Title: UWI today
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Title: UWI today
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: UWI Marketing and Communications Office
Place of Publication: St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Publication Date: May 25, 2008
Copyright Date: 2008
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Bibliographic ID: UF00094180
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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UWI
ST. AUGUSTINE
CAMPUS


UWIV TODA
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES ST. AUGUSTINE CAMPUS

SUNDA 5T AY,20


UWI
1948-2008




SIXTIETH
ANNIVERSARY


BY ANNA WALCOTT-HARDY


UWI Pro Vice Chancellor and Campus Principal,
Professor Clement Sankat, heralded the AgriTECH Expo
2008: Experience New Agriculture as "the beginning of a
new dawn in food security in the region." At the launch of
the initiative at the St Augustine Campus in April, the UWI
Principal spoke of being at "the crossroad of determining
our future as a country and within the Caribbean Region
on how we can ensure our food security."
He went on to add that Agriculture needed to be viewed
and linked to industry.
"Technology and innovation, entrepreneurship and
wealth creation must be infused into it. It must therefore
transform itself and hence AgriTECH and the work of our
University, our Research and Development Centres, our
Agricultural Extension and other support services must be
invigorated to drive this transformation."
He underscored the need to be proactive through the
support of technological innovation, entrepreneurship and
a commitment in the long term to ensure the availability
of suitable lands, infrastructure for drainage, irrigation,
access roads, as well as financial support for farmers. The
Principal also praised Professor Dyer Narinesingh, Dean of
the Faculty of Science and Agriculture (FSA) who also spoke
at the launch along with Dr Pathmanathan Umaharan, FSA
Deputy Dean (Enterprise and Outreach) and Chairman of
AgriTECH 2008; Dr Isaac Bekele, Head of the Department
of Food Production.
Sponsored byASTT, bpTT, the Ministry of Agriculture,
Land and Marine Resources and BHP Billiton, the Expo


saw stakeholders converge on The University Field Station
(UFS), Mount Hope, from Wednesday 16l to Sunday 20'
April, 2008. Located to the south of the Medical Sciences
Complex is this unique, highly productive department.
As you turn-off of the Uriah Butler Highway on to a busy
intersection, you then enter a veritable garden of Eden
-with lush irrigated fields, acres of green, dotted with Jersey,
Holstein and Jamaica Hope cows. There are large pens with
chickens, sheep, ducks and pigs, along with neat bungalows,
an abbatoir, machine shop, two-storey classroom and dairy.
The public can buy vegetables, meats and fresh milk, at
competitive prices at the Field Station.
It's no surprise that the modern farm setting at the
UFS was selected as the location for the Expo which
reflected the non-traditional, innovative approach by the
coordinators. The event boasted technology exhibits, live
field demonstrations and hands-on training workshops in a
range of areas, including Plant and Animal Health, Addition
and Marketing, Crop and Horticulture, Sustainable
Exploitation of Genetic Resources, and Alternate Agriculture
Livelihoods. Workshops focusing on Livestock and
Aquaculture, Landscaping, Poultry and Rabbit Production,
Value Greenhouse Technology, Nano-gro Technology and
Bee-keeping were conducted by a number of national and
international scientists including Dr Rajendra Rastogi of
the UWI Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Robert Best
of the Caribbean Poultry Association, and ASTT President,
Dhano Sookoo.
"I thought [AgriTECH] was done at a time when


people were looking for solutions as to where agriculture
was heading and what role it should play in terms of
providing affordable healthy food for citizens," Dr Bekele
said recently. "The Expo did two main things; I thought it
brought the farmers, the academics, the government and
the business people together it was a market place of ideas
and technology. That was one thing. It was also a product of
a joint venture among the University, the business [sector]
and the government which showed a commitment by all
sides."
In fact, the Exposition proved to be a catalyst for
stakeholders including farmers, scientists and engineers to
share information and assist in revitalising and restructuring
regional agriculture. According to UWI scientist Dr.
Umaharan, there have been many calls from interested
persons regarding the technology, seeds and greenhouses on
display. For instance the greenhouses that were exhibited are
more suited to the humid tropical climate of Trinidad and
Tobago, whereas others that are imported may efficiently
manage the heat, but not the humidity, and are more
suited for subtropical or temperate regions, Dr Umaharan
explained. Also there is great interest in tissue cultures (the
micropropagation or accelerated growth of plants including
bananas, plantains, pineapples and ornamentals). There
has also been keen interest in automated fertilisation and
irrigation systems by farmers; as well calls by public and
private stakeholders about the backyard gardening systems
that were on display. Ultimately Dr Umaharan agreed that
"from the feedback we are getting it was quite a success."


FOR MORE INFORMATION ON AGRITECH EXPO 2008, PLEASE CALL (868) 662 2002 EXT. 2318


TEACHING
& LEARNING 06
Remembering
Cesaire
* The iconic
Martinican a renowned
intellectual, prolific
writer and honorary
UWI graduate (1973)
is celebrated by the
University.


OUTREACH 10
Caribbean Harmony
* The University Singers hit the high notes
and impress audiences across the region.


RESEARCH 14
Chronicle
of Lives
Foretold
* UWI
archaeologist
Basil Reid
unearths our past.


SPORT 13
On Track
* Dr Iva Gloudon gets straight to
the point about the future of sport.


AGRITCH EXO 200: EXERIENE NEWAGRICLTUR










AT H^^^I^^^^^^^




CROSROiaADS^^

^BCan we esure oufood secuity?^^^^^B^^^^^





2 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008




0 THE SOUND OF MUSIC
In June, the award winning UWI Festival Arts Chorale will bring the popular Broadway musical,
the Sound of Music to the Queen's Hall stage. Once again the talented troupe of singers/actors,
alongside musical director and UWI lecturer Jessel Murray with stage director Louis Mc Williams,
will bring the magical story of the Von Trapp family to life from June 26th-29th. Tickets will soon be
available from the Queen's Hall Box Office, The UWI Centre for Creative and Festival Arts (CCFA)
and Crosby's North and South. See press for details or visit www.uwi.sta.uwi.edu for more.





SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 3


HONORING




OUR OWN

UWI honors Black Stalin, Angela Cropper, Kari Levitt,

Kynaston McShine and Arthur D. Hanna


A Calypsonian, Statesman, Assistant Secretary General
of the United Nations, Museum of Modern Art curator and
leading scholar, are among the persons to be celebrated at
the UWI Graduation Ceremonies later this year. The list
underscores the impact that West Indians continue to have
on the global arena.
The Doctor of Letters (DLitt) will be conferred on Mr
Leroy Calliste, the Trinidadian calypsonian known as Black
Stalin, at the St Augustine ceremonies. Calliste is considered
to be one of the major practitioners of traditional Calypso,
providing insightful social and political commentary
in his compositions. In recognition of his tremendous
contribution to Trinidadian culture, Black Stalin was
awarded the Hummingbird Medal (Silver) in 1987.
The five honourees at the St Augustine ceremonies
will include two women Mrs Angela Cropper, an
environmentalist and Professor Kari Polanyi Levitt, an
economist and scholar. An alumna of The University of the
West Indies, Mrs Angela Cropper was recently appointed an
Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations. She is
also Deputy Executive Director of the UN Environmental
Programme and is best known for her leadership and
commitment to sustainable development through her work
with the Cropper Foundation.
Hungarian-born Canadian, Professor Kari Levitt, has
been associated with scholarship and development policy
in the Caribbean for nearly 50 years. During the 1970s she
served as advisor on National Accounts to the Government
of Trinidad and Tobago. Professor Levitt is Professor Emerita
at McGill University in Canada. She will be conferred the
honorary degree Doctor of Laws (LLD).
Mr Kynaston McShine, Trinidadian curator and art
historian, will be awarded the Doctor of Letters (DLitt)
honoris causa. Mr McShine has devoted his life to the visual
arts and is the Chief Curator at Large of the Museum of
Modern Art (MOMA) in New York. His expert work and
achievements have been recognised with several awards,
including an honorary doctorate from the San Francisco
Art Institute.
Bahamian public servant and statesman, His Excellency
the Hon Arthur D. Hanna will receive an honorary LLD.
A champion of civil rights in the Bahamas, His Excellency
was appointed the seventh Governor-General of the
Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The Governor General is
also a legal luminary and served as Deputy Prime Minister
and Leader of Government Business in the House of
Representatives of The Bahamas from 1967 to 1984.


