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Did you know that Trinidad and Tobago is home to nearly half of the worlds spider families Anansi excluded? Did you know that spiders make an enormous contribution to agriculture? Read about it on Page 9, where Jo-Anne Sewlal from the Dept of Life Sciences at UWI St. Augustine takes us into the fascinating world of spiders. Jo-Annes cover photo, taken in Tobago, shows a member of the spider family omisidae, commonly referred to as Crab spiders. (Strange how easy it is to associate Tobago with crabs, even spiders get drawn into that web!) ey get this name from the size and length of their rst two pairs of legs which are much longer and thicker than the other two pairs and are held forward in a crab-like position. ey are active hunters particularly wandering on plants, so they do not use the silk they produce to construct webs e land ofAN ANS INearly half the worlds spider families live in T&Tto catch prey. omisid spiders rely on camouage to ambush their prey, with some individuals blending in with the petals of owers, leaves and bark, with some members even mimicking bird droppings. ose that hide on the petals of owers, ambush the pollinators that visit it, for example, bees, while they themselves act as pollinators as they move from ower to ower transferring the pollen that has rubbed on their bodies. ey are capable of taking down prey much larger than themselves, like the bees. However, they also supplement their diet of insects with nectar. FACILITIES 04New Space for Medical Students Dorms at San Fernando RESEARCH 08Not just for the Birds Life Saving Studies BOOKS 14e Long Journey Home An Auditor Traces Ancestral Steps LITERATURE 15Interview with Writer in Residence Myriam Chancy
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 3 EDITORIAL TEAMCAMPUS PRIN CIP AL Professor Clement Sankat D IRECT O R O F MARKE TING AND CO MMUNICATI ONS Mrs. Dawn-Marie De Four-Gill E DIT OR Ms. Vaneisa Baksh C ONTACT US The UWI Marketing and Communications Ofce Tel: (868) 662-2002, exts. 82013 / 82014 Or email: email@example.com FROM THE PRINCIPAL CAMPUS NEWS A smart and caring world is within reach if we can encourage each other to do more for future generations. It is one of those utterances of common sense that we all know, even if we do not work out all the linkages that take us to the eventual conclusion. It came from Canadas Governor General, David Johnston, during his address to an audience at the Daaga Auditorium at the St. Augustine Campus on May 2, 2012. While on his State visit to Trinidad and Tobago, G overnor G eneral Johnston was speaking on E ducating and Innovating in a Connected World, about which he was making the point that education and human development are inexorably linked and that in this century, entire societies will nd their wellbeing determined by their ability to learn and innovate. Citing several Canadian initiatives within the realm of public education, G overnor G eneral Johnston said he was a big believer in collaboration, and touted the value of shared knowledge across disciplines and borders. He noted that in Canada he had outlined a set of pillars he felt were necessary to create a smart and caring nation, and that one of them was strengthening learning and innovation. Underlying his talk was the idea that it didnt matter how technology made the connections possible in our time, people still need to educate themselves to be innovative and to use their knowledge based upon care for the future of the planet and its inhabitants. Pro Vice Chancellor and St. Augustine Campus Principal, Prof Clement Sankat, in his welcome remarks reminded listeners that the 52-year-old Canada Hall on the Campus, built to celebrate the establishment of the second Campus of the UWI, was a gift of the Canadian G overnment. He went on the enumerate some of the scholarships and joint research projects that have existed between universities and other Canadian institutions and The UWI, remarking that this was the kind of collaboration that indeed advanced teaching, learning, research and innovation. e panel discussion which followed, featured Mrs. N obina Robinson Chief E xecutive Ocer at P olytechnics, Canada; Ms. Karen McBride, P resident and Chief E xecutive Ocer at the Canadian Bureau for International E ducation; and Mr. James Knight, P resident Association of Canadian Community Colleges.Leadership and the UniversityAt the recent meeting of our University Council at Mona, the P rincipals of the Mona, Cave Hill and O pen Campus of e UWI were renewed and rearmed. Congratulations to my colleagues, P rofessors G ordon Shirley, Hilary Beckles and Hazel Simmons-McDonald respectively. Todays UWI is a complex institution, with a shared governance model, oen not understood by many, one which manifests itself at the Departmental, Faculty, Campus and University Centre levels. All of our leaders have to engage these layers of responsibility, including the extensive Committee systems of decision-making, to ensure the University is meeting its strategic goals and delivery of its promise. is system, with its checks and balances, brings rigor, integrity and transparency in the Universitys operations. Decision-making can at times be slow but in the main, such decisions are well thought out. In this way e UWI, with its regional governance model, has withstood the test of time. Campuses today are vast and complex institutions, in the service of both our internal and external stakeholders. It is about teaching, research and service, and striving for quality in all that we do. E xpectations for our Campus and University continue to rise: enhanced access, graduate education, research, social transformation, income generation, international recognition etc, while meeting the needs of an expanded student populationnow more than 19,000 at St. Augustine. But our leaders have to manage beyond this complexity, set a vision and direction for our Campuses and University, articulate and sometimes plead for the necessary funding of our institution from our public and private partners and then execute. ey have to be the pillars of our University and exemplify its core values such as maintaining a commitment to the pursuit of excellence, building respect for cultural diversity and the rule of law and fostering ethical values, attitudes and approaches. O ur University and Campus leaders have to be academic leaders, so as to assess and mentor those under their wings. O ur Campus P rincipals and P ro Vice Chancellors, all recognized scholars in their own right, have moved through the ranks of academia, had to overcome numerous challenges and treat with very dicult situations and in their own styles, have helped to make our regional University under the leadership of our Vice Chancellor, P rofessor E N igel Harris much stronger. I salute them all. As former Vice Chancellor, the late P rofessor Rex N ettleford has reminded us, e UWI is not a sprint, it is a marathon. CLE M ENT K. S A N KA TPro Vice Chancellor & Principal E ducating and Innovating in a Connected WorldCanadas Governor General, David Johnston Pro Vice Chancellor and St. Augustine Campus Principal, Prof Clement Sankat, presents a framed UWI photo to Canadas Governor General, David Johnston during his visit on May 2, 2012.
