• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Map of Canal Zone
 The Panama Canal
 The representative men of the Republic...
 Index
 Front Matter
 Back Cover






Title: The Makers of the Panama Canal
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094141/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Makers of the Panama Canal
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thomas Marine; Jackson, F.E., & Son, Firm, Publishers, New York.
Publisher: Chasmar-Winchell Press
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1911
Copyright Date: 1911
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094141
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40511412

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 2b
        Page 2c
        Page 2d
    Half Title
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Map of Canal Zone
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The Panama Canal
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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    The representative men of the Republic of Panama
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    Index
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    Front Matter
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    Back Cover
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Full Text
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Makers of the Panama Canal
and Representative Men of
the Republic of Panama





















































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THE-MAKEIS- OF THE* PANAMA-CANAL


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Copyright by F. E. JACKSON & SON
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PLAN OF THE PANAMA CANAL







The Panama Canal


T HOUGH the ships of the world will not be passing through the Panama Canal for several years, the work
of construction is advancing with such splendid certainty that there is no longer the shadow of doubt
concerning the ultimate success of the enterprise. Not only will it be completed, but it will be completed
within the time limit set by the engineers. And when it is done it will stand forth for all time as the greatest
achievement in the history of any nation. Only a nation capable of tremendous energies and almost limitless
resources in the way of men and money was qualified to undertake the task of severing the isthmus by which nature
connected two great continents. And beyond all this it was necessary that the highest standard of business honor be
at all times maintained. The world had seen the pitiful spectacle of a brilliant conception ruined by the blight of
corruption, but even the blaze old countries of Europe knew that when Uncle Samuel took hold of the pick and
shovel there would be an end to the stories of graft and scandal. From the day that the Americans assumed charge
on the fourth of May, I904, there hasn't been a red cent of the public's money misappropriated. In every branch
of the great undertaking the searchlight falls on shining examples of ability and integrity. In the field of
engineering the American engineers have made their names famous for all times; in the work of sanitation Colonel
Gorgas and his assistants have astonished the world, and in the civil administration of a far-off strip of foreign
country Americans have shown that justice and equality follow the Stars and Stripes. While the conquerors of nations
have hitherto been accorded the greatest praise in the pages of history, historians will hereafter set aside these old-time
heroes and give full meed of praise to the officers and men of the Army of Panama Construction who have conquered
the forces of nature and cut a mighty waterway through a range of mountains separating the Atlantic and Pacific.
The great canal will be opened to the public on January i, 1915, and this will bring to actual completion an
enterprise which has been under consideration ever since 1581, when Antonio Periera made the first survey for an
inter-oceanic waterway. From that early date down to the first day of January, 1880, there was intermittent activity
in the way of surveys and concessions, but nothing was really begun until the day mentioned. On that New Year's
Day, more than thirty years ago, Miss Fernanda de Lesseps turned the first sod in the construction of the Panama
Canal by La Compagnie Universelle Interoceanique de Panama. The story of that ill-fated company is a part of
isthmian history and covers the period from 1880 till the American regime began in May, 1904. Suffice it to say
that the French did work which was worth forty millions of dollars to the Americans, and that a vast amount of its
building and machinery have been made useful by the present working force. The Panama Canal will have a length
of fifty miles from deep water at Colon to deep water at Panama. The actual length from shore line to shore line
will be approximately forty miles. The sea level approach from the breakwater at Colon to the Gatun locks
will be seven miles. There the vessel passing from the Atlantic to the Pacific will be lifted in a series of







three locks to a height of eighty-five feet above sea level and started on its way through the Lake of Gatun. This
lake, which will cover about 164 square miles and contain 206 billion cubic feet of water, is an artificial
body impounded by the construction of a dam a mile and a half long, half a mile wide on the base into
whose construction will have entered twenty-one million cubic yards of material. The vessel will proceed for
twenty-four miles under full steam through a channel varying from 500 to 1ooo feet in width. This run
will bring the vessel to the Culebra Cut. It will then proceed through the cut, a distance of nine miles, in a
channel with a bottom width of 300 feet, arriving then at Pedro Miguel. Here it will be lowered about
thirty feet to Lake Miraflores. Proceeding across the lake, a distance of a mile and a half, it will be lowered
in a pair of locks to the sea level of the Pacific and pass out through a channel eight and one-half miles in length
having a bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the canal will vary from 85 to 45 feet and it will have a mini-
mum bottom width of 300 feet. The entire time of passage from one ocean to the other is estimated at from ten
to twelve hours, three of which will be occupied in passing through the locks. The entire cost of the canal is
estimated at $375,000,000. The total estimated excavation is 182,537,766 cubic yards. Up to May I, 1911, there
had been excavated 137,750,520 cubic yards. During their occupancy of the isthmus the French excavated
78,146,960 cubic yards, but of this total only about thirty million cubic yards is of benefit to the American plan of
canal. The canal digging force numbers about 35,000, of whom about 5000 are Americans, these figures including
both the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Company. The Americans include the officials,
clerical force, construction men and skilled artisans. The remaining thousands are divided into two classes, about
five thousand hailing from Europe and the others from the West Indies. It is a tremendous force to handle, but the
commissioners have established such a perfect system that there is never so much as the semblance of confusion, and
so, perfect in its every detail, the machinery of canal construction is moving majestically on toward that glorious
New Year's Day in 1915 when an American battleship will lead the way from the waters of the Atlantic to the
waters of the Pacific via the Panama Canal.









Hon. Theodore Roosevelt

IF it were not for Theodore Roosevelt the United States would not be looking forward to the open-
ing of the Panama Canal on the first day of January, 1915. That is a statement which cannot
be gainsaid. And strong though it is, it yet falls short of doing full justice to Mr. Roosevelt. Not
only would we not be preparing for the opening of the canal, but it is probable that the advocates
of Nicaragua would still be arguing their seemingly endless battle with the advocates of the Panama
route. The rust was growing thicker on the discarded tools of the French workers when Mr. Roose-
velt came into the Presidency, and a President who didn't relish strenuosity would have allowed the
rust to keep on gathering. But that was not Roosevelt's way. He knew the canal ought to be
built and he knew that it ought to be done by the United States. And those two facts being settled
in his mind, his nature would brook no deviation from the path of duty. He believed it to be his
duty to cut the gordian knot of diplomatic and other red-tape which had been tied into such con-
fusing tightness by the powerful interests who were inimical to the building of any canal across the
Isthmus. And cut it he did in a manner entirely Rooseveltian! The Republic of Panama had come
% into a state of sovereign power by means of a bloodless revolution, and before the rest of the world
was through blinking its eyes President Roosevelt had recognized the independence of the new country
and was busy negotiating a canal treaty with its newly chosen officials. The Republic began its
existence on November 3, 1903; the new Republic was recognized by the United States on Novem-
ber sixth, and on the eighteenth of the same month the canal treaty was signed at Washington. The
treaty was ratified by the Republic of Panama on December second and approved by the United
States Senate on the twenty-third of the following February. It was ratified by President Roosevelt
on the twenty-fifth, the ratifications were exchanged at Washington on the twenty-sixth and that
same day it was proclaimed. Proceeding under the Spooner act, the property of the French Com-
pany was acquired in April and on May fourth the Americans entered into possession of the Canal
Zone, and there dawned for Panamanian affairs a new day in which graft and corruption would
Photo Copyrighted by Pach have no part. The first Panama Canal Commission was appointed on March 8, 1904, and con-
sisted of Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, United States Navy, Chairman; Major-General George W. Davis, United States Army; William Barclay Parsons,
William H. Burr, Benjamin M. Harrod and Carl Ewald Grunsky, civil engineers, and Mr. Frank J. Hecker. It is well, at this time, to quote President
Roosevelt's own words to the new commissioners, for they breathe the spirit which has ever prompted him in dealing with this great enterprise: "I
have appointed you as the commission," he said, "which is to undertake the most important, and also the most formidable, engineering feat that has
hitherto been attempted. You are to do a work, the doing of which, if well done, will reflect high honor upon the nation, and, when done, will be of
incalculable benefit, not only to this nation, but to civilized mankind." And later, in the same address, after charging the commissioners to represent the
whole country, to scrutinize expenditures as carefully as though the canal were a private undertaking and to secure the country's best talent, he said, in
conclusion: "The methods for achieving the results must be yours. What this nation will insist upon is that results be achieved." That last sentence em-
bodied the Roosevelt idea which was later expressed in the famous phrase: "Make the dirt fly!" That has ever since been the battle-cry of the army of
workers who through thick and thin, in times of great happiness and in times of sore trouble and discouragement, have felt that they had a friend in
Theodore Roosevelt at any time and under any circumstances. He was beloved of everyone while he occupied the executive chair and nowhere was his
refusal to run for a third term received with greater personal regret than in the Canal Zone. It was an uphill fight for him in early days of the Ameri-
can regime in Panama. A weaker man would have been discouraged, but Mr. Roosevelt's wonderful fighting courage carried him through, and by sheer
pluck he wrested victory from defeat, and when he turned his administrative powers over to his chosen successor the least of the new President's worries
was the Panama Canal. Mr. Roosevelt had made its completion a matter of certainty, and in an administration made brilliant by many noteworthy
performances his Panamanian achievements will stand forth in brightest colors in the histories of his day and generation.








Hon. William Howard Taft

THERE is one man connected with the direction of affairs in the Canal Zone who never has to ask
anyone else for inside information regarding the why or wherefore of this or that. And that
individual is no less person than William Howard Taft, the President of the United States. He's
a perfect walking history of Panamanian events, and in his mental filing-cases he has stored away
a vast amount of historical data regarding the American conduct of Isthmian affairs. He was appointed
Secretary of War about the time that Uncle Sam began mowing the weeds in the French ditch pre-
paratory to resuming digging operations. The War Secretary was made the official head of Isthmian
A affairs under the President and it was his duty to see that the machinery "functioned properly," as
his officers of the Ordnance Department would put it. Now those who remember the first few years
of the American regime will distinctly recall that the commission machinery did not function any-
where near properly. There was scarcely a day which did not find some screw loose, a nut displaced
or some personal or official cogwheel that would not gear smoothly into its fellows. Indeed it was not
until the Army Engineers took over the work that everything began to run with the soft, contented purr
of a right-minded touring car. Up to that time the Secretary of War had his hands full trying to keep
peace in the family on the Isthmus and at the same time trying to please a chief who was insistent on
"making the dirt fly." Only a man who took his public duties with the utmost seriousness and was
built of the stuff of which heroes are made would have stood by through that long, unhappy period.
But William H. Taft, as many people have come to discover, is not the man to shirk duty. He is
firm as a rock and without shadow of turning, once he has made up his mind regarding the course to
be pursued. It was so in Panama. Grimly determined as the President himself, they worked side by
side till the victory was won, till the machinery was in full operation and the end in sight. While
it may be true that Mr. Roosevelt was the man who started the canal undertaking, it is equally true
that without a William H. Taft in the office of Secretary of War he could never have accomplished
what he did. Mr. Taft was ever the President's strong right arm. Just as he gave the Philippines
Pe,,,to ,opy a s rlt ien m their start under proper auspices, so he started things right in the Canal Zone. There have been
changes at times in the detailed method of doing things, but on general principles the Roosevelt-Taft policies have never had to be overhauled. Dur-
ing his connection with Isthmian matters, Mr. Taft has frequently visited the Canal Zone, and whenever he speaks or writes of canal affairs it is with the
voice of authority, the views of a man who has gathered his impressions firsthand. Not only did the direction of canal construction fall upon his broad
shoulders, but his was the task of smoothing away the diplomatic difficulties that frequently arose. Most memorable of these was the occasion of his visit
shortly after General Huertas made his futile attempt to start a typical Central American revolution. The new Republic had stepped on the revolution
but there was much dissatisfaction over the application of the tariff and postal features of the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, many Panamanians declaring
that the United States was going to play the tyrant. To pour oil on the waters and at the same time to tell the Panamanians a few cold, hard facts, the
President selected his War Secretary. It was a momentous crisis in the affairs of Panama, but the Secretary accomplished his mission with remarkable
adroitness. He was suave, and yet there was no mistaking his meaning. He let it be known that revolutions were not considered de rigeur in the gov-
ernmental circles of the United States, and that the new little republic had shown great wisdom in nipping the last one in the bud, and he also told them
that if they were going to have a republic which was worthy the name they must guarantee the minority its rights. These ideas were new to some of his
hearers, but Secretary Taft spoke with the voice of a man representing a great and a determined country, and they cheered him to the echo. At the
same time he made public an executive order revoking certain regulations that were distasteful to the Panamanians, and from that day to this the
Republic of Panama has shunned revolutions, given the minority a fair chance, and tried in every way to live up to the standard set by Secretary Taft.
He impressed Panama as he has impressed his own people, the people of the Philippines, and the people of Cuba as being a man of the highest integrity,
the broadest statesmanship and the deepest sympathy, a man whose every thought and act is cast in the mold of justice and fair-dealing.









Colonel George Washington Goethals


WHEN history shall come to give final rank and rating to the builders of the Panama Canal,
there is no question that the name at the head will be that which appears at the head of this
sketch. Other men will be given credit for the beginnings of the enterprise, and work done at various
Stages by various individuals will receive its warranted mention in the great story, but over all will
rise the fame of Colonel Goethals, the American engineer officer who came to the herculean task when
it needed a giant's strength to make the undertaking a success. Though man had been fitfully shovel-
ing away for years on end trying to join the Atlantic and Pacific through the narrow neck of Panama,
the real beginning of the final successful movement dates no further back than April I, 19o7. On that
day Colonel Goethals was appointed Chief Engineer and Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
He had been appointed a member of the commission on the fourth of the preceding March, had
arrived on the Isthmus eight days later, spent the next fortnight in looking over the field and then,
on the Ist day of April, assumed entire executive direction of the vast proposition. From that day
to the present there has been no cessation in the forward movement. Day by day the work has gone
one step nearer completion and day by day it will continue to go till the task has been completed.
With a breadth of grasp which is beyond the conception of the average man, this army engineer has
built up a wondrous machine for "making the dirt fly." Into that machine of a million parts have
gone men, money and machinery in tremendous quantities, but under the guiding genius of the chief
engineer each human, monetary and mechanical unit has been so geared to its fellows that all work
smoothly and effectively together and friction in the Canal Zone is a thing of the past. Only those
intimately acquainted with Isthmian affairs have any realization of the scope of Colonel Goethal's
work. As chief engineer he has charge of the department of construction and engineering which
embraces all construction work on the Isthmus; and as chairman of the commission he exercises
supervision of all the departments not connected with the construction and engineering-the depart-
ment of civil administration, the department of sanitation, the examiner of accounts, the disbursing
officer and the quartermaster and subsistence departments. In each phase of the work he has
thoroughly capable assistants, but there is no detail with which he is not personally conversant.
Colonel Goethals received his training for his present work as an officer in the Engineer Corps of the United States Army. He was born in Brook-
lyn, N. Y., June 29, 1858, won his appointment to the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, from which he was graduated in 188o, being commissioned
a second lieutenant of engineers June 12, 188o. His first lieutenancy came in 1882, and he was promoted to captain December 14, I891. During the
Spanish-American War he served as Chief of Engineers in the Volunteer army, having the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was promoted to his majority
in the Engineer Corps February 7, 900oo, and March 2, 1907, he exchanged the gold leaves of a major for the silver leaves of a lieutenant-colonel. On the
third of December, 1909, he received his highly merited promotion to his present rank and substituted for the silver leaves the eagles that mark the
grade of colonel. In the eighties he was for four years an instructor in civil and military engineering at the Military Academy. He graduated from the
Army War College in 1905, is a member of the Board of Fortifications, having charge of the coast and harbor defence works, and has been connected with
a number of large engineering projects prior to his appointment to the Panama commission. Chief among these earlier projects was his five-year detail
on the lock and dam construction work on Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River-a longitudinous embankment of earth constituting a continuous dam
fourteen miles long containing eleven locks. It was such training as this which eminently fitted Colonel Goethals for the technical side of the great
undertaking at Panama; but it is his native ability as an organizer and executive which has made his administration broadly successful. He is one of
the big men who can do big things in a big way; but like all big men, he's a modest man, and no one is more ready than Colonel Goethals to accord to
everyone else in any way concerned in the work a generous share in the credit of splendidly won success. His kindly but impartial administration has won
him the respect and the love of all men in the Canal Zone, just as his matchless energy has challenged the admiration of the civilized world.









Colonel Harry F. Hodges

IN the great task of bringing the Panama proposition into such orderly shape that the opening of the
canal could be foretold with reasonable accuracy, the Chief Engineer has had as Assistant Chief
Engineer Lieutenant Colonel Harry F. Hodges of the Corps of Engineers, United States Army. And
he has been a righthand man in every sense of the word. In his own department he has made work
move with the precision of finely adjusted, well-oiled machinery and as a member of the Isthmian
Canal Commission his counsel has always been sought in regard to the general policy of the com-
mission's management of the stupendous task committed to it by the American people. Colonel
Hodges has had immediate charge of the design of the locks, dams and regulating works which will
take the ships from the ocean level at one end, lift them to the upper level of the canal and drop them
safely to the waters of the ocean on the other side. The locks are three in.number, one on the Atlantic
side of the canal and two on the Pacific end. The former are known in the construction work as the
Gatun locks and the latter as the Pedro Miguel locks and the Miraflores locks. The two locks on the
Pacific end divide the rise in levels, being separated from each other by a little less than a mile of lake,
but on the Atlantic end the Gatun locks take the entire rise in one sharply ascending flight of giant
steps. As an adjunct of the Gatun locks is the great Gatun dam, which will make a mighty lake
and hold back the tremendous body of water that will be contained in the upper level of the canal.
Huge as the Panama canal locks will be, the construction contained no terrors for Colonel Hodges,
for he has had plenty of experience in lock-building. From 1885 to 1888 he was assistant to General
Poe. This was the period when the Weitzel lock at Sault Ste. Marie had just been completed and
plans were being drawn for the Poe lock. In the drawing of the latter plans Colonel Hodges had
a share. For the next four years he was instructor and assistant professor of engineering at West
Point, and then had further field experience in lock and dam construction as assistant to Colonel
Stickney. From 1893 to 1896 he had charge of a district on the upper Missouri, and for the next
two years was a member of the board which had charge of making the typical plans for emplacements
Photo Cop3 righted by lHrois & E.win for seacoast defense. During the Spanish War he served in the field with a volunteer regiment, return-
ing in 1899 to river work. From that time until 19o0 he had charge of a district on the tributaries of the Ohio river, including the Kentucky, Big Sandy
and Muskingum rivers, slack-watered streams on which he had four locks and dams to design or build and about thirty to operate. In the following year
he was chief engineer of the Department of Cuba under General Wood. From 1902 to 1907 he had charge of the river and harbor divisions in the office
of the Chief of Engineers, a detail which often brought him to the fore as consulting engineer on lock and dam construction. In 1907 he was appointed
to the Isthmian Canal Commission, and has been busy on the isthmus ever since. Colonel Hodges was born in Massachusetts, February 25, 186o. He
entered West Point July I, 1877, and was commissioned a second lieutenant of engineers June Ii, 1881. He was promoted first lieutenant March 26,
1883; was made captain April 12, 1894; major, May 3, 1901; and lieutenant colonel August 27, 1907.