"The writer should take the lead to the
threshold of hope," said Guyanese poet and
novelist David Dabydeen at a recent lecture
at the UWI St. Augustine Campus. While he
was focusing on the craft of writing, of truth,
consolation and beauty; the UWI has a different
yet somewhat similar mission of bringing hope
to our society. The University aims to be "an
intellectual bridge to the wider Caribbean" and
the world. And the strategic plan (2007-2012)
focuses on transforming the institution to ensure
its continued relevance, impact, distinctiveness
and excellence. A tall order, filled with many
possibilities.
Over the years many UWI graduates have
crossed the threshold and entered the working
world where they have had a profound impact
on Caribbean and global development. From
the conference room to cultivating the land,
from the stage to the operating theatre, in this
issue you will hear from some of them why
they treasure their alma mater. We have also
had several new appointments including that of
Professor Rhoda Reddock, the recently appointed
Deputy Campus Principal (who assumes office
August 1st). A respected scholar and Head of the
Centre for Gender Development Studies, she will
undoubtedly continue to build on the tradition
of excellence left by Professor Gurmohan
Kochhar.
Our May issue also shares with readers
stories that focus on four key areas: teaching
and learning; graduate studies; research and
innovation; and service to our communities. We
hope that you enjoy reading about the roll-out
of the innovative Bachelor of Education Physical
Education Secondary degree; take time to
appreciate Professor Dennis Pantin's insightful
lecture on socioeconomic development in Small
Island States; and be intrigued by the research
of archaeologist Dr Basil Reid. The stellar
performance of The University Singers as they
blaze a trail through the Caribbean, alongside the
iconic Rex Nettleford will also be highlighted.
In closing, we thank you for your many
congratulatory letters, emails and phone calls
expressing how much you enjoyed reading our
revamped April issue. There's much more to
come.



CAMPUS PRINCIPAL
Professor Clement Sankat

DIRECTOR OF MARKETING
AND COMMUNICATIONS
Mrs. Dawn Marie De Four-Gill

EDITOR
Mrs. Anna Walcott-Hardy

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
Dr. E. Hackshaw, Professor D. Pantin

CONTACT US:
The UWI Marketing and Communications Office
Tel: (868) 662-2002 exts. 2013, 2014
or email markcom@sta.uwi.edu

Our special thanks to photographers Joanne Dasantfor the On
Target archery images and to Douglas A Mayers for the Found
in Translation images of the students in the Interpretation
programme which appeared in our April issue.





4 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


It's matta season (exams)
oon Campus. Although
most students were either
studying indoors in the
libraries or outdoors, on
benches, under the Samaan
trees, they still shared their
views with us.



How would you

enhance the

education system

(from primary to

tertiary) in T&T?


1 0 CMPSNT ES I


* CAMPUS PRINCIPAL CONFIRMED
Professor Clement Sankat, former Pro Vice Chancellor
for Graduate Studies, who has been acting as Principal of
the St Augustine Campus for the past five months, was
confirmed in the position at the annual business meeting of
University Council, held on April 25, 2008 at the UWI Mona
Campus in Jamaica. Professor Sankat succeeds Professor
Bridget Brereton, who in turn took over as Principal
following the appointment of Dr. Bhoendradatt Tewarie as
Pro Vice Chancellor, Planning and Development. Professor
Ronald Young, currently Dean of the Faculty of Pure and
Applied Sciences at Mona, will assume the post of Pro Vice
Chancellor for Graduate Studies.


RIA RAMOUTAR
2nd Year UWI Student
(Trinidad & Tobago)
Faculty of Humanities & Education


* "Honestly you need an overhaul
of the whole thing. You need to start
from scratch because when you look
at our history the education system
started with Christian Missionaries,
it started with them ... I think the
change with C.A.P.E. is a good thing
because it is Caribbean based, but
I really think a complete overhaul
with a Caribbean base is needed."


* EXAMINING THE
CARIBBEAN LABOUR MARKET
In recognition of the Year of Sir Arthur Lewis, the
Faculty of Social Sciences hosted a distinguished lecture
by Professor Andrew Downes, on Tuesday 13th May at
the Learning Resource Centre (LRC). Professor Downes
examined "Arthur Lewis and the Caribbean Labour Market
Analysis'"
A distinguished Caribbean Scholar who is qualified
to speak on this topic since labour and employment issues
have occupied a substantial part of his professional life,
Professor Downes has been Director of the Sir Arthur Lewis
Institute of Social and Economic Studies at the UWI Cave
Hill Campus since 1994 and University Director since 2000.
He holds a BSc. and MSc degrees in Economics from the
UWI and a PhD from the University of Manchester. He is
a recipient of several academic awards, including the Vice
Chancellor's Award for Excellence.
Sir Arthur Lewis is the only son of the Caribbean to
be awarded a Nobel Prize in the field of Economics. He
was also the first Vice Chancellor of a fully independent
University of the West Indies. This lecture is the fourth in
a series of Distinguished Lectures being organized by the
Faculty of Social Sciences of the St Augustine Campus, in
collaboration with the Department of Economics and the
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies,
to commemorate the Year of Sir Arthur Lewis.


PROFESSOR CLEMENT SANKAT


The recommendations of the Vice Chancellor to
appoint Deputy Principals for the three sister campuses
were also approved. The St Augustine Campus will see the
appointment of Professor Rhoda Reddock, in succession
to Professor Gurmohan Kochhar who will continue as
Professor in Mechanical Engineering in the Faculty of
Engineering. Professor Reddock is head of the Centre for
Gender and Development Studies at St Augustine and is
well known for her activism in the Women's Movement in
the Caribbean and beyond. At Cave Hill, Professor Eudine
Barriteau, noted scholar of Gender Studies, received the
nod as Deputy Principal, succeeding Professor Leo Moseley
when he retires at the end of the academic year. For the
Mona Campus, Mr Joseph Pereira will continue in the post
of Deputy Principal.


YURI SAUNDERS
1st Year UWI Student
(St Vincent)
Faculty of Law

* "In general the method of
examining the student could do
with improving."


PROFESSOR RHODA REDDOCK


GISELLE MILLER
3rd Year UWI Student
(Trinidad & Tobago)
Faculty of Humanities & Education

* "I think they can arrange or
have strategies to put in place
a syllabus for students to work
better within the time frame time
management..."


The University Council, which is the supreme governing
body has also approved the appointment of several senior
managers. The newly established Open Campus, which
incorporates the former outreach arms of the University,
namely, the School of Continuing Studies, the Distance
Education Centre and the Tertiary Level Institutions Unit,
will be headed by Principal, Pro Vice Chancellor Hazel
Simmons-McDonald. Professor Simmons-McDonald was
formerly Dean of the Faulty of Humanities and Education
at the Cave Hill Campus and has been working assiduously
to bring the Open Campus to reality since her appointment
as Pro Vice Chancellor for 'Non-Campus Countries and
Distance Education' in succession to Professor Lawrence
Carrington. Professor Simmons-McDonald will be assisted
in the leadership of this new endeavour by Dr Vivienne
Roberts in the position of Deputy Principal.


* USABILITY
LABORATORY LAUNCHED
A modern Usability Laboratory was recently opened
on May 9th at the Sir Frank Stockdale Building, Faculty of
Science and Agriculture. This state-of-the-art facility will
serve as the foremost usability resource in the Caribbean
for promoting practices both within the public and private
sectors. The Laboratory will provide usability testing
facilities, resources and services including user-centered
design and evaluation of ICT systems and industrial
products. The Laboratory will also offer training in usability.
Speakers at the launch including Prof. Clement Sankat,
PVC & Campus Principal, UWI, St. Augustine, Prof. Dyer
Narinesingh, Dean, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Dr.
ShanazWahid, Head, Dept., Math & Computer Science and
Dr. Alexander Nikov Lecturer, Dept., Math & Computer
Science, spoke of the many benefits this lab will bring to
stakeholders. Usability studies will be carried out on various
types of products such as web-based and desktop interactive
systems as well as on large and small hardware devices,
including mobile technology. The Laboratory will help
to develop cutting edge products by focusing on positive
user-experiences. For further information, please contact
Ms. Indira Ousman at (868) 662-2002 Ext. 3903or Indira.
Ousman@sta.uwi.edu

* UWI STUDENT HONORED
FOR SPIDER RESEARCH
Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal a PhD student at the UWI
Department of Life Sciences at St. Augustine was recently
awarded the Vincent Roth Award from the American
Arachnology Society. This is the third time she has received
this award which sets an historic record for the society. This
award is open to young arachnologists all over the world
and supports research in the area of systematics. She was
also awarded another post graduate scholarship for the 2nd
year of her PhD research on orb-weaving spider families of
Trinidad.A UWI graduate, she received Bachelor of Science
and Mphil degrees in zoology. She decided to focus on the
area of arachnology while pursuing a Master's Degree, where
she looked at spider behaviour and autecology. Sewlal's
goal is to document the spiders of the Eastern Caribbean;
she has researched spider fauna found on several Caribbean
islands including Nevis, Anguilla, Grenada, St. Maarten
and St. Vincent.