4 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 CAMPUS NEWSUWI TEACHIN G AND STUD ENT F ACILITIESe UWI T eaching and Student Facilities building at the San Fernando G eneral Hospital was launched on May 9 with a ceremony that involved the P rime Minister of Trinidad & Tobago, Mrs Kamla Persad-Bissessar cutting the ribbon, unveiling the commemorative plaque and delivering a feature address. O ther speakers included the St. Augustine Campus P rincipal, Prof Clement Sankat, Chairman of the SWRHA, Dr. L ackram Bodoe, Minister of Health Dr Fuad Khan and Minister of Science, Technology and Tertiary E ducation, Fazal Karim. e facility, which is the renovated Bachelors Medical Quarters (BMQ), contains 32 rooms as well as common study areas, kitchen and laundry facilities.PENS ION TALKSe University of the West I ndies (UWI) Caribbean Centre for Money and Finance (CCMF) hosted the Caribbean Business E xecutive Seminar on May 4 at the Hyatt Regency Trinidad. is seminar, themed the Future of the Pension Industry, aimed to educate pension beneciaries, their representatives and the industrys decision-makers about key issues aecting the operations of Caribbean pension funds. From le in photo at right: Prof Compton Bourne, Executive Director, Caribbean Centre for Money and Finance (CCMF), with Minister of Finance, Winston Dookeran and St. Augustine Campus Principal, Prof Clement Sankat at the Seminar. P rof Bourne has suggested that Caribbean governments should look at adjusting the limits pension funds can invest overseas for better risk management.TRINIDAD AND T O BAGO: OUR PL AC E IN THE RE G IONe O pen L ectures Committee at e UWI, St. Augustine hosted the second panel discussion in commemoration of the countrys 50th Independence Anniversary, titled T rinidad and T obago: O ur Place in the Region. It was chaired by Sir Shridath Ramphal (at podium) at the N aparima Bowl, San Fernando, with Ambassador Paulo Sergio T raballi Bozzi of the Brazilian Embassy, Mr. Arthur L ok Jack, Dr. Michelle Reis and Professor H ollis L iverpool as panellists. Sir Shridath, a former Chancellor of e UWI, said the collapse of the West Indian Federation was a catalyst for the independence movement. Aer the tumble of the Federation, the region did not become an outcast widow, but the handmaid of Independence, he said. Aer the collapse, the region remained because it was not the end of regionality but of federalism. e renovated Bachelors Medical Quarters has 32 rooms.
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 5 When I I.D.C. (Desmond) Imbert died in 2010, G G yan Shrivastava, head of the Department of Civil & E E nvironmental E E ngineering, described him as the beams and columns that support the Department, physically and intellectually. N N o surprise, then, that the Civil E E ngineering Buildingthe Facultys Block 2was named aer him in a ceremony in N N ovember 2011. Imbert was the quintessential Caribbean man. Born in St Lucia, as a child he lived in Dominica and Montserrat. Before he went to Ireland to study, he lived in both Tobago (where his father was a magistrate) and Trinidad (where he taught at Fatima College for a year). As an engineer, he worked in Antigua and in Barbados, where he was Director of P P ublic Works. O O f course, he lived and worked in Trinidad for much of his adult life; and he oen visited Jamaica, where he was involved in the transformation of CAST to todays UTech (University of Technology). Though Imbert loved literature and the classics, which he studied at his secondary school in Montserrat, he opted for engineering, gaining his BSc and MSc in civil engineering from University College, Dublin, and his P P hD from Trinity College, also in Dublin. He joined the new Faculty of E Engineering at St Augustine in 1964, one of that small group of West Indian pioneers who built it up aer the original, mainly British academics, gradually le in the 1960smen like K K en Julien, G G M. Richards, G G eorge Sammy, Harry PP helps and others. In some ways Civil E E ngineering was the core department of the Faculty, and Imbert built up its reputation and its sta, serving as its Head in the 1970s. He was appointed P P rofessor of Construction E Engineering & Management in 1976. But it was as a three-term Dean of the Faculty (1979-88) that he became one of the best known Big Men on Campus (notwithstanding his small physical stature). He was a passionate advocate of his Faculty and an inspiring leader. It fell to him to manage the massive expansion of E Engineeringnew buildings, new sta, rapidly increasing CAMPUS HISTORY student numbers, new programmeswhich took place during his deanship, funded by oil boom moneyeven though the oil boom was over by about 1983. ose of us from the less favoured Faculties looked on with awe and envy as the splendid buildings went up, and we heard rumours of an elegantly furnished Board Room which none outside the Faculty could penetrate, except when it was used for a luncheon for E E lizabeth II when she visited the campus in 1985. Imbert was an assertive and robust leader of his Faculty at a time of expansion and optimism. Many have testified that he was also an inspiring teacher and an active graduate supervisor, supervising more successful P P hD candidates than any other academic in the Faculty; two of them succeeded him as P P rofessors of Construction E E ngineering & Management (Winston Suite and T.M. Lewis). With an international reputation in concrete technology, and more generally in construction engineering, Imbert enjoyed a very active professional life o-campus, serving on many national, regional and international committees, boards and associations. is recognition brought him many honours and awards, including a Chaconia Medal, and the Career of E E xcellence Award from the Association of P P rofessional E E ngineers of Trinidad & Tobago (APEPE TT), of which he was a past P P resident. Imbert retired as a P P rofessor E E meritus in 1996, but he continued to teach and to mentor, coming to campus nearly every day until his health began to fail. A man who hardly ever wore a suit and was oen to be seen on and o campus in short pants and sandals, who drove small, beat-up cars, Imbert was unquestionably a character, not to say an eccentric. G G enial, sociable, at times acerbic and irascible; a great raconteur (posh speak for ole talker) and compulsive conversationalistDesmond Imbert will long be recalled, as a founding father of the Faculty of E Engineering and as a fascinating human being.e column that supported Civil EngineeringDEsmSM ONdD Imb IMB ErR TBY Pr PR Of FEssSSOr R Brid RID GEt T Br RErREt T ONBridget Brereton is Emerita Professor of History and author of the 2010 From Imperial College to e University of the West Indies.
