continue its support, as well as for a R esearch Day/E xpo which will alternate with it. e N GC indicated that it was condent that this event will serve to promote a culture of research, scholarship and innovation not only at U WI but throughout the national community. e N GCs relationship with U WI goes back to 1994 through its support for the F aculty of Engineering. Since then N GC has sponsored several major activities and projects at UWI. Nicole Crooks, Senior M anager Human Resource & Corporate Services at the Central Bank of T rinidad and T obago presents a Certicate to Nikkishia M araj, as UWI lecturer, Christine Sahadeo, Coordinator of the NFLP, calls out the names of the graduates. PHOTO: ANEEL KARIMSigning the M OU at the Oce of the Campus Principal: Cassandra Patrovani, Vice President of Human and Corporate Relations, NGC; signs under the gaze of Indar M aharaj, President, NGC; Campus Principal Professor Clement Sankat, and E rrol Simms, Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, UWI, St. Augustine Campus. PHOTO: ANEEL KARIM
4 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 ENERGY THE OLD YARD National competitions for traditional carnival characters notwithstanding, no one site brings such a comprehensive collection together than the O ld Yard hosted by e UWIs Department of Creative and F estival Arts (DC F A) every year. And it isnt just robber talk from some mocking pretender to make that claim. e O ld Yard, which began life as Viey La Cou, took place on F ebruary 3 at its regular venue: the DCF As Gayelle on Agostini Street in St. Augustine. e care and attention to detail that goes into creating this gayelle is heart-warming. e yard is remade with an architectural style reminiscent of times gone by, and the characters come out exing exquisite detail as they bring to life the gures from the past and demonstrate the antics and traits for which they are known. Dames, devils, jab jabs, baby dolls, gorillas, imps, medieval gures, donkeys, pierrots, minstrels, midnight robbers and ghostly gures were all present. Like a heritage fair of sorts, onlookers can stroll, sit, feast, and play games while mingling with the masqueraders, and for the children it is always an enormous treat, while being an unnoticed history lesson. P hotographer Aneel Karim was at the gayelle and came back with so many spectacular shots that it was dicult selecting just a few for these pages, so why not visit us online at Flickr and check out some of the others?The True Collection of Traditional Mas
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 5 ENERGY THE OLD YARD
6 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 ENERGY EDUCATION A recent study by the M cKinsey Center for Government revealed that around the globe, 75 million young people between the ages of 15-24 are unemployed, and twice as many are underemployed. As young people struggle to nd jobs in general, and jobs that match their chosen eld of study in particular, about 40% of employers internationally are reporting diculty in lling entry-level positions, citing lack of skills in applicants as the major reason. Within the next seven years, there is expected to be a shortage of 85 million high and middle skilled workers in the global labour market. is is indeed a worrisome trend with serious implications for the productivity and viability of industries. On the other hand, the historically weak link between tertiary education programme design and labour market needs is glaring and leads to the creation of discouraged graduates, unable to land a job in their chosen eld. Such factors are creating crises in both higher education and in industry. In the U nited States, the situation is exacerbated when one considers the steep increases in tuition fees, increased levels of indebtedness by both students and U niversities; and perplexingly, declining quality of graduates as noted in a recent study (E conomist December, 2012). In spite of the higher cost of attaining a degree, the lower quality of students and graduates suggest that a degree may now mean less than it once did, and we see many students returning to university to pursue a second degree because their rst was found to be worthless. We have witnessed the growing gap between education and employment. E very year, over 7,000 graduates leave our tertiary education institutions, yet employers in critical sectors which drive our economy and provide essential services to citizens, complain of a shortage of appropriately skilled and qualied workers. We must pay attention to what is happening around us, and we must take pre-emptive measures to ensure that we do not face diminishing returns to our Governments investment in higher learning. In my contribution to the budget debate a few months ago, I stated that while the P eoples P artnership Government continues to be committed to the GAT E and H E L P P rogrammes, at an annual estimated cost of TT$700 million, we must set mechanisms in place to ensure that higher education programmes and institutions are responsive, relevant and accountable to the Governments strategy for economic development. is strategy, and the alignment of supporting programmes, must be informed by hard facts, reliable data and meaningful research on current and future industry trends. F or decades we have been struggling to diversify our economy, strengthen and integrate the Caribbean as a cohesive trading bloc on the world stage and stimulate entrepreneurial growth, with limited success. We continue to face brain drain as our trained and educated citizens are wooed away from our shores. We have also recognised that we have been quite poor at keeping current with evolving labour market needs and so are unable to discern and take advantage of global trends which may positively aect our regional economies. A large number of young people are underemployed, and engaged in work that is either rudimentary or misaligned to their studies. ey have the potential to be elevated to higher paying, more knowledge-intensive, and highly skilled work. U nfortunately, many are not aware of the need for and the many opportunities available for continuous learning, retooling and retraining. If we are to tackle these problems and chart the way forward for sustainable development, data and research must act as a compass for directing our human, nancial, technical and political resources. e need to forge a robust mechanism for trapping regional trends