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SIDE WALL LOCK CULVERT SHOWING EIGHTEEN-FOOT DIAMETER COLLAPSIBLE STEEL FORMS








Lieutenant-Colonel David DuBose Gaillard

T HE backbone of the Isthmus which connects North and South America is Culebra Hill, lying
about three-fourths of the way through from the Atlantic to the Pacific entrance of the canal.
This eminence rises to a height of over six hundred feet above sea level. At the point decided upon
for the canal it is necessary to make a cut which will measure 494 feet from the highest point to the
bottom of the canal. This is the famous Culebra Cut. From it the French took 23,000,000 cubic
yards, and when they quit there remained 85,000,000 yards to be removed. By the first of the year
1909, 31,000,000 yards had been excavated, and the remaining earth and rock has been disappearing
at the rate of 18,000,000 yards per annum, or I,500,0oo yards per month. As the bottom of the
prism becomes narrower progress will necessarily be slower, but if the canal is not ready for opening
in 1915 it will not be chargeable to the Culebra Cut. By that time this cut will have been completed
and there will be a ship channel through the mountain, 300 feet wide, filled with water to a height of
forty-five feet. And the immediate credit for this great part of a still greater project will rightfully
belong to Colonel David DuBose Gaillard, the Army engineer who has had charge of this division
since he came to the Isthmus with Colonel Goethals on the 12th day of March, 1907. It has been a
project which the world will always regard as stupendous, and yet Colonel Gaillard has gone about
his duties as quietly and as clear-sightedly as though engaged upon a mere trifle of everyday engi-
neering. When treacherous clay, sliding upon slippery soapstone, has intruded itself upon the work,
making it necessary to remove hundreds of thousands additional cubic yards of dirt, he has regarded
the extra labor as a mere incident in no wise affecting the ultimate accomplishment of the task to
which he was set. He has unemotionally shovelled the clay out of the way, much as a householder
S shovels a snowslide from his sidewalk, and gone about his business of cutting the backbone of Culebra.
S The section of the canal over which Colonel Gaillard has immediate supervision reaches from the
S upper locks at Pedro Miguel to the great dam at Gatun, a distance of thirty-one miles-and one of
Sthe by-products of the Culebra excavation is the daily delivery of twenty-one trainloads of material
P.Hot, C y ,,1,, ., E,,a for the Gatun Dam. In other words, what is cut from the mountain goes to make secure the great
mound of earth which will hold back the waters of Gatun Lake and the upper level of the canal. David DuBose Gaillard was born in Fulton, Sumter
County, S. C., September 4, 1859, the son of Samuel Isaac and Susan Richardson (DuBose) Gaillard. His education began in the South Carolina
private schools, and was academically finished at West Point, where he was graduated in 1884. Then followed two and a half years at the Engineer
School of Application. From there he went as assistant on river and harbor and fortification work in the Florida district for over four years. From Feb-
ruary, 1892, to December, 1894, he was a commissioner on the Mexican Boundary Survey. In 1895 he was on fortification work at Fort Monroe, Va.
Early in 1896 he took charge of the Washington aqueduct and raised the dam at Great Falls across the Potomac River, and remained on that duty until
the outbreak of the war with Spain in May, 1898, and was appointed Colonel of the Third U. S. Volunteer Engineers, which served in the U. S. and
Cuba in 1898 and 1899. Then for four months he was detailed to design the substructures for the gate houses on the new aqueduct tunnel in Wash-
ington. He was assistant to the engineer commissioner of the District of Columbia until February, 1901. He then took charge of river and harbor work
on Lake Superior, remaining there until June, 1903. He was then detailed on duty with the General Staff of the Army in May, 1903, and with the excep-
tion of a few months he remained on duty with the General Staff until March, 1907. He was serving in Cuba on the General Staff as chief of the Military
Information Division at the time of the disturbance there in 1906, and was appointed to duty on the Isthmus while still on the island in February, 1907.
He was promoted to his present rank of Lieutenant-Colonel on the eleventh of April, 1909. Colonel Gaillard is a member of the National Geographical
Society, the Huguenot Society of Charleston, S. C., and the University Club in Panama. He is the author of "Wave Action in Relation to Engineering
Structures," published in 1904. He was married at Winnsboro, S. C., October 6, 1887, to Katherine Ross Davis.









Lieutenant-Colonel William Luther Sibert


UNDER the administration of Colonel Goethals the canal work was divided into three divisions,
one division reaching from the ocean on the Atlantic side to Gatun Lake, the next continuing
from there to the Pedro Miguel locks, and the third completing the reach to the Pacific at Panama.
The first of these divisions includes the construction of the great dam and locks at Gatun as well as
the excavation of the sea level portion of the canal and any works found necessary in Colon harbor.
This makes it plain that the chief of this division must be a particularly well-equipped engineer,
one who is familiar with all sorts of construction and moreover one who cannot be daunted by the
magnitude of the labor set before him. And it is another tribute to the American Army to say that
in Lieutenant-Colonel William Luther Sibert of the Corps of Engineers the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission has a member who fully measures up to these requirements. He has had personal supervision
of the work on the Atlantic division, and that work has gone steadily forward despite the wails of
calamity howlers in the prejudiced press back in "the States." Serenely secure in his knowledge that
the canal could and would be built as planned, Colonel Sibert has pressed on with the single purpose
of having his part of the undertaking ready for the 1915 opening. Great obstacles have had to be
overcome, more may yet be encountered, but Colonel Sibert, having the courage of his expert con-
victions, allows nothing to long interfere with the established routine. Ever since 1887 he has been
engaged for the most part in lock and dam construction, and is rated as one of the best informed
engineers in any service. From 1887 to 1892 he had local charge of lock and dam work on the Ken-
tucky, Green and Barren rivers, and for the next two years served with General Poe in the construction
of the eight-hundred-foot lock at the Soo. The next four years were spent in river and harbor work
in Arkansas, including the project for improving the White River with locks and dams. From 1898
to 1899 he was an instructor in the Engineering School of Application. He then served for a year
as chief engineer of the Eighth Army Corps in the Philippines, and returning to this country, had
charge of a river and harbor district with headquarters at Louisville, Ky. This work included the
Louisville and Portland Canal and lock and dam work on the Green, Barren and Wabash rivers.
From December, 1901, to March, 1907, when he was appointed to the Isthmian Canal Commission, he had charge of the river and harbor work near
Pittsburg, Pa., a district which could not have been excelled as a practical training school for his present duties on the Isthmus. The Pittsburg detail
involved the construction of five dams in the Ohio River, ten locks and dams in the Monongahela River, and three in the Allegheny River. He left
the United States March Io, 1907, and during the first part of his stay in Panama had charge of all lock and dam construction on the canal. In July,
19o8, the work was divided according to territory and not according to the class of work, and the Atlantic Division, with the difficult Gatun locks and
dams, was assigned to Colonel Sibert. Alabama claims Colonel Sibert for one of its distinguished sons. He was born in Gadsden, that State, October
12, i86o, the son of William J. and Marietta (Ward) Sibert. He was educated at the University of Alabama, finishing there in 188o, and entering West
Point the same year. Graduating in the class of '84, he was commissioned a Second Lieutenant of Engineers on June i5th. He then pursued his studies
further, graduating from the Engineering School of Application in 1887. He was promoted to First Lietunant April 7, 1888; to Captain, March 31, 1896;
to Major, April 23, 1904; and to Lieutenant-Colonel, September 21, 1909. He was married in September, 1887, to Mary Margaret Cummings, of
Brownsville, Texas. He is a member of the Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania and of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Colonel
Sibert's children are: W. Olin Sibert, student law department University of Virginia; Franklin C. Sibert, cadet, West Point; Harold W. Sibert, student,
Cornell University; Edwin L. Sibert, Martin D. Sibert, Mary C. Sibert.









Harry Harwood Rousseau

IN the person of Harry Harwood Rousseau the Civil Engineer List of the United States Navy
has contributed to the Isthmian Canal Commission a most valued member. He was one of those
who came with Colonel Goethals, and though he found vast labors awaiting him, his energy and
executive ability brought order out of everything pertaining to his part of the enterprise. When he
arrived in 1907 he was made head of the department of building and construction, motive power and
machinery and municipal engineering. He reorganized the department of construction and engi-
neering, and since 1908 has been Assistant to the Chief Engineer. At the time of his appointment
to the Commission Mr. Rousseau was Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Navy Depart-
ment. In this capacity he had charge, under the Secretary of the Navy, of all navy yard improve-
ments. This experience made him thoroughly familiar with dry-dock construction, and since canal
locks are really nothing more than a succession of dry docks, Mr. Rousseau's appointment to the Canal
Commission was ideal. Despite the work which he has put behind him and the prominence which he
has attained in his chosen field, Mr. Rousseau is still a young man. He was born in Troy, N. Y.,
April 19, 1870, the son of William White and Jeanette (Parker) Rousseau. He decided upon an
engineering course, and in i89I was graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Following
his graduation, he engaged in the practice of his profession in various lines of engineering construc-
tion, filling for several years the principal assistant engineership of the Pittsburg Bridge Company.
This employment gave him a perfect understanding of steel construction-something which was to
be of great working value to him when he reached the Panama stage of existence. In 1898 he decided
to enter the civil engineering corps of the Navy, and in a stiff competitive examination at New York
was the honor man among forty aspirants. Having passed his examination with flying colors, he was
commissioned a Civil Engineer of the Navy with the rank of lieutenant (J. C.) and began work in the
Navy Department at Washington. He remained at the national capital for four years, and in addi-
tion to his other duties had general charge of the designing of dry docks. Plans for docks for both
the Portsmouth and Mare Island yards were designed during this time. From 1903 to 1906 he was
detailed for duty at the Mare Island yard, and there had charge of the building of the dry dock with the planning of which he had been previously con-
nected at the Department in Washington. The Mare Island detail also gave him experience in harbor dredging, quay wall and cofferdam construction
-all furnishing the very best of training for the greater work to come. In 1906 he was appointed Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks with the rank
of Rear-Admiral, and this position he was filling when picked for service on the Isthmus. Mr. Rousseau is a member of the Rensselaer Society of Engi-
neers, of the Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, and an associate member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He belongs to a num-
ber of clubs, among them the Army and Navy, Metropolitan, and Chexy Chase. He was married in 1908 to Miss Gladys Fargo Squiers of New York.









Colonel William Crawford Gorgas


W HILE the building of the Panama Canal is an engineering feat, and a feat which will reflect
credit for all time on the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army, it is likewise a fact
that the engineers could not have carried through their stupendous plans had it not been for a brother
officer in another Corps of the Army-Colonel William Crawford Gorgas of the Medical Corps. No
student of the history which has been made in the past decade needs an introduction to this particular
individual, for when a man's work has won him special promotion at the hands of Congress and
individual recognition from the President of the United States he is in a class by himself. The world
of science knows Colonel Gorgas as the man who banished yellow fever from Havana and in addition
thereto will credit him with having made Panama so sanitary that the 50,000 men engaged in digging
the canal have been able to live in practically as good health as if they were working in the most
healthful part of the United States. William Crawford Gorgas was born in Mobile, Ala., October 3,
1854, the son of Josiah and Amelia (Gayle) Gorgas, grandson of Joseph Gorgas and great-grandson
of Jacob and Christiana (Mock) Gorgas and great-great-grandson of John and Psyche (Rittenhouse)
Gorgas. His father was brigadier general and chief of ordnance in the Confederate Army and his
mother was the daughter of Governor Gayle of Alabama. His early education was in the South,
where he was a student at the University of the South. This ended in 1875, and the year following
he went to New York City, where he began the study of medicine, being graduated from the Bellevue
Hospital Medical College in 1879. He remained at the Bellevue Hospital for a year as interne and was
then appointed a first lieutenant and assistant surgeon in the Medical Corps of the Army. He received
his majority in July of the year of the Spanish-American War, and after serving through the Santiago
campaign entered Havana, where he was made chief sanitary officer. While filling this important
post the army board announced its findings in regard to the propagation of yellow fever. Major
Gorgas immediately devised practical methods for utilizing these findings, and the world knows
the result has been to make pest-ridden Havana as free from yellow fever as the port of New York.
Congress recognized Major Gorgas' service to humanity by passing a special act promoting him
to the grade of colonel in the Medical Corps. That was in I903. The following year he was made chief health officer of the Isthmian Canal Commission,
and in that capacity he has repeated his Havana successes. So remarkable was this success that President Roosevelt, on the fourth day of March, 1907,
made him a member of the commission. When the Americans took over the Panama strip of Isthmus, it was generally regarded as the most unhealthy
place in the tropics.. It was taken as a matter of course that men should die like sheep. Colonel Gorgas changed all that, and while Panama may never
be regarded as a health resort, it is the sanitary superior of most places where large works are being carried forward, and it may be stated as a fact that the
workman on the canal to-day is less likely to succumb to illness than a workman performing like work in any other part of the globe. Aside from his
Army work Colonel Gorgas is a leading figure in the medical world. He has been an associate fellow of the Philadelphia College of Physicians and Sur-
geons and doctor of science at the University of Pennsylvania since 1903; honorary fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, doctor of science at
Harvard University, and associate member of the Societe de Pathologie, Paris, since 1908; president of the American Medical Association and American
Society of Tropical Medicine, doctor of science at Jefferson Medical College and Brown University, and vice-president of the Association of Military
Surgeons since 1909. In December, 19o8, he went as delegate from the United States to the first Pan-American congress at Santiago, Chili. On May
27, 1907, he was the recipient of the Mary Kingsley medal from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Colonel Gorgas was married in Cincinnati,
O., September 15, 1885, to Marie Cook, daughter of William Doughty. They have one daughter, Aileen Gorgas.

































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GATUN LOCKS: MIXER PLANT CONTAINING EIGHT TWO-CUBIC-YARD CUBE MIXERS. LARGEST MIXER INSTALLATION IN THE WORLD


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Hon. Maurice H. Thatcher

A S a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the head of the Department of Civil Ad-
S ministration, the United States Government has in Maurice H. Thatcher a man who is splendidly
equipped for the exacting position he fills. It is no light task to be Governor of the Canal Zone, and
to have in hand the civil administration of its widely varied interests. Not only does he have super-
vision and oversight of the divisions of Police and Prisons, Fire Protection, Customs and Taxes,
Roads and Streets, Water Supply and Plumbing, Postal Affairs, and Schools, but he has supervision,
also, over the street, water, and sewer systems of the Panamanian cities of Colon and Panama; and
he is the official channel through which must flow all communication with the Republic of Panama
for or on behalf of the Isthmian Canal Commission or the Canal Zone Government.
The reader will readily see that whoever successfully attends to all these details must be, in
the fullest measure, an all-around man. No one better understood this than President Taft, who had
handled similar matters in the insular possessions of the United States; and when it became his duty
to select a successor to Governor Blackburn as head of the Department of Civil Administration, lie
picked his man with the utmost care. He sought to find in one person a rare combination of legal
and executive ability, unquestioned integrity, coupled with untiring energy, and loyalty to the great
Isthmian enterprise. When he had satisfied himself that in Mr. Thatcher he had found this combina-
tion of qualities, he tendered the appointment to Mr. Thatcher; and no greater compliment will
ever be paid to the latter than this appointment at the hands of President Taft. The best part of it,
however, is that Mr. Thatcher is in every way justifying the wisdom of the President's selection.
His administration of Zone affairs has been highly successful from the beginning.
During his incumbency the schools of the Canal Zone have been consolidated and their efficiency
greatly increased; a system of grading Zone prisoners has been formulated and installed with bene-
ficial results; roads, streets, trails, and other public improvements in the Zone have gone forward
as rapidly as public funds permitted; the work of the police and fire divisions has been marked by
the highest efficiency; law and order among the 8o,ooo people of the Zone, made up of nearly every
race and tongue on the globe, have been maintained while the great work of "digging the ditch" has proceeded; throughout the various divisions and
branches making up the Department of Civil Administration, strict economy in the expenditure of public funds has been practiced, and such expendi-
ture has been judiciously made. In short, Mr. Thatcher has met every obligation imposed on him by the important duties of his position, and has made
a record of which his friends are justly proud.
All this might have been safely predicted from Mr. Thatcher's past career, for he had long ago acquired the habit of "making good." He has
lived a life of usefulness and struggle. He has served his fellow men in various capacities, always bringing to the public service that high ideal of duty
which lifts official place above the mire of politics.
Mr. Thatcher, who is the youngest member of the Commission, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of John C. Thatcher and Mary T. (Graves)
Thatcher. His father was a native of Connecticut, and his mother was born in Tennessee, and reared in St. Louis. In his veins, therefore, there flows
the mingled strain of Northern and Southern blood. He was reared in Western Kentucky, in Butler County. Upon attaining his majority he was elected
Clerk of the Circuit Court of that county, holding the office until June, 1896, when he resigned it to accept an important position in the State Auditor's
Department at Frankfort, the capital of the State. At Frankfort he completed his legal studies, theretofore begun, and in 1898 was examined by judges
of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, and admitted to the practice of law. He was thereupon appointed Assistant Attorney General of Kentucky, and
served in that position, with marked efficiency, until he resigned in the early part of 1900oo. In that year he located in Louisville, Kentucky, and entered
upon the general practice of his profession. In the following year he was appointed Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Kentucky,








and on July I, 1901, he was named Assistant United States Attorney for the Western District of Kentucky, upon the division of the State into two Fed-
eral court districts. He filled this position with characteristic fidelity and efficiency, achieving an enviable reputation as public prosecutor. On August
I, 1906, he resigned this office, and again entered upon the general practice of his profession in Louisville. His efficiency as -a public officer had been
such, however, that in March, 1908, he was urged by the Governor of the State to accept the chief appointive office of the State, viz., that of State In-
spector and Examiner; and at a personal sacrifice he accepted the appointment because he saw in it great opportunity for useful public service. By
his thorough investigation of public offices and institutions of the State, he lifted this office out of the ruck of politics, recovering for the Kentucky State
Treasury thousands of dollars of public revenues, and bringing about in the public offices and institutions of the State many greatly-needed reforms.
It is said that in Kentucky his administration of the affairs of this office has made it impossible for political appointments to be made to it in the future;
that whoever follows in his wake must give public service of the highest order. Mr. Thatcher held this position until he assumed the duties of his present
office in May, 1910.
Mr. Thatcher is an indefatigable worker and student. In addition to his capabilities as a lawyer and executive, he is an earnest and forceful
speaker. His tact, patience and persistence are proverbial. In his habits and sympathies he is thoroughly democratic. Any man, however humble,
can approach him, and is treated with the same respect and kindness as if he were a man of place or power. Authority has not corrupted him, but is
only recognized and treated as an opportunity for useful service. The simplicity and earnestness of character that have distinguished him in the past
yet distinguish him. His discharge of public duty has always been marked with the utmost fairness and frankness; and these qualities have particularly
endeared him to Panamanian officials and citizens. He is extremely popular with them.
Mr. Thatcher married Miss Anne Bell Chinn, daughter of Mr. Frank Chinn, a highly-esteemed lawyer of Frankfort, Kentucky, May 4, 1910.
Mrs. Thatcher is a highly accomplished and attractive woman. Mr. and Mrs. Thatcher reside at Ancon, the seat of the Canal Zone Government.
They are charming hosts, and are very popular in social circles.