-trz- -h VI"~
~~ ~I ate


3





SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 5


1 0 PEOPLESI


PASSING THE BATON: NEW DEPUTY PRINCIPAL APPOINTED


In 1972, a young graduate Engineering student
from India came to Trinidad for a holiday. He took
this opportunity to visit a UWI Professor to gain more
information in the field of solar energy. Little did
Gurmohan Kochhar know that he would spend the next 36
years helping to develop the very same Campus he thought
so beautiful and lush on his first visit.
Although he did live for a brief time abroad, consulting
in Canada from 1976-79 and being promoted quite rapidly;
he decided to return to Trinidad, get married and start a
family, all the while lecturing at UWI. In a few years he
would be promoted to the Dean of Engineering and then
on 1st August 2002, Deputy Campus Principal. This year
he will hand-over the baton to Professor Rhoda Reddock,
a highly respected lecturer and current Head of the UWI
Centre for Gender Development Studies (CGDS).
Professor Kochhar has left an indelible mark as Deputy
Principal of the St Augustine Campus- having acquired
a reputation for straight talk, being results oriented and
having a progressive policy with students.
"I have an open door policy'" he explained recently.
"Staff have to make an appointment but students can walk
right in."
And over the years the students have done just that
-walked, talked, marched and rallied. For the Professor it's


been worth the long hours and hard work. Interestingly, he
has continued to lecture, supervise MSc projects and even
moderate over 20 final year projects.
"It has been most rewarding and fulfilling. And the best
feeling you get is when you see a distressed student leave
your office with a smile on [his or her] face," he explained
recently.
He has also been instrumental in developing policies,
programmes and facilities on Campus to better accommodate
the needs of students. One major initiative is the World of
Work (W.O.W.) Programme, which as Chairman he has
worked closely with the Student Services Office, Marketing
and Communications Office, Alumni Association (T&T
chapter) and Student Guild to develop in scope and size.
W.O.W. helps students to meet the challenges of crossing
over to the working world. The W.O.W. programme is
sponsored by UWI and Republic Bank Limited.
The latest initiative is the on-line job availability launch,
which allows employers and students to benefit from a
modern recruitment facility. "The monies generated [from
this] would go to supporting students...through hardship
loans and grants..." the Professor explained.
He has also been instrumental in several areas including
as Chairman of the highly successful Vice Chancellor's
cricket match held at the Campus over three years ago.


The landmark event saw thousands converge on the UWI
Sport and Physical Education centre's grounds, including
international media, to be entertained by world class
cricketers.
Collaborating with Campus Principals Professor
Clement Sankat, Professor Bridget Brereton and Dr.
Bhoendradatt Tewarie as well as other key administrators,
Professor Kochhar has also been integral to the enhancement
process of facilities at the St Augustine Campus for students
and staff: including revamping the now air-conditioned
food court; the establishment of a travel agency, Digicel and
B-Mobile outlets; as well as the installation of a recreational
centre and cafeteria for those students at the Mount Hope
Medical Sciences Complex.
He has also worked tirelessly to reduce the crime rate
on Campus by collaborating closely with Director Wayne
Richardson and members of the Security Committee; and
has been key to the introduction of co-curricular credits for
students. He adds that "on my watch" there was the opening
of the Academic Advising and Disability Units. He has also
chaired the negotiation panels with the union, WIGUT.
Currently, he looks forward to continuing his teaching and
research activities, leaving a legacy that will undoubtedlybe
built upon by his successor. AWH





6 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


* TEACHING & LEARNING



REMEMBERING CESAIRE
There is much to be said about this writer who has been lauded for his writings
and who has received numerous awards for his works


BY ELIZABETH HACKSHAW


On April 17th 2008, the Caribbean lost one of its
greatest poets. Born in the town of Basse-Pointe in 1913,
Aime Cesaire, Martinican poet, playwright, essayist and
politician passed away at the age of 94 on the French
Caribbean island of Martinique. Cesaire's voice shaped
the politics and poetics of the Francophone region. Elected
mayor of Fort-de France in 1945 Cesaire did not retire
from the political arena until 2001. During that period he
helped draft the 1946 law making Martinique, Guadeloupe
and French Guiana French Departments. Although the law
afforded the former French colonies greater autonomy, the
politicians who favored Independent status for the islands
criticized Cesaire for his role in Departmentalization.
Cesaire remained a vigorous critic of colonialism. In his
polemical essay Discours sur le colonialisme, (Discourse on
colonialism, 1950) he robustly attacked Europe and the
Western world for their role in the colonizing project and
its decivilizing effects on both colonizer and colonized.
In 1931 Cesaire traveled to Paris on an educational
scholarship. Paris in the 1930s was home to many black
American writers and musicians from the Harlem
Renaissance who had left a homeland plagued with racism
and segregation. It was during this period, while attending
University that Cesaire met fellow French-speaking, black
students Loon Damas from French Guiana and Leopold
Sedar Senghor, of Senegal. In 1934 the three scholars started
the literary review L'tudiantNoir (The Black Student). In
the review they voiced many of the concerns that would
shape the Negritude movement. Their vision of Negritude
focused on a desire to redefine the black experience through
a rejection of Western ideology of black inferiority. Each of
the founding members expressed his Negritude as it related
to his personal history, but the movement would come to
have a universal significance not only to those of African
origin but to all oppressed peoples.
Cesaire's Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Notebook
of a return to a native land) written in 1939 articulated his
Negritude; it is one of his greatest literary legacies. In the
Cahier Cesaire explored the Antillean condition in light of its
colonial history. He exposed human and natural landscapes
infected with physical and psychological maladies, drawing
the Antilles in a manner that had not been done before. The
Cahier was also revolutionary in its form; influenced by
the French surrealist movement, Cesaire employed poetic
strategies that freed the poem from traditional constraints,
liberating both form and content. The poem ends on a
celebratory note emphasizing the notion of fraternity and
the benediction of creation.
There is much to be said about this writer who has been
lauded for his writings and who has received numerous
awards for his works. St. Lucian poet, Derek Walcott called
Cesaire one of the greatest poets of the archipelago, French
writer, Andre Breton considered the Cahier a masterpiece.
There is reason to celebrate and remember this writer,
and what gifts await those discovering Cesaire for the first
time.
On Thursday 8th May 2008, the French Section of
UWI organized a seminar, which was open to the public,
to honour this great writer. The UWI Main Library also
held an exhibition from April 1t -May 2nd in memory of
this poet and anti-colonial activist.











R[ITURN NAIIV[

[ANDz~~""


"There is reason to

celebrate and remember

this writer, and what

gifts await those

discovering Cesaire

for the first time."









DIGICEL
^^^^^40X7^





8 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


LITTLE CAYS CAN OPEN MIGHTY DOORS:

The potential role of Small & Island Developing States (SIDS)

in the transition from Capitalism to Econologism


BY DENNIS PANTIN


1. INTERPRETING ARTHUR LEWIS
Sixty odd years ago a young West Indian who must
have been considered an absolute upstart by the ruling
colonial elite advanced a bold proposition and economic
strategy to rescue the region from the poverty in which its
population was mired. History has been kind to his ideas
which, if they had been implemented, could have led the
region to emulate the successful economic transforma-
tion of Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan even.
I refer, of course, to Sir W. Arthur Lewis whose collective
intellectual contribution to the discourse on economic
development was recognized in his 1980 Nobel Prize award
for economics.
I wish to interpret Lewis' methodological approach to
addressing the economic development challenge and then
apply this to the potential role and contribution of Carib-
bean and other small and island economies (SIDS) to what
I understand to be the historic shift now demanded in the
nature of economic, social and political structures on a
regional and global scale.
Lewis' methodological approach to the development
question is interpreted as having six (6) main elements.
First, Lewis was concerned with the 'here and now': the
concrete, practical realities/problems faced by human beings
in specific, contemporary socio-economic circumstances.
This is consistent with his definition of economics as "the
study of the conditions under which people live.'
Second, Lewis then sought to identify the causal fac-
tors which explain these realities/problems: distinguish-
ing manifest factors from a theoretically-mediated grasp
of the historic roots and continuities which explain the
core problem(s) at the current conjuncture. Third, Lewis
turned next to identification of generic solutions followed
by identification of the constraints to realizing the generic
solutions. Finally Lewis advanced policy interventions to
relax these constraints together with complementary in-
stitutional interventions.
This interpretation of Lewis' methodological approach
to the development challenge can be illustrated by reference
to his seminal contribution to Caribbean economic thought:
"The Industrialisation of the British West Indies". Here,
Lewis identified the core problem as widespread poverty in
the BWI. Lewis can be interpreted to have then advanced
what the literature on the philosophy of science would term
a 'a bold hypothesis' to the effect that: The British West
Indies (and by inference other Caribbean countries) could
liberate themselves (from what George Beckford later called)
'Persistent Poverty' by investment in high income elastic,
manufacturing products for export to metropolitan markets
given the (then) dominant manufacturing product processes
required a substantial, not particularly skilled, labour input
thereby providing a comparative advantage opportunity to
low labour cost countries.