and converting data into profound insights has never been more obvious. Indeed, this is the rationale behind the formation of the Centre for Workforce R esearch and Development. It is a critical component of the deliberate strategy of the Ministry of Tertiary E ducation and Skills Training to facilitate a more structured system of workforce and manpower planning within the broader context of our local and regional development. In 2008, while I was Business Development Manager at U WI, St Augustine, I conceptualized the Centre for Workforce R esearch and Development, in recognition of the obvious need to address labour shortages on one hand, and labour productivity on the other. A proposal was sent to the 9th E D F and consequently, funding for this initiative, which comes to fruition today, was secured. In May 2011, a Memorandum of U nderstanding between the then Ministry of Science, Technology and Tertiary E ducation and The U WI was executed, and thereaer the Ministry continued works toward establishing a physical home for the Centre which is currently 80% complete. We also searched for an appropriate partner one with whom we could share best practices, experiences and expertise, as well as data from our respective labour markets. Some of these bodies include the Centre for Labour Market Studies at the U niversity of Leicester, E ngland, the V.V. Giri N ational Labour Institute in India and the Saskatoon Labour Market Committee in Canada. U ltimately, however, the Georgetown U niversity Center on E ducation and the Workforce, based in Washington DC, was identied as an appropriate partner in this regard and we are happy today to see the cementing of a relationship between the two centres. By this Agreement between UWI and the Georgetown U niversitys Center on E ducation and the Workforce (the C E W), we have begun the process of tapping into the synergies of bringing Government, educators, business, trade unions and the labour force together. We intend to focus on unleashing the talent of our people and collectively supporting them in their quest for self-improvement and a better quality of life. At the same time, we will ensure that our industries are appropriately staed for maximum productivity. While I agree that there is no simple formula for stimulating economic growth and prosperity for all, what we are seeking to do is to give people a real chance to compete and be successful in realizing their dreams, while at the same time creating a basis for informed planning and decision making well into the future.Partners in the project: (from le) Minister of L abour and Small and Micro E nterprise Development, E rrol M c L eod and Minister of T ertiary E ducation and Skills T raining, Senator Fazal Karim. PHOTO: ANEEL KARIMData and Research as Compass and GuideBY F AZAL K ARIMis is an edited excerpt from the address given by Senator Fazal Karim, Minister of Tertiary Education and Skills Training at the symposium, A New Workforce Agenda: Towards a National Strategy for Workforce Development and Economic Prosperity at the Hyatt Regency on January 16.
8 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 ENERGY SEISMIC RESEARCH CENTRE AT 60 A trillion dollars worth of buildings and infrastructure, accumulated since 1981 is what we stand to lose should there be any untoward geological activity in Trinidad and Tobago. Speaking at the launch of this years activities to mark the 60th anniversary of e UWI Seismic R esearch Centre on January 29, Dr Joan Latchman said that, societal development can be set back a generation if measures are not put in place to ensure that our regional development plans factor in geological vulnerabilities. Dr Latchman, a seismologist and acting Director of the S R C, said, In the early 1980s the U nit became involved in the eort to develop a regional building code and expanded research that would provide the parameters needed for implementing such a code in practice. Dr Latchman was delivering the feature address at the launch, which also saw the unveiling of a new logo and a schedule of activities planned for the celebratory year. She traced the history of the regions seismic research and outlined some of the plans for the future. (You can read the full text of her address at our online version at http://sta.uwi. edu/uwitoday/default.asp) In welcoming guests, P VC and Campus P rincipal P rofessor Clement Sankat invoked the names of some of the pioneers of seismic research: Dr P atrick Willmore, Dr Georey R obson, Dr K en Barr, Mr Desmond Woo, Dr John Tomblin and P rofessor John Sheppard, as he recognized the dedication and sterling contribution not only of the past directors and sta, but also the current team, on behalf of e UWI and the people of the region. Yours is an excellent example of service to nation and region. I know that this has taken great eort and commitment from each and every one of you, but I say that your long-standing commitment, dedication and patience are being rewarded with a new facility that is currently under construction. As he gave his word that the new facility would be completed within the year, he urged that it become a global centre of excellence, where young scholars from across the world and especially from South America and the Caribbean can come for graduate and post-doctorate training and teaching in volcanology and seismology. PVC for R esearch, P rofessor Wayne Hunte, also spoke, outlining the Centres importance. Its research has led to international recognition; has provided information to guide development and to improve the teaching curriculum, and it separates us from competitors, he said. Adding that research must have impact, he noted that the S R C has been advancing knowledge globally in the eld and it has shaped policy and action that underlie and drive regional development. He said that while research centres at e UWI are few, we need to support the S R C because it comes close to being a best model in best practice in terms of research at e UWI. It is truly regional in its scope, he said, and has maintained international recognition for the quality of its research. He also noted that the S R C was practically self-sustaining, employing a signicant number of its sta through project funding. Dr Latchman had earlier explained its funding: It should be noted that keeping pace with state-of-the-art technology over the years, initiatives to improve public awareness and scientic thrusts do not and cannot