John Findley Wallace


A MONG the civil engineers whose impress has been left on the Panama Canal, none is more
widely known than John F.Wallace, who was appointed Chief Engineer in 1904,andwho,in ad-
dition thereto, was made a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 19o5 and Vice President
and General Manager of the Panama Railroad & Steamship Company. No American engineer has dis-
a played more conspicuous ability in varied lines of engineering work than Mr. Wallace, as attested by
the honors which he has received at the hands of his fellow engineers. He is a past president of the
American Society of Civil Engineers, a past president of the Western Society of Civil Engineers, a past
president of theAmerican Railway Engineering and Maintenance of WayAssociation, and is a member
of the Institute of Civil Engineers of Great Britain. He is a native of New England, but came into his
own as a railway engineer in the Middle West. He was born in Fall River, Massachusetts, September
Io, 1852, the son of Rev. David A. Wallace, LL.D., and Martha Findley Wallace. He finished his
general education at the Monmouth (Illinois) College, of which his father was president. His degree in
civil engineering was conferred by the University of Wooster. Monmouth College later conferred the
degree of Doctor of laws, and Armour Institute added the degree of Doctor of Science. Mr. Wallace
began active work in the year 187I as an Assistant United States Engineer on upper Mississippi River
work and the improvement of the channel at Rock Island Rapids. This lasted till 1876, and then came
two years in the capacityof County Surveyor and City Engineer, after which he became Chief Engineer
and Superintendent of the Peoria & Farmington Railway. From i881 to 1883 he was Chief Engineer
and Superintendent of the Central Iowa Railway in Illinois, and from 1883 to I886 was Constructing
Engineer and Master of Transportation for the Central Iowa. In 1887 he became Bridge Engineer
for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, remaining for two years. From 1889 to i891 he was Resident
Engineer of the Chicago, Madison & Northern Railroad. In I891 he became connected with the
Illinois Central system as Engineer of Construction. From this he was advanced to Chief Engineer,
Second Vice President, later to Assistant General Manager, and finally to General Manager of the
entire system. During his connection with the Illinois Central Railway he supervised the expend-
iture of over one hundred million dollars ($Ioo,ooo,ooo) in improving and rebuilding the property. It was with great reluctance that he took up the
.Panama Canal work when appealed to by President Roosevelt in 1904. He fully realized that the government could offer him nothing more attractive
financially, and he foresaw that anyone who became connected with the canal enterprise was more than likely to become a target for unjust criticism.
Nevertheless, he gave up his position with the Illinois Central and took up the new and greater responsibilities of the Chief Engineership of the Panama
undertaking. Later, he found his efforts embarrassed by the red tape of governmental machinery. The French had fallen down through lack of adequate
railroad facilities, but through the work of Mr. Wallace the Americans were set on the right path. It was during his administration that the question
of type of canal was under discussion. Personally he favored the sea-level type of canal as affording a certainty of uninterrupted inter-oceanic travel,
but the backing and filling at Washington and the interference of influential men occupying official and unofficial positions caused him to conclude
that it would be impossible for the administration to so radically modify established governmental methods as to permit him to carry out his plans in
regard to the administration and execution of the work. He therefore believed it was his duty as a loyal citizen to place the administration in a posi-
tion to select some one who was willing to subordinate himself to governmental methods, and in the summer of 1905 severed his connection with the
work. After his retirement he was employed in a confidential capacity by Mr. Marvin Hughitt, President of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway
as Consulting Engineer, and conceived and designed the new passenger terminal facilities for that company in Chicago, recently completed. In 19o6
he transferred his home to New York, where he is connected with various corporations in an advisory or administrative capacity, among others now
holding the position of President of the engineering corporation of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Company, Vice President of the Kansas City,
Mexico & Orient Railway, and Vice President of the Northern Colorado Power Company.









Major General George Whitefield Davis

R EGARDLESS of who may achieve fame for completing the Panama Canal, those who delve
into the history of that huge undertaking will find that much of the latter-day success was
due to the grim fighting pluck of the men who had the handling of affairs in the early days of the
American regime. And in the thick of that fray they will always discover the burly form of Major
.- ' ~ ^s General George Whitefield Davis, working quietly but effectively-doing his duty in the same straight-
forward, unswerving manner that had marked a long and honored career in the military service of
his country. He was named as the second member of the initial commission appointed by President
SRoosevelt on February 29, 1904, just seven days after the ratification by the Senate of the canal
treaty with the Republic of Panama. Rear-Admiral Walker was Chairman of the Commission and
SGeneral Davis was made Governor of the Canal Zone. Only those who know how much the Panama
A Canal then resembled "two streaks of rust and a right of way" are in a position to appreciate the
magnitude of the task which confronted that first American Commission, and in particular what an
undertaking was before Governor Davis. It was his work to establish the civil government along
American lines, and yet do it in a way which would not arouse the antagonism of the Latin-American
population in the newly-made Republic of Panama. General Davis was equal to the situation, and
on May 19, 1904, two days after reaching the Isthmus, he issued a formal proclamation to the people,
announcing that the United States had taken possession of the Canal Zone and outlining the admin-
istrative policy which would be pursued. From then till the date of his resignation in March, 1905,
Governor Davis worked incessantly to perfect the civil government machinery so absolutely essential
to proper prosecution of the canal construction enterprise. That he was eminently successful is
admitted by all who have made a study of canal history. General Davis was born in Thompson,
Connecticut, July 26, 1839, the son of George and Elizabeth (Grow) Davis. He received his early
education at Nichols Academy, Dudley, Massachusetts, and finished his school work at the State
Normal School at New Britain, Connecticut. His country's call to arms in sixty-one changed the
entire course of his life and led him through the volunteer service into the regular army. He enlisted
November 27, 1861, in the Eleventh Connecticut, going to the front as a Quartermaster-Sergeant. On the fifth of the following April he was commis-
sioned as a First Lieutenant in the same regiment. May 22, 1865, he was commissioned Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. From this he was pro-
moted to Major and Quartermaster, and was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service on April 20, 1866. On the 22nd of January, 1867, he was
commissioned as a Captain in the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry. In those days of slow promotion, it was August o1, 1894, before he received the gold leaves
of a major. April 26, 1898, saw him promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Fourteenth Infantry, and on May 4, 1898, he was made a Brigadier General
of Volunteers, from which grade he was honorably discharged April 14, 1899. He was promoted to Colonel of the Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, October
19, 1899, was advanced to Brigadier General on February 2, 1901, and on July 21, 1902, was made a Major General. He was retired for age on July
26, 1903, but his splendid activities since that time show that the Army age limit is no criterion by which to judge a man's usefulness. Among some of
the many affairs of note with which General Davis has been connected may be mentioned the following: He was Assistant Engineer on the construction
of the Washington National Monument from 1878 to 1885. He was Military Governor of Porto Rico in 1899 and 19oo; was Provost Marshal General
of the Philippines in 1901; commanded the Department of Luzon in 1901-1902; commanded the Division of the Philippines in 1902-1903; was General
Manager and Vice President of the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company from 1900 to 1903; was on special duty in the War Department from 1903
to 1906, and from 1904 to 1906 was President of the Board that prepared for publication the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. In
addition to his work as a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, he served in 1905 and 1906 as Chairman of the Board of Consulting Engineers on
the type of canal, a board composed of leading engineers selected in this country and Europe. General Davis is a member of the A. A. A. S., the National
Geographical Society, the Loyal Legion, and the Metropolitan and Chevy Chase Clubs in Washington. He was married on April 13, 1870, to Carmen
Atocha.

































































VIEW OF UPPER LOCK CHAMBER AT GATUN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD ATLANTIC ENTRANCE. TEMPORARY BRIDGE FOR ERECTING
LOCK GATES IN FOREGROUND


---n-;---
j








John F. Stevens


W HEN John F. Wallace suddenly terminated his connection with the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission in the early summer of 1905, the United States Government was very fortunate in
having a man in every way qualified to pick up and carry on the big task. It happened that when
the Wallace resignation dropped from a clear sky John F. Stevens was on the eve of departure for the
Philippines to supervise for the government an extensive piece of railway construction. Without a
moment's hesitation President Roosevelt directed him to re-check his baggage for Panama, and on
the twenty-seventh day of July Chief Engineer Stevens was on the ground in the Canal Zone. And
didn't he make things hum! There was action from the very first-action of the right sort, the action
which results when there is a man at the head who can keep his objective always in view and shape
every plan toward the ultimate completion of the whole. John F. Stevens had learned railroading
in the school of practical experience, and big as the contract was he at all times saw his way clear.
He remained in the office of Chief Engineer until April I, 1907, being Chairman of the Commission
for the last two months, when his resignation, tendered in the previous September, became effective,
and during those twenty-one months the canal building went ahead by leaps and bounds. He found
to start with that the canal couldn't be built till the force that was doing the work was properly housed
and so he gave immediate attention to the question of quarters. When this deficiency was remedied
he very soon made up for any loss of time occasioned by concentration on this phase. He likewise
made sweeping improvements in the railroad system that he saw was the prime factor in getting the
great ditch dug on time. And so it was in every department, he first made sure that the organization
and equipment were strong enough to bear their load. If they weren't, he stopped long enough to
strengthen them, and in this way brought the whole organization up to concert pitch. And when he
did go ahead, it was under full steam with a perfect working organization at his command. When he
took hold, the question of type was yet to be settled. The United States was in the position of having
announced its intention of building the canal, and having started construction work without a settled
policy as to whether the canal should be a sea-level or the lock-and-dam type. In June of 1905 the
President appointed his famous international board of consulting engineers, and in the January following the board presented a divided report, a majority
declaring in favor of a sea-level canal. Mr. Stevens himself submitted a special and particularly forceful report in favor of a lock-and-dam canal, and
late in the following June Congress coincided with the views of the Chief Engineer and the lock canal was officially ordered. The confusion of earlier
days gave way under Mr. Stevens to well-ordered discipline in every department. Work went forward with a celerity that was positively astonishing
to those who had been on the Isthmus from the beginning of the American regime. Supplies were no longer tied up for days and weeks on congested
sidings, and not a day was lost through traffic delays. Just as Chief Engineer Stevens had everything working perfectly there were alarming rumors from
Washington to the effect that the actual building of the canal was to be let out to contractors. Knowing that this would disrupt everything he had
accomplished, Mr. Stevens respectfully but firmly protested and said that if the work was turned over to others he should feel obliged to sever his con-
nection with the undertaking. After considering the matter for some time, the President accepted Mr. Stevens' resignation and the canal construction,
in April, 1907, passed out of civilian hands and into the Engineer Corps of the Army. And in this connection it is interesting to note that almost imme-
diately upon taking control Colonel Goethals, being requested by the President to report upon the advisability of doing the work by contract, fully and
forcefully sustained the position taken by Mr. Stevens in his protest to the President. Mr. Stevens was born in Gardner, Maine, April 25, 1853, and
began to come into prominence in engineering circles in the early seventies. He was assistant City Engineer in Minneapolis, Minnesota, from 1874 to
1876, and went from that to the position of Chief Engineer on the Sabine Pass & Northwestern Railway. He is a member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers and numerous clubs.








Theodore Perry Shonts

I N an age which will be famous for its captains of industry, there has been an occasional individual
entitled to rank as a field marshal of industry and among these very few is Theodore Perry Shonts,
who organized the vast combination of men and machinery which is successfully digging the Panama
Canal. When he was appointed Chairman of the Commission on April I, 19o5, the preliminary work
had been done by the first commission, but the real dirt-digging organization was yet to be completed,
and the selection of Mr. Shonts met with general approval. He had risen, step by step, in the railroad
and financial world till he was a recognized power, a man whose counsel was sound and whose executive
n Stability was exceptional. Those who knew what the Panama situation needed at just that time realized
that President Roosevelt had found the country's best qualified man. As soon as Mr. Shonts took
over the affairs of the chairmanship there was immediate activity of the right sort. He marshalled
Ships forces and secured the co-ordination which is so necessary to the proper conduct of operations
on the scale of the Panama Canal. Under the rules laid down by the President the duties devolving
on Chairman Shonts were varied and arduous. He was given direct and immediate charge of the
fiscal affairs of the commission, the purchase and delivery of all materials and supplies, all accounting
and auditing, the commercial operations in the United States of the Panama Railroad and Steamship
lines, and in general the whole conduct of affairs under the direction of the Secretary of War. Not
only did Chairman Shonts face a huge task in the shape of organization, but it will be recalled that
when he entered upon his duties the type of canal was yet to be determined. Though the United
States had been more than a year in possession of the Canal Zone, it was still an open question of
how the canal was to be constructed-whether it should be a sea-level affair or a lock-and-dam canal.
The Board of Consulting Engineers, made up of engineers of international fame, was appointed in 1905.
and early in 19o6 made a divided report, eight favoring a sea-level canal and five a lock canal at eleva-
tion eighty-five feet. The latterplan was approved by Chairman Shonts and four of the five remaining
commissioners, after which it was endorsed by the Secretary of War, then by the President, and
finally Congress, in June, 19o6, decreed that a high-level lock canal should be built. This, however,
did not settle the question of the route which the canal should follow, but it made it possible to go ahead with practical certainty in many parts of the
Zone. Then Chairman Shonts completed the general scheme of organization, and work and matters progressed with increasing celerity up to the time
that his resignation took effect on March 4, 1907. With rare foresight, he provided for the future, thereby avoiding the mistakes of the French, who
too often did to-day's work so that it would be in the way of the work of to-morrow. The whole Isthmian service was quickened by the virility of Chair-
man Shonts' energetic American business methods, and from the day that he assumed control there was no question about the final outcome of the
work. Either under his direction or that of others the canal was sure to be completed along the lines which he had marked out. Mr. Shonts was born
in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, May 5, 1856, the son of Dr. Henry Daniel and Margaret Nevin (Marshall) Shonts. His parents moved to Iowa in
the early sixties, and there he received his early education, ending with a course at the Monmouth (Illinois) College, from which he was graduated in
1876. In the year of his graduation he entered the banking business in Centerville, Iowa. Later he was admitted to the bar, but after four years' prac-
tice became interested in railroading, and in 1882 built two lines from Albia to Centerville. He then completed the construction of the Indiana, Illinois
and Iowa Railroad, and was its chief owner till it became a part of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern system. On his retirement from the Isthmian
service in 1907 he became President of the Interborough-Metropolitan in New York City. He was married in 1882 to Harriet Amelia Drake. He is
a member of prominent clubs in Chicago, New York and Washington.
On his retirement from the Isthmian service in 1907 he became President of the Interborough-Metropolitan Company in New York, and head
of its various subsidiary companies, which involved operation of the entire traction system of Manhattan, the Bronx, and Queens. He is also President
of the Chicago & Alton R. R. Co., the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroad, the Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R., the Iowa Central Railway, and the
Detroit & Toledo Shore Line R. R., as well as a director in several other railroad corporations and trust companies.
27








Hon. Charles E. Magoon


W ITHOUT disparagement to the many other men who have had an important share in the
great Panama Canal undertaking, it may be stated that the work of no one man has helped
more in bringing forth success than that of Hon. Charles E. Magoon. It was he who became Governor
of the Canal Zone and United States Minister to Panama when the Commission was reorganized on
the first day of April in the year 1905. Matters had come almost to a standstill, and the governorship
demanded a man who not only had eyes to see what ought to be done, but the red-blooded determina-
tion to hew to the line. And Roosevelt, marvelously gifted in the art of choosing the right man for
the right place, again picked a winner when he named Magoon. Governor Magoon was already
thoroughly familiar with Washington procedure in insular matters, having been law officer to the
Bureau of Insular Affairs in the War Department, and as General Legal Counsel to the old Commission
was fully posted on all that had gone before on the Isthmus. Under the rules established by the
President, Governor Magoon had wide powers, being charged with the administration and enforce-
ment of law in the Zone; with the direction of all matters of sanitation, not only in the Zone, but in
the cities of Colon and Panama; the custody of sanitary supplies and all sanitary construction.
In addition to this there was a further provision that he might be called upon for still more work,
in the discretion of the Secretary of War, and a final stipulation that he should live on the Isthmus
and devote his entire time to the work. The latter provision was entirely superfluous in the case of
Governor Magoon. He is so constituted that he puts into his work every ounce of effort that there
is in him, and he would no more have thought of trying to govern the Canal Zone from an easy-chair in
Washington than he would of admitting even for argument's sake that any other State in the Union is
quite so good as Nebraska. The new commission did its work through an executive committee of
three, one of whom was the Chairman, Theodore P. Shonts; the second being Governor Magoon, and
the third John F. Wallace, the Chief Engineer. No official who has had to do with the canal under-
taking ever faced a more serious situation than confronted Governor Magoon on his arrival in the
Canal Zone on May 25, 1905. Yellow fever was raging. There had been upwards of thirty cases for
the month, and worse things were predicted for June. Colonel Gorgas was doing all that he could, but he needed the strong arm of a determined executive
to make his part of the work effective. In Governor Magoon he found the man of the hour. The Governor quickly silenced the foolish ones who were affect-
ing to scorn the dangers of yellow fever. He let it !be understood that the paramount issue was the stamping out of the disease, and he also let further
information trickle out to the effect that sanitation was going to be taken seriously and that it would be extremely uncomfortable for canal employees
who didn't closely follow the sanitary decalogue. The long-discarded screens went back in place as if by magic, and the Governor celebrated his first
Sunday in Panama by having the canal building in Panama fumigated. From then fumigation was almost continuous, and the war on the pestilential
stegomyia raged unceasingly. Finding that, with all the effort the Health Department was making, numerous cases of fever were not being reported,
Governor Magoon employed Panamanian physicians as sanitary inspectors, thus enlisting the support of the native population, and finally bringing vic-
tory. From sixty-two cases of yellow fever in June, the total dropped to six in September, and the last case in the Canal Zone bears date of September
29th. For some weeks a prize was offered to anyone reporting a case of yellow fever, but no one claimed the reward, for yellow fever was a thing of the
past in Panama. And it was Governor Magoon that did it. True it is that the actual sanitation was handled by the Health Department, but it was
Governor Magoon's do-something policy which vitalized the work and made it effective. During his stay in Panama he did many things which will
be mentioned in history in words of commendation, but in the brief confines of this article it has seemed best to recount his first and greatest accomplish-
ment. It was he who brought order out of chaos in those dark days of 1905 and started things moving in the right direction, making possible the ultimate
completion of the great undertaking. Of his brilliant work in Cuba and elsewhere no mention can be made at this time, but a book on the making of
the Panama Canal would not be complete without due reference to Charles E. Magoon, one of the strongest figures in Canal Zone history.