Imagine how audacious if not outrageous Lewis'
proposal must have appeared in the context of a reality in
which 50% of the labour force was in agriculture; education
was focused on the primary level, income was low and most
importantly the British colonial office had already accepted
and embraced the recommendations of the Moyne com-
mission for social welfare improvements but maintenance
of the economic status quo ante in terms of continued
primary agricultural production. It would be left to the


resource poor countries of Asia: Japan and then South
Korea and the island economies of Taiwan, Singapore and
Hong Kong to exploit the then available labour intensive
manufacturing production processes and implement export
manufacturing.

2. THE 21ST CENTURY PROBLEM:
GLOBAL AND REGIONAL
ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: ARE WE
AT THE TIPPING POINT?
In 2008, as the first decade of the 21st century comes
to an end, I wish to propose that the core problem is an
ecological time-bomb ticking away at the global (including
Caribbean) environment, society and economy.
The two key concrete manifestations of this ecologi-
cal crisis are the widespread and deepening degradation
and destruction of the natural environment together with
social implosion and incipient civil war. This concept of
ecological does not exclude human beings from the matrix


of an integrated analysis. In fact, human beings are central
to a holistic understanding of the core problem and the
fundamental causal factors addressed later.
Hawkens et al in a 2001 book on Natural Capitalism"
point out, for example, that "Humankind has inherited a
3.8-billion-year store of natural capital. At present rates of
use and depletion, there will be little left by the end of the
next century'.
Summary empirical indicators of global environmental
decline include the fact that tropical rainforests are esti-
mated to be disappearing at a rate of 100,000 acres per day.
Moreover, some 66% of the global forest loss from 2000-
2005 is estimated by UNEP to have occurred in the Latin
American and Caribbean region. On average freshwater
species populations fell worldwide by about 50% between
1970 and 2000. Since 1900, more than 50% of the world's
wetlands have disappeared. Significant reef degradation
also has occurred in ninety-three (93) of the 109 countries
in which coral reefs occur.

Carbon Dioxide, global warming and climate
change
There is a possibility of a 1.8 to 6.3 Fahrenheit rise in
temperature during this century if atmospheric levels are
not reduced. The potential effects include extreme weather
events, such as droughts and floods; threatened coastal re-
sources and wetlands by rising sea levels; increased risk of
certain diseases by producing new breeding sites for pests
and pathogens. Agricultural regions and woodlands are
also susceptible to changes in climate that could result in
increased insect populations and plant disease and reduced
biological diversity. (EPA, 2007)

Environmental Trends in the Caribbean
Environmental degradation trends in the region reflect
the global. Since 1980, arable and cropland in the Caribbean
has risen 20 per cent. As a result the annual loss of forest
cover has averaged 1.7 per cent while the freshwater fish
catch has declined by 12 per cent. Urban growth, 50 per
cent greater than population growth since 1980, has resulted
in substantial discharge of improperly treated waste. In
1991, only 10 per cent of the Caribbean population was
served by central sewerage systems, and nearly 60 per cent
of treatment plants in the Eastern Caribbean were operating
inefficiently. Very little has changed since then and over 80
per cent of improperly treated municipal waste is estimated
to be discharged directly into the sea (UNEP, 2000).
Marine resources also have be altered by inland activity,
coastal construction and over-fishing. More than 10 million
tons of eroded sediment is deposited yearly in coastal waters
of the wider Caribbean because of deforestation and poor
agricultural land practices (UNEP, 2000:44). Caribbean
reefs, which represent 12 per cent of the world total, are in
substantial retreat: exacerbated more recently by climate
change-induced coral bleaching








Future Regional Trends
UNEP's 2002 outlook for the future of the Caribbean
environment included a 30-year forecast which concluded,
inter alia, that increased globalisation and trade will put
further pressure on terrestrial and marine resources and that
without significant policy reform, market forces will weaken
long-run management practice for short-term commercial
gain, with continued deforestation and erosion projected.
Social Implosion as manifested by Crime
The growing crime pandemic is now exacerbated
by increasing attacks on the very fabric of the system of
justice and even on sitting Governments. A recent United
Nations and World Bank study on Crime and Violence in
the Caribbean reports, for example, that the murder rate
in the region at 30 per 100,000 of population is the high-
est for any region in the world. This murder rate has been
estimated by the ECONOMIST magazine to be four times
that of North America and 15 times that of West/Central
European average.
Pollution: both the' human pollution of poverty' and
as well solid, liquid, air pollution (inclusive of the toxic di-
mensions of these waste types) are themselves symptomatic
of the failure to recognize that the domination of man over
nature may arrived at the'tipping point' where nature is now
reacting in terms of negative feedback loops.

3. GENERIC SOLUTION: THE
TECTONIC SHIFT FROM
CAPITALISM TO ECONOLOGISM
The generic solution to the specific contemporary, core
realities and problems in the Caribbean today cannot be
divorced from the larger global frame in which the region
is enclosed.
The key generic, global solution is the urgent need
for a tectonic shift from man's domination of nature to a
symbiotic relationship between man and nature. It is a moot
point as to whether capitalism can make this shift. Hawker
et al (2001) have expressed optimism, for example, that
capitalism can be transformed into what they call natural
capitalism: meaning by this an integration of the economy
and nature and they provide examples of actual changes
in business systems along these lines. A similar position is
articulated by Anderson and Leal(1997) in terms of what
they term 'Enviro-Capitalism.'
It is, however, a race against time (and ecological
melt-down) since, as Hawkens et al themselves concede:
This newly emerging pattern of scarcity implies that, if there
is to be prosperity in the future, society must make its use of
resources vastly more productive: deriving four, ten, or even
a hundred times as much benefit from each unit of energy,
water, materials, or anything else borrowed from the planet
and consumed".
ECONOLOGISM.
Certainly, in the same way that the transition from feu-
dalism to capitalism passed through the stage of merchant
capitalism one can infer that capitalism is not going to sim-
ply disappear one morning. What one can more logically
infer is that capitalism when it has clearly and manifestly
become a 'fetter' on human survival and advance will
morph into another mode of production which would have
to be based on a symbiotic relationship between man and
nature. Let us call this desired shift: ECONOLOGISM.
The term draws on the fact that both Eco-nomics and
Eco-logy derive from the same common Greek root word:
Eco: meaning Household with the former (Eco-nomics)
referring to the human household and the latter (Eco-logy)
to nature's household. It is understandable that at the time
that the Greeks were 'naming' their reality they would
distinguish between the human and nature's household.
Today, however, this is not possible or realistic in terms of
the impact of human beings on nature and Marx's seminal
observation that capitalism marked the tectonic shift from
the domination of nature over man to man's domination
of nature. The terms ECONOLOGISM, therefore, seeks
to emphasise the need to integrate both 'households' in a
symbiotic relationship.

4. CONSTRAINTS TO
REALIZING ECONOLOGISM
Four constraints are identified as blocking the his-
torically required tectonic shift to a symbiotic relationship
between man and nature and these are addressed below.
(i). Theoretical/conceptual constraint
Increasing disciplinary specialization in
academia and emphasis on empiricism has pro-
duced a wealth of information but a poverty of
understanding of the 'integratedness of things'.
The discipline of Economics is perhaps most at


fault here but is not singular in this respect. This
blind spot is best illustrated by the dominant
neo-classical economics which perceives the
open world economy as the unit of analysis in
a so-called globalised world. In fact, the open
world economy (or open national economy
for that matter) is really a sub-set of two other
integrated elements of human reality: society
and the closed eco-system.

The recognition of the closed eco-system alerts
us to the logical conclusion that there are limits
to the expansion of production and consump-
tion which draw on the environment as a source
of useful material inputs but also simultane-
ously depend on the very same environment to
serve as a sink for their waste.

Environmental disciplines have contributed to
our enhanced awareness of the importance of


the natural environment and this needs to be
acknowledged and applauded. However, there
is a problem with a narrowly-conceptualized
environmental perspective which sees human
beings merely as'villains' as it were, as opposed
to recognizing that there also is a social ecology
which needs to be linked to the natural ecology
since they both form an ineluctable, integrated
whole.