come from our regular budget. e S R C is directly nanced by the Governments of the English-speaking E astern Caribbean and these contributions cover recurrent expenditure. All upgrades have come through sta initiatives, whether it is building equipment, rehabilitating old equipment or from collaborative projects and funding agencies. The S R C of today has benefitted from the input of scientists from around the world and many of these former sta members, who helped to lay the foundation for the very important pursuit of earthquake and volcano monitoring and understanding of the processes at work in the English-speaking E astern Caribbean have excelled internationally, but have continued to promote the work of the S R C whenever possible. At every stage, many who have joined the sta have quickly embraced our vision, and those who have put in long service have been the unbroken thread connecting back to the founders over the 60 years of our operations, she said. R ecent outputs that directly address the foundations of hazard preparedness are the Volcanic Hazards Atlas of the Lesser Antilles, updated Seismic Hazard Maps for the E astern Caribbean Islands and Tsunami Smart promotion. Vaneisa Baksh Its been60 ROCKING YEARSDome erupted in Soufrire Crater L ake, St Vincent, 1971-1972 1952: Dr. Patrick Willmore atop the Soufrire of St. Vincent (photograph courtesy Prof. P.J. Willmore, 1993)
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 9 How the region knew it was shakinge countries bounding the Caribbean Basin were known to be vulnerable to devastating earthquakes from the time of the rst E uropean settlements, with accounts of the rst such events beginning to appear early in the 16th Century. All the countries in the region were colonies of one or other of the E uropean colonising powers, which brought with them not only their languages and culture, but their architecture. Within the rst few decades, the islands had been transformed into villages, towns and cities patterned aer the various E uropean models, including the beautiful stone structures known there. e devastation that could be wrought by the large earthquakes that sometimes occurred in the region soon became well known. e volcanic threat, on the other hand, was well known on the western side of the Caribbean Basin. More slowly, a similar threat on the eastern side emerged as several of the islands would experience episodic high level seismic activity associated with volcanic centres. It was one such episode, occurring in N evis in 1951-1952, following a similar episode in Montserrat in the 1930s that prompted the recommendation by Dr P atrick Willmore that an agency for monitoring the regional, volcanic activity be established. This recommendation became the Volcano R esearch Department, later renamed the Seismic R esearch U nit to reect that earthquakes in general would be investigated and then, to more accurately reveal its status within the UWI hierarchy, U nit was changed to Centre and from 2008 the agency responsible for monitoring earthquake and volcanic activity in the E nglish-speaking E astern Caribbean and also an integral part of the eort to establish a tsunami warning centre became known as the Seismic R esearch Centre.The 60th anniversary logo reects the three colours of the Seismic Research Centre; green representing earthquakes, red representing volcanoes and blue representing tsunamis. The logo consists of a set of concentric circles, designed to reflect the concentric structure of the Earth. The logos curved design aims to mimic a chronometer, thereby reecting the passage of time. The curved seismic trace illustrates continuous seismic monitoring since 1953 and the contributing countries of the Eastern Caribbean are aptly represented in the Lesser Antilles arc. What our 60th year looks like Katz house on Santa M argarita Circular Road, St. Augustine damaged in the 1954 earthquake o the north-west coast of T rinidad. (Photographer: Dr. G.R. Robson)Since we are funded by nine E astern Caribbean countries we have attempted to extend our celebrations beyond Trinidad & Tobago and as such we will be focusing activities in a dierent country each quarter. In this rst quarter our attention will be on St Vincent & the Grenadines where we will partner with the N ational Emergency Management Oce for its Volcano Awareness Week. During April through June we are at home in Trinidad & Tobago where we plan to mount a roving geohazards exhibition in P ort of Spain, San F ernando and Tobago. July through September we head to Barbados to launch a Tsunami Smart campaign and the last quarter of the year our attention turns to Dominica for E arth Science Week in O ctober. roughout the year, we are pleased to oer tours to the public through our O pen House which will be held on the last ursday of each month from 2-6pm at our oces in St. Augustine. is year we also plan to launch our new website and we eagerly await the opening of our new building currently being constructed behind our existing oces. O ur 60th anniversary will be a year of strengthening partnerships as we continue to work with stakeholders and national disaster organizations in the region for the special events listed above. We are also pleased to be collaborating with the Oce of Disaster P reparedness and Management in Trinidad & Tobago on its 3rd annual N ational P rimary School Quiz as well as the Montserrat Volcano O bservatory in the publication and launch of a new volcano childrens book. N ext month we will be working together with the Council of Caribbean Engineering Organizations and the E uropean Centre for Training and R esearch in E arthquake Engineering in P avia, Italy to host a stakeholder meeting here in Trinidad for the R eal Time E arthquake R is K R educTion ( RE A K T) project being funded by the E uropean Commission. In December, we bring the year to a close with a Staff R ecognition Ceremony, where we will invite and honour former and current sta who have made valuable contributions to the development of the Seismic R esearch Centre. Stacey Edwards, Education Ocer SRC.Our 60th anniversary will be a year of strengthening partnerships as we continue to work with stakeholders and national disaster organizations in the regionA 1979 eruption at the Soufrire St. Vincent volcano with rare skirt clouds. Captured by Dr. Keith Rowley during in a reconnaissance ight in a crop duster; preparing to y over crater just as eruption occurred.