Lieutenant-Colonel Carroll A. Devol

SN the person of Lieutenant-Colonel Carroll A. Devol, a Deputy Quartermaster General in the
Quartermaster's Department of the United States.Army, the Isthmian Canal Commission has for
its Chief Quartermaster an officer of wide experience. Born in Washington County, Ohio, April 17,
1859, he went through the local schools, finally entering the Pennsylvania Military College, from
1 which he was graduated in 1878 as a Civil Engineer. On the first of September in the following year
he was appointed a second lieutenant in the Twenty-fifth. Infantry, U. S. A. Promotion was slow in
those days, and it was 1886 before he received his first lieutenancy. Ten, years later he was made
captain and quartermaster, and he has been in the Quartermaster's Department ever since. His
majority came to him in 1902, and October 31, 1909, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and deputy
quartermaster-general. But while he was not an officer of, the Quartermaster's Department till 1896,
his work as a quartermaster goes even further back. In, 1887, while still the junior first lieutenant of
the Twenty-fifth Infantry, he was made regimental quarterinaster. It was the unusual aptitude for
this phase of military work which he displayed as regimental quartermaster that led to his permanent
appointment to the department. His first work after his appointment as captain and quartermaster
in 1896 was the building of Fort Hancock, New Jersey. When the Spanish War broke out Captain
Devol was made a major and quartermaster of volunteers and went to the Philippines as Chief Quar-
termaster on the staff of General Otis. He served in all the active operations in and around Manila
for two years, and on his return to the United States in 1900 was ordered to New York as General
Superintendent of the Army Transport Service. In May, 1902, he was sent to the Pacific slope to
fill a like position at San Francisco. He remained on that detail for five years, and was there on the
night of the eighteenth of April, 1906, when earthquake and fire laid the city in ruins. At the invita-
tion of the City Council, he took charge of the receipt and distribution of all supplies for the stricken
city. The people of San Francisco will never forget what Major Devol did for them, and that noble
work has been testified to by no less a person than the present Chief Executive of the United States,
the Honorable William Howard Taft. Speaking at a Red Cross meeting in Culebra February 3, 1909,
the then President-elect made the following reference thereto: "By saying that no man could have done the work he did to organize the charitable forces
called upon to aid San Francisco, no man except with his experience and his ability could have done what he did, and when he summoned me here to
speak in behalf of the Red Cross, in view of the request of a man who had done so much in the cause of humanity, I did not have the heart to refuse."
Major Devol continued in the relief work till the fall of 1906, when he was appointed to the General Staff and proceeded to Washington. On June 24,
1908, he was ordered to the Canal Zone to take over the Departments of Labor and Quarters and Material and Supplies, up to that time administered
on a different basis. Now everything in all these departments comes under the executive charge of Colonel Devol as Chief Quartermaster, and in addi-
tion thereto the department constructs all quarters, provides and looks after animal transportation and the building of corrals, the cutting of grass,
the disposal of garbage, and the sale of all condemned material of whatever character. Colonel Devol was married when a first lieutenant, his bride being
Dora Scott of New Orleans. They have two daughters, both born in Fort Missoula, Montana.









Major Chester Harding

A NOTHER of the distinguished Southerners who is playing an important part in the building of
Sthe Panama Canal is Major Chester Harding, Corps of Engineers, United States Army. Major
Harding was born in the Mississippi town of Enterprise, December 31, 1866. He received his early
education in private schools and, taking naturally to engineering work, went on to the University of
Alabama, from which he was graduated in the class of 1884 with the degree of bachelor of engineers.
He was then appointed from Alabama to the United States Military Academy at West Point, and on
his graduation, June 12, 1889, was commissioned as an Additional Second Lieutenant in the Corps
of Engineers. He is a graduate of the U. S. Engineer School of Application, Willet's Point, N. Y.,
1892. He was made a Second Lieutenant of Engineers August 12, 1890, was promoted to First Lieu-
i tenant January 26, 1895, was made a Captain on the fifth of July, 1898, and was promoted to his
present rank on the 27th of June, 1906. The Atlantic Division includes all phases of canal construc-
i. tion from deep water in the Caribbean Sea to and including the locks and dam at Gatun. The canal
starts at the entrance to Limon Bay, where a breakwater over ten thousand feet in length will convert
the bay into a safe anchorage, protect shipping from the terrific northers, and at the same time reduce
to a minimum the amount of silt which will be washed into the dredged canal. From the breakwater
to Gatun the canal will be at sea level and for the entire seven miles will have a bottom width of
five hundred feet and a depth of forty-one feet at mean tide. At Gatun a series of three locks in flight
lift or lower vessels to or from the level of Gatun Lake, eighty-five feet above the sea. The two
S* .. hundred and six billion cubic feet of water that will be held in storage at this point will form a lake
S. with an area of one hundred and sixty-four square miles, and the dam that holds them will be a mile
and a half long and half a mile wide at its base. The great locks at Gatun, each affording a usable
". chamber one thousand feet long and one hundred and ten feet wide, with walls and floors of concrete
and mitering gates at each end, will make short work of lifting even a battleship. The lock and valve
machinery will be operated by electricity and the same power will be used to tow all vessels into and
through the locks. The excavation on the Atlantic Division will total at about forty-three million
cubic yards when the canal is completed, of which ten million will represent dry excavation and the remainder the work of dredges. On May i, 1911,
there remained less than twelve million yards to be excavated, of which only about a quarter-million yards was dry excavation. The reader will see
from the foregoing that the Atlantic Division is one which embraces a wide variety of construction, and the engineers at the head of the Division have
supervision of all. Major Harding has been an indefatigable worker who will find his greatest satisfaction in knowing that his part of the great under-
taking has had his best efforts at all times. Major Harding was married on July 15, 1895, to Flora Krum at St. Louis, Missouri, and they have three
children: Horace, born May 29, 1906; Chester Krum, born July 7, 1907; and Katherine, born July 7, 1908.









Major Eugene Trimble Wilson

AT the head of the great Subsistence Department, which supplies all the hotels, clubs and other
like institutions of the Isthmian Canal Commission throughout the Canal Zone, is an Army offi-
cer who has traveled far and served his country in many capacities. This individual is Major Eugene
Trimble Wilson, of the Coast Artillery Corps, United States Army. Major Wilson has been on the
Isthmus since the 3oth of June, 19o8, and the manner in which he has administered the affairs of the
Subsistence Department is one of the wonders connected with the digging of the great canal. Every
writer who has visited the Canal Zone has been impressed with the wonderful system which supplies
the canal builders with the best the world market affords and at prices which make New York quota-
tions resemble the skyscrapers of Manhattan Island. It is only by thorough mastery of every detail
that Major Wilson has made these things possible, but the accomplishment will always stand out
as remarkable and will add further renown to the work which the Army has done ever since the
United States took hold of the canal proposition.
Major Wilson was born in London, Ohio, May 28, 1867, and after going through the local
schools was appointed to the Military Academy at West Point, entering in June, 1884, and being grad-
uated with the class of 1888. He was made an additional second lieutenant in the Fifth Artillery, June
II, 1888,received his next promotion in 1895, was made a captain in the Coast Artillery Corps in 19o0,
and was promoted to a majority in 1907. From 1891 to 1895 he was on duty as military instructor
at the Ohio State University. The breaking out of the Spanish War found him still a first lieutenant,
due to the slowness of promotion in those days, and in May, 1898, he accepted a captaincy in the
Volunteer Signal Corps. He retained this place till October, when he was appointed Major and
Commissary of Subsistence in the Volunteers. From then till June, 1899, he was Chief and Depot
Commissary at Santiago, Cuba. From August, 1899, to July, 19o0, he was an aid on the staff of
Major General Shafter. He was at Nome, Alaska, during the summer of 1901o, and from May, 1902,
to May, 1903, he had charge of the Transalaska Military Road, Valdez, Alaska, through the Copper
River section. On his return from Alaska he performed the duties of an officer of the Coast Artillery
Corps, and on September I, 1905, he entered the School of Submarine Defence at Fort Totten, New York. He completed the course September I, 19o6,
and six days later was on duty in Washington, D. C., as Assistant to the Chief of Artillery. While in Washington he attended the Army War College,
being a graduate therefrom in the year 1907. Leaving Washington in November, 1907, he returned to the Submarine Defence School at Fort Totten,
where he specialized in Search Lights until June of the following year, when he left for Panama.
Major Wilson has friends all over the world, and he has added a great many to the list since he came to the head of the Subsistence Department
of the Canal Zone. He is always businesslike but always affable, and he enjoys the regard of all with whom his duties bring him in contact. The Major
is at home in many clubs, including the Bohemian Club of San Francisco, which has been styled the finest club in the world. He has been a member
there for some years. He is also a member of the Cosmos Club in the same city, of the Columbus Club in Columbus, Ohio, and the Army and Navy
Clubs in Washington and New York.



























































GATUN LOCKS: VIEW OF EAST MIDDLE LOCK CHAMBER LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD GATUN LAKE. STEEL TOWER FORMS FOR
WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWN IN FOREGROUND









Edward Schildhauer

HE Electrical and Mechanical Engineer to the Isthmian Canal Commission is an enterprising
,young son of Wisconsin, Mr. Edward Schildhauer, who was born in New Holstein, that state, a
few more than thirty years ago. He is one of those men who win friends and get ahead in their business
at one and the same time. His popularity is only exceeded by the respect in which he is held by those
who are conversant with the work that he has done in the comparatively few years that he has been
out in the world. After the public schools were past, he attended business college for a short time,
but his list was always towards science, and in 1897 he was graduated from the University of Wis-
consin as a bachelor of science in Electrical Engineering. He began with electric railway construc-
tion, then worked rapidly upward in the employ of the Edison companies in Chicago, securing a
E number of patents for new devices in electrical and mechanical apparatus. So rapid was his progress
that it was no great surprise to his friends when in November, 19o6, only nine years after graduation
from college, he was appointed Electrical and Mechanical Engineer to the Isthmian Canal Commission.
Until September, 1907, he was stationed in Washington, but since that time he has been on the Isth-
mus working out his problems at close range. The magnitude of this work requires original methods
in solving many of the problems. Among these are the machines to operate the sluice gates of the
large spillway, the valves of the culverts for controlling the water in the locks, the balanced valves for
the cross-culverts, etc. The design which is most novel is that of the machine to operate the large
miter gates to meet the peculiar interaction of the miter gate and its recess. Statistics shpw that
most accidents to locks are caused by the misunderstanding of signals between the captait'"the
ship and the engineer. To eliminate this possibility, Mr. Schildhauer has designed the "electric
mule," a novel contrivance to manipulate the ships through the locks. One of the most interesting
of his inventions is the development of a system for controlling all lock machinery from a central
point, where the movement of the lock gates, Stoney valves, etc., which may be 2,oco feet distant,
are reproduced by miniature lock gates, etc. This will enable the operator to see by a glance at the
miniature, the exact position of each of the great lock gates, Stoney valves, etc. He designed the
Gatun and Miraflores power plants and transmission systems, furnishing electricity for the apparatus used in constructing the locks and dams. Another
piece of work which falls to his share is the designing of the hydro-electric power-houses at Gatun and Miraflores spillways. These power-houses will
furnish the current to drive the lock machinery, light the canal, and for lighting and cooking purposes in the homes of employees who will be employed
in the operation of the canal after its opening. To see everything that there was to be seen in the way of canal construction on the continent, he made
a trip to Europe in 19o8, inspecting the principal canals in England, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. Mr. Schildhauer is a member of the
following: University Club, Panama; Stranger's Club, Colon; American Institute of Electrical Engineers; American Society of Civil Engineers; National
Electric Light Association; American Electro-Chemical Society; American and International Society for Testing Materials; Illuminating Engineering
Society; American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Civic Alliance.








Henry Goldmark

T . HE task of designing the great steel lock gates that will open and close as the ships pass up
Sand down the approaches to the upper level of the Panama Canal is in the hands of an engineer
of international fame, Henry Goldmark. These gates will be from two to three times as heavy as
anything hitherto known in lock construction, and the proper solution of the lock gate question was
one of the most important ones in connection with the entire problem of building the canal. As the
world knows, the people who favored a sea-level canal never ceased to predict dire calamity for a
lock canal, and even when the lock type was finally decided upon these prophets of evil vowed that
the difficulties would prove insurmountable. Perhaps they would have been if the Isthmian Canal
SCommission had not summoned to its aid the most skilful engineers that were to be found. In charge
of each detail of the great work they put a man who was an expert in his particular line, a man who
would be sure of his ground before he went ahead-and, more than that, a man who, being sure of his
ground, would not be turned back by criticism or difficulties or opposition of any kind. It takes
S men of that type to accomplish big things and such a man is Henry Goldmark, Designing Engineer
.^ '" of the Isthmian Canal Commission. He was born in New York City, June 15, 1857. In 1874 he
was graduated from the Polytechnic Institute in Brooklyn, N. Y. Deciding that he wished a more
thorough classical training before applying himself to technical work, he entered Harvard University,
S and was graduated with the class of '78 as a bachelor of arts, taking the highest honors in physical
science. From Harvard, still in pursuit of further education, he went to Germany, being graduated
Sin 1880 from the Royal Polytechnic University at Hanover. That same year he returned to this
country and entered the employ of the Erie Railway Company as a civil engineer. Since that time
he has been employed as an engineer in some of the most notable engineering projects in the United
States and Canada. He joined the Engineering Department of the Isthmian Canal Commission in
Washington in October, 1906. He was in charge of the Engineer Office in Washington for two years,
and since October, 1908, has been on the Isthmus as Designing Engineer in charge of the design and
construction of the steel lock gates and protective appliances therefore. Mr. Goldmark's professional
ability has been so often demonstrated that the success of his part of the canal construction is assured. Indeed, he is one of the men who do not know
how the word "failure" is spelled-and have no desire to learn. Mr. Goldmark's name is well known among the engineers of other countries, and in
addition to being a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers he belongs to the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain, is a member
of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, of the Western Society of Engineers, and the International Society for Testing Materials. Mr. Goldmark
was married in 1899 to Mary Carter Tomkins, and they have two children, Elliott, born in 1900, and Henry, born in 1904. When the canal is com-
pleted and the ships of the world go up and down the lock steps and so pass from one ocean to another, the great lock gates designed by Mr. Goldmark
will be among the wonders of the canal. And though they will be tremendously heavy, they will be so accurately proportioned and so powerfully and
perfectly controlled that they will seem to move by magic.









Edward J. Williams


T HE work of building the Panama Canal has brought to the Isthmus no more efficient and
popular executive than Mr. Edward J. Williams, the Disbursing Officer of the Isthmian Canal
Commission. Having come to Panama on November 21, 19o5,he has seen the great project take shape
and has come to know intimately all the people who have had a leading part in the various stages
of the work. From the very first moment that he assumed direction of the financial affairs of the
..: Zone there has never been a moment when any authorized individual or commission could not have
found just how and where every dollar of government money was being spent. Though a believer
S-. in system, he is not one of the sort of bureau chiefs who is helpless when he meets something outside
of the usual routine. He is broad-gauge in his conduct of the disbursing office, and each new situation
.'" that has arisen has been fully considered and settled on lasting lines, leaving the field clear for the
next. In this way he has proven again and again his unusual capacity as an executive, and the mem-
S.bers of the Isthmian Canal Commission regard Mr. Williams as one of the most valued assistants that
they have had in the prosecution of the canal construction. Mr. Williams assumed the duties of his
office on the 23d of November, 1905, and on the 8th of the following March, pending the selection
of a Local Auditor, he was directed to carry on the work of Local Auditor and Auditor of the Canal
Zone in addition to his duties as Disbursing Officer. When the Local Auditor was appointed in
October of that year, he was directed to turn over to the new official the duties connected with the
office of Auditor for the Canal Zone and certain duties formerly performed by the Local Audi tor.
Nevertheless, he still had duties enough left to have worried a man who hadn't his business ability.
He was still in charge of all the general books of accounts and general expenditures for the Isthmian
Canal Commission, also of all timekeeping and time inspection forces, the preparation of all vouchers
and payrolls for both the Commission and the Canal Zone and the issue to the various departments
of all commissary and hotel books and meal tickets. This, mind you, was all in addition to his regular
duties as Disbursing Officer for the Commission and Treasurer for the Canal Zone. He kept this up till
the first of October, 1908, when the appointment of an Examiner of Accounts relieved him of the duties
which naturally belong to the auditing branch. In view of all this, is it any wonder that he is looked upon as one of the work giants of the Canal Zone?
Mr. Williams is a native of West Salem, Wisconsin. He attended the public schools in La Crosse county, and in 1889 was a graduate at the West Salem
High School. He followed this with two years at Beloit College Academy, and then spent four years at Northwestern University in the class of 1895.
He was graduated from Kent College of Law two years later, and on the fifth of June, 1897, was admitted to the practice of law in the courts of the
State of Illinois. From 1897 .to 1905 he was Paymaster and Traveling Auditor of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, and during the years of 1904
and 1905 was Comptroller of the City of Evanston, Ill. Mr. Williams was married December 7, 1907, to Helen Mary Burton of La Crosse, Wisconsin,
and they have one child, Miss Charlotte Mary Williams, born at the Ancon Hospital, November 7, 1908. Mr. Williams is a member of the University
Club of Panama, the Strangers Club in Colon, and the Tivoli Club of Ancon.









John A. Smith


T HERE are, in this wide world of sunshine and sorrow, a great many men by the name of Smith.
The name is not to be classed as extremely unusual, even down in the tropics where the Army
engineers are hustling through the construction of the big canal. As a matter of recorded fact, there
are several Smiths in and about the Canal Zone. But when you get into the neighborhood of the
Panama Railroad you will find that so far as the running of that important piece of complicated
machinery is concerned there is only one SMITH. There may be other smiths; there may be a few
who are important enough to have their family name commence with a capital letter; but there is
only one SMITH. That bright particular representative of a numerous tribe is John A. Smith, who
is the General Superintendent of the Panama Railroad Company, a place which he has filled with the
utmost satisfaction to all concerned since the 27th day of November, 1909. He had, at the time of
his appointment to the general superintendency, been on the Isthmus exactly two years and four
months lacking one day. Now that in and of itself demonstrates Mr. Smith's right to be singled out
from all other railroading Smiths, for twenty-eight months is a comparatively short time to put in
as Superintendent before being given the reins. But that's one of the beauties of the way they're
doing things in Panama. If a man shows that he's got the stuff in him and there's a vacancy, he gets
the place. The length of time that he holds it depends upon two things-one is whether a still better
opening bobs up and the other is whether the man makes good. The latter is a ten-to-one shot, for
they look a man over pretty carefully before they ask him to step up higher. And in this case they
looked Smith over pretty carefully. But the more they looked him over the better they liked him.
In other words, he was very industriously making good as Superintendent, and when they saw fit
to make him General Super., to make him the "old man" of the road, he kept right on making good.
The place he fills carries a $6,000 salary, but anyone who follows Smith through his daily routine
for about three consecutive days will feel like petitioning the government to double it and would be
firmly convinced despite the evidence of his eyes that Smith must have at least four pairs of hands,
six pairs of legs, two or three spare sets of eyes, and at least four full-capacity double-action brains.
He's a dynamo of activity when he's in action, and he's in action from the time he gets out of bed in the morning till he closes his eyes for another forty
winks. Over a system where the trains absolutely must get through on time and where the progress of the canal makes frequent changes in the roadbed
necessary, there is excitement enough to keep a man worried to the breaking point, but Smith is a worker instead of a worrier, and the result is the
trains get through on time and the railroad management is never chargeable with delay. Mr. Smith was born in Black Leg Valley, Pennsylvania, was
educated in the public schools of Mount Union, Pennsylvania, finishing with the high school in that town. He began railroading as a telegraph operator
on the Pennsylvania Railroad at Mill Creek, Pa., May 13, 1881, and his progress has been steadily onward ever since. He is president of the Colon Club,
and a member of the Stranger's Club. He was married May 15, 1889, to Luia C. Ferg, and they have a happy family of six children.