(ii). Sustainable Development
Impossible in One Country
There can be little chance of sustainable devel-
opment in one country given the recognition
that the ecological problem is global in nature.
However, we are not all coming to the problem
from the same initial conditions. Herman Daly
has provided a useful framework by distinguish-
ing between 'Over-developed' and'Under-devel-
oped' economies. An 'over-developed' economy
can be defined as one whose per capita natural
capital impact, if generalized to the world's
population, would lead to ecological collapse
(e.g. USA).An 'under-developed' economy, on
the other hand, is one whose per capita natural
capital impact is not merely well within global
carrying capacity but as such a low material
level as to only reproduce global poverty and
misery if generalized to all countries (e.g. Haiti).
To these two categories of Daly I would myself
add the concept of the sustainably developing
economy: defined as one which shows positive
trends in terms of the economic, socio- political
and environmental indicators of sustainable de-
velopment (Scandanavian countries are perhaps
examples).

(iii). Capitalist ethos of self-interestedness and
the Elephant Constraint
The rise of capitalism is, therefore, the critical
theoretico-historic frame within which to locate
the current dominant realities of environmental
destruction and social disorder. (This is not to
acknowledge, as Marx himself did, the positive
forces released by capitalism).


SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 9


Substantial profits are being made by firms and
countries from the status quo ante in terms of
exploitation of natural resources and emitting
of pollutants. The 'Elephant constraint' there-
fore refers to the fact that 'Over-developed'
economies and large population, integrated
economies in general, are like elephants: very big
and dominant but slow to'shift gears' or change
direction. In purely economic self interested
terms, there are trillions of dollars tied up in
assets which would need to be written off for
the tectonic shift to ECONOLOGISM to be real-
ized. Moreover, one of the derivative constraints
would be the uncertainty as to the success of
introduction of new, symbiotic production and
consumption patterns.

(iv). The Governance problem
Finally, government 'capture' by the owners of
these assets (including widespread stock market
equity ownership) implies that there are govern-
ance constraints (both corporate and national)
to the type of radical shifts demanded.

5. LITTLE CAYS CAN
OPEN MIGHTY DOORS:
THE CASE FOR ECO-CARIBE
David Rudder, in one of his calypsos, laments a world
'which does not need islands anymore' alluding to the his-
toric role that sugar cane plantation slavery played in the
transition to industrial capitalism. Eric Williams captured
this historic contribution in'Capitalism and Slavery' where
he noted that: "The commercial capitalism of the eighteenth
century developed the wealth of Europe by means of slavery
and monopoly... (and) helped to create the industrial capital-
ism of the nineteenth century."
However, in another of his calypsos, Rudder opines that
'little cays can open mighty doors'. I concur and I am positing
that Small and Island Economies (SIDS) can play a decisive
role by active policy interventions and institutional innova-
tions to provide a similar knowledge development as that
described by another historian, Philip Curtin, who pointed
that that plantation slavery contributed substantially to the
knowledge base of industrial capitalism:"...the Europeans
who ran the (plantation) complex learned a great deal from
the experience in ocean shipping, tropical agriculture and
economic management at a distance. All this is a part of the
background of the industrial age" (Curtinl998, p. 204).
The bold hypothesis which I am advancing, therefore, is
that: The Small & Island Economies (SIDS) of the (greater)
Caribbean (in collaboration with SIDS in the rest of the
world) have the potential to repeat the catalytic contribu-
tion made by this region to the tectonic global shift from
merchant to industrial capitalism: this time on own and
active account and to mutual benefit of all (regionally and
internationally).
The'elephant' constraint provides an opportunity for
small and island economies for several reasons. First, the
asset constraint in SIDS is not as critical in that there is
no stock of assets worth trillions of dollars which would
need to be written down or off. Second, the evidence from
the economic literature on innovation points out that the
diffusion of what is called new "techno-economic para-
digms" tends to be more quickly embraced by those at the
periphery of the dominant existing paradigm. Moreover,
new innovations also tend to be more rapidly embraced by
those who have little to lose and much to gain since they are
already in desperate circumstances. On all these three scores,
many small and island economies in the larger Caribbean
region would seem to be well-placed for an early embrace of
ECONOLOGISM: We have little to lose and much to gain.
Moreover, we are already in significant ecological crisis both
in social and environmental terms as described earlier.
Small islands can usefully serve as laboratories for
testing theories and linked strategies and policies to realize
the transition to ECONOLOGISM since SIDS possess four
additional advantages on this score.
* There are a large number of small islands scattered
almost randomly across all the continents and lati-
tudes.
* These islands are of varying sizes and hence offer some
variety in the'test' conditions, while remaining within
an acceptable range.
* There is a variety of both biological and cultural di-
versity across these islands to reinforce the'laboratory'
testing criteria.


CONTINUED ON PAGE 10





10 UWI TODAY SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


Trinidadians were smiling. The two truly Caribbean
institutions were doing the region proud. In Woodbrook,
at the Queen's Park Oval the West Indies Cricket Team
was back to its winning ways and in St. Ann's it was The
University of the West Indies in the limelight. The University
Singers of the Mona Campus, Jamaica, were celebrating
their 50th Anniversary with a Caribbean Tour and Trinidad
was the last stop.
The visit of the University Singers was truly memorable.
Under the direction of Mr. Noel Dexter they would give two
sparkling performances at the Queen's Hall on the 10l and
11th April and two Lecture Demonstrations, one at Queen's
Hall and the other at the UWI School of Continuing Studies,
St Augustine, during a brief two day visit. The Board of
Queen's Hall were part sponsors of the event.
The theme of the Lecture Demonstrations was
Caribbean Regional Integration Through Choral Theatre,
clearly signaling the underlying spirit and purpose of the
visit. Conducted by the Directors of the Chorale, and ably
assisted by Professor the Honourable RexNettleford, UWI
V.C. Emeritus who presented the Choral Theatre approach,
both workshops were well attended. At each venue over 200
enthusiastic musicians and performers from Primary and
Secondary Schools, Community Groups and Choirs actively
participated in sessions on Vocal Techniques, Arranging and
Technical enhancements and of course Choral Theatre.
Although the Choral Theatre Approach was a new term
to participants, it was soon clear that the style, a blend of
movement and music, was not unfamiliar. One immediately
thought of John Arnold's Signal Hill Alumni from Tobago
and Jeunes Agapes from the South, but it was informative to
have the rationale and process explained by the illustrious
Professor Nettleford.
During the proceedings at Queen's Hall participants
were invited to share some of their music with their
Jamaican counterparts. Pupils from the Bishop Anstey
Senior Choir were persuaded to take the stage. Their lively
rendition of Coconuts was well appreciated by participants
and directors alike. Later, Professor Nettleford further
demonstrated the process with the young choir. It was
obviously a treat for the participants, a rare opportunity
to see one of the Caribbean's most talented dancers, an
articulate and influential artist at work. Similarly. at the
Lecture Demonstration at the St. Augustine Campus, Jeunes
Agape performed for the visitors. The Caribbean spirit was
alive and well.


A Jamaican resident in Trinidad for manyyears, Robert
'Bob' Henry started the University Singers fifty years ago.
He explained recently that a few undergraduates wanted to
sing "other music" (other than classical) focusing on folk,
gospel and indigenous music. It is coincidental that one of
the early members was Freda Farrell, a Trinidadian who
later as Freda Araujo would become the principal of the
Bishop Anstey High School whose Choir performed at the
Lecture/Demonstration. Because Mona was the sole campus
in those early days, Henry explained, the group was truly
representative of the region. Today UWI has three main
campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and Jamaica
as well as twelve regional centres. Yet the choir, although
mostly Jamaican, is still well represented by other West
Indians. Bob Henry added that The Jamaican Government
recognizes the UWI Singers as an integral part of Jamaican
expression. They are truly an integral part of Caribbean
expression and should be treasured.
The repertoire of the Singers is wide and varied, it
includes the classical, spirituals, folk, gospel, jazz, local
and pop. Even more interesting is the inclusion of original
work of Caribbean composers. Some of the composers
- F.E Halliburton, and Noel Dexter are members of the
group. The programme presented at Queen's Hall was well
balanced, the first half offering classical music, original
compositions, spirituals, while the second half was devoted
to Folk.
One appreciated the wholesome tone of the choir
and the seamless way the programme moved along. The
soloists complimented but did not overshadow the choral
effort; mention should also be made of Murphey Osborne's
Every Time I Feel the Spiritwhich was particularly moving.
One of the strong points of the Choir is its impressive male
section which gives depth and resonance to the overall tone.
The Folk was captivating, beautifully costumed (in fact the
whole show was skillfully costumed and lit) using the red
motif cleverly to keep the eye alert, the items were lively,
amusing, with some original numbers. The Choir has its
own musicians who provided accompaniment throughout
and in a Band Interlude of Caribbean Rhythms showed
their considerable skill.
The University Singers in concert clearly demonstrated
a professionalism, originality, precision and enthusiasm that
captivated the audience and distinguished them as one of
the leading choral groups in the Caribbean. Mw


CONTINUED FROM PAGE 9

Finally, the population of the global community of
islands also faces a range of political systems from the
traditional 'chiefdoms' of the Pacific, through auto-
cratic, authoritarian and more openly democratic and
participatory forms of governance.