6 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 CAMPUS NEWSe appointment or re-appointment of several senior managers was conrmed at the annual business meeting of the Council of e UWI, held on April 27 at the Mona Campus. P rincipal of the Mona Campus, P rof G ordon Shirley, and P rincipal of the Cave Hill Campus, P rof Hilary Beckles were reappointed for another ve-year term; P rincipal of the O pen Campus, P rof Hazel Simmons-McDonald was also reappointed, but for two years as she is due to retire in 2014. Also reappointed were University Registrar, Mr C. William Iton for ve more years and Deputy Chief Financial O fficer, Ms P atricia Harrison, for another three. P rof Y vette Jackson, Coordinator for G raduate Studies at Mona Campus is now P ro Vice-Chancellor for G raduate Studies, succeeding P rof Ronald Y oung who is retiring. At the St. Augustine Campus, Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and E ducation, P rof Funso Aiyejina serves a further four years, eective August 1, 2012. Errol Simms succeeds Dr Hamid G hany as Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences for a three-year term. e new Faculty of Science Council approves UWI Strategic Plane governing body of e UWI, its University Council, met on April 27, at the Mona Campus for its annual business meeting. Chaired by UWI Chancellor, Sir G eorge Alleyne, the meeting dealt with a number of matters including approval of nancial reports, tuition fees for the next academic year, the appointment of Deans and several Senior Managers, endorsement of recommendations for honorary degrees and approval of the Strategic P lan to guide the institution for the next ve-year period. The Vice Chancellor (VC), P rofessor E N igel Harris, reported on the Universitys accomplishments and highpoints of the preceding year. He spoke of the record growth in student numbers over the past decade, from approximately 22,000 to in excess of 47,000, which spawned a number of capital development projects to meet the demand for teaching, learning and living spaces. More than 21 infrastructural projects were undertaken in that period. Among them, student housing, medical facilities and the Ryan Brathwaite athletic track at Cave Hill, teaching and student accommodation at Mona, along with the new Faculty of Law building, lm building, Daaga Auditorium and Teaching and Learning Complex at St Augustine, and the upgrade of O pen campus sites across the region, including G renada, St. Lucia, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Reporting on the foundation set in the current five-year strategic planning period (2007-2012), the Vice Chancellor noted the gains in expanding Caribbean citizens access to higher educationnamely through a 25% increase in enrolment in undergraduate and graduate programmes over that time, and initiatives such as the establishment of the O pen Campus and Western Jamaica Campus and the addition of more market-driven programme oerings. He mentioned initiatives such as the strengthening of UWIs Quality Assurance Units and the commencement of Institutional Accreditation exercises. Special emphasis was placed on the formation of research clusters in areas relevant to sustainable regional development, and the Vice Chancellor highlighted some important research projects in the period under review, namely, the Caribbean Cocoa Rehabilitation project, the regional Biosafety P roject through the G lobal Environment Fund, and research in N on-Communicable Disease, HIV/AIDS as well as in the areas of Improving E arly Childhood Development and P arenting Interventions. Council approved the 2012-2017 Strategic P lan, which features a business model approach and utilises the Balanced Scorecard.As a nation, Trinidad and Tobago is considered by many as being blessed in varying capacities. P erhaps most prevalent among these is the blessing of oil and natural gas. It is no secret that the engine of its economy is fuelled by the energy sector, with reports suggesting that as of 2010 approximately 42.5 per cent of the nations gross domestic product was accounted for by activity within this sectorwhich the World Bank has recorded as being approximately US$20.6bn. With this in mind, the Trade and E conomic Development Unit (T E DU) of the Department of E conomics at e UWI decided to host a conference entitled Revenue Management in Hydrocarbon E conomies. e conference takes place in light of the fact that small, hydrocarbon-rich exporting economies are typically faced with peculiar challenges in the context of revenue management. Research suggests that very few developing economies with a rich hydrocarbon endowment achieve sustainable development. O ver the past three years, Trinidad and Tobago has been characterized as experiencing successive periods of negative economic growth. is is not to suggest that we are incapable of achieving sustainable development, in fact, quite the opposite. Hydrocarbon revenues can provide the resources necessary to achieve our development goals. However, management of these revenues is critical to the process of achieving sustainable development. As the nation prepares to celebrate its ieth year of independence, there could be no greater gi than this gathering of intellectuals, policy specialists and experts in the field. With themes speaking to the concepts of corporate social responsibility as well as transparency and accountability in the management of such revenues, this conference will help chart a way forward for the nation. A key major discussion on Dutch Disease and its relevance to the case of Trinidad and Tobago is expected. ere is a view that the Dutch Disease, dened as the adverse macroeconomic impact on an economy occasioned by an oil windfall, has undoubtedly aected the countrys economy. Dr. Roger Hosein, the Coordinator of TEDU, highlighted this at the Department of E conomics recently concluded Conference on the E conomy, stating that the dependence of the economy on the hydrocarbon sector has led to the failure of other sectors of the economy to perform at their fullest potential. The conference is meant to appeal to all facets of the society including youths. An essay competition for secondary school students invites them to lend a voice to the discussion of revenue management and sustainable development. Issues such as the historical context of the petroleum industry of Trinidad and Tobago shall be heard, as well as the proposition of an appropriate regulatory regime for economies of our nature. Discussions on macroeconomic implications for the nations economy shall also take centre stage. P erhaps of key signicance, will be the discussion of potential diversication which promises to be enlightening, given that an issue that has been on the tips of the tongues of many national and regional economists over the years shall be addressed. Timothy Woolford is a MSc student of Economics.CONFERENCE INSIGHTHydrocarbon Managementand Technology will be headed by P rof Indar Ramnarine from August 1, 2012. Also taking up a new Deans post on August 1, 2012 is Dr Carlisle P emberton who was named Acting Dean of the new Faculty of Food and Agriculture. Dr P emberton, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Agricultural E conomics & E xtension will ll the post for one year. At Mona Campus, Dean of the Faculty of P ure and Applied Sciences (renamed Science & Technology), P rof Ishenkumba K ahwa, will serve a further four years in the position, until July 31, 2016. P rof E van Duggan will succeed P rofessor Figueroa as Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences for two years until his retirement in 2014. At Cave Hill, Dr David Berry will become Dean of the Faculty of Law on August 1, 2012 for a term of four years; P rofessor Joseph A. Branday was reappointed Dean of the Faculty of Medical Sciences for a further two years up to July 31, 2014. Dr Justin Robinson will succeed Dr G eorge Belle as Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences for four years eective August 1, 2012.NEW TERMS OF OFFICEBY TIM O THY WOO LFO RDe conference, Revenue Management in Hydrocarbon Economies takes place from June 20th to 22nd, 2012 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Port of Spain, Trinidad. For further information, please contact the Trade and Economic Development Unit, Department of Economics, at 662-2002 ext 83233 or 83231 or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit the conference website at http://sta.uwi.edu/conferences/12/revenue/index.asp
8 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 I n academia the term blue-sky research is oen used when the importance or relevance of the research ndings is not immediately apparent, obvious or applicable to present day problems. Some academics argue that a certain percentage of this type of research should be encouraged or allowed while others vigorously oppose this type of scientic adventure because of the cost and also the perceived idiosyncratic or esoteric nature of these studies. For example, during the course of bleeding nestling birds for arboviruses in Trinidad in the 1950s, Dr. T.H.G. Aitken and P rof. W. G Downs found that nestling birds were frequently found to be parasitized with many immature y larvae. e ies were collected and specimens were sent to Dr. Rodney Dodge from Washington State University who subsequently revised the Insect G enus Philornis and described 10 species of invasive ies from Trinidad, eight of which were new species to science. is pioneering work by Dr. Aitken and P rof. Downs from the UWIs Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory during the 1950s to the 1960s was published in 1958 and remained unused outside academia for more than 60 years. In January 2012, research assistant, Raymond Martinez, and I were invited to a workshop in the G alapagos Islands to help develop an action plan to control the invasive parasite Philornis downsi (originally described from Trinidad in 1968), which is attacking 17 species of birds in the G alapagos Islands. e workshop was funded in part by the G alapagos Conservancy and hosted by the Galapagos N ational P ark Service and the Charles Darwin Foundation. It was reported that the G alapagos bird populations are under serious threat of extinction as a result of infections with Philornis ies which are causing very high mortality among nestlings, including the world famous Darwin nches and the very rare Mangrove Finches, the Floreana Mockingbird and the Medium Tree Finch. Sometimes there is 100% mortality PHOTOS: RA Y MARTINEZ RESEARCHN ot Just for the BirdsBY PR O F E SS O R D AV E D. C HAD EEof edglings in a nest from these parasites. ose that do survive oen have deformed beaks, are shorter in length, have reduced growth rates, anemia and poor fitness potential. The workshop provided an opportunity to share information, to identify gaps in the knowledge of the parasite, Philnoris downsi, and to discuss numerous control strategies, including traps with attractants, sterile insect techniques and biological control. Current research in Trinidad is being conducted in collaboration with the International Atomic E nergy Agency who provided research funds to P rof. John Agard, Head of the Department of Life Sciences and me, to develop rearing facilities in the Department of Life Sciences, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad. In Trinidad, Philornis downsi ies have been found in the nests of Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga sp .), Rufus-tailed Jacamar (Galbula sp.), Tropical K ingbird ( Tyrannus sp .), P iratie Flycatcher (Legatus sp.), G reat K iskadee (Pitangus sp .), G rey-breasted Martin (Progne sp.), Southern House Wren (Troglodytes sp.), Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus sp.), Bare-eyed rush(Turdus sp.), Cocoa Trush (Turdus sp .), Bananaquit (Coereba sp .), Y ellowrumped Cacique (Cacicus sp.), Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus sp.), P alm Tanager (Thraupis sp .), Silver-beak Tanager (Ramphocelus sp. ) and White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus sp .) bird species. Clearly, the work done 64 years ago by Aitken and Downs remains relevant and is being used as the launching pad to build strategies for the control of this major parasite of Galapagos island birds, with Trinidad being one of the major focal points to nd natural enemies for biological control and for studies on parasite-bird interaction and association. Professor Dave Chadee is a Professor of Environmental Health in the Department of Life Sciences, at e UWI. Entrance to the Charles Darwin Foundation on Galapagos Islands Ray Martinez collects a nch during bird netting on the Galapagos Islands (February 2012) Two dead Darwin nches collected from a nest on Galapagos Island. eir death was due to the parasite Philornis downsi.