James Clifford Perry

O NE of the prominent physicians belonging to the Sanitary Staff of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission is James Clifford Perry, Surgeon in the United States Public Health and Marine Hos-
pital Service. He came to Panama in February, 1904, to investigate sanitary conditions for the
Service to which he belongs, and later, June, 1904, was transferred to the Sanitary Staff of the Com-
mission. On July 13, 1904, he was detailed for duty as Quarantine Officer of Colon, and on May 3,
1905, he was promoted to Chief Quarantine Officer of the Canal Zone and Panama, position which
he still fills. In addition to these duties he is health officer of the city of Panama. His previous work
of this character in Hong Kong and the Philippines made him well qualified for the positions he
now occupies on the Isthmus.
In 1899 he instituted the inspection of emigrants proceeding from Hong Kong to the
United States and made a study of plague. The following year, 1900, he was transferred to
Manila to organize and equip the Maritime Quarantine Service in the Philippine Islands,
where he seved until March, 1903.
Dr. Perry is a native of North Carolina, and received his general education in the high school
of his town and at the University of North Carolina. He was graduated in medicine from the Univer-
sity of Maryland, and was commissioned an officer in the United States Public Health and Marine
Hospital Service in 1889. He is a member of the American Medical Association, the'American Public
Health Association, and has been President of the Canal Zone Medical Association.
When the fact that no quarantinable diseases have gained an entrance to the Isthmus is con-
sidered, it will be shown that his work has been carefully and efficiently carried out.








Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Field Mason


W WHILE the American Government is spending hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to prevent
disease in the Canal Zone it neglects no detail providing proper treatment for those that after
all come down with some form of illness which necessitates hospital treatment. The two great hos-
pitals of the Canal Zone are at Ancon on the Pacific slope and Colon on the Atlantic side, but it is the
Ancon institution which has aroused the admiration of the world. It is the head centre of the great
fight for continued good health. In the laboratories the chemists make their analyses of the drinking
water, which was formerly a constant and certain source of contagion. All the time far-reaching
experimentation is in progress, and yet all the time the routine work of the hospital goes methodically
on-patients come and patients go, each in turn receiving the best medical attention and the most
skilled nursing that modern training can produce. The great Ancon hospital has about fifty wards,
and patients are treated by the thousand. Yet there is never anything approaching confusion. And
why? Mainly because there is at the head of the institution an army surgeon who is a wonderfully
successful physician and an equally successful executive. He has organized every branch and he is
so familiar with every detail of the work that nothing could go astray without his being aware of the
difficulty. Figures best tell the story of the fight which the health authorities have made against
disease. In the earlier years of American occupancy malaria claimed its victims right and left. In
a single month the Ancon and Colon hospitals treated i,813 cases of the disease. Just a year later,
thanks to sanitary energy, the total number of malarial cases at both hospitals showed a drop to 642,
notwithstanding the fact that within that year the number of men at work had increased from 31,85'
to 43,851. In that same year the sick list among American employes was reduced from twenty-six
daily to nineteen daily. This is what determined effort has been able to accomplish.and it is men
of the Mason type who have put forth that effort. Colonel Mason was born in Richmond, Virginia.
He began his education in the common schools and then went to Fredericksburg Military Academy.
He took his degree of doctor of medicine at the Virginia Medical College in Richmond, being a member
of the class of 1884. The rest of that year and the year following were profitably spent at Mount
Sinai Hospital in New York City. Dr. Mason entered the Medical Corps of the Army in I886, but seeing no prospect of anything resembling real
service, he resigned the following year. He practised in New York City for a couple of years. Then, finding the call of the service too great to be resisted,
he went back to the Corps in 1889, and has been a member of it ever since, serving a part of the time as Assistant to the Surgeon General. During the
Spanish-American War he was Medical Inspector of the First Army Corps. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, of the Army and Navy Club in
Washington, and of various medical associations. He was married in 1903 to Mary Eula Hare, and they have an interesting group of three children.
Colonel Mason has been on the Isthmus since May 9, 1909, and his amiable qualities and charming personality have won him scores of friends in official
circles and among the workingmen of the Zone as well. He is a fine type of the American Army surgeon-and there are none more capable in all the world.



























































GATUN LOCKS: VIEW SHOWING CENTER WALL OF UPPER LOCK WITH STEEL TOWER FORMS IN PLACE READY FOR CONCRETE
LAYING









Walter Winter Warwick


W HILE it is a matter of record that Uncle Samuel is pouring millions of dollars into the building
of the Panama Canal, it is equally a matter of record that every one of those dollars is being
rigidly accounted for, even down to the last red Lincoln penny that goes to make up the grand total.
The work of auditing all the accounts is a task which is almost as enormous as the work of digging
the canal, but the man at the head of the audit end is just as capable in his way as the army engineer
who is digging the canal is in his. And the man who is at the head of the accounting work-the Exam-
iner of Accounts and Auditor, to give him the title by which he is officially known-is Walter Winter
Warwick. He is master of every detail of the great work, and since he has been at the head of the
accounting department the work moves along as smoothly and as rapidly as though Uncle Sam was
running nothing more pretentious than a country grocery with a single set of books. Wherever modern
methods of bookkeeping can be employed to advantage as time or labor savers they have been adopted,
and the Canal Zone Auditing Department can be pointed to as a model of its kind. Vast as the
stream of accounts is, the system is so perfect that a few minutes' search of the records will locate any
individual account and show every detail of its disposal. The work of systematizing the machinery
of the auditing department has been accomplished without any fanfare of trumpets, for Mr. Warwick
is not at all of the brass band order. He simply saw that if the financial record of the canal was to
be on a par with the engineering phase of the undertaking, the system must be as good as the most
expert accountants could devise. And those who are competent to sit in judgment say that the Canal
Zone Auditing Department could not be improved. Mr. Warwick, the man at the head of it all, is a
native of Lucasville, Scioto County, Ohio. He was educated in the public schools of Cincinnati
and in the Law School of Cincinnati College, from which he was graduated in 1890 with the degree
of bachelor of laws. Five years later George Washington University, of Washington, D. C., gave him
the degree of master of laws. Mr. Warwick began the active practice of his profession in Cincinnati
in 1890o, but later went to Washington, Where he entered the government employ. He was chief
law clerk in the United States Treasury, and in 1904 became connected with the Washington end
of the canal work. In June, 19o8, he came to the Isthmus, and has resided in Empire since that time. He is a member of the Commandery of Ohio of
the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, and is a member of Cincinnati Commandery of Knights Templar. He was married in
19o6 to Miss Minnie E. McCormick, and they have one child, Newton Beverly Warwick, who was born in 19o8. Mr. Warwick is popular in all parts
of the Zone, and is a leader in the splendid work which the Young Men's Christian Association is doing for the young men temporarily removed from
the environment of the home life to which they have been accustomed. In recognition of his work, and particularly that in the legal line, Mr. Warwick
was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Canal Zone by the President in March, 1911. Before qualifying for the appointment he
was called to Washington to undertake a more important work there.









Major Tracy Campbell Dickson

W HILE the Panama Canal is being constructed under the direction of the Corps of Engineers,
United States Army, other arms of the service have been called upon to lend some of their
best men to care for certain phases of the work. One of the officers coming within this class is Major
Tracy Campbell Dickson of the Ordnance Department, who since the twenty-seventh of June, 1910,
has been Inspector of Shops with jurisdiction over all shops of both the Isthmian Canal Commission
and the Panama Railroad Company. This office comes under the Assistant to the Chief Engineer,
Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, United States Navy, who is a member of the Commission, and is
one of high importance. The great shops throughout the Canal Zone do for the mechanical equipment
H what the hospitals do for the personnel-keep it at concert pitch. Even as the strength of an army
is judged by its number of effective rather than the number of names it may have on its rolls, so is
the effectiveness of canal construction measured by the amount of machinery actually in commission.
A steam shovel can't make the dirt fly unless it is in working order, and it is one of the functions of
the shops to keep the steam shovels and all the rest of the machinery in constant repair, to see that
not a moment is lost in doing the work, and that the work be done as economically as the proper expe-
edition of business will permit. It is in this overhead supervision that Major Dickson finds a wide field
of labor. Trained in the splendid school of the Ordnance Department, with which he has been con-
nected since 1894, he was in every way qualified to assume'the duties of Inspector and make the Canal
Zone shops models of system and efficiency. Major Dickson has practically had the entire systematiz-
ing of the work of his office,for while the post of Inspector of Shops was established prior to his arrival,
his only predecessor held the place less than two months. Therefore credit for what has been accom-
plished belongs of right to him, though he would probably say that his training in the Ordnance
Department was the underlying cause of it all. But, regardless of where the credit may lie, it is
entirely within the limits of fair commendation to say' that the manner in which the. shops of the
Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Company are conducted has no superior in
the most carefully managed shops among the great private manufacturing plants of the industrial
world. There are more than a dozen of these shops along the Canal Zone, and their employees number more than 4,000, in addition to which there
are almost numberless little shops with a few men each where minor repairs are made on the spot. The largest of all is the great Gorgona shop, which
gives employment to about i,ooo "gold" men and over 1,600 "silver" men. The Cristobal Dry Dock Shop accounts for 850 more men, and the Empire
Shop and the Balboa Shop and Shipways have over 300 employees apiece. Major Dickson was born in Independence, Iowa, September 17, 1868, but
his home from childhood was in Cleburne, Texas. He received his early education in public and private schools and entered the U. S. Military Academy
at West Point, N. Y., in 1888. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Second Artillery on graduation in 1892, was transferred to the Ord-
nance Department in 1894, and attained his present rank June 26, 1906. He was married in 1894 to Isabella Kendrick Abbott of Atlanta, Georgia,
and they have two sons. Major Dickson is a member of the Lambs Club in New York City, the Strangers Club in Colon, and the Washington Com-
mandery of the Loyal Legion.









Hon. Hezekiah Alexander Gudger


N ORTH Carolina has the honor of furnishing the Canal Zone with its Chief Justice, the Hon.
Hezekiah A. Gudger, who was born in Marshall, Madison County, that State, attended first
the public schools, then Weaverville College, where he took the degree of A. M., and finished his
education at Bailey's Law School, Asheville, N. C. He began the active practice of his profession
at Marshall in 1872, and early began to win more than local recognition. He was four times elected
to the popular branch of the State Legislature, and then was honored by election for two years to the
State Senate. For two years he held the important office of Judge of the Criminal Court of Madison
County. He was then called to a broader field and became an assistant in the attorney general's
office at Washington, having special duties in connection with the Indian depredation claims. In
1897 he was appointed American Consul-General in Panama, which position he held until February
24, 1905, when he was named as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Canal Zone. His
even-handed balancing of the scales of justice won him promotion, and January 4, I9o9, he was made
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Canal Zone. In the Zone, as in his native State, Chief Justice
Gudger has been a leader of men and is always to be found in the forefront of any movement which
has for its aim the betterment of humanity. In his home State he gained a clear insight into public
philanthropy through having served for six years as principal of the North Carolina Institute for the
Deaf, Dumb and Blind. He also served on his local school board, and was a trustee of the University
of North Carolina. The measure of his personal popularity and worth is best evidenced by the fact
that for two terms he was considered worthy and well qualified to hold the office of Grand Master
of the Grand Masonic Lodge of North Carolina. He is also a Royal Arch and Templar Mason, as
well as a member of the Oddfellows and the Knights of Pythias. Justice Gudger was married August
o0, 1875, to Miss Jennie H. Smith, and they have five children living: Francis A. Gudger, New York
City; Herman A. Gudger, Asheville, N. C.; Mrs. Ada Cooke, Mrs. James J. Nichols, and Miss Emma
A. Gudger. As the head of the Canal Zone Judiciary, Chief Justice Gudger fills a most important
post under the Department of Civil Administration. There are three Circuit Courts in the Zone,
and the Judges in these three circuits form the Supreme Court in which questions are finally settled. Below the Circuit Courts are the District Courts
under a Senior District Judge. In the fiscal year ending June 30, 90Io, 6,732 criminal cases and I,123 civil cases were filed, and of this number 366
criminal cases were appealed to the Circuit Courts. In the Circuit Courts during that same time 382 criminal cases and 397 civil cases were filed. The
courts of the Isthmus have proven just as remarkable in their field as American business and engineering have in the construction field. They have been
a revelation to the people of Central America, and respect for the name of American justice has become widespread as the result of having such a high-
principled judiciary since the American occupancy of the Canal Zone. Chief Justice Gudger and his Associate Justices have certainly done as much
in the Department of Civil Administration to advance the fair name of the United States as Colonel Goethals and Colonel Gorgas have in the depart-
ments of engineering and sanitation.









Major Edgar Jadwin

M/ ANY engineers have had a share in the work of building the great Panama Canal, and among
those upon whose shoulders great responsibilities have rested is Major Edgar Jadwin, Corps of
Engineers, U. S. A. Major Jadwin came to the work on the eighteenth of July, 1907, his first detail
being as Division Engineer of the Chagres Division. From this he was transferred on the first day of
July, 1908, to the very important post of Resident Engineer of the Atlantic Division and placed in
-' charge of the breakwater construction at Colon, the excavation of the sea-level canal from the Atlantic
Ocean to Gatun, and of the Dry Dock and Marine Shops at Cristobal. In addition to this, since
January first, 1910, he has had charge of the quarrying of rock at Porto Bello and the excavation of
sand at Nombre de Dios; also the transportation of rock, sand and cement to Gatun for the locks and
spillway. Over three thousand men are employed on the part of the work coming under his direction,
but through perfect organization the entire force is handled with ease and precision. Major Jadwin's
charming personality has made him very popular throughout the Zone, and both officers and men
i" enjoy assignments which bring them under his orders. His work in the Atlantic Division has been
SI of a most important character. It was he who prepared the project for the Colon Breakwater; the
'*. .^ plan of excavation by steam shovels below sea level at Mindi; developed Mr. Gerig's plan for dry
.. .g *drilling and blasting in advance of the dredges between Mindi and Limon Bay, and was largely
responsible for the economical application of floating well-drills to the subaqueous rock excavation
in Limon Bay; for the excavation between Gatun and Mindi; and for a change in the line of the
canal between Gatun and Gamboa which effected a large reduction in the amount of excavation
necessary. According to the last report of the I. C. C., the steam-shovel work at Mindi was done
at a lower cost than in any other division or subdivision, and Major Jadwin likewise established a
low record price for dredging. The Major is a Pennsylvanian, having been born in Honesdale, Wayne
County. From the Honesdale schools he went to Lafayette College in 1884, and thence to the Military
Academy at West Point, where he was graduated at the head of his class in 1890, being commissioned
a Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. Three years later he finished the work at the U. S.
Engineers' School. His first army engineering came immediately after his graduation from the Point, when he was in local charge of the enlargement at
Ellis Island, New York Harbor, and the channel dredging for the same. In 1895-6 he was employed on river improvement in North Carolina, and the
year following on fortification construction in the same State. In 1897-8 he was Assistant in the Fortification Division in the office of the Chief of
Engineers, serving through the Spanish War as Major and then Lieutenant-Colonel of the Third Regiment, U. S. V. Engineers. From 1899 to 1902 he
was Recorder of the Board of Engineers for Fortifications. In 1902-3 he was in charge of the breakwater construction at San Pedro, California, the
dredging at Wilmington, harbor improvements at San Diego harbor and Port Hartford, in the same State, and also of the fortifications at San Diego.
Between 1903 and 1907 he was in charge of the jetty work and dredging for the improvement of the harbor at Galveston, Texas, of the ship canal between
Houston and Galveston, of the sea wall and grade-raising at Fort Crockett, Galveston, of the improvements of Aransas Pass, the fortifications at
Galveston, the designs of locks and dams in Texas, and the preparation of the project for an intra-coastal canal along the coasts of Louisiana and Texas
between the Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers. Major Jadwin was married at Easton, Pennsylvania, October 6, 1891, to Miss Jean Laubach. They
have two children, Charlotte F. Jadwin and Cornelius C. Jadwin.









Major James Postell Jervey

M AJOR JAMES POSTELL JERVEY, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, the resident
engineer in charge of the construction of the Gatun locks, is a native of the State of Virginia.
He was educated in private schools, where he fitted for West Point. Securing his appointment, he
entered the Military Academy June 16, 1888, and received a commission as additional Second Lieu-
tenant in the Corps of Engineers upon his graduation, on the eleventh day of June, 1892. May io,
1895, he was made a Second Lieutenant of Engineers, and was advanced to First Lieutenant on July
31, 1897. May 2, 1901, he was promoted to Captain, and February 28, 1908, he attained his present
rank of Major. His army career has included service in the Philippines. From February to Septem-
ber, 90o6, he was Engineer of the Moro Province, and from September to July of the following year
he was both Engineer and Secretary. He came to the Isthmus on the 24th of July, 1908, and until
September 15th of that year was the Assistant Engineer of the Atlantic Division. Since that time
he has been the Resident Engineer in charge of the construction of the Gatun locks. There is nothing
in the world great enough to serve as a standard by which to give the reader a comprehensive mental
picture of the Gatun locks. The mind fails to grasp the full meaning of mere figures, tremendous
though they are. Even photographs do not tell the whole story. Nor yet does the completed portion
Sof the work represent the vastness that is to be, save to the eye of-a trained engineer. The final
: effect of the locks in operation will amaze not only strangers to the Isthmus, but many who have had
S an opportunity to watch the work progress. The three great locks, each a thousand feet long and
one hundred and ten feet wide, inside measurements, will make no bones of lifting a battleship from
S' the level of the Atlantic Ocean to the level of Gatun Lake, a rise of eighty-five feet. These locks
cover nearly a mile of canal distance, and there is nothing in the shape of concrete construction that
Approaches them. The old phrase, "as solid as the hills," is a misnomer so far as they are concerned,
for they are really more enduring than the work of nature. Thousands and thousands of tons of
cement have gone into the construction, and the resulting concrete, reinforced with tons upon tons of
steel, will last for all time. In addition to his other army duties, Major Jervey has served as an
instructor in engineering at West Point and at the Engineer School in Washington. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and
is widely known professionally. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. Major Jervey was married June 28, 1895, to Miss Jean B. Webb, of New
York, and they have three children.









Major George M. Hoffman

T HE people of the United States will always take pride in the building of the Panama Canal,
.but those who look a little deeper will take further pride in the fact that it was built under the
.... direction of the Army Engineers. The Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., has a history in which many
fi' .. brilliant achievements figure, but for all time to come its fame will rest chiefly on the successful
i '.. undertaking of the world's greatest engineering feat, especially when it is recalled that the Army
S. Engineers were called in at a time when canal prospects were very dubious. From the time that the
control passed to them there has been steady progress, and a skeptical world long ago admitted that
'the canal was sure to be completed-not only completed, but within the specified time. Until the
'. Army Engineers demonstrated their efficiency to handle the big job many people in many countries
S" (and the United States need not be excluded from such a list) gloomily predicted that the American
Si enterprise would fail just as had its French predecessor. The Army Engineers went at things with
a sure hand, with no brass-band accompaniment, but with a clear-headed, strong-hearted determination
to put the work through on schedule time. And while there have been a great many engineers other
than Army Engineers engaged on the work, it is the Army Engineers who have had direction of affairs
at all important points, and theirs will be the credit in the end. One of these important points is the
"building of the huge dam and spillway at Gatun. This stupendous dam will make a huge lake through
which the Isthmus-crossing vessels from the Atlantic will pass after leaving the Gatun locks. The
making of the dam is in itself a work of marvelous size, but in order to prevent the completed structure
from being too severely taxed in time of flood it has been necessary to construct spillways to carry
off the surplus water, and the spillways in turn are of enough consequence to be considered large
engineering undertakings anywhere except in the shadow of the great canal itself. The work on the
Gatun dam and spillway has been rendered extremely difficult by reason of the floods during the rainy
season and the occasional shift or slide of some great mass of earth. The 1910 excavation on the Gatun
spillway amounted to 127,610 cubic yards of earth and rock, which is a very large total when due
consideration is given to the difficulties encountered in the shape of shallow cuts, contracted space
and interference by rains and floods. This particular piece of engineering comes under the direction of the Division Engineer for the Atlantic Division,
but the actual supervision for both the dam and spillway is given over to an assistant who is known as the Resident Engineer. The Resident Engineer
is the "man of the job," and under his immediate control is a force of over 1,700 men. The Resident Engineer who now has charge of this work is Major
George M. Hoffman, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., who came to the Canal Zone on the tenth of January, 1908, as Assistant Division Engineer for the
Chagres Division. Major Hoffman is a Pennsylvanian, having been born in Wilkes-Barre on the fifteenth of June, 1870. He attended the public schools,
and June 15, 1892, entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. His work there won him a commission as an additional
Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, when he graduated in the class of 1896. He was made First Lieutenant July 5, 1898, was promoted to
Captain on April 23, 1904, and advanced to his majority on December 3, 1909. He was married in 1901 to Miss Ruth Thompson, and they have three
children.
