10 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 From the outset it is necessary to indicate the dierence between legalisation and decriminalisation of cannabis sativa (marijuana or ganja). Legalisation makes lawful possession of ganja for personal use with various ways devised to deal with the supply of the product for personal use. e US state of Colorado allows persons to grow their ganja for personal use whilst the U S state of Washington does not allow this. Legalisation brings state control, regulation and taxation into the supply and personal use of ganja as the state denes how much ganja at any instance qualies for personal use. e production and supply to channels that are not state regulated is still illicit under the legalisation model. Decriminalisation makes the production, sale and use of ganja products licit as long as this industry abides by the regulatory framework of the state. U nder this model, the production and sale of ganja products will be no dierent from the tobacco and alcohol industries. is model is viewed by some as the means to end the violence spawned by the illicit drug trade. R eality is that the lure of an illicit product is the prot margin generated to those who dare trade in this product. e value of the illicit product drives the violence, as the product must always be protected from predators by any means necessary. On the other hand, traders in illicit products are always driven by the need to discover or to create new illicit products such as designer synthetic drugs, because that is where they ensure sustainable super prots, especially in the globalised world of the 21st century. e current strategy also calls for the illicit use of licit products such as prescription drugs and tobacco products, backed up by counterfeit copies of licit goods. To decriminalise one illicit product does not end the potency of the illicit business model; what it will do is to create a new dynamic that will aect both the licit and illicit markets. At present in the Caribbean there is no movement towards legalisation much less decriminalisation of ganja products and its use. Any move on the part of the Jamaican state to change its existing prohibition on the production and use of ganja products was met with a public statement of disapproval and alarm by the U S F ederal Government, but since then, in December 2012, it became legal to use ganja products for recreational personal use in the U S states of Washington and Colorado. Any failure by the U S F ederal Government to apply prohibitionist F ederal law to both states will be another potent indicator that the war on drugs is driven by political expediency. Towards the end of 2012 the Government of Grenada publicly stated its hard line prohibitionist position on ganja products and use of these products. What is apparent in the Caribbean is the use of ganja plantation eradication exercises by governments of the Caribbean with or without the logistical support of the US to indicate their commitment to the war on drugs and their zero tolerance position on crime. It is then necessary to understand the dynamics of the ganja markets that have evolved in the Caribbean in response to operational realities in the Caribbean and to the nature of demand in the markets of N orth America and E urope. In the N orth Atlantic, the ganja culture movement has ploughed money into research and development of new varieties of cannabis sativa where gene pools of ganja from the world over are spliced to create varieties noted for specic characteristics, the most noteworthy being high potency. ese varieties drive demand as it expands over time and the wholesale price of ganja mirrors the level of demand in N orth Atlantic markets. On these markets there are grades of product and the price varies with grade. Organic, high potency ganja in N ew York retails for US$600 per ounce when there is supply. P lantation grade sensimilia wholesales for U S$600-$800 per pound when there is supply. Organic, high potency wholesales between US$3,000 to US$5,000 a pound when there is supply. War on the War on DrugsBY DA URIUS FIGUEIR A RESEARCHDECRIMINALIZATION: e Caribbean is then an oshore production platform for ganja supplied to the N orth Atlantic where the producers are linked to the latest developments of the globalised ganja industry. In addition there is a Caribbean ganja network which brings producers to trackers and suppliers of inputs and industry knowledge. What has emerged is a Caribbean division of labour, with Guyana now being the new growth area for the production of huge tracts of plantation grade ganja. Jamaican producers and trackers have forged operational links with Haitian operators where Haitian labour is used on Jamaican ganja farms, the product is moved to Haiti and exchanged for a range of commodities including arms and ammunition and from Haiti the product is tracked to the U S. e Jamaicans are present throughout the Caribbean ganja trade given their pioneering expertise in the production and export of ganja products. e price of organic, high potency ganja has now established throughout the Caribbean grow houses which are simply ganja production units operating indoors. Grow house operators with the necessary funding and linked to the suppliers of top quality seeds maximise prots by producing distinctive tasting, high potency ganja which is sought in the N orth Atlantic. e reality is that the price of quality ganja now allows protable muling for the rst time in the history of this illicit trade. A kilo swallowed and delivered in N ew York and London yields huge prots. is prot also now breeds graphic gun violence. In the absence of debate on changes to the law on the production and use of ganja products the ganja industry of the Caribbean is thriving in 2013. Daurius Figueira is a lecturer in the Sociology Unit of the Behavioural Sciences Department at UWI, St. Augustine, and has published in 2012 the book: Cocaine Tracking in the Caribbean and West Africa in the Era of the Mexican Cartels.