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 9 E arly last year I was approached by a U K production company about appearing in an episode of the documentary series, Wild Freaks of N ature for the Discovery Channel which focused on the importance of spider silk. But this is just one aspect of spiders that make them fascinating creatures to study. P eople tend to cringe at the mention of their name and think they belong in horror movies, but these arthropods play very important roles in our ecosystems. Spiders carry out many useful ecological functions, for instance they are pollinators. e spiders doing this job include those belonging to the spider family omisidae commonly referred to as crab spiders which act as pollinators of plants, as they move from ower to ower hiding between the petals to ambush insect prey. e ability of spiders to regulate insect populations coupled with the fact that they are quite voracious carnivores allows them to perform another important ecosystem service, that of biological control agent. is service assists the agricultural sector in protecting crops against pests. Simply put, they are more interested in eating the insects that prey on the crops than the crops themselves. Only a small percentage of spider species supplement their diet with other substances like nectar. Spiders also act as biological indicators as the presence or absence of certain species can be used to indicate the health of ecosystems. is is linked to the mid-level position they occupy in food webs, where they act as predators of organisms at lower trophic levels while acting as prey for organisms in higher trophic levels like lizards and birds. eir presence and the species found in a habitat depend on the animals found at lower trophic levels. All spiders produce silk, however not all species build webs, which are primarily used as a prey capture device. Some spiders use silk to construct retreats to rest in, to wrap egg sacs or for transport (ballooning). is method of transport is mainly used by very young spiders to escape their cannibalistic siblings or by others to get to more suitable habitats. Usually, the spider releases a length of silk from a height such as from a rock or a leaf and if it catches on the wind, it carries the spider along with it. Spider silk is quite strong and the remnants of the webs of some species like Nephila clavipes (G olden Orb Weaver) which is found right here in Trinidad and Tobago can persist for months aer it has been abandoned by the spider. Some tribes in the South P acic use the silk from a relative of this species to catch sh. It is the strength and beauty of silk that makes it very applicable to a variety of industries for example in textiles. However, it is also applicable to the security and military industries as the silk of some species is ten times tougher than K evlar, the material used to make bulletproof vests. Trinidad and Tobago contain 52 of the 110 spider families recorded in the world. It is also quite a unique location to study biodiversity, because they are continental islandsthey broke away from the South American continent taking ora and fauna with them. Also, the many millennia of isolation from the mainland have resulted in the development of endemic species, thus adding to the uniqueness of this countrys biodiversity.Nearly half the worlds types live in T&TBY JOANNE NIN A SE WLAL RESEARCHe silk of some species is ten times tougher than Kevlar, the material used to make bulletproof vests.Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal, BSc, MPhil, FLS, AMSB, is attached to the Department of Life Sciences, UWI, St. Augustine. A version of this article originally appeared in the March edition of Earth Conscious magazine at www. earthconsciousmagazine.co m Along came our Spiders Discovery lm crew: PHOTO: JO-ANNE SEWLALWhitebanded Crab spider. PHOTO: BR Y AN REYNOLDSNephila clavipes.PHOTO: JOHN C. ABBOTT (www.abbottnaturephotography.com)
10 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 MENTAL HEALTH Depression is thought to be undoubtedly the most common single entity that brings a patient into the physicians oce. e symptom itself is rarely presented directly, because the patient is generally not aware that he/she is depressed. By far the most likely complaints are those of a physical nature fatigue, weakness, non-specic pain, lack of interest, sleep disturbance, or weight changes. Depressive disorder is a global health problem and reects an experience that is a consequence of a painful, subjective mood state characterized by feelings of sadness, discouragement, loneliness, worthlessness and isolation. It is frequently manifested by unwarranted crying spells, sluggishness of mental and physical activity and suicidal thoughts. Sleep, energy and appetite are oen aected, as well as sexual drive and desire. Sex, sleep and appetite can be aected in either direction and may be severely diminished or irrationally increased, but energy is generally decreased. P erhaps it can best be described as emotional pain accompanying a sense of sadness that seems to be far greater than the context or circumstance in which it occurs. is pain disrupts and profoundly aects the suerers view of the value of life and traumatizes those who are closely involved with them. As described by Andrew Solomon in his award-winning memoir of a depressive illness, it is a sense of unspeakable despair that cannot be expressed much less shared. William Stryon agreed, stating that its horror is is is the h of a six-part series on mental health issues by Professor of Psychiatry, Gerard Hutchinson. Professor Hutchinson is the head of Department, Clinical Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, EWMSC, UWI. Next: ViolenceThinking aboutdepressionBY PR O FESSO R GERARD HUTCHINSONquite beyond expression. Its only saving grace, Stryon adds, is that it is conquerable; if it were not then suicide would be the only remedy. It has been suggested that depression causes more disability than other chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, arthritis and angina; primarily because only 30% of those aicted receive treatment and therefore its chronicity and complications aect both the suerer and their social networks. is sense that it is under-recognised, even by those who suer it, naturally extends itself to a situation where it will be under-diagnosed by those who may be called upon to treat it. It has been described as the archetypal modern disease and straddles an unstable bridge between social conditions and brain biochemistry. is makes it dicult for both patients and clinicians to confront its presence with great certainty because sadness is a natural and normal part of the human condition, the precise point at which it becomes pathological and necessitates professional intervention is sometimes unclear. Some argue that in the attempts to make it more recognizable and visible, it may be reaching a point where it is being sought too aggressively and will ultimately result in it being over-diagnosed as has happened with other conditions such as Attention Decit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). e danger here is that individuals may begin to feel that all sadness and indeed any suering is pathological and requires either medication or therapy. How is normal sadness separated from pathological depression? CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA DSM-IV According to the classication system of the American P sychiatric Associations (AP A) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual which is now in its fourth revision and called DSM-IV-TR (TR refers to Text Revision), it can be divided into three groups, major depressive disorder, dysthymia and depressive disorder not otherwise specied. e latter is a catch-all for premenstrual dysphoria (PMSirritable and unhappy mood), minor depressive episodes and recurrent brief depressive episodes. ese three categories of depression represent the general diagnostic criteria and include within their headings many subtypes. e following criteria established by the AP A for the diagnosis and classication of depression represent the criteria most used by mental health professionals to diagnose the disorder. An alternative classication, the International Classication of Diseases (ICD-10), is produced by the World Health O rganisation and is now fairly consistent with the DSM system. Major depressive episode: ve or more of the following symptoms present for most of two weeks and representing a change from previous functioning. e essential but not sucient symptoms that must be present are 1 and/or 2, that is, a depressed mood and/or a marked loss of interest or pleasure.because sadness is a natural and normal part of the human condition, the precise point at which it becomes pathological and necessitates professional intervention is sometimes unclear.