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Louis K. Rourke


N O biographical book on the building of the Panama Canal would be complete without a sketch
of Civil Engineer Louis K. Rourke, who putin nearly five years on the isthumus and was the first and
last individual to hold the position of Assistant Division Engineer in the Central Division. It was
he who organized the Division and served as Executive Officer under Lieutenant Colonel D. D. Gail-
lard, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., the Division Engineer. Officially, he was Assistant D)ivision
Engineer, but the title of "Executive Officer "is more descriptive of his duties, for while Colonel Gail-
lard was at the head of the division he depended in large measure on the ability and experience of his
Assistant, who had been longer on the isthmus and was more conversant with the history of operations
up to the time that the work of construction was turned over to the Army Engineers. Mr. Rourke
landed in the Canal Zone in November, 1905, which was a time at which the fortunes of the canal
enterprise were at a low ebb. There had been something done but there was so much left to do and
such poor machinery for carrying on the work that it would have daunted any but the stout-hearted.
SIn this connection, the word "machinery" is used in the sense of men, methods and mechanical mate-
rial,for at that time there was not that perfect "machine" which is now so smoothly co-ordinated
that everything moves as if by clockwork. It was Engineer Rourke's work to build up such a machine
and no one who is acquainted with what has been accomplished will ever slight his share. Beginning
as Superintendent of Construction in the Culebra Division, he became Superintendent of Tracks,
then Superintendent .of Tracks and Dumps and then Division Engineer of the Culebra Division.
Then came the plan for dividing the entire Canal Zone into three major divisions, and out of the
Culebra and Chagres Divisions Mr. Rourke built the present Central Division, being appointed
Assistant Division Engineer under Colonel Gaillard. Here he remained till the summer of 191o
when he resigned to enter upon his present duties as Commissioner of Public Works for the city of
Boston, Massachusetts. Mr. Rourke's career is one in which every American citizen can take just
pride, forit shows what a young man can accomplish who puts his whole heart and soul into his work.
To have been Assistant Division Engineer of a stupendous undertaking like the Panama Canal
and to leave that to be Commissioner of Public Works in one of the country's great cities, and still have a year or two left before one is forty-
well, that's what an American means when he talks about a "winner." Mr. Rourke was born in Abington, Mass., in 1873 and after going through
the Abington High School went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was graduated in 1895 as a Civil Engineer. For the first
two years after leaving school he was in the Maintenance of Way Department on the Boston & Maine Railroad. Then he went to Panama for
the first time, and from 1897 to 1899 was Supervisor of Track on the Panama Railroad. He was Superintendent of Construction and Contractor on the
Guayaquil & Quito Railroad in Ecuador from then till 1904 and from 1904 till he came to the Canal Zone was a Contractor for the Massachusetts Highway
Commission. Mr. Rourke was married in May, 1907, to Teresa M. Ryan. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, of the University Club of Panama,
the City Club of Boston, the National Geographical Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. He is
widely known and highly respected for his ability and equally widely for kindly heart and loyal comradeship.








Lorenzo D. Cornish

AMONG the engineers whose service with the Isthmian Canal Commission goes back to the very
~early days, none has had a more important share in the shaping of events than Lorenzo D.
Cornish, a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, who is widely known among members
of the engineering profession throughout the United States. Mr. Cornish was born in Lee Centre,
Oneida County, New York. He received his early education in the grammar and high schools of
Syracuse, New York, and was graduated from Syracuse University in the class of 1902 with the
degree of C.E. In September of the year of his graduation from Syracuse he began the work of lock
and dam design and construction with the U. S. Engineer Department. His work with the Isthmian
Canal Commission began in September, 1905, when he spent four months in charge of making estimates
for the International Consulting Board appointed to decide upon the type of canal to be constructed.
In September of the year following he was again employed by the Commission, this time as Assistant
Engineer in the Washington office, in charge of the design of movable dams, spillways and protective
devices. From Washington he was transferred to active duty at Panama, arriving on the Isthmus
in June, 1907, where he began work as a designing engineer. Since September of that year he has been
the designing engineer in charge of the subdivision of the Chief Engineer's office which has to do
with the general and detail designs for the locks, masonry, valves and spillway gates. It will be seen
from this that a most important part of the designing comes under the direct supervision of Mr.
Cornish, and from his long association with the work, dating back to the time when the question of
type of canal was under consideration, he is unusually well qualified therefore. Having been on duty
with the office force in Washington and with the field force in Panama, there is no phase of the general
canal project with which Mr. Cornish is unacquainted, and for this reason he is often consulted on
matters which lie officially outside his own particular part of the work. His cordial ways have always
won him friends, and the excellence of his work has won him commendation from those who have had
general supervision thereof. With all the work that has fallen to his share, he has had little time
for social diversion, and outside his office most of his time is given to his family. His wife was Miss
Elizabeth Brodhead, and they have one boy, in whose upbringing they take quite as deep an interest as Mr. Cornish officially takes in the building of
the Panama Canal.









William George Comber


AT the time that this sketch was written, in November, 91o, there was but one Division Engineer
A left on the Isthmus whose term of service went back through the term of the Stevens regime.
That man was William George Comber, who since August, 19o8, has been Resident Engineer in
charge of all marine work including dredging on the Pacific Division. Mr. Comber, while he is not a
f native of the United States, is one of the type of men who are developed in the United States, and in
i"s whom the United States takes just pride. His birthplace was London, England, and he received his
S. o ::" scholastic training in the public schools, this phase of his development ceasing long before he reached
the university age. But though he was denied by circumstances the advantages of college training,
he made up his mind that he was not going to be left behind in the race of life. He early determined
that he was going to make his brain help his hands and that ultimately he would occupy a position
of responsibility. He began work in America as an axe man with the Mississippi River Commission.
That was in the year 1883. The next year found him one round up the ladder. He was recorder.
a ma The next that was heard from him, along in I888, he was serving as topographer and draughtsman.
And he was making good all the time and taking the infinite pains which is the best assurance of
success. When the year 1898 rolled round he was assistant engineer in charge of the Dredging Division
on the Mississippi River, and he was still delivering the goods to the satisfaction of everyone who had
supervision of his work. He asked no odds of those who had learned engineering in the schools and
he had come to know that whatever advantage they might have through wider reading was wholly
offset in his case by practical knowledge secured in the hard but excellent school of actual experience.
In 1902 he was advanced to Assistant Engineer in charge of the General Survey of the Mississippi
River, and he was filling that position when called to Panama to help Uncle Sam carry out his contract
to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. He arrived on the Isthmus August 15, 1905, and was made
Resident Engineer of the Cristobal Division. February 1, 1907, he was made Division Engineer at
La Boca, having charge of the Dam and Dredging Division. In August, 19o8, he was made Resident
Engineer in charge of all marine work, including dredging in the Pacific Division. He is Chairman
of the Board of Local Inspectors. He examines and -recommends all masters, pilots and captains for license. He also issues certificates to all passenger
boats having Zone ports as their home port. The fact that he has remained at his post throughout the change in leadership on the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission is the most convincing proof that he has been unusually successful in all that has been entrusted to him. He is regarded by the commissioners
as one of the landmarks in the work, and his ~knowledge of past events makes his counsel frequently sought when plans are being laid for the furtherance
of the canal construction. While there are \many.men on the work whose service goes back to the days of the earlier regime, they do not have the advan-
tage of having occupied a position of wide responsibilities as Mr. Comber has done. He knows everyone in the local edition of "Who's Who," and is
a man of many friends, being universally eld in high !respect. He married some years ago Miss Hallie Belle Gilbert, -and they have two children. He
belongs to the University Club and the Engineers' Club of St. Louis.









Harry Outen Cole

M R. HARRY OUTEN COLE, who is the Resident Engineer in charge of lock and dam
construction for the Pacific Division of the canal work, is a native of Morgantown, West
Virginia. It was there that he received his early education, and it was in the West Virginia University
that he received his technical training. He was graduated from the University in the class of 1898
with the degree of bachelor of science in civil engineering. He lost no time in going to work, and from
the first his training was along the most practical lines. In the year of his graduation he entered the
Pittsburg offices of the Keystone Bridge Company as a draftsman. In 1900 he was a draftsman for
the National Steel Company, and in 1901 was with the Structural Steel and Iron Company. He then
went with the American Bridge Company until 1903. From 1903 to 1907 he was with V. G. Bogue,
a consulting engineer in New York City. In 1907 he was made Bridge Engineer for the Oaxaca &
Pacific Railway in Mexico; also, he served on the Investigating Committee of the Blackwell's Island
bridge in New York City. He remained on this work till September, 1908, when he sailed for the
Isthmus. He arrived about the middle of the month, and from that time till August, 1909, was the
Office Engineer in charge of designs for the Pacific Division. At that time he was promoted to the
position of Assistant Engineer in charge of the Third District of the Pacific Division. In April, 191I,
he was appointed Resident Engineer in charge of lock and dam construction for the Pacific Division.
His familiarity with the designs and operation of the handling plants and various equipment, also
his wide construction experience, together with his all-round business ability, admirably fitted him
for this great work. He has met with great success ever since he came to the Isthmus, and the manner
in which he has handled his work has earned for him official commendation. He has made for himself
a host of friends and he is certain to make further official advancement as the canal nears completion.
In his college days he was a member of the D. K. 2. fraternity, and professionally he has affiliated
himself with the American Society of Civil Engineers. He was married in 19go to Miss Mabel Wilson
of Cumberland, Maryland. They have one daughter, Catherine. Like many others, he has come
to like the country and will probably feel a pang of regret when the completion of the canal


marks the end of the engineering task.























































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Lieutenant Frederick Mears


O NE of the talented young Army officers who has been loaned for canal construction work is
Lieutenant Frederick Mears, who is not only an officer in the First United States Cavalry, but
a civil engineer of unusual ability, an associate member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
He has been in the Canal Zone since May, 1906. As Assistant Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission he worked from September, 1906, to May, 1907, on the location for the new Panama Railroad.
From May to October, 1907, he was Resident Engineer for the Panama Railroad Company in charge
of the location and construction of the relocated line. He was Constructing Engineer of the relocated
line from October, 1907, to December, 1909, when he was advanced to his present position of Chief
Engineer of the Panama Railroad Company. In those brief statements you have the record of a
very busy period, and a period of extraordinary success, yet a success which was in every way merited
by Lieutenant Mears' all-around good work and unusual natural ability. He has had a very inter-
esting career, and one which shows what can be accomplished by a young man who resolutely sets
# his face toward accomplishment. He was born in Fort Omaha, Nebraska, May 25, 1878. He received
his early education in the public schools of New York City and San Francisco, California, and was
finally a graduate of the Shattuck School in Faribault, Minnesota. In 1897 he was connected with
\ the location and construction of the Park Rapids extension to the Great Northern Railway from Park
Rapids to Bermidji, Minnesota, and he was also on the locating party which made the location for
the cut-off line from Coon Creek to Moorehead, Minnesota. Among other engineer work in which he
has had a hand may be mentioned a fifteen-months' tour of duty on the location and construction
S .of the Kootenai Valley & Bedlington and Nelson line in Idaho and British Columbia. In 1905 he
was with the Rock Island Railroad in Arkansas on the construction of the Arkansas Southern at
SFordyce, Arkansas. It was in 1899 that Mr. Mears decided that he would like to be a commissioned
officer in the United States Army. There seemed to be no way to accomplish that purpose save by
enlisting and taking the examination as an enlisted man. Accordingly he held up his right hand before
the recruiting officer on the twentieth of October, 1899, and was assigned to Co. K of the Third Infantry.
He was promoted to corporal, then to sergeant, and in July, 1901, having successfully passed the required examinations, was commissioned as a Second
Lieutenant in the Fifth Cavalry. He was promoted to First Lieutenant in the Eleventh Cavalry in September, 1906, but in August, 1908, was trans-
ferred to the First Cavalry. He was graduated from the Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth in 1904, and the U. S. Staff College in 1905.
A year later he came to Panama and is to-day holding down with great success one of the most important railroad situations that there is on the Isthmus.
That's a record of which any American citizen has a right to be proud, and it conclusively proves the worth of young Lieutenant Mears. Mr. Mears
was married April 6, 1907, to Miss Jane P. Wainwright, and they have two children.
The relocation of the line of the Panama Railroad was made necessary by the plans of the Canal Commission for a lock level canal, creating an
artificial lake which will submerge the present tracks of the Panama Railroad for the greater part of its length. When the relocated line is complete,
it will pass along the east shore of the Gatun Lake and around Gold Hill on a high level, and connect with the present operated line at Corozal. It
was necessary to rebuild about forty miles of line, at a cost of $9,000,000.








Alfred B. Herrick

S S ^ T HE Chief of the Surgical Clinic in the great hospital at Ancon is Dr. Alfred B. Herrick, and
since his service on the Isthmus goes back to July, 1904, he has a right to be classed as one of
'" the veterans of the Isthmian Canal Commission's regime in Central America. In his time he has
seen the systematizing of the great sanitary problem which had to be overcome before it was possible
to build the canal. All the way through, in the building of this great waterway, engineer and surgeon
have gone hand in hand, and much of the way the surgeon has been in advance. It is the surgeon
who has met the most difficult situations. The engineers found nothing new in their part of the
undertaking. It was larger, perhaps, than anything they had previously tackled, but it presented
Sno novelties in construction. Give them the tools and the men and they could give the world a canal
within a reasonable length of time. But the doctors found conditions which were utterly different
i~ from anything that had come under their observation at home. They were confronted with the work
of making a pesthole into a health resort and then maintaining it on that level. They were also
confronted with the necessity for having hospitals which could give the workmen the benefit of the
most advanced methods known to modern medicine and surgery. Not only must the hospitals be
equipped with everything that was best, but it was absolutely essential that in the positions of respon-
sibility there should be chiefs of commanding ability. This policy was put into effect at the very
beginning, and as a result the Canal Zone hospitals are the marvel of everyone who pays a visit to
the Isthmus. The greatest hospital of all is at Ancon, where more than twenty-five wards are main-
tained. It is here that Dr. Herrick fills the post of Chief of the Surgical Clinic. He has won for
himself an enviable reputation in professional circles, and in the social life of the Canal Zone is a
popular figure. Dr. Herrick was born in Amsterdam, New York, and there attended the public
schools. When it came time for him to enter college he chose the good old college of Williams. For
his medical degree he went to the famous Johns Hopkins University, from which he was graduated
with the degree of M.D. in the class of 1898. Wishing to have the advantage of further hospital
training, he put in the next four years in Barnes Hospital in Washington, D. C. Fully prepared by
these five years of work and study, he came to Panama and entered upon his duties in the tropics. His entire administration has been successful, and
when the canal is built, if Dr. Herrick returns to the States to practice, he will find that his fame has preceded him. Though a very busy man, Dr. Herrick
belongs to all the leading clubs and has a wide circle of friends.









W. E. Deeks, M.A., M.D.C.M.


A MONG the leading physicians of the Canal Zone none deserves more honorable mention than
Dr. W. E. Deeks, a Canadian who has had the inestimable advantage of European training.
He is now at the head of the medical clinic in the great Ancon Hospital, the nerve center of the sanitary
machine which wages ceaseless war upon disease in every form. Dr. Deeks has been here since the
17th day of August, 1906, and has won high commendation for the efficiency which is so apparent
in the conduct of the medical clinic. He was born in the Canadian town of Morrisburg, passed through
the Morrisburg High School and the Kingston Collegiate Institute, where he fitted for college. From
Kingston he went to Montreal, entering the famous McGill University, where he matriculated with
the degree of B.A. in 1889. With his classical degree as a start, he applied himself to the study of
medicine, and was graduated with the degree of M.D.C.M. in 1893. Three years later he earned his
master's degree from McGill. Following his departure from the Montreal university, he went abroad
and studied in London, Berlin and Vienna, having already had experience in the Quebec city as
house surgeon in the Royal Victoria Hospital. His busy career has included much study, a great
deal of travel, and considerable work as an instructor. He has lectured on zoology at McGill, on
internal medicine at Bishop's College, and on internal medicine and electro-therapeutics at the Post-
Graduate Hospital in New York City. Having been on the Isthmus since 1906, he is familiar with
everything which is likely to be encountered in the medical line, and his experience locally, coupled
with his broad professional training,makes him a foremost figure in the front ranks of the great men
that the building of the canal is developing.








Justice Wesley M. Owen

N 19o9 President Roosevelt selected Wesley M. Owen, of Bloomington, Illinois, as a member of
the Canal Zone Judiciary. The position was one of great responsibility, and for this reason a man
of legal experience and ability was desired and found. Judge Owen, on arriving at the field of labor,
was assigned to the Circuit Court at Empire, which' was one of the most important judicial districts
on the Isthmus. Not alone as Judge of the Circuit Court of the Second Judicial Circuit did he labor,
but under the administrative form of government existing on the Zone, Judge Owen was also a member
of the Supreme Court, and as Associate Justice of that body participated in many important cases.
As Judge of the Circuit Court he presided over much of the most important litigation connected with
the Circuit Court work, and his impartial opinions and able decisions will stand as a monument of
hiswork. Owing to important business interests at home, Justice Owen felt that duty called him back,
so in March, 1911, after two and one-half years of attentive and satisfactory service, he tendered
his resignation to the President. While on the Isthmus the Justice and his family occupied one of
the large, attractive homes on Ancon Hill at Ancon. Judge Owen is a native of Illinois, having been
born in Covell, McLean County, August 17, 1869, the son of M. J. and Sarah Owen, prominent people
of central Illinois. His boyhood days were spent at home, and while still little more than a boy he
taught school in McLean County for two years. Leaving the teacher's desk for a scholar's desk, he
entered the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington, Illinois, from which he was graduated with
honors in 1894,being one of the very few selected as class orators. Finishing school, he began the study
of law, was admitted to the bar, and began the practice of his profession at LeRoy, Ill. At the end
of three years he took his brother, Leslie J. Owen, into partnership, and the firm nAme still stands
and is identified with practically all important litigation.in central Illinois. Judge Owen has always
been a steadfast Republican, and was chairman of his county convention in 1902, following a spirited
fight. In 1904 he was sent to the Legislature, and though the youngest man who ever represented his
district, he made a splendid reputation for efficiency. He was chairman of the committee on Civil
Service, and as a member of the committee on appropriations secured $25,000 for the erection of new
cottages at the Soldiers' Orphans Home at Normal in his district, and that notwithstanding the amount was twice stricken from the appropriation bill
by the opposition. Greatly to the regret of his constituents, he was forced by an increasing law practice to decline a renomination which would have
been practically a re-election. He was for many terms city attorney of LeRoy, and often represented the county attorney in cases near LeRoy. When
war came in 1898, Mr. Owen was one of the first to respond. He promptly raised a company, was elected captain and commissioned by the Governor.
The war did not last long enough to give Captain Owen active service, but his courage and his readiness were amply demonstrated. Judge Owen is a
Mason, belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America, is a past Noble Grand of the Odd Fellows, a past Chancellor Commander of the Knights of Pythias,
and has been many times a state representative and district deputy of the Illinois Knights of Pythias. He was married on the seventh of January, 1904,
to Miss Ora M. Augustine, the adopted daughter of Captain and Mrs. Henry Augustine, of Normal, Ill. Mrs. Owen was widely known, was a graduate
of the State Normal University, the Illinois Wesleyan College of Music, and the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, and her brilliant musical attainments
will always be remembered in central Illinois. There have been two children born to Judge and Mrs. Owen: James Wesley, now six years old; and Blanche
now two years of age.