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 11 ere continues to be considerable debate about the addictive potential of cannabis and its role as a gateway drug to more dangerous and problematic drug use. Heavy users of cannabis are likely to be less productive than their non-using counterparts apart from, perhaps, the creative industries where quality might be prized more than quantity. ere is however a signicant risk that early initiation of regular use, as in puberty and early adolescence, does impair ones capacity for optimal brain function, and therefore is going to result in a diminished productive potential. While the direction of the relationship remains unclear, it is quite accepted that some cannabis users are more likely to also drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes and even abuse prescription drugs. It has also been suggested that its chronic use may also raise the risk of developing smoking related conditions, such as cancer and obstructive lung disease. ere is evidence to indicate that university students are more likely to use cannabis if they have never used before, or increase their use if they have. is may be due to increased independence and peer pressure but many who start during this period do not continue in the same pattern once they complete formal tertiary education. is suggests that cannabis, as with other drugs, can be used relatively harmlessly, apart from its illegality, but that there are some people whose use of it creates problematic substance use and/or mental health problems. Cannabis use has been found to be associated with a greater need for social relationships and pleasurable experience and as an additional or sometimes sole coping strategy. This is best illustrated in the one area where consensus has been achieved with regard to the risk of cannabis use. is is its relationship to the development of psychotic illness and schizophrenia. A history of cannabis use is perhaps the single greatest predictor of young men being admitted to the St Anns P sychiatric Hospital with psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, strange beliefs and strange speech or behaviour usually occurring over at least a two-week period with an accompanying decrease in normal role functioning). ese symptoms mean that people so aected lose the ability to engage with reality in an eective and consistent way, leading to inappropriate social behaviour and the need to seek help. A specic syndrome of hyper-religiosity, aggression and decreased self care has been thought to characterise this union of cannabis use and psychosis. E arly work With global discussions about the impact of decriminalization of the use of marijuana ongoing, UWI TODAY, sought expert analysis on the milieu.has also linked its use with bipolar disorder, which was labelled as marijuana modied mania. As much as twelve percent of cannabis users will have at least one psychotic episode in the aermath of its use, although some of these will not be severe enough to warrant any mental health intervention. e evidence is now quite consistent that early use (early adolescence), prolonged and heavy use and use of more potent varieties, increase the risk of developing a psychotic illness by as much as eight times that of someone who does not engage in use in any of the above categories. It does appear that those on the pathway to psychosis experience a cumulative toxic effect of cannabis that is manifested about 7-8 years after initiation of use. U sers of cannabis have an earlier age of onset of psychotic illness than those who do not use, again suggesting some toxic impact on the brain of vulnerable individuals. It may be that those who will develop psychosis are also more likely to smoke cannabis and abuse other substances, but the relationship between cannabis and psychosis proneness is now beyond doubt. e relationship is therefore denitely complex but there is accumulating genetic evidence to support the proposition that the negative impact of cannabis on serious mental illness is signicantly more likely to occur in those who have vulnerable or psychosis prone genes. Whether it is an actual cause of this illness or acts to facilitate the manifestation of the condition in someone already genetically vulnerable, it does seem that heavy use of the potent variety does generate risk independent of any predisposition genetic or otherwise. Continued use is associated with worse short and long term outcomes and may also negatively affect cognition until use is discontinued. Many research studies in Australia, E urope and the U nited States have conrmed these associations so much so that prevention of cannabis use has emerged as one of the genuine public health strategies to decrease the incidence and prevalence of psychotic illness. In one intriguing study, the association between cannabis use and adult psychosis was mediated by childhood sexual trauma. e researchers found that the combination of childhood trauma and cannabis use far more strongly predicted adult psychosis than either risk factor alone. O ther mediating factors proposed include urban living, male gender and being exposed to chronic stress in early development. Another interesting nding is that people with attention decit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are more likely to use cannabis than their peers without the disorder. is is likely to be a form of self medication and suggests that drug use that becomes problematic may in fact reect underlying pathology that requires treatment. Cannabis use seems to increase, or at least the cravings increase, when the user experiences negative aective states as in feels depressed or is struggling to cope with lifes issues. is is similar to the ndings of an association between alcohol abuse and dependence and depression and other mood disorders. A bidirectional relationship between cannabis use disorders and major depression has been reported with greater levels of depression seen in those who are aicted by both cannabis and alcohol use disorders. This association with other negative health behaviours also includes an increased risk of self harm and suicide. A report from India last year described an individual who engaged in the act of self amputation of his genitalia as a consequence of his paranoid symptoms occurring in the aermath of cannabis use. F requent recreational use in adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for depression and anxiety disorders in young adult women, a nding that is unlikely to be due to self medication according to the researchers, as girls with depression and anxiety are no more likely to use cannabis than others. Again the issue of cause and eect needs to be claried. What is clear is that those who develop serious illness are more adversely aected if they continue to use cannabis. ere is a greater loss of brain volume and functional outcomes tend to be worse, including more frequent hospitalisations. The impact on cognition leads to a greater frequency of accidents including road trac accidents and poorer academic performance in the medium to long term, this even in people without psychosis. Smoking cannabis therefore does confer a risk on some of the people who smoke it to develop serious mental illness, however the majority of people who smoke it will have no problems, but how will you tell the dierence and if you want to start, is it worth the risk? Gerard Hutchinson is a Professor of Psychiatry and Head of the Psychiatry Unit of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, UWI. M arijuana on the Mind on MarijuanaBY PROFESSOR GER ARD HUTCHINSON