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 11 e symptoms are: 1. depressed mood 2. markedly diminished interest or pleasure 3. signicant weight loss or weight gain not due to dieting 4. insomnia or hypersomnia (decreased or increased sleep) 5. psychomotor agitation or retardation (increased restlessness or decreased activity) 6. fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day 7. feelings of worthlessness or guilt 8. pronounced diculty in concentrating and making decisions 9. recurrent thoughts of death, including suicidal and/or homicidal thoughts. These symptoms must cause significant distress, must not be due to the physiological eects of a medical disorder or substance use and are not better accounted for by bereavement. Mild major depressive episodes suggest meeting the minimum criteria and causing relatively less functional impairment. Moderate depressive episodes have more functional impairment and more symptoms than meet the minimum criteria while severe episodes cause such marked impairment that functioning is almost totally impaired, with problems of self care, marked reduction of daily activity inclusive of eating and attending to basic needs and constantly signicant suicidal and/or homicidal ideation. For dysthymia, the person must have a depressed mood for most days over at least a two-year period (one year for children and adolescents). e symptoms would never have been absent for more than two months, and no major depressive episode would have occurred within the rst two years of the disorder. ere must also be at least two of the following symptoms: 1. poor appetite or overeating 2. insomnia or hypersomnia 3. low energy or fatigue 4. low self esteem 5. poor concentration and/or indecisiveness 6. feelings of hopelessness. P atients with dysthymia can have superimposed major depression and are then described as having double depression. In psychotic depression, the patient has a severe mental disorganization, with some degree of loss of contact with reality. In melancholic depression, there are marked somatic or physical symptoms. Depression can also be part of a manic depressive illness or bipolar disorder; in this case it is called bipolar depression. History-taking should always include questions about mood swings, previous manic symptoms, for instance, over-activity, grandiosity, impulsiveness, excessive and inappropriate spending or sexual activity, talkativeness, easy distractibility, a subjective feeling that ones thoughts are racing beyond control. is would establish the presence of bipolar disorder rather than unipolar depression. O ther categories of depression include Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder where it is dicult to distinguish the temporal relationship between disabling anxiety and depressive symptoms and Adjustment Disorder with depressed mood where in response to a life stressor, the individual experiences periods of depressed mood but does not full the other criteria for a Major Depressive E pisode. Depression may also present in atypical ways at both extremes of the age spectrum. In the elderly, it may present as a syndrome of decreased motivation with a lack of mental exibility and mild cognitive decits. In the adolescent, it may present with disruptive behaviour, substance abuse and self harm HAIR TODAYIn the words of the St. Augustine Campus Deputy Principal, Professor Rhoda Reddock, UWI belongs to all of us and we should strive to be lifelong learners. These were the greetings and sentiments offered to cosmetologists, professional practitioners in the eld of hair styling, staff and students at the UWIs lecture, Hair This. The Department of Chemistry hosted Hair This! A Public Lecture on Health and Safety Challenges for the Hair Styling Industry on Thursday 19th April, 2012. This lecture was the fourth in a series of lectures by the Chemistry Department as part of UWIs public outreach initiatives. Members of the hair styling community and trainees from YTEPP were among the 175 participants. Dr. Linda Forst, the Director of the Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Science in the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois, Chicago and an external lecturer in the Occupational, Environmental, Safety and Health (OESH) graduate programme, was the key speaker. The lecture engaged academics, researchers, prominent hairstylists and students of hairstyling institutions on issues affecting the hair grooming industry. The lecture also sought to identify health and safety challenges affecting the hair styling industry, generate discussion and awareness on health and safety concerns in the industry and share knowledge on some of the preventative measures referencing research and legislation from the USA. Of great signicance was the framework that was presented by Dr. Forst to understand if a disorder can be classied as occupational. This offers a new direction for research and analysis in the hair styling industry. Feature speaker Dr. Linda Forst, Director of the Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago. At the head table: (from le) Dr. Lebert Grierson, Head Department if Chemistry; Professor Anderson Maxwell, Deputy Dean Postgraduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Professor Dyer Narinesingh, Dean Faculty of Science and Agriculturebefore the low mood is actually evident. In may also occur in the post partum period with an onset two to six weeks aer delivery. e risk here is self neglect by the mother and neglect of the newborn baby with infanticide as a possible outcome. Mood disorders contribute to an increased consumption of health care because many people do not understand what they are experiencing and frequently respond by seeking medical help before mental health help. P atients with bipolar disorder for example have been calculated to consume four times more health care than those with unipolar major depression. Depression whether of the unipolar or bipolar variety is also the psychiatric disorder that is most associated with suicide and more recently with homicide, making it the most potentially lethal mental illness. It has also been reported that people with depression tend to experience more physical pain symptoms than people who are not depressed or would have more painful exacerbations of existing illness. It leads to more inappropriate use of hospital beds, a greater risk of hospitalization for physical illness and prolongs periods of hospitalization. It is also associated with reduced compliance to medical treatments and is an independent predictor of increased mortality for physical illness. is further increases the risk that depression will present to the general practitioner and would therefore be initially managed outside of the mental health services. In addition, when the experience is one of dysthymia, which is a mild but chronic depression, many people think it is the way their life has been and will continue to be. is sense however undermines and disables them even as they are able to continue struggling to function and full their daily commitments. Major depression is a more acute phenomenon that demonstrably causes impairment and sometimes complete breakdown. P eople with depression are therefore more likely to utilize health services and the cost to society of this condition through health care utilization alone is tremendous, in addition to the social, family and community costs. ere is no doubt that when the disorder does exist, it is a source of great suering and disability and contributes to mortality through suicide, particularly in the young adult and elderly age groups. is explains why depression is estimated to become the second highest cause of disability by 2020. O nly about 40% of patients with depression receive treatment and not all of those receive the appropriate treatment while roughly half of the people with depression never seek any help at all from any source. e value of successful intervention for depression will mean diminished morbidity for a range of medical conditions, decreases in the suicide, violence and homicide rates and more eective utilization of health services. ere will also be greater productivity in the society through the reduction of social pathology, improvements in functional performance and improved time utilization for the people whose lives are entwined with those who suer through the experience of having depressive disorders.