Hon. Thomas E. Brown, Jr.

THOMAS E. BROWN, JR., who has recently been elevated to the position of Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court, is a man who has made a mark for himself in the Department of Civil
Administration. Beginning as District Judge for Cristobal, he has now risen to the highest tribunal
in the Canal Zone, the Supreme Court, which consists of a Chiief Justice and two Associate Justices.
It was his good work as District Judge in Cristobal which won him his promotion, and he has been
warmly congratulated by people in all parts of the Zone. Justice Brown is a native of Brooklyn,
New York. He received his early education in the public schools of Rochester, New York, and fitted
Sfor college at the University Grammar School in Providence, Rhode Island. He then entered Brown
University in Providence, and was graduated with the class of 189o, attaining the honor of an election
to Phi Beta Kappa. He was also a member of the Alpha Delta Phi. After leaving college he went
west, and during the rest of 1890 and the year following was connected with the Tacoma News in
Tacoma, Washington. Returning east, he studied law at the New York Law School, receiving his
degree of bachelor of laws with the class of 1893. He immediately began the practice of law in New
York City, remaining there until he was appointed District Judge in the Isthmian Canal Commission
service in April, 1907. While his regular duties as District Judge concerned the administration of
justice from the bench, he several times served the Commission by appearing as prosecuting attorney.
From August to November, 1907, he was acting prosecuting attorney, and during the spring of 19o8
was special acting prosecuting attorney. Justice Brown was married December 28, 1898, to Jeanette
Ferris. He has met with uniform success on the isthmus. In a country where so many nationalities
are represented and where the newness hasn't rubbed off the governmental machinery itself there are
apt to be some rather complicated questions put up to the court for settlement and Justice Brown
has certainly had his share. But he has given due consideration to each case as it has come along,
and with ample legal experience and a fine legal mind to fall back upon, he has become noted for the
justness of his decisions, He has been a leader in the work of the Young Men's Christian Association,
and is Chairman of the Executive Council of the Association. He is also President of the Union Church
at Cristobal, and is prominent in all movements for the betterment of local conditions. He is a clear and forceful speaker, a convincing debater, and
when he expresses opinions on local topics he is sure of the most respectful consideration.








Arthur Lee Robinson


M R. ARTHUR LEE ROBINSON, who is the superintendent having in charge the entire Mechan-
ical Division, is an engineer who has won his way to the front by the joined forces of natural
ability and faithful performance of every duty entrusted to him. His promotion since his arrival on
the Isthmus has been noteworthy. He reached Panama on the 27th of May, 1905, and was assigned
to duty as Electrical Engineer under Mr. Wallace. He was later transferred to the Mechanical
Division, handling electrical and mechanical work of all kinds. This assignment continued till Octo-
ber, 19o9, when it became necessary to appoint a Superintendent to have charge of the entire Mechan-
ical Division. Mr. Robinson was the man selected, and the wisdom of his choice has been repeatedly
proven when the Division has been called upon for extra effort. Such calls have never been made
in vain, and they never will be so long as the present Superintendent is at the helm. Having had his
training in the railroad service, he appreciates more keenly than some other engineers the cardinal
Importance of getting out work on time. He knows that delay in one department may be the cause
of a greater delay in another and more important department of the great undertaking. It is not
known for a fact whether Mr. Robinson has over his desk one of those cards which reads "DO IT
iNOW," but at all events his administration of the Mechanical Division would lead one to think that
the above-mentioned American maxim was his watchword. The piece of work that is allowed to
overstay its appointed time in his division is required to make a very complete explanation-or, to
make the statement literally exact, the responsible workman has to offer a mighty strong excuse.
So far as Mr. Robinson is concerned, he never allows his working force to get to-day and to-morrow
mixed. If a thing should be done to-day, it is his idea that it should be done to-day, not gently shunted
into the future to wait for a more convenient season. But though he holds his Division to a high state
S of efficiency, Mr. Robinson is extremely popular with all. He is Vice-President of the University
Club of Panama, is a member of the Stranger's Club of Colon, and in his home city of Louisville,
4' Kentucky, belongs to the famous Pendinnis Club. He is also a member of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers. Mr. Robinson is still numbered among the bachelors. As previously men-
tioned, his home city is Louisville, and it was there that he went through the graded schools and finished with the High School work. From the Louis-
ville High he went to the Rose Polytechnic Institute at Terre Haute, graduating in the class of 1895 with the degree of Bachelor of Science. Leaving school
behind him, he started in on his life work, beginning at the lower rung of the ladder. He entered the employ of the Southern Railway at Knoxville,
Tennessee, as a mechanical apprentice, and rose successively to the positions of machinist, foreman, master mechanic, and finally to the post of electrical
engineer for the entire Southern Railway system. It was while he was occupying the latter position that the Panama opening presented itself. Believing
that Panama offered exceptional advantages to a person who was willing to work, he accepted and the steady progress which he has made since he came
to the Isthmus indicates the excellence of his judgment.






















































ii


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GATUN LOCKS: VIEW SHOWING DUPLEX CABLEWAY, 800-FOOT SPAN, USED FOR CONVEYING
CONCRETE TO LOCK WALLS. TOWERS ARE 85 FEET HIGH


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Caleb Mills Saville


S PECIAL Assistant Engineer in charge of the Third Division of the Office of the Chief Engineer,
was born at Melrose, Mass. He was educated in the public schools of Medford, Mass., graduating
from the high school of that city. After preparation in Mr. C. W. Stone's private school, Mr. Saville
entered Harvard College, from which he was graduated with the degree of A.B. with honorable
mention in engineering studies. Mr. Saville was married October 27, I891, to Miss Elizabeth Thorn-
dike, of West Newton, Mass., and has one son, Thorndike Saville, who is a member of the class of
1914, Harvard. Mr. Saville began his active engineering work in i89o in the office of the late M. M.
Tidd, a noted hydraulic engineer of Boston, and while in Mr. Tidd's employ was employed on water
and sewerage work and the reconstruction of the Simpson Dry Dock at East Boston. From 1891 to
1895 he was Assistant City Engineer of Malden, Mass., where he was in charge of design and con-
struction of the sewerage system which cost upward of $600,000. From 1895 to 19o6 Mr. Saville
was Division Engineer for the Massachusetts Metropolitan Water Commission, and had charge of
construction and maintenance work. Under his supervision many miles of large-size water pipes were
laid and several reservoirs and standpipes were constructed. During this period Mr. Saville became
familiar with the construction of earth and masonry dams and difficult foundation work, did practical
construction in subaqueous tunnels and cofferdams, and erected masonry and concrete retaining
walls, docks, wharves, etc. Several complete and extensive water, sewerage, and drainage systems
were laid out and constructed in connection with this work. During his assignment with the Metro-
politan Water Works Mr. F. P. Stearns was Chief Engineer, and to his intercourse with this eminent
engineer and Mr. John R. Freeman, consulting engineer, Mr. Saville attributes much of his
success. From 1906 to the date of his coming to Panama, Mr. Saville was hydraulic engineer for a
private firm of engineers engaged on hydraulic power and water works development. On his arrival
on the Isthmus in August, 1907, Mr. Saville was made civil engineer in charge of the investigations
for the foundation and methods of construction for the dams at Gatun and other places, and during
all of his employment special studies and investigations relating to seepage and other matters con-
nected with the water supply of Gatun Lake have been under his charge. In November, 1907, Mr. Saville was appointed Assistant Division Engineer
in charge of the construction of the Gatun dam and spillway, and continued on this work until July, 19o8, when he was promoted to be Special Assistant
Engineer in charge of the Third Division of the Office of the Chief Engineer, with headquarters at Culebra. In this position Mr. Saville has had charge
of the work in meteorology, hydrography, general surveys and special investigations. This assignment has covered a wide range of work, including
investigations of natural phenomena in meteorology and hydraulics relating to tropical countries and torrential streams that have been little studied.
Under his charge also have been made the surveys of the 1,320 square miles of drainage basin of the Chagres River and the extensive surveys of the
Canal Zone lands.









Captain H. W. Stickle


I N the person of Captain H. W. Stickle, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, Major Edgar
Jadwin, Resident Engineer in charge of the Atlantic end of the canal construction, has an Assistant
Engineer in whom he can place the utmost reliance. Captain Stickle has been connected with the
canal undertaking since the twenty-second of November, 1907, his first assignment being that of
Assistant Division Engineer of the Gatun Locks Division. This post he retained until July i, 19o8,
when his rating was changed to that of Assistant Engineer, Atlantic Division, his duties remaining
the same. Until January I, 19o9, he was in charge of securing sand, stone, and cement for the Gatun
locks and spillway, and on that date was made Assistant to Major Jadwin. The part of the work
which falls to Major Jadwin is varied. It includes the construction of the breakwater at Colon to
guard the Atlantic approach to the canal, and also the dredging of the channel from the ocean to the
great locks at Gatun, where the Isthmus-crossing ships will be lifted from the sea level to the upper
reaches of the artificial lake, eighty-five feet above the Atlantic. The dry dock and marine shops at
Cristobal also come under his charge, and to him falls, the conduct of the rock quarry at Porto Bello
and the excavation of sand at Nombre de Dios, as well as the transportation of the rock, sand, and
cement to the lock builders at Gatun. A force of three thousand men are constantly employed in these
operations, and neither the Major nor the Captain have the slightest difficulty in finding plenty to
occupy every minute of their working hours. Captain Stickle is a Middle West man, having been born
in the city of Anamosa, in the State of Iowa. He received his education partly in the public schools
of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, partly in the schools of Jones County, Iowa, and had graduated from the
Anamosa High School when he secured his appointment to the United States Military Academy
at West Point. He applied himself so faithfully to his work at the Academy that he was graduated
with a rank which gave him his initial commission as a Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers.
He was a member of the class of 1899, getting out a little too late for the Spanish War, but in ample
time to get a taste of real fighting in the Philippine insurrection. While he modestly disclaims any
particular credit for what he did in the Islands, it is a matter of pride to his friends to know that he
received high praise for his coolness and judgment under fire. He was in charge of road and bridge construction, frequently in front of the main body
of the fighting force, and led a charge on one occasion with such telling effect that he was recommended for brevet commission by General Lawton, who
was in command of the expedition. After his return from the Philippines he was stationed at Fort Totten, New York, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and
West Point, New York, up to the time of his coming to the Isthmus. While on duty at the Academy he was assistant to the officer in charge of the
construction of the new buildings, and during the absences of his chief had full direction of the work which has made West Point still more renowned.
He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, is married, and has four children. His wife was Miss Ora D. Condit, and they were married
August 28, 1901.








Hon. Joseph Bucklin Bishop

Wi W HEN President Roosevelt desired for the position of Secretary to the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission a man who could "do things" he selected Mr. Joseph Bucklin Bishop, then an editorial
writer for the New York Commercial Advertiser. The progress of events demonstrated that the
President was a good judge of men. He wished to couple in one official a power for publicity of the
right sort and a recording officer who could keep intelligent account of the building of the canal. In
Mr. Bishop the desired qualities were admirably combined. Born of good New England stock in
Seekonk, Mass., now East Providence, R. I., educated in the public schools, a graduate of Brown
University with degree of A.B. in the class of 1870, Mr. Bishop began work as a reporter on the New
York Tribune the year of his graduation from college. The following year he was promoted to the
Tribune's editorial staff, remaining there till 1883, when he became an editorial writer on the New
York Evening Post. He remained with the Post till 1900, when he went to the New York Commercial
Advertiser (now the New York Globe) in like capacity. In 1905 Roosevelt picked him for the secre-
taryship of the Isthmian Canal Commission. He was stationed at Washington till August, 1907,
making frequent visits to the Canal Zone, but since that time he has been a resident of the Zone,
and has, therefore, been connected actively with the work during the entire period of construction.
It is one of his duties as secretary to investigate all complaints. When he arrived on the Isthmus
the complaints were stacked high on his desk. For the first six months he devoted all his available
time to the investigation of these complaints, and so fairly did he sift each and every grievance that
a new regime began right then and there. People found that if they had a just complaint the secretary
was with them, and that if they were mere fault-finders and trouble-hunters they were knocking
at the wrong door. As a result complaints have dwindled almost to the disappearing point, and con-
tentment reigns in the Zone. Much of Mr. Bishop's work has found permanent expression in a
weekly publication called The Canal Record. Personalities have been omitted in the record, but
week by week its pages have told in good newspaper English the story of the progress on the canal.
They contain much which will never find its way into the official reports, but is nevertheless a vital
part of the history of the great undertaking. Mr. Bishop is the author of several political books, "Cheap Money Experiments" (1892), "Our Political
Drama" (1904), and "Issues of a New Epoch" (1904). Mr. Bishop is a member of the University Club in New York and the Metropolitan Club in
Washington. He was married in 1872 to Miss Harriet Hartwell of Providence, R. I., and they have two sons and a daughter.









Hon. Frank Feuille

T HOUGH born in the city of Havana, Cuba, on the tenth day of September, 1860, Mr. Feuille,
Counsel and Chief Attorney for the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad
Company, is a thorough-going American, having passed the greater portion of his life in the Lone
Star State of Texas, and being at the present time a citizen of Austin, the Texan capital. Not only
is he an American in the old and rather restricted continental sense, but he is an American who has
had no small share in shaping the course of events in our newer insular possessions. In Brownsville,
Texas, he had been city attorney for a number of years, later moving to Austin, Texas, and in 1902
he left there to accept the position of law clerk in the Department of Justice, in Porto Rico. Within
four months he was made Assistant Attorney-General, acting for several months as chief of his depart-
ment, and in 1904 was designated by the Governor of Porto Rico as a Special Judge to inaugurate
a new system of judicature. Having made a study of both the American and Spanish systems
of judicature, he was fully equipped for the task. He assisted in reorganizing all the courts of the
island, and in April, 1905, was made Attorney-General of Porto Rico by President Roosevelt. He
had this position till by his own request he was transferred to the neighboring isle of Cuba as legal
assistant to the Supervisor of the Department of State and Justice during the administration of
Governor Magoon. While serving as Attorney-General of Porto Rico, he was chairman of the Fran-
chises Committee and the Judiciary Committee, two of the most important committees of the Execu-
tive Council. He was also a member of the Committee on Public Health; but it was his work on the
Franchises Committee which will be longest remembered. The result was a higher standard of cor-
porate obligation to the people, and the island of Porto Rico will have cause for years to come to
remember his good work. In every way he was an active assistant to Governor Winthrop in estab-
lishing in the new territory a regime marked by all that had been found best in the United States.
In Cuba he continued his fine work for the public at large. He prepared the statute which now sup-
ports the executive power in Cuba for supervision to the Advisory Commission, and he afterwards
worked with that commission in correlating its many provisions. In the Canal Zone, the law makes
Mr. Feuille the Head of the Law Department. He has the direction and control of all civil and criminal matter before the courts. Land claims come
to him, and the legal phases of all matter between the Zone government and the Republic of Panama likewise. Mr. Feuille was married in 1887 to
Carrie Estelle Farnham, and they have an exceedingly interesting family of six children.









Captain Courtland Nixon

SHE Depot Quartermaster at Mount Hope is an army man, and he has put into his official duty
as Quartermaster the same fidelity to every trust that has marked his army career since he
joined the service in 1898. Captain Courtland Nixon is now a Captain in the Twenty-ninth United
States Infantry, and has been on the Isthmus since the fall of 1908. He arrived in the Canal Zone
in September, and since that time has filled with conspicuous ability the post of Depot Quartermaster
at Mount Hope and purchasing agent on the Isthmus. Captain Nixon is a Texan by birth, an East-
erner by education, but an all-round, wide-awake American by inclination and experience. He was
born at Fort Brown, an army post in the Department of Texas, and received his early education
in the public and private schools of New York and New Jersey. He then entered Princeton University
at Princeton, New Jersey, and was graduated in the class of 1895 with the degree of civil engineer.
His early practice of his chosen profession as an engineer included a survey of the Allegheny River
in Pennsylvania, and he was also in the employ of the New York and Philadelphia Traction Company.
But for the sinking of the battleship Maine and the consequent declaration of war with Spain, he
might have continued indefinitely as an engineer, and while he might ultimately have come to Panama
it would have been as an engineer and not as an army officer. The Spanish War aroused him to
instant action, and on July 9, 1898, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the First United States
SInfantry. He saw service in Cuba, and later in the Philippines, and up to the time of his coming to
Panama had led the busy, ever-changing life of an army officer. Since he came to Panama life hasn't
been quite so ever-changing, but anything it has lacked in that respect has been fully offset by an
increase on the busy end. He was a second lieutenant for less than a year, getting the first bar on his
shoulder straps on the ninth of March, 1899, when he was made a First Lieutenant in the Second
Infantry. He added the second bar on the fourteenth of April, 1904, when he was promoted to a
captaincy in the Twenty-ninth Infantry. He served as assistant to the Depot Quartermaster in San
Francisco during the army relief work following the destruction of the city by fire at the time of the
great earthquake. Later he was for nearly two years at the Philadelphia Quartermaster's supply
depot. Captain Nixon was married in February, 1905, and his charming wife has been exceedingly popular wherever he has been stationed. The Mount
Hope Depot is the main supply depot for the entire Zone. It is a station just a little way in from Colon on the Atlantic side of the Zone, on the road
to Mindi and Gatun. A vast amount of business is transacted at this point, for the office includes the printing plant and Dock No. 14. All things con-
sidered, there is no livelier office along the entire length of the Isthmian strip, and certainly there is no officer who is giving more loyal service. Nor is
there an officer who enjoys a wider circle of devoted friends. The people who come to know Captain Nixon intimately learn to esteem him highly for
his many excellent qualities of head and heart. He is a member of the Princeton Club of New York City, the University Club of Denver, Colorado,
and the Army and Navy Club of Manila, Philippine Islands.







































Civil Engineers. He was married Sept. II, 1907, to


Edward C. Sherman

IN building a high-level canal through Panama great dams have to be constructed to hold back
the waters of the upper levels; but lest these dams should accumulate more water than they
could comfortably hold back and make useful, certain regulating works are necessary. These works
are technically known as "spillways," and upon their proper designing and construction depends
in great measure the success of the canal. The designing engineer for these works is Edward C.
Sherman, one of the many successful men that have been turned out by the world-famous Massachu-
setts Institute of Technology. Though just turned thirtywhen appointed to the position of Designing
Engineer in charge of the designs for the spillways, Mr. Sherman had already done large things in
his chosen field. He was born in Kingston, Massachusetts, in January, 1877, and comes from good
old Puritan stock, no less than three of his ancestors having come over in the Mayflower in 1620.
He attended the public schools in Kingston and then the Knapp School in Plymouth, Mass., from
which he went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, being graduated in the class of 1898.
He immediately located in Boston and began the practice of his profession as an engineer. From 1900
to 1903 he was engaged on the design of the Cambridge bridge, a magnificent structure connecting
Cambridge with Boston, a bridge that cost two and a half million dollars. Mr. Sherman's work on
the bridge led to his employment on the designs for the river improvements between Boston and
Cambridge. At the end of two years as assistant engineer on this work he was made Division Engineer
in charge of all designs relating to the dam, lock and embankments and other work representing an
outlay of approximately three millions of dollars. He filled the position of Division Engineer for three
years, and on the completion of the work in 1909 was appointed to his present place in Panama.
That work on the Charles River furnished Mr. Sherman with the best possible preparation for the
operations in Panama, but probably Mr. Sherman would loyally concede that the real preparation
is to be credited to his alma mater. It is a foregone conclusion that wherever you find a great piece
of engineering under way you will find one or more graduates of old M. I. T. filling positions of high
responsibility. And this is true in Panama. Mr. Sherman is a member of the American Society of
Miss Kathrine Buck, and they have one child.