In other words, SIDS can serve as a 'laboratories' to
test and perfect new techno-economic paradigms. Small
and island economies can thereby illuminate the theoretical
and strategy/policy challenges in simultaneously creating
fully employed, globally competitive economies, adapt-
ing/building resilience to natural events/climate change,
as well as creating consumption and production patterns
which are within the eco-cultural carrying capacities of
small places together with economic and socio-political
equity: ECONOLOGISM for short.

SPECIFIC POLICY INTERVENTIONS: ECO-CARIBE
The desirable outcomes will demand a shift to maximiz-
ing eco-culturally enhancing production and consumption
patterns and minimizing eco-culturally degrading patterns.
These in turn will require industrial, trade, technology and
Human Resource policies buttressed by foreign investment,
fiscal and monetary policy. What is being proposed is, in
effect, an ECO-CARIBE initiative in which Trinidad and
Tobago can play a leading role given its current, temporary
hydrocarbon windfall.
Industrial Policy: To target production and consump-
tion patterns which maximize eco-culturally enhancing
investments and minimize eco-culturally negating invest-
ments.
Trade Policy: To reinforce industrial policy by link-
ing trade policy and negotiations to the demands of
ECONOLOGISM.
Technology Policy: To further reinforce industrial
policy by investment in and/or import of technologies
which also are sensitive to the overarching demands of
ECOLOGISM.
Human Resource Policy: To provide the human re-
source values and, as well, skills demand for ECONOLO-
GISM.
Foreign Investment Policy: To target foreign inves-
tors who will contribute to the solution, not exacerbate
the problem.
Fiscal and Monetary Policy: To be used to steer pro-
duction and consumption systems in the desired directions
through a mix of incentives and disincentives (e.g. greening
of taxation).

INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS
There is no need for additional institutions at the
regional or inter-regional SIDS level but for improved col-
laboration and partnerships among existing ones such as
CARICOM/CARIFORUM, CEHI, CDB at the inter-gov-
ernmental level together with a range of regionally linked
professional, business, trade union and NGOs organiza-
tions. UN agencies such as UNEP, UNDP, UNESCO, FAO,
UNIFEM, etc are obvious bridges to the international
community together with a range of private, foreign foun-
dations. UWI and other universities and research centres
clearly would have a critical role.

ECO-AOSIS
At the inter-SIDS level there exists the Association of
Small Island States (AOSIS) and also the incipient University
SIDS consortium involving UWI and the Universities of the
Virgin Islands, Malta, the Pacific.

GOVERNANCE REFORM
Finally, there would be need at national and regional
level for governance reform to provide'Voice' for a range of
communities in the determination and implementation of
the policy matrix in the transition to ECONOLOGISM.

CONCLUSION
'Ridiculous', you say, in response to my hypothesis and
proposal as your eyes remain fixed on the ground? Arthur
Lewis must have faced a similar, even more negative reaction
in 1950. However, hopefully, the intervening 60-odd years
has led to sufficient emancipation from'mental slavery' to
allow you to raise your head and see the sky is the limit in
terms of the possibility and opportunity we can draw out
of the global ecological crisis.
A summary of the lecture delivered on Wednesday
March 19, 2008. 7:00 pm. UWI, St Augustine Campus. For
the full lecture Visit: http://sta.uwi.edu/dpantin





SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 11


* CARIBBEAN LAUREATE SPEAKS AT UWI
In April, celebrated writer and poet David Dabydeen visited the UWI St Augustine Campus to donate
a collection of his books to the Main Library and lecture students of the Faculty of Humanities and
Education on Caribbean writers. A graduate of Cambridge University, Dabydeen was born in Berbice,
Guyana, in 1955. Currently a Professor at Warwick University, UK, he was recently awarded the Anthony
N. Sabga Caribbean Award for Excellence (Arts and Letters) in 2008.

LA0




12 UWI TODAY- SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


* REDDOCK HONORED BY UWI PRESS
Professor Rhoda Reddock was celebrated by The University of the West Indies Press at the
Fifteenth Anniversary and Author Award ceremony on May 20th at the Errol Barrow Centre
for Creative Imagination, Barbados. A prolific writer, Professor Reddock was presented
with an award in the category of bestselling textbook for her publication 'Interrogating
Caribbean Masculinities: Theoretical and Empirical Analyses.'


www.sta.uwi.edu


UWI
ST. AUGUSTINE
CAMPUS



For me UWI was always a
first choice... It's a place
where you can really open
your mind to new
thinking...I found that
having that first degree
from UWI positioned me
very well and opened the
right doors; not only for
me to continue my
studies, but also from a
career perspective. I had
no difficulty securing job
offers after graduating...

DAVID DULAL-WHITEWAY
Managing Director, Republic Bank Limired
UWI Cass of 1979, Managerent Studies B.Sc;
Part-time Lecturer Managemen Studies
(1982-1988)


From a class of 33 pioneers who began
their medical studies at the Mona
Campus, UWI has grown into a multi-
campus institution with over 75,000
alumni. Our graduates include artists,
scientists, medical practitioners, lawyers,
agriculturalists, entrepreneurs, prime
ministers, philanthropists and a nobel
laureate among others; icons who have
helped to forge our archipelago and
contribute to world development.


ONE UNIVERSITY
C E L E B R AT I N G SIX D ECA D ES
Celebrate with us visit www.sta.uwi.edu for our evenrs calendar and more.


UI



SIXTIETH
ANNIVERSARY


rr ~III rCe*l





SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 13


1 gSPORT.I


GETTING IT RIGHT

PE teachers upgrade skills with new Physical Education Secondary degree

BY ANNA WALCOTT-HARDY


"One of the failings for us in international sport...is
that our athletes do not have the basic skills right we
need to know, for instance, how to kick, catch and throw
properly,"
Director of Sport and Physical Education at The
University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Dr.
Iva Gloudon explains candidly, seated at her office. Behind
her, through a large window there is a panoramic view
of the verdant cricket field, perfectly manicured; a roller
moves slowly over the pitch. Ironically, it was the legendary
cricketer, Sir Frank Worrell who created this field over 20
years ago. Worrell captained a cricket team that was known
for deftly throwing, catching and hitting a ball.
When asked why we have fallen in international
rankings in sports like cricket, Dr. Gloudon says that we
need to introduce the scientific and systematic learning
of these basic skills to re-gain prominence. And she has a
plan that will certainly help. In the past, she explained, "we
roamed our villages we would stone mangoes in a tree
- those were all unconventional ways of practising these
basic skills... but now we have become sedentary...before
these basic skills were routine now they have to be learnt.
Physical Education informs sport. It is the precursor to
sport much in the same way that arithmetic informs calculus
and trigonometry."
The Bachelor of Education Physical Education
- Secondary degree programme is the first of its kind at
UWI. It aims to provide students with opportunities for
learning about the teaching of physical education in today's
world. This three year degree programme is tailored to
meet the needs of Physical Education teachers across the
region by encompassing some of the best practice examples
around the globe, taught by local and international experts
in the field. The modules are integrated and yet there is a
continuous thread so that students can review, plan, act,
reflect and review again on what they are being taught. The
structure is a'Reflective Practice Model', cyclical in nature,
it encourages holistic thinking.
In-service Physical Education teachers who all hold
teaching diplomas are the pioneers of the programme which
is a collaborative effort between UWI and the Ministry of
Education in Trinidad and Tobago. The innovative degree
is held under the aegis of the Faculty of Humanities and
Education at U.W.I. It is practical in nature, yet designed to
enhance teaching techniques while building on the expertise
and experiences of the teachers themselves.
Dr. Gloudon sends a challenge to the first cohort to
"grow and expand while cultivating a new breed of physical
educators who would become a beacon in our region."
For the past seventeen years Dr. Gloudon has been
working tirelessly to develop sport and physical education