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 13 I was brought up in a working class household in England where books were hardly present, apart from the occasional Louis LAmour western novel that my father enjoyed. It is therefore a great privilege to be recognized as an editor on a unique publication E xploring Caribbean Cinema. I initially thought I should wait to launch the book when I have an English version, but then I considered the scope of the Caribbean: with Cuba having over 11 million people, Dominican Republic over 10 million and P uerto Rico almost four million. e approximate 25 million Spanish speakers certainly dwarfs the E nglish-speaking Caribbean, and we have not taken into account countries like Venezuela, Colombia and those in Central America that share the Caribbean coast. So I should not apologise but celebrate having the book published rst in Spanish. The book is unique in that it is the first book on Caribbean cinema to focus on the entire Caribbean region including the English, Spanish, French and Dutch Caribbean. It also includes an essay on the Caribbean Diaspora with an article on independent P uerto Rican lms made in N ew Y ork. The School of Education (SOE) at The UWI St. Augustine Campus held its rst open day in November 2011, titled An Educational Showcase: New Directions in Teaching and Research. The Inclusive/Special Education display featured students work in the masters level course I deliver: Introduction to Special Education. The course was designed to give teachers advanced-level preparation in key areas of special education teacher training such as leadership, advocacy, and collaboration. Students were exposed to 13 categories of exceptionalities and the many cross-categorical issues that affect teaching and learning in inclusive and special schools in the Caribbean. Inclusive Education is an approach that seeks to respond to the diversity of learning needs in the classroom, so that the most appropriate and least restrictive environment for students would be the general education classroom. On the other hand, Special Education is specially designed instruction and related services tailored to meet individual learning needs. There are obviously some needs we just cannot meet in the general education classroom, either because the necessary supports are not in place or the need will be best served in a special setting. Schools need both an inclusive approach and specially designed individualized instruction. The display consisted of nine display booths, which covered a range of exceptionalities that included: It is a comprehensive collection with articles on Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Haiti, Cayman Islands, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, explorations of issues of the image and representation of the Caribbean, overviews of developments in the French, E nglish and Dutch Caribbean and interviews and proles on Tomas G uittierez Alea, Rigoberto Lopez and E uzhan P alcy. Of course there are many important lms and lmmakers that require more attention and we hope to correct this in the English version. E xploring Caribbean Cinema is one of the few books that have been published that focus on Caribbean Cinema. O thers include E x-Iles E ssays on Caribbean Cinema (1992) by Mbye Cham. O n Location Cinema and Film in the Anglophone Caribbean by K eith Warner while Gabrielle Hezekiah has explored the work of Robert Y ao Ramesar in her book P henomenologys Material P resence, Video, Vision and E xperience (2009). I have been very lucky to have the participation of some of the leading film and cultural studies scholars in the region including P rofessor G ladstone Y earwood, the Director of the E rrol Barrow Centre for Creative Exploring CARIBB EAN CINEMAB Y D R B RUC E PADDI NG T ON BOOKS CAMPUS NEWS the gifted and talented, autism, learning disabilities, communication disorders, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, emotional and behavioural disorders, hearing impairments, and visual impairments. The display was the culmination of an assignment that challenged students to create, in collaboration with a non-governmental organization (NGO) or individuals, an informational display for the assigned exceptionality. Students, in collaboration with the Caribbean Gifted and Talented Association, the Autistic Society, the Dyslexia Association, and other NGOs, engaged in consultative collaboration that resulted in an exciting display of student work including posters, brochures, bookmarks, and t-shirts. Students produced websites and engaged in outreach activities in their schools and communities. This showcase provided an introduction to the Master of Education (Inclusive and Special Education) programme. The programme is a part-time two-year programme, and it will be delivered utilizing a blended mode (face-to-face and online). The programme is currently receiving the attention of various university committees as part of the process of approval for delivery, and the SOE is aiming to launch the programme during the upcoming academic year. Additional information about the programme can be obtained from the SOE, St. Augustine Campus, UWI. Dr. Elna Carrington-Blaides is a Lecturer (Special/ Inclusive Education) at the School of Education, UWI, St. Augustine. Imagination, UWI Cave Hill and Y olanda Wood, Director of the Caribbean Studies Center of Casa de Las Americas in Cuba. And today I am very pleased to thank two of the contributors Carla Foderingham and N ina Bruni and also wish to mention another contributor Savrina Chinien from UWI St Augustine who was unable to attend. I wish to thank Dr Lance Cowie for his insightful critique of the book, someone who has always been very supportive of my work at eUWI UWI and the Dean Funso Aiyejina must be especially thanked, as I was able to undertake this work as a recipient of a one-year sabbatical that I dont want to end. Finally I wish to pay tribute to my coeditor Luis N otario, and ICAIC publications and the Cuban G overnment who arranged for the production of the book in less than nine months in order that it could be launched at the Havana International Book Fair in February, an event attended by over one million people and am very pleased that the Argentinian Ambassador and his wife were able to be present. And thanks to Chris Meir and my colleagues at UWI and all of you who came to support this publication.Special Education on displayBY D R ELN A CARRINGT ONB LAID ES is the address given by its editor Dr Bruce Paddington at the launch of the book, Explorando el Cine Caribeno, on May 4 at the Centre for Language Learning, UWI, St. Augustine. e books co-editor is Luis Notario, while the contributors to the book included Professor Gladstone Yearwood and Dr. Savrina Chinien from UWI as well as Carla Foderingham and Nina Bruni, both of whom spoke at the launch. Dr. Lance Cowie from UWI provided a critique of the book. Visitors were exposed to some of the new programmes at the SOE the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Primary (General); the Postgraduate Pre-Service Diploma in Education (Dip.Ed.)and prospective and current graduate students were invited to join selected research clusters at the SOECulture and Schooling, Equity in Education, ICT and Education, Educational Evaluation, and Factors Impacting on Students Learning. The work of the Multimedia Production Unit (MPC) and the Continuing Professional Development and Outreach Unit were also featured and, in addition, the SOE showcased new developments in the areas of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) and Inclusive/Special Education.