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 13 ENERGY 5TH BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, B ANKING & FINANCE C ONFERENCE (BBF5) Risk management has become adventurous in modern times, characterized by exotic nancial re-engineering. Both developed and emerging economies have been using derivative instruments like options, futures, credit derivatives and myriad combinations. Derivatives are nancial instruments which derive their value from an uderlying asset or a nancial instrument. e underlying assets and/or nancial instruments could be stocks, bonds, currency, commodities, indices and even weather. Simply demonstrated, let us imagine a rm having a receivable denominated in foreign currency. It is due in 30 days. e rm clearly has a foreign exchange exposure because between now and then, the foreign currency might depreciate, causing a conversion loss to the rm. It would be good if there was some way through which the rm could lock in todays foreign exchange rate for future conversion. A currency future or a currency forward is one way to do that. e rm can agree to sell the foreign currency aer 30 days at todays rate to another counterparty. N eedless to say that the counterparty would be in an opposite situation and therefore motivated to take the other side of the transaction. is way, it can eliminate its FOREX exposure. e underlying asset in this case is the foreign currency and the forward/fuures contract is a derivative instrument based on that. Also, this is a hedging transaction because the incoming FOREX position was oset by an equivalent outgoing FOREX position. As another demonstration, firms can use options contracts to hedge their exposure. An options contract is a right to buy or sell an underlying asset/instrument at a predetermined price (exercise price) within or at the end of a predened period. e right to buy is the call option and the right to sell is the put option. ese rights can be purchased for a price called the option premium which is small relative to the size of the contract. One good thing about an options contract is that it can be excercised only if it is benecial to do so. F or our rm which has the FOREX exposure, it can hedge its position by purchasing a put option on the foreign currency. If the foreign currency appreciates, it can let the option expire and sell the foreign currency in the open market. If the foreign currency depreciates, it could exercise the option to sell at the exercise price. is way, an options contract could protect the rm from FORE X exposure without having to sacrice the upside of exchange rate volatility. Take this a little forward, do away with the much decorated nancial jargon, and things begin to look like gloried gambling. F or example, in a weather derivative, people can play with the posssibility of, say, rain versus sunshine. The actual outcome (rain or sunshine) will determine the direction of money being exchanged. In this world of automation, a piece of soware is all you need to conduct a nancial transaction. is implies that derivatives can be traded continuously, almost till the day they mature. e problem, however, is that the actual delivery of goods rarely takes place, with transactions getting squared o through osetting positions. O n the day of settlement therefore, only money changes hands. O n the other hand, we have structured finance as a mechanism for risk management, where the focus is on creating high quality (low risk) securities from a comparatively riskier portfolio. F or instance, we could accumulate promises of payments from a pool of borrowers (like mortgage borrowers), compile and convert them into various tranches (a french word for slice). Some of these tranches can be senior to others depending on factors like prepayment and default risks. e senior ones will have rst right to get money in case of default by borrowers. us they get high ratings (instruments with the highest safety) from credit rating agencies. ey are then sold in the market as ready-to-buy-instruments, sometimes even retail instruments for the general public. I can get a little smart in that if I have taken a mortgage loan, I can, at the same time, also buy a security from the pool to which my own mortgage loan was also a contributor. But if the portfolio is bad (for example, a portfolio of subprime loans), it remains bad. And when it goes bust, all tranches face the tragedy, including my own. The irony is that such financial products, which were meant to reallocate risk, themsleves increase it by transferring it to the weakest link in the chain. Instead of risk management then, what we see is risk magnication. A more worrying aspect of this nancial (re)engineering is that it can also lead to uncontrolled volatility and rise in prices, which is in no way linked to the value that a product brings to the economy. is is at crossroads with the rst lesson of nance and economics that price is the total value of a product or service in the economy. What we tend to forget in the humdrum, however, is that like any other human invention, derivatives can be be misused. Derivatives, just like nuclear energy, can either be a boon or otherwise, depending on how they are used. e real apprehension should be about the motivations that guide the use of derivatives and not the instruments themselves. If used responsibly, ethically and eectively, they are a powerful tool for risk management. F inancial (re)engineering may look fascinating and glamorous on paper, but before implementing it, what is important is a proper and systematic credit risk assessment of the individuals.Participants in the 4th Business, Banking and Finance L eaders Forum, from le: John Robinson, Deputy Governor, Research and E conomic Programming Division, Bank of Jamaica; Dr Shelton Nicholls, Deputy Governor, Research and Policy, Central Bank of T rinidad and T obago; Dr Warren Smith, President, Caribbean Development Bank; E rrol Simms, Head, Department of M anagement Studies, UWI, St. Augustine (currently Dean Faculty of Social Sciences); Dave Seerattan, Research Fellow, Caribbean Centre for M oney and Finance (CCMF), UWI, St. Augustine; Dr Ronald Ramkissoon, Senior E conomist/M anager, EIU, Republic Bank L imited; Dr Arnold M cIntyre, Programme Coordinator, Caribbean Regional T echnical Assistance Centre (CAR T AC); Wain Iton, Chief E xecutive Ocer, T rinidad and T obago Stock E xchange.Risk Management and Risk MagnicationA FINE BAL ANCEBY DR. CHAND R A S HEKHAR B HATN AGARDr Chandra Shekhar Bhatnagar is at the Department of Management Studies, e UWI, St. Augustine. e 5th Biennial International Business, Banking & Finance Conference (BBF5) will be held over the period May 1-3, 2013 at the St. Augustine campus of e UWI. It is being jointly hosted by the Department of Management Studies, the Central Bank, the Caribbean Centre for Money & Finance and SALISES, and will feature discussions such as the above.