DR. IVA GLOUDON- Director of Sport and Physical Education


on the St. Augustine Campus. She has been able to introduce
several cross-faculty programmes, launch an internationally
certified half-marathon (currently sponsored mainly by
U.W.I. and First Citizens) and significantly enhance the
playing fields and sporting facilities on Campus to meet
international standards. She is quick to acknowledge the
support of the private sector, especially U.W.I. former
Campus Principal Professor Compton Bourne, Mr. Ronald
Harford, former Managing Director of Republic Bank
Limited as well as Mr. Alfred Reid and his team from the
U.W.I. Projects Office for their support in developing the
modern Sport and Physical Education Centre (SPEC) and
its outdoor facilities and grounds.
A graduate of the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, Dr. Gloudon is also eager to acknowledge those
who helped her create and develop this innovative Physical
Education Bachelor Degree programme that has been in
the works for over a decade. This latest milestone came
about after a conversation about three years ago with the
former Minister of Education, the Honourable Mrs. Hazel
Manning on the need to develop personnel to teach physical
education since the subject was then made an "examinable
subject at the CXC level". While tendering for the delivery
of the programme Dr. Gloudon knew that there was a
need for a more "international consensus" and she looked
to several international experts, enlisting the support of
Prof. Patt Dodds (University of Massachusetts, Amherst),
Dr. Della Fazey (University of Wales, Bangor) and Dr. Patti
Denham-Mason (University of Canberra, Australia), as well


as those close to home, collaborating with Mr. Carol Keller
(U.W.I.), Dean Ian Robertson (U.W.I.) and Dr. Lennox
Bernard (School of Continuing Studies, U.W.I.). She also
spoke with several secondary school teachers.
She also underscores the importance of the collaborative
work done by Ms. Auldyth Bravo School Supervisor -
Physical Education, Ministry of Education and Mr. Mark
Mungal, President, the Alliance for Sport and Physical
Education, both of whom were "very involved in shaping
the programme."
"I must say that while I created, and designed, the
degree I wanted to get more international consensus not
only in the development of the degree, but also in its
delivery."
In an effort to also build local teaching capacity at the
University Lecturer level, a team of international lecturers
from Kent State University, University of Illinois, Urbana
and Pacifica Lutheran University as well as Aberystwyth
University, Wales, has been working with local lecturers.
U.W.I. lecturer Mrs. Paula Chester who currently
teaches the module Issues and Values in Sport and Physical
Education, spoke on the importance of this degree.
"It is a good programme, because we need to ensure
that all persons involved in sport and physical education
are operating from the same page; that they understand
the systems governing sport and physical education and
the value system so that the issues are addressed in the
development of athletes and students... and only when we
have that, when we are all on the same page, can all these
objectives be met," she explained
And so in 2007, seventy-seven (77) certified teachers
from throughout all the regions of Trinidad & Tobago
were awarded a scholarship to participate in this three
year degree. To accommodate their teaching schedules, the
classes are held on evenings after 5:00 p.m. and the hours
are "stepped-up" during the school vacation period. After
these pioneers graduate in 2010, the programme "opens-up"
to physical education teachers from the wider Caribbean.
Undoubtedly, the benefits are endless not only will
there be improvement in the teaching and delivery of
Physical Education programmes, but also in the health
and wellbeing of students. Dr. Gloudon concluded by
explaining that some secondary school sporting facilities
may also need to be upgraded to complement what these
practitioners would have learnt and what they would now
be required to implement.
At the end of the programme teachers should be able
to understand why they teach as they do and be able to
continually investigate more effective ways of helping their
students to learn. Surely a significant goal.





14 UWI TODAY- SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


* RESEARCH


DR. BASIL REID


UWI lecturer and archaeologist, Dr Basil Reid, takes a critical look at our past


Q: Do you think our West Indian history books are
accurate especially in terms of the reporting on the
Amerindians, their way of life, government, culture,
society etc?

A: Yes and No. Some books provide useful and reasonably
accurate information on Amerindian lifeways but the
majority are grossly inaccurate as they tend to "lump
together" most of the major Amerindian groups
in the Caribbean as either "Arawaks" or "Caribs."
Using these broad categories does not adequately
reflect the multiplicity and social complexity of the
Amerindian groups that existed in the region before
and after Columbus. There are also major inaccuracies
concerning the naming of groups of people as well as
their geographical distributions. While doing research
for my book Popular Myths About Caribbean History,
I reviewed several text books currently being used
for teaching Caribbean history in secondary schools
and noticed many had these glaring inaccuracies. I
partially blame serious scholars like myself for this


privy to the most current information on the Caribbean
native peoples, we have been busy talking to among
ourselves at conferences and writing esoteric papers
for often inaccessible journals rather than writing for
popular audiences. The book Popular Myths About
Caribbean History is an attempt on my part to correct
this shortcoming and it seeks share current information
with the general public, in simple, non-academic
language.

Q: Is there a particular case study that you found to be
quite revolutionary, a breakthrough?

A: Recent information that the Archaic peoples in fact
produced pottery was quite revolutionary as for
decades many Caribbean archaeologists, including
myself, assumed that the Saladoids were the first potters
in the Caribbean. The Archaic people, also called the
Casimiroids and the Ortoroids, migrated from Central
America and South America approximately 7000 to
5000 years ago, colonising much of the Caribbean


until the arrival of the Saladoids in 500 B.C. The
Archaic people were generally classified as preceramic
but pottery found at their sites in Cuba, Hispaniola,
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands suggest that they
were also potters. In Caribbean archaeology, pottery
is closely associated with farming. Interestingly, there
is emerging evidence that the Archaics were also
engaged in plant domestication. The Archaic people
also inhabited Banwari Trace in southwest Trinidad. To
date, no pottery has been found at Banwari Trace. But
given that the site is still very much under-researched,
we should keep an open mind to possible discoveries
in the future.

Q: Do you think we are doing enough locally and in the
Caribbean to preserve our sites and archaeological
discoveries?

A: To an extent, there are efforts to preserve our sites and
various archaeological discoveries. Throughout the
Caribbean, there are a number of heritage management


For further information, please contact Dr. Basil Reid, Department of History, U.WL, St. Augustine E-mail: Basil.Reid@sta.uwi.edu Ext. 3306








agencies such as the National Trust of Trinidad and
Tobago, the National Museum of Trinidad and Tobago,
the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, the
Barbados Trust, the Jamaica National Heritage Trust,
the Institute of Jamaica, the St. Lucia Archaeological
and Historical Society and the national Archaeological
Museum of the Netherlands Antilles (NAAM). Several
Caribbean territories have enacted laws aimed at
protecting sites and monuments. In Trinidad and
Tobago, for example, the National Trust Act offers some
measure of protection provided that the site or historic
monument is designated as a property of interest. The
protection of underwater archaeological heritage in
Trinidad and Tobago was given attention in 1994 with
the passing of the Protection of Wrecks Act. There
is also a Cabinet-appointed National Archaeological
Committee that advises the Minister of Culture on
archaeologically-related matters.

Despite all of these useful legislative and institutional
frameworks in Trinidad and Tobago and elsewhere
in the Caribbean, sites are still being destroyed
or compromised due to urbanisation, agriculture
or industrialisation. This problem is certainly
commonplace throughout the Caribbean and perhaps
one of the ways of to curtail the problem is to ensure
that the laws are more effectively policed. This may
be achieved by sensitizing local communities to their
heritage through the formation of county or parish
heritage groups throughout the region. Providing
developers with tax credits can be a useful incentive
to encourage them to protect archaeological sites
on their private properties. We also need to train
more archaeologists to satisfy local needs rather than
becoming so dependent on overseas expertise. By so
doing, we would create a local cadre of archaeologists
available for rescue archaeology, whenever sites are
threatened by development. Geoinformatics can also
be used to map sites that are being threatened as well
as identify those that are neither visible nor accessible
because of thick vegetation or rugged topography.
These are just some of the ways in which we could more
effectively protect and preserve our archaeological
heritage.

Q: What important discoveries have been made in
Trinidad and Tobago?

A: The discovery of the Banwari Trace in southwest
Trinidad as well as the discovery of Banwari Man
by members of the Trinidad and Tobago Historical
Society in November 1969 can be cited as important
discoveries. Radiocarbon dates indicate that Banwari
Trace was inhabited around 5000 BC, making it the
oldest in the Caribbean. Another important discovery
was the Saladoid site of Gandhi Village in south
Trinidad. Although not many artifacts were found
there by my students in 2003 and 2006, the site, given
its hilltop location, nevertheless provided us with
useful insights into the defensive nature of some pre-
Columbian sites in Trinidad.