14 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 BOOK REVIEWH es not a writer; really, his is the world of finance, which is what he practises as Campus Management Auditor at the St. Augustine Campus of The UWI. But Ramesh Ramcharan believes he was driven to write the book that was launched earlier this month, Where the Journey Began, because he chose to take a risk and be adventurous in pursuit of his passion. e passion, which he invokes like a mantra, is for tracing his ancestral roots in India and bringing to life the images he had carefully husbanded from the stories told by his grandmother (Aaji) and the rich diet of Indian movies from his childhood. Both had created such a fairytale aura around Indialm creating a landscape of beauty, song, and mystery, with his aajis stories pouring chunks of a dierent reality: poverty, hardship, and overcrowded communitiesthat he yearned to press the esh of this familiar yet faraway land. So, Ramesh set o on his journey of discovery, visiting Jamaican archives to nd documents, visiting India for more, and reconnecting with the family his grandparents25 and 21 years oldhad le behind when they set sail on the SS Indus on July 2, 1905 and landed in Jamaica on July 27. My grandparents came from India to Jamaica then to Trinidad, he explained. Indeed, Jagesar and Maharaji had thought they were coming to Chinnidad, but ended up at N ewry E state, where they lived and worked for some years before coming to Trinidad with their rstborn and making their home in Tacarigua. It was a rural, agricultural life that was passed on. Ramesh noted that when he was growing up, my parents were involved in gardening, planting and harvesting sugar cane and other agricultural crops. His grandmother related stories of her life in India and Jamaica. In 1923, she lost her husband, and all his relatives in Trinidad had already returned to India, she was in a totally strange place. Being a woman in this unfamiliar land, with three young children, no husband, no relatives, few new friends; with nothing like telephone, Internet, Skype, cell phone, e-mail, and as someone who could not read or write, she was virtually locked away in another corner of this world, and she had to move her life ahead. He said she taught her children both Bhojpuri and E nglish and passed on much of their oral history to his parents. For her to speak out as frankly as she did, in a time when women were not even allowed to address men by their proper names (and were not even referred to by their rst names, but by reference to their male kin, such as so-andsos daughter), was an act of bravery that made her assume heroic proportions in his mind. In my eyes, she was a hero, the link that made it possible to connect the families on both side of the world, he said. e book, according to the authors preface, follows three generations of an agricultural family, which originated from the remote farming community of K araundi G oan near the town of Faizabad in the Indian state of Uttar P radesh. It is not just a narrative, he says it contains a number of documents, like the ships manifest, which oers information on the 800 passengers such as their names, place of registration, fathers name, gender, caste, district, village and Following FootstepsAn auditor takes a pen to write the journey of a lifetimeBY VANEISA BAKSHso on. He wanted others to have a chance to trace their own ancestral lines and so has even included a sort of how-to guide as to documents required (and where to get them) for anyone interested in setting o on a similar journey. He is very keen for readers to appreciate that the book is full of primary data and the originality of his sources. It is not an academic work, and he does not want it to be mistaken for such. It is dierent, because it tells the story of one familys history from the magical land of India to the even more magical land of Trinidad. e book, Where the Journey Began, is available at the UWI Bookshop and other national booksellers. Grinding sugar cane using bullock power. Boiling sugar cane juice to make goud or jiggery, known as bheily in Trinidad long ago. Pottery: Making deyas, guguglette and other forms of pottery. is tradition was until recently carried out by a selected few.PHOTOS COURTESY RAMESH RAMCHARANJaharing rice, using bullocks to separate the grains from the husks.
SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI TODAY 15 ENERGY LITERATUREUncovering H istorye work of Caribbean writersMuch more of this podcast interview will be released in the coming months and can be accessed at www.spaceswords.co m where interviews with and information on other Caribbean and non-Caribbean writers are also available. One reviewer has said that Chancy may well become a grand dame of Haitian literature and so we thank her for granting us the privilege of accepting our invitation to the campus and we eagerly look forward to her future ction and non-ction works. About Myriam ChancyMyriam Chancy, 42, was born in P ort-auP rince, Haiti; grew up in Canada; and has had a career as a professor of E nglish and Comparative Literature in the United States. She is the author of three novels, all set in her homeland: Spirit of Haiti (2003), shortlisted for the Commonwealth P rize 2004 for First Book, Canada/Caribbean region; The Scorpions Claw (2005); and The Loneliness of Angels (2010), winner of the G uyana P rize for Literature Caribbean Award 2010 for Best Book of Fiction and at the 2011 Bocas Lit Fest it was shortlisted in the ction category and long-listed for the overall O CM Bocas P rize. At present she is penning a young adult novel entitled e Escape Artist. She has lectured at Louisiana State University and now teaches at the University of Cincinnati. Her academic publications include Framing Silence: Revolutionary Novels by Haitian Women (1997) and Searching for Safe Spaces: Afro-Caribbean Women Writers in Exile (1997). Both books are on the reading lists of French Caribbean and Anglophone Caribbean literature courses at UWI, St. Augustine. e journal of the American Library Association, Choices awarded Searching for Safe Spaces a 1998 O utstanding Academic Book Award; and Framing Silence as stated on Chancys academic prole is deemed the rst book-length study of its kind in E nglish  instrumental in inaugurating Haitian womens studies as a eld of specialization in the U.S. In March 2012 Chancys most recent endeavour From Sugar to Revolution: Womens Visions of Haiti, Cuba and the Dominican Republic was released. N ot yet completed non-fiction works include Floating Islands: Cosmopolitanism, Transnationalism and Racial Identity Formation and a collection of memoir essays entitled Fracture For her work as E ditorin-Chief from 2002-2004 of the Ford-funded academic/arts journal Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, Chancy was bestowed the P hoenix Award for E ditorial Achievement by the Council of E ditors of Learned Journals (CLEJ) in 2004. She was also the Vice-P resident of the Association of Caribbean Women Writers and Scholars (ACWWS) from 2008-2010. As is common with many contemporary Caribbean writers, she engages with her readership in an online environment on Facebook, and via her website http://www. myriamchancy.co m that is worth visiting by the interested reader and scholar.Myriam J. A. Chancy is a Haitian-Canadian writer who was here in Trinidad during late April-early May as UWIs Writer-inResidence on the invitation of Professor Funso Aiyejina, Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Education and Coordinator of the MFA Creative Writing programme in the Department of Liberal Arts, St. Augustine. This is adapted from an interview she did with Dr Geraldine Skeete for The Spaces between Words: Conversations with Writers podcast series produced by Dr. Giselle Rampaul and afliated with the Literatures in English section of St. Augustines Liberal Arts Department.Usually the Writer-in-Residence arrives in time to participate in Campus Literature Week which in recent years happens in March. However, P rofessor Chancy was also due to take part in the NGC Bocas Lit Fest, the Trinidad and Tobago Literary Festival, at the end of April and so keenly was her involvement in the MFA programme anticipated, that Aiyejina patiently awaited her arrival. In addition to mentoring and, in particular, sharing the skills of her cra as a creative writer with the MFA students, Chancy spoke about Haitian writers and writing at a public lecture on April 20 at the University whose audience included undergraduate French literature students.GS: What have you been sharing with our UWI students? MC: Ive had the wonderful pleasure of speaking to [the] studentsweve discussed some of my work in terms of womens literary tradition, both in terms of the Anglophone and Haitian/Francophone literary traditions. GS: As a scholar and novelist who has written extensively on Haiti, what have you personally uncovered about your birthplace that you wish your readers to see and understand? MC: Caribbean literature by and large, both by men and women, attempts to uncover historical moments that are not recorded in ocial history. What Ive seen happening on the side of womens literature is that theyve had to really do some work to uncover what women have been contributing both at the national levelthe community and their country of originand also in terms of aesthetic sort of considerations. In my early work, for example, I looked at women writers in exile, primarily the Anglophone tradition and how they re-dened the term exilic so dierently from Lamming who talks about the pleasures and pain of exile. On the womens side there is much more of an emphasis on the pain [...] that exile wasnt necessarily only about having to migrate out of the Caribbean, but also being exilic within ones country of origin as a womanin terms of womens issues, childrens issues. [...] GS: Do Haitian writers like you feel compelled to rewrite the image of Haiti? Is it a specic burden or responsibility you have to bear that distinguishes you from other diasporic writers from the Caribbean region and other parts of the world? MC: N o, I dont think so. [...] as a writer you write what you know and so [...] most of us write about the country we were originally from. But, if there is a burden I think its the expectation that one will look at particular themes [...] so in that sense its more about what others dont know about Haiti that becomes a burden and can limit the reach of your work [...] they have a very narrow expectation about what a Haitian writer should be concerned about. At the same time I also have to say I dont consider myself diasporic [...] and thats a strange thing to say and I realize that because I live in the United States, but I think like many Haitian writers before me who were forced to live outside of Haiti theres a sense in which were still in Haiti, we still are part of Haiti. [...] I live outside of Haiti, but I belong to Haiti.