14 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 ENERGY ART C ARIBBEAN HERITAGE LAUNCHEDA volume of essays edited by Dr Basil R eid, Senior Lecturer in Archaeology in the Department of History at e UWI, Caribbean Heritage, was launched in January at the St. Augustine Campus. Written by 32 contributors, Caribbean Heritage looks at the plurality that represents the Caribbean experience, including its symbolism, popular culture, literature, linguistics, pedagogy, philanthropy, natural history, land tenure, townscapes, archaeology and museology. The volume focuses mainly on Trinidad and Tobagos heritage, though its 26 chapters include specic ones on Jamaica, Barbados, St. Lucia, St. K itts, Dominica, the Cayman Islands and the wider Caribbean. According to Dr. R eid, Given its multidisciplinary approach, Caribbean Heritage will have considerable appeal to a wide range of scholars such as folklorists, environmentalists, heritage professionals, linguists, librarians, cultural studies experts, historians, archaeologists, museologists, and students involved in heritage studies in the region and beyond. Dr. R eid has authored several books, edited volumes and published numerous articles in peerreviewed journals on the indigenous people and cultures of the Caribbean. His concentration is in the sphere of the pre-Columbian archaeology of the Caribbean, geoinformatics, landscape archaeology, and the historical geography and forensics of the Caribbean as well as Trinidads railways. Research clusters, multi-disciplinary partnerships, fusions between disciplines these are some of the buzzwords around which universities are trying to establish their distinct brands. N ot many find it easy to breach the traditional silo mentalities that keep faculties locked into their domains, thinking that the world of the other is far too remote and not worth exploring. But two colleagues at e U WI from two disparate faculties the F aculty of Medical Sciences and the F aculty of Humanities and E ducation have come together in a project that warmly embraces those concepts. And so naturally has it emerged, one wonders why it hasnt been done before. The outcome of the project between well-known artist, Steve O uditt, and professor of psychiatry, Gerard Hutchinson is an exhibition called P roceeds to Mental Health, which opens at Medulla Art Gallery on March 7 and runs for a month. is collection of O uditts work features the human brain and other cranial derivatives transposed, juxtaposed and imposed on a series of different and sometimes disturbing scenes images showing dierent states of asylum and entrapment, says O uditt that will certainly give pause to the watcher. The ideas emerged from discussions between psychiatrist and artist friends since their boyhood days in Diego Martin sharing thoughts on the human condition and feeling that the society needed to reect on its mental state of being. Good mental health is central to the overall wellbeing of the members of every society and one of its major determinants is the relationship people have with the images and spaces that make up their visual environment, said P rofessor Hutchinson. is project is an attempt to address Art on the Mind Caribbean Heritage looks at the plurality that represents the Caribbean experience, including its symbolism, popular culture, literature, linguistics, pedagogy, philanthropy, natural history, land tenure, townscapes, archaeology and museology.these issues, as they are both taken for granted. Steve and I have had lengthy conversations over the course of our long friendship about how our respective vocations interact, and this exhibition is the rst step toward bringing those ideas to a wider public in a tangible way. O uditt was equally enthusiastic about the opportunity to release those years of private discussions to an open space. I am really happy to be doing this project, he said. F or both of us its a small start; using our own resources to generate funds to make positive change in the public understanding of a wide range of mental health issues. F inding design solutions to social problems is the most important issue in design education and practice today. Its something I have been advocating in my teaching, so this exhibition is an opportunity to show how art/design for social change can work; or fail. While the cost of the art is being kept fairly low, they are hoping to use the proceeds to enable dierent approaches to what O uditt describes as our wicked problems. One possibility is to give grants to pairings of a young artist/ designer and a mental health professional/doctor for them to provide solutions to some of the pressing problems of mental health education, spatial design, advocacy, environments, information design, clinics, and so on, said O uditt. e challenges are endless. e idea is to encourage this team to have a wonderful time doing creative, experimental, enjoyable work that attempts to nd solutions to our wicked problems; and for us to be strong advocates for applying design and creative thinking to solving social problems. e show runs from March 7 to April 4 at Medulla Art Gallery on Fitt Street in Woodbrook. e opening is from 7pm to 9pm. (Vaneisa Baksh)Finding design solutions to social problems is the most important issue in design education and practice today.One of Steve Ouditts images an asylum with a tumour. Steve Ouditt
SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI TODAY 15 ENERGY MUSIC The proceeds go towards the P sychiatry U nit of the F aculty of Medical Sciences, an example of creative paths to sustainability, but while at one level it was surprising that the U nit would choose such an enterprise as a fundraiser, it was not altogether odd. Head of the U nit, P rofessor Gerard Hutchinson is well ensconced in the world of the arts. Literature, music and art are comfortable neighbours and he slips in and out of their galleries and drawing rooms frequently. Considering the enormous range and robustness of his responsibilities as psychiatrist, administrator and teacher, among other things, it suggests an anity with this world that makes him either a closet artist, or an incorrigible groupie. But seriously, if one considers the signicance of music therapy in treatment for many types of mental disorders, the connection becomes more readily apparent. N eurologist and popular author, O liver Sacks tells of the quickening of the mind through music; how music has helped in cases of depression and Alzheimers Disease. P atients whose brains appeared to have