Q. Where is Banwari man housed ?

A: The remains are housed in the Museum of the Life
Sciences Department. Persons interested in viewing
the remains may contact Ms. Savitree Rattan; telephone
number 662-2002 extension 2237.

Q: How many digs are you currently involved in?

A: At present, my digs are usually conducted when I
teach the course: Research Methods and Techniques
in Archaeology...and that the fieldwork component of
that course usually takes place around March or April
of each year. When I started teaching at U.W.I., I was
very active in the field. I organised major projects at
Blanchisseuse (Trinidad) and Lover's Retreat (Tobago)
between 2003 and 2005. However, I have decided to
limit field activities for the time being in order to
complete a number of publications that have been
hanging for a while. Once, I get those publications out
of the way, I will be going back into the field for more
primary data, which in turn can be used to fuel new
research publications.

Q: What future projects are you involved in at UWI?

A: I am looking at the possibility of working collaboratively
with colleagues in the Department of Surveying and


Land Information in the teaching of Caribbean
archaeology based on geoinformatics.

The Department of History is considering the
introduction of a Masters degree in Heritage Studies
in September 2009 and I have been asked to coordinate
this course. Teaching this course will require that I
work closelywith my colleagues at U.W.I., St. Augustine
as well as those outside of U.W.I. This course will
focus on heritage management, heritage tourism,
cultural legislation, archaeology, museology, landscape
studies and environmental issues etc. and should be of
particular interest to heritage professionals, tourism
professionals, museologists as well as archaeology,
museology and cultural studies enthusiasts.

I plan to become more actively engaged in research
projects outside of pre-Columbian archaeology such
as historic landscapes, parks and gardens, railways
as well as the archaeology of the industrial era. The
archaeology of Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean
is far more diverse than people are sometimes led to
believe as it extends beyond the pre-Columbian period
into the more recent historical periods where the data
are a lot more visible and in greater abundance. When
these projects have jelled, I will be in a better position
to speak more definitively about them.

Q: Why did you decide to produce this book?

A: Because I felt that there was the need to legitimize
the application of geoinformatics within the context
of Caribbean archaeology. The vast majority of
archaeology publications based on geographical
information systems (GIS), remote sensing, aerial
photography and other geoinformatics techniques,
have tended to focus very heavily on North America and
Europe with scant regard being paid to the Caribbean.
This has been the situation for years despite the fact
that Caribbean archaeologists have increasingly been
employing geoinformatics techniques in their research
projects and despite the fact that geoinformatics has
been used worldwide for over 20 years. In the past,
there were a handful of papers published on the use
of geoinformatics in Caribbean archaeology. These
were published as chapters in the Proceedings of the
International Association for Caribbean Archaeology
(IACA) rather than as edited chapters in an international
publication like Archaeology and Geoinformatics: Case
Studies from the Caribbean. This book is therefore an
important milestone as it showcases to both regional
and international audiences, the important work that
is being done by Caribbean scholars.

Q: What is geoinformatics and is it used at UWI?

A: Geoinformatics pertains to the application of
geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing,
aerial photography, photogrammetry, cartography,
global positioning systems (GPS) and geophysical
surveys. The Department of Surveying and Land
Information at UWI, St. Augustine provides training in
the judicious application of these techniques. I am sure
that individual lecturers in other departments at UWI
use geoinformatics in their various research projects.
I received my geoinformatics training at the University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (U.S.A.) where I did my
Ph.D. in anthropology.

Q: Why should we look at our history and these artifacts
from a regional perspective? What are the benefits?

A: A regional perspective is not only important, it
is also absolutely necessary as it provides us with
opportunities to compare and contrast the histories of
Caribbean territories. For example, while it is useful
to study individual sites such as the Saladoid sites of
Blanchisseuse and Gandhi Village in Trinidad, unless
we view these sites within the context of other Saladoid
sites found elsewhere in the Caribbean, such as those
in Montserrat, Antigua and Puerto Rico, then we will
be unable to fully explore issues of migration, trade
networks, community organisation and settlement
patterns from a regional perspective. Being engaged
in research from a regional context also brings us
in contact with several colleagues throughout the
Caribbean and outside the Caribbean, which in turn
facilitates fresh perspectives, new lines of enquiry and
a better research product in the end.


SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008 UWI TODAY 15



U BOOKS



ARCHAEOLOGY AND

GEOINFORMATICS:

CASE STUDIES FROM

THE CARIBBEAN
Edited by Basil A. Reid
University ofAlabama Press, Tuscaloosa, U.S.A.


Archaeology and Geoinformatics: Case
Studies from the Caribbean edited by UWI
lecturer, Dr. Basil A. Reid, underscores the need,
now more than ever, for the preservation and
conservation of our West Indian heritage.
Geoinformatics refers to the use of geographic
information systems (GIS), remote sensing, aerial
photography, photogrammetry, cartography,
global positioning systems (GPS) and geophysical
surveys to gain critical information on Caribbean
archaeological sites. It is fundamental to
unearthing the past, especially within the
Caribbean where storm surges, hurricanes,
ocean and riverine erosion, urbanization,
industrialization, agricultural development, as
well as commercial development along the very
waterfronts that were home to many prehistoric
peoples, may have affected the landscape. The case
studies are drawn from several interesting island
projects including those in Barbados, St. John,
Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Nevis, St. Eustatius, and
Trinidad and Tobago. Not onlywill archaeologists
want to gain a copy of this publication, but
historians, environmentalists, museologists,
engineers, ecologists, heritage managers, historic
preservationists, cultural studies scholars, land
surveyors, geophysicists, and geoinformatics
specialists may also find the work quite engaging.
Contributors to the volume include Basil Reid,
Bheshem Ramlal, Kevin Farmer, Grant Gilmore
III, Douglas Armstrong, Stephan Lenik, David
Knight, Mark Hauser, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Ivor
Conolley, Eric Klingelhofer and Roger Leech. Dr
Basil Reid has stated that, "by demonstrating that
the region is fertile ground for the application
of geoinformatics in archaeology, this volume
places a well needed scholarly spotlight on the
Caribbean". Extremely fundamental to our
understanding of not only our past but how we
may better craft our future, this landmark book
is currently available at the UWI Bookshop.





16 UWI TODAY- SUNDAY 25TH MAY, 2008


UWI CALENDAR ofEVENTS

MAY JUNE


HRM: Adding Value or Adding Complexity?
Friday 23rd -Sunday 25th May, 2008
Examine the challenges currently facing Human Resource professionals
at this upcoming co-hosted event by The University of the West Indies
and the Association of Commonwealth Universities HR Network
Steering Committee. The Third Biennial Conference from Friday 23rd
to Sunday 25th May 2008 at the Hilton Hotel, Tobago, will focus on
three sub-themes: Developing Leadership and Management Capability,
Managing Performance, and Enhancing the Institution.

For further information please contact Ms. Gene Francis
Email: Gene.Francis@sta.uwi.edu Tel: 662-2002 ext. 2162







The Sound of Music
Thursday 26th -Sunday 29th June, 2008
The Queen's Hall will definitely be alive with the UWI Festival Arts
Chorale presentation of The Sound of Music. The award winning
producers of Fiddler on the Roof (2006) and Oliver! (2007) bring
another popular Broadway musical to the stage in June. With stage
direction by Louis Ms Williams and musical direction by Jessel
Murray, as well as live music by the National Sinfonia, it's great
family entertainment that can't be missed.

Tickets: $150.00; $100.00 for children
at the Sunday Matinee (2:00 p.m.)

For more information please contact
Evette 316-7651 / Stacy 787-8981 /Daryl 725-4765






Residential Workshop
for Caribbean Writers
Monday 30th June Thursday 31st July, 2008
This year's Caribbean Creative Writers' Residential Workshop will
focus on fiction, poetry and playwrighting. Writers will have an
opportunity to learn from UWI Lecturers Merle Hodge and Funso
Aiyejina. The Residential Workshop is sponsored by the Cropper
Foundation in partnership with the Centre for Creative and Festival
Arts CCFA at The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

For application forms and further information please contact
Dr. Dani Lyndersay or Ms. Marissa Brooks at the UWI CCFA
662-2002 Ext. 3539 Fax: 663-2222 or via email MBrooks@fhe.uwi.tt


UWI MEMORIES
In celebration of our Sixtieth Anniversary we would
like you to share your memories with us by sending
(2) captioned photographs of your best times at
UWI. Remember to include your name, address,
year of graduation, faculty/programme. We'd also
like to get a brief description (100 words)of your
best memory of UWI or details of the event captured
in the image.


Please send your submissions to
The EDITOR, UWI TODAY,
The Marketing and Communications Office
The University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago.
Or email us at markcom@sta.uwi.edu


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