16 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 27TH MAY, 2012 UWI T O DA Y is printed and distributed for e University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, through the kind support of Trinidad Publishing Co Ltd, 22-24 St Vincent Street, P ort of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies.UWI CALENDAR of EVENTSJUNEJULY 2012 UW I TO DA YWANT S TO HEAR FR O M YO UUWI T O DA Y welcomes submissions by sta and students for publication in the paper. P lease send your suggestions, comments, or articles for consideration to email@example.com 14TH INTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCE ON PENAL ABOLITION 13-15 June, 2012 UWI St. Augustine e UWIs Institute of International Relations (IIR) hosts the 14th International Conference on P enal Abolition (IC OP A), themed Inspiring Abolition: Strengthening O urselves for Local/ G lobal Inuence. IC OP A is a biennial gathering of activists, academics, journalists, practitioners, people currently or formerly imprisoned, survivors of state and personal harm, and others from across the world who are working towards the abolition of imprisonment, the penal system, carceral controls and the prison industrial complex. For further information, please contact Dr. Anthony Gonzales at Anthony.P.Gonzales@sta.uwi.ed u or firstname.lastname@example.org m or at (868) 662-2002 Ext 82011. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY : EMBRACING POSSIBILITIES 21-23 June, 2012 School of Education UWI St. Augustine UWIs School of E ducation (S OE ) hosts a symposium, titled Mathematics E ducation in the 21st Century: Embracing P ossibilities. is symposium will focus on a number of areas, including highlight the contribution of the SOE to mathematics education over the years in celebration of the 50th anniversary of independence of Trinidad and Tobago, provide a forum for teachers to share best practices in mathematics teaching and identify teacher concerns in the content of mathematics, pedagogy and technology. For further information, please contact Nalini Ramsawak-Jodha at ext 83403 or Nalini. Ramsawak-Jodha@sta.uwi.ed u, or Elizabeth Greene at ext 84326 or Elizabeth.Greene@sta.uwi.ed u. HYDROCARBON REVENUE MANAGEMENT 20-22 June, 2012 Hyatt Regency Trinidad Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago The Trade and E conomic Development Unit, a research cluster at The UWIs Department of E conomics, hosts a conference on Hydrocarbon Revenue Management in Small Highly O pen Hydrocarbon Rich E xporting E conomies. This conference will address some of these critical success factors within the context of revenue management. For further information, please contact the Trade and Economic Development Unit, Department of Economics, at 662 -2002 ext 83233 or 83231 or via e-mail at email@example.com m. SHIFTING THE GEOGRAPHY OF REASON IX 19-21 July, 2012 UWI St. Augustine The UWI collaborates with the Caribbean P hilosophical Association (C P A) to host the CP As 2012 Annual Meeting, themed Shiing the G eography of Reason IX: Racial Capitalism and the Creole Discourses of N ative-, Indo-, Afro-, and E uro-Caribbeans. Under this broad heading, the C P A will examine the impact of the global capitalist crisis on old and new thinking in the Creole discourses of the region. For further information, please contact the Caribbean Philosophical Association via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org m. 7TH C ARIBBEAN CREATIVE WRITERS RESIDENTIAL W ORKSHOP 8-19 July, 2012 Trinidad and Tobago e 7th Caribbean Creative Writers Residential Workshop is sponsored by the Cropper Foundation, and organised in partnership with The UWIs Department of Creative and Festival Arts and Department of Liberal Arts. Ten writers who have not as yet published any of their works will be chosen from across the Caribbean to join this years residential workshop which will focus on writing ction, plays and poetry. e workshop will be facilitated by P rofessor Funso Aiyejina and Dr. Merle Hodge at a secluded, writing-inducing setting somewhere in Trinidad. For further information, please contact Dr. Dani Lyndersay at 628-4792, Ms. Rhoda Bharath at 7797457 or Ms. Marissa Brooks 662-2002 ext. 83040, or via e-mail at MarissaUWI@gmail.co m. DCIT BOOT C AMP July 23-27, 2012 UWI, St. Augustine e Department of Computing and Information Technology, The UWI St. Augustine is holding an IT Boot Camp for secondary school students and prospective undergraduates. Interested persons can sign up online. e cost is TT1300, but scholarships are available. For more information, please call 662-2002, ext. 83080, or visit http://sta.uwi.edu/fsa/dcit/bootcamp. as p or Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/ dcitbootcamp 5TH EUROPEAN C ONFERENCE OF POECILIID BIOLOGISTS 25-28 June, 2012 Daaga Auditorium UWI St. Augustine The Department of Life Sciences hosts the 5th E uropean Conference of P oeciliid Biologists. is conference is held every two years and this year, for the rst time since its inception, it will be held outside of E urope. Approximately 100 delegates from USA, Canada, Mexico, South America, Britain, E urope, India and Australia will visit e UWI St. Augustine Campus to attend the conference, scheduled to take place from 8 am-5:30 pm each day. For further information, please contact Dr Amy Deacon or Professor Indar Ramnarine via e-mail at email@example.com u.
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|0||sobekcm_page_globals.display_item||Retrieving item or group information|
|0||sobekcm_page_globals.get_entire_collection_hierarchy||Retrieving hierarchy information|
|0||cached_data_manager.retrieve_item_aggregation||Found item aggregation on local cache|
|0||item_aggregation_builder.get_item_aggregation||Found 'all' item aggregation in cache|
|0||html_echo_mainwriter.add_style_references||Adding style references to HTML|
|0||html_echo_mainwriter.add_text_to_page||Reading the text from the file and echoing back to the output stream|
|0||html_echo_mainwriter.add_text_to_page||Finished reading and writing the file|