shut down, leaving them unable to communicate or to even remember their lives, were able to relive parts of their past that had been embedded in their minds through a musical soundtrack. It seems the musical memory is stored in a dierent place in the mind. F ascinating, but complex. Yet it could explain why the concert conceptualised by the psychiatrist, e U niversity of Calypso comes to e U niversity of the West Indies, seemed to be such an endorphin booster. Andy Narell with Professor Gerard Hutchinson: Andy Narell held it all together, opening with a jazzy session with the musicians that included his composition, e L ast Word, which he arranged for birdsong for Panorama. PHOTOS: RICHARD SPENCEClassics come to the University It might have been a rst for a concert of that nature to be held at the Learning R esource Centre, and the sound was so clear and clean it surprised me that this was not a regular thing. Deputy P rincipal of the St Augustine Campus, P rofessor R hoda R eddock, was so delighted, that she promptly declared that this would be the forerunner of many concerts at the LR C. It was an idea she had long been nursing, she said, because she feels these events should be a normal part of campus life. But of course, a shows success is not solely determined by the venues conviviality; the acts have to be attractive. ey were stellar. Andy N arell, R elator, eron Shaw, R af R obertson, Lord Superior and David R udder, with band members K J Marcelle, Clint De Couteau and Tatsuya N akamaru. While it was billed as a night of the classics, it was not simply for older folk to embrace nostalgia, it was an excellent learning experience for the youth as well. Campus life at its nest, and the next step might be to consider taking it outdoors too, to the LR C Greens. (Vaneisa Baksh)At 75, L ord Superior was strikingly dapper in his bowler hat. Not only did Supie perform his Put the Women on T op and San Fernando Carnival, he joined Relator for a medley and engaged him in a round of extempo. He made his calypso debut at 16, making it nearly 60 years in the business. Relator is one of the smoothest calypsonians. Performing his classics, Food Prices and Gavaskar, he ran through a medley that included every calypsonian in the world, especially L ord Kitchener. David Rudder, who turns 60 this year, is as timeless as ever. e poetry of his music translates easily into any genre, perhaps the quality that makes a classic. Stirring renditions of the Hammer, L ong T ime Band and Nu Respect had the audience singing like a long time band themselves.While it was billed as a night of the classics, it was not simply for older folk to embrace nostalgia, it was an excellent learning experience for the youth as well.
16 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 24TH FEBRUARY, 2013 UWI CALENDAR of EVENTSM ARCH AUGUST 2013UWI T O DAY is printed and distributed for e U niversity of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, through the kind support of Trinidad Publishing Co Ltd, 22-24 St Vincent Street, P ort of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies. ART ON THE MIND 7 March to 4 April Medulla Art Gallery 37 Fitt St Woodbrook, Port of Spain An exhibition called Proceeds to Mental Health, because that is just what happens, will feature the art of Steve O uditt done as a project with psychiatrist Gerard Hutchinson. The works are somewhat disturbing, but will make you reect says the artist. e show runs for a month. For further information, please contact Medulla Art Gallery at 740-7597, or email them at email@example.com PROFESSORIAL INAUGURAL LECTURE Professor Surendra Arjoon 14 March at 5.30pm UWI St. Augustine What went wrong with the World: e E thical Challenge for Business in the 21st Century, is the subject of the professorial lecture to be delivered by Surendra Arjoon, P rofessor of Business and P rofessional E thics, at e UWI, St. Augustine. For further information, please contact the Marketing and Communications Oce, UWI, at 662-2002, ext. 82013 LITERATURE WEEK 18-22 March St. Augustine Campus, UWI e Department of Literary, Cultural and Communication Studies of the F aculty of Humanities and E ducation holds its annual Campus Literature Week with a series of activities, including daily lunchtime readings at the Alma Jordan Library from noon. The 2013 writer-in-residence is Canada-based R abindranath Maharaj, award-winning author of e Amazing Absorbing Boy, who will read on F riday 22nd March, at the Centre for Language Learning. For further information, please contact Ms. Serah Acham at serah.acham@ my.uwi.edu. UWI DISCOVER TOURS BRAZIL: 17 May 9 June INDIA: 12 July 2 August Discover contemporary Brazil or India under the stewardship of The U WI. ese trips are open to sta, students, alumni and the community of tertiary institutions. For further information, please visit www.sta.uwi.edu/discover or call 6622002 ext. 84184 PROTECTING W OMEN AND GIRLS 25-27 March Magdalena Grand Beach Resort, Lowlands, Tobago e Global Centre for Behavioural Health (GCBH) hosts its inaugural Caribbean Conference on Domestic Violence and Gender E quality. e conference aims to engage advocates and professionals from domestic violence, health care, social service and policy makers in critical dialogues that will enable them to use indepth information to impact their work in terms of practice, research, and policy. P rofessor E meritus of e U WI, Sir Samuel Wray, is among the featured speakers. For further information, visit the ocial conference website at http://www. cdvge2013.org DISTINGUISHED OPEN LECTURE Dr Jamil Salmi 6pm, 3 April Learning Resource Centre, UWI St. Augustine The O pen Lectures Committee will be hosting a Distinguished Lecture to be presented by Dr. Jamil Salmi at the St. Augustine Campus. Dr Salmi is an independent expert for education and the former education sector manager for e World Bank in the Latin American and Caribbean region. He was previously professor of education economics at the N ational Institute of E ducation P lanning in R abat, Morocco. For further information, please contact the Marketing and Communications Oce, UWI, at 662-2002, ext. 82013 WORLD OF WORK 2013 MOCK INTERVIEWS (FSS & FHE) Saturday 9 March, SPEC For further information, please visit www.sta.uwi.edu/wow or call 662-2002 ext. 82325. UWI T ODAY WANT S T O HEAR FRO M YOUUWI T O DAY welcomes submissions by sta and students for publication in the paper. P lease send your suggestions, comments, or articles for consideration to firstname.lastname@example.org