A. S. Zinn

T HE Resident Engineer of the Central Division of the Panama Canal is a native of the good old
State of Indiana. When Mr. Zinn came to the Isthmus, in October, 1906, it was as Resident
Engineer of the Culebra Division, but the year following there was a readjustment of territory and
Mr. Zinn became Resident Engineer of the "Central Division," which extended from Gatun Locks
on the north to Pedro Miguel Locks on the south, a total distance of thirty-one and one-half miles.
This great stretch of canal distance has been under his direction ever since. Including as it does
the great cut at Culebra, it is one of the most important and by far the most diversified divisions on
the whole canal. For the past three years this division alone has excavated on an average over a
million and a half cubic yards of material every month, which is equivalent to a grand yearly total
of eighteen million cubic yards. This work of excavation and the removal of the material excavated
-, has required the daily use of over fifty steam shovels, 200 work trains and over 300 miles of "con-
struction" tracks, besides the use of Panama Railroad tracks, not to mention the driving of over
SI twenty miles of pile trestles from which to start the dumps. The volume of the work is enough to
stagger even an experienced engineer, and it is next to impossible for the average layman to grasp
the magnitude of the task. In 1909 he designed and built a 600-foot span suspension bridge across
the Culebra cut at Empire. His work includes everything for the division, the furnishing of all
plans and estimates for all construction, including municipal engineering, railroad tracks, yards and
dumps. Mr. Zinn was born in Logansport, Indiana, receiving his early education in the country
schools. He was a graduate at the Logansport High School in the class of 1884. Then followed three
years' study in civil engineering at Rose Polytechnic Institute at Terre Haute, Ind. His first
engineering work was in the drafting office of the Illinois Central Railway. He was afterwards
Assistant Engineer on track elevation for the Chicago Belt Railway, Division Engineer and then
Principal Assistant Engineer for the Rock Island Railway, and later Engineer of Construction for
the Michigan Central Railway. Mr. Zinn is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers,
of the Western Society of Engineers, and the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of
Way Association. He was married in June, 1897, to Mabel Gray Cooper at Joliet, Ill., and they have one son, Kenyon Cooper Zinn, eleven years of age.







Herman Franklin Tucker

HERMAN FRANKLIN TUCKER arrived on the Isthmus June 13, 1907, as one of the first
designing engineers. He has since been steadily employed under Colonel Goethals as one of
the two designing engineers engaged in the study, design, and construction of the accepted plans
of the masonry and valves for the great locks which will transfer Isthmus-crossing vessels from one
level to another. Mr. Tucker is a native of the State of Massachusetts, having been born in the
town of Weston on the eighth day of January, 1878. He received his early education in the public
schools of that town, and then went to Harvard University to pursue his scientific studies. He was
graduated with the class of 901o, taking the degree of bachelor of science in civil and topographical
engineering, with the distinction of Cum Laude. He began professional work in 1901 as a draftsman
.with J. R. Worcester, a consulting engineer in Boston. He remained with Mr. Worcester till June,
1906, when he became engineer for the Dominion Engineering and Construction Company at Montreal,
P. Q. On February 6, 1907, he entered the employ of the Isthmian Canal Commission as assistant
engineer on the design of the lock gates, under the organization of John F. Stevens, and was on duty
at the Washington office of the Commission until June of that year, when he was transferred to the
active field in Panama. Mr. Tucker is a member of the following societies: the Boston Society of
Civil Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society for Testing Materials,
the International Society for Testing Materials, the Association of Harvard Engineers, the National
Association of Cement Users, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National
Geographic Society, the Engineers Club of Montreal, and others. He was married January 2,
1908, to Wilhelmina M. B. Meyers, of Washington, D. C., and they have two promising sons.






















* 4 ,
-3f6 Jy.


GATUN LOCKS: VIEW LOOKING TOWARD ATLANTIC ENTRANCE, SHOWING STEAM SHOVEL ANI) CRANE EXCAVATION IN LOWER
LOCK


~-' p








Tollef Bache Monniche


T HE designing engineer in charge of the design of the emergency dams is a native of Norway,
Tollef Bache Monniche, an engineer of high attainments and of growing renown in the engi-
neering world. Mr. Monniche came to the Isthmus in October, 19o8, but for the year previous thereto
he had been in the service of the Isthmian Canal Commission as an Assistant Engineer in the Com-
mission's Washington office, working on the designs for the mitering lock gates. In both positions
he has made plain his thorough familiarity with large engineering projects and has won commendation
for the uniform excellence of his work. Mr. Monniche was born at Surendalen, Norway, August 27,
1874. His early life was spent at Molde, and it was at the Molde Latin Skole that he first went to
school. When he was fourteen his family moved to Christiana, and there he attended Otto Anderson's
Real Skole. In 1894 he was graduated from the Royal Norwegian War School and served at intervals
thereafter as a lieutenant in the Royal Norwegian Army while studying engineering in Germany.
In 19o0 he was graduated with honors from the Royal Polytechnic Institute at Dresden, Germany,
and that same year started for America, where he gained all of his practical experience. From July
of that year to May of the following year he was employed by the American Bridge Company, first
as a draftsman and then as a squad boss in the bridge department of the Pencoyd Iron Works. His
most important work during this period was that of checker and squad boss for the New York Sub-
way's crossing over Riverside Drive, the Manhattan Valley viaduct. The year from May, 1902, to
May, 19o3, was a busy one for the young engineer. He was instrument man for the Pennsylvania
Railroad in the construction of its stockyards at Pittsburg. He supervised all the field work, con-
sisting of trestle work, fills, excavations, stockyard sewerage, water and gas pipe systems, conduits
for electrical equipment, foundations for bridges and buildings, the whole wprk representing an outlay
of three million dollars. From May, 1903, to September, 1904, he did notable work in Philadelphia,
being assistant engineer for the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company in its subway and elevated
railway department. He completed the principal designs for the proposed three-track elevated
system, was engaged on the designs for the plain and re-enforced concrete work for the subway and
also worked on the plans for the subway stations. From September, 1904, to ~August, 1905, he was Assistant Engineer in the designing department of
the American Bridge Company at its head office in New York City. He was for a part of this time a squad boss for a portion of the Pennsylvania Rail-
road station in Washington, and also on the Pennsylvania's bridge across the Susquehanna at Havre de Grace, the remainder of the year being
devoted to the office work in New York City. In August, 1905, he was made Assistant Bridge Engineer for the Virginian Railway Company, being in
immediate charge of the bridge department. During the year he was there all necessary designs for 50,000 tons of steel bridges were completed. After
completing the designs, he took charge as Resident Engineer of the construction of the New River bridge, the largest bridge on the line-2,200 feet long
and ioo feet high, with the tallest concrete piers in the world; also the East River bridge, i,ooo feet long and 140 feet high. Mr. Monniche is an associate
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He was married on August 3, 19o09, to Julia T. Huger, at Roanoke, Virginia.









William M. Wood


W' HERE millions of dollars are being paid out there is work in plenty for disbursing officers,
and to give the Isthmian Canal Commission the best there was for the execution of the great
work in Panama the departments at the national capital were drawn on for some of their best men.
Among the number thus chosen for their allround fitness was William M. Wood, who for five years
had been doing good work in the government service at Washington. He came to the Canal Zone
June 28, 1904, as Chief Clerk in the Disbursing Department of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
His masterly grasp of detail and evident capacity for executive functions led to his promotion on the
tenth of August, 1910, to the position of Assistant Disbursing Officer. This position he has held ever
since, and the ease with which a huge volume of business is handled by the department is due in no
small degree to the intelligent direction of affairs by Mr. Wood. Having come with the early American
Settlers, as they might be called, he has at his finger tips all that knowledge of what has gone which
is so essential in keeping disbursements moving along without delay. Disbursing officers differ from
poets in that they are made and not born. In fact, a man isn't of much use as a disbursing officer
till he has devoured and digested all the rules and regulations which govern the paying out of public
moneys, and even then he has to keep both eyes open to see that some new ruling doesn't upset every-
thing that has previously been according to Hoyle. There is nothing about which the federal govern-
ment is more fussy than the disbursement of its moneys. Any one can pay out money, but it takes
a shrewd and careful official to pay out government money so that there will be no suspensions and
Sdisallowances when the auditors come to go over the accounts with their magnifying glasses. But
Mr. Wood's five years' training in Washington have stood him in good stead. During those five years
he was on duty in the auditing office for the State and other departments, and had a chance to get in
touch with many different lines of public expenditures. This chance he improved to the utmost,
and, as has already been stated, his ability to meet complex situations won him promotion from the
office of Chief Clerk to Assistant Disbursing Officer. Mr. Wood was born in Spring Valley, Rockland
County, New York, and while he received his early education in the Empire State, he finished his
studies way down south in the Lone Star State of Texas. He was graduated from the Agricultural and Mechanical College of that State in the class of
1888 with the degree of bachelor of civil engineering. The following year he went to work with the Resident Engineer of the M. K. & T. Railway Com-
pany at Denison, Texas. He was with this road for five years, and was then engaged in railway contract work for a couple of years. From 1896 to
1898 he was in business in Dallas, Texas, and from 1899 to June 27, 1904, was in the government service in Washington. Since the latter date he has
been in Panama. He was married January 28, 1892, at Denison, Texas, to Mary Roberta Oldham. They have one son, William Robert Wood, born
January 15, 1907. Mr. Wood is a member of the University Club, Panama.









George M. Wells

M R. GEORGE M. WELLS, a member of the force of civil engineers, was born of American
parents in New Brunswick, Canada. He was educated in the schools of New York City
and Seattle, Washington.. Passing through the common schools of these two cities, he entered the
University of Washington in 1893. Leaving this institution in his junior year, he followed the practice
of profession in the States of Washington and Oregon until the year 19o0, when he entered the Michigan
College of Mines for a special course. At the expiration of this work he took and passed a competitive
examination for Junior Civil Engineer in the United States Engineer Service, and was engaged in
the construction work of this service on the Eastern coast until 1904. In June of this year he was
appointed a member of the first party of engineers sent to the Isthmus under Admiral Walker. The
exact date of his arrival on the Isthmus was the eighth of June, and any one who wants to know what
was taking place in the early days of American occupancy naturally turns to Mr. Wells. He has
served in various capacities-as chief of the survey parties, as Assistant Engineer and Superintendent
of Construction of the locks, and as office engineer in charge of Atlantic Division designing office;
in each capacity he has given loyal service, which has frequently called forth official commendation.
In the time that he has been on the Isthmus he has seen the Canal Zone transformed from a pestilential
strip where men worked always in the shadow of death to a country where ill health is an exception.
He has seen the world's greatest engineering problems grow from a mere scratch across the Isthmus
to a canal which will give the United States the highest engineering honors of the world. Through
it all he has been a busy and valued member of the engineering force, and is regarded by everyone
in authority as one of the men who can be depended upon to do things right and get them done on
time. These are the chief factors by which our success in Panama .is assured-the ability to do and
the force to carry through. Neither alone is sufficient, and the man who has both is the man to be
trusted with great responsibility, and Mr. Wells is one of the favored few. When -the canal is com-
pleted he will, if then on the Isthmus, be one of a very limited number who will be able to say that
they came with the first and stayed to the last. He is a member of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, and is extremely popular with all classes throughout the Canal Zone. Mr. Wells was married July 7, 1909, to Miss Elizabeth G. Bradley.








Captain Robert E. Wood

i - i AVING been on the Isthmus since April io, 1905, Captain Robert E. Wood, Third Cavalry, U. S. A., is entirely
familiar with the progress of events. And it is a large field which is embraced by the Quartermaster's Depart-
ment of the Canal Zone. It has to recruit the skilled and unskilled labor for the great undertaking, and that means an
Army of forty-five thousand. Then, having secured an army to do the digging, it has to see that they are properly
quartered. To begin with, it constructed the quarters, then it furnished them and assigned them to the various
S officials and workmen. And since then it has seen to the upkeep of all such quarters, taking far better care of them
S.than would the most kindly and obliging landlord back in the States. The Quartermaster's Department also looks
After the removal of garbage and does its share in keeping the Zone in a sanitary condition. Having charge of all animal
-' transportation, it delivers the commissary supplies, fuel and distilled water to all families, hotels, messes and kitchens.
".- It has supervision over all Isthmian Canal Commission property on the Isthmus, and a part of its work is to keep a
close check on all returns in connection with such property. Captain Wood came to the Isthmus for general duty in
,: the Quartermaster's Department, but such duty lasted only from the April of his arrival to the following September,
S when he was promoted to the position of Superintendent of the Department of Labor, Quarters and Supplies at Empire.
N,, March i, 1906, he was made Assistant Manager of the Department of Labor, Quarters and Supplies at Cristobal, and
July I, 19o6, he was advanced to his present position of Assistant Chief Quartermaster with headquarters at Culebra.
Mr. Wood was born in Kansas City, Missouri, June io, 1879. He went through the public schools, finishing with the
High School in Kansas City. He was appointed to the Military Academy at West Point, entering June 15,1896. He
was graduated with the class of 1900 and was assigned as a second lieutenant to the Third Cavalry, his rank dating
from June I3th of that year. He was promoted to first lieutenant February 2, 1909, and May 3, 1911, was pro-
moted to captain in the Third Cavalry. From the time of his graduation from the Point to 1903 he was on duty with his regiment in the Philippines
and at Fort Assinniboine in Minnesota. From 1903 to 1905 he was on duty at West Point as an instructor, this detail continuing till he was ordered
to the Isthmus and given an opportunity to have an important share in building the great canal. Captain Wood belongs to the Military Order of the
Loyal Legion of the United States. He was married April 30, 1908, to Miss Mary Hardwick, and they have two children.







Captain F. C. Whitlock

i4th Cavalry, U. S. A.

Assistant Subsistence Officer




























































CULEBRA CUT: VIEW LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PACIFIC ENTRANCE, SHOWING GOLD HILL ON LEFT AND CONTRACTOR'S HILL
ON RIGHT









Dr. William Hemphill Bell

SN the work of keeping the Isthmus healthful, the Navy Department has loaned the Isthmlian Canal
Commission one of its most efficient and brilliant young surgeons, Dr. William Hemphill Bell,
now Superintendent of the great hospital at Colon. He has been at his present post since March,
1910, but this does not by any means cover his Panama experience, for he was on the Isthmus at
the very beginning of the events which have resulted in the United States taking off its coat and show-
ing the world that the Panama canal can and will be dug-and that, too, without graft, without sowing
the ground with dead workmen and within the limits first set. Dr. Bell's first visit was in July, 1904,
when he came as senior surgeon with the battalion of U. S. Marines that was on duty at Camp Elliott
at Empire. In those days the Isthmus was not such a health resort as it is to-day, but Dr. Bell was
not at all slow in making his part of the country as sanitary as it could be made with the means at
his disposal. It was his knowledge of tropical conditions and the excellent record which he made at
Camp Elliott which resulted in his being sent back in the spring of 1910 to take charge of the Colon
hospital. On his first tour of duty he remained in Panama from July, 1904, to April, 1905. Then
followed sea duty on the U. S. S. Dixie and the U. S. S. Nevada, and duty in the Bureau of Medicine
and Surgery at the Navy Department in Washington. Dr. Bell was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
attended the public schools in that city, and then entered the University of Pennsylvania in Phila-
delphia, from which he was graduated in the class of 1897 with the degree of doctor of medicine.
Following his graduation he became resident physician at St. Agnes Hospital and the Protestant Epis-
copal Hospital in Philadelphia. On the i6th of September, 1898, he was commissioned in the Medical
Corps of the U. S. Navy. In 1900 he was charged with the duty of enumerating the naval population
for the decennial census of that year. Dr. Bell is a member of the Delta Phi fraternity, of the Mask
and Wig Club of the University of Pennsylvania, of the Markham Club of Philadelphia, the Associa-
tion of Military Surgeons, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, the Society of the War of 1812,
and the Pennsylvania Sons of the Revolution. He was married on October 13, 1902, to Eleanor Yorke
Parker of Philadelphia.









Dr. Lloyd Noland


iA YOUNG Virginian who has won high honors in the Sanitary Department of the Isthmian Canal
... Commission is Dr. Lloyd Noland. He came to the Isthmus two years after completing his
medical studies and his great natural ability, his executive force, and his high professional learning
i. have united to procure him great advancement. It was the sixth of July that he-landed in the Canal
Zone, and he was immediately assigned to duty as Assistant Surgeon at the Ancon Hospital. In the
.- year 1905, when the Chief Sanitary Officer was looking the staff over for an individual who was not
t: only a good doctor, but a good executive as well, he settled on Dr. Noland and made him his Executive
Officer. It was an appointment that gave the utmost satisfaction to the Chief Sanitary Officer for
the year that it was in force. From the latter part of 1905 to the present time Dr. Noland has been
S'.Chief of the Surgical Clinic in the Colon Hospital, a position which has given him wonderful oppor-
t unities for extended work along surgical lines and which will be of inestimable value to him in later
. years if he decides to return to private practice. The experience which the physicians of the Sanitary
S'Department have gained since the Americans took over the building of the canal is something which
*"" could have come to them in no other way, and no one has worked harder to make this experience of
lasting value professionally than the subject of this sketch. Always on the alert, Dr. Noland has
proven a most valuable official in whatever capacity he has been placed. He has a wide acquaintance
socially, and is popular both in and out of the hospitals. Dr. Noland was born in Fauquier County,
Virginia. He was educated in the Williamson's School in Lexington, Virginia, the Central High School
Sin Washington, finishing with the Baltimore Medical School, from which he was graduated with the
SI degree of Doctor of Medicine in the class of 1902. He began the practice of his profession at Port
Royal in Caroline County, Virginia, in 1903. He was successful from the very first, but seeing that
the Panama field offered great possibilities for most valuable training, he sought and secured an
appointment to the Sanitary Service. That was in 1904, and he has been on duty in the Canal Zone
Ever since. Dr. Noland is a member of the Stranger's Club in Colon. He was married in 1907 to
Miss Margaret Gillick of East Orange, New Jersey. The building of the canal has called many
talented professional men to the Isthmus to battle with one problem or another, and show that American nerve and American skill are a match for any-
thing that the world has to offer, but not one of them has demonstrated more marked ability than Dr. Lloyd Noland. He has already made his name
known among medical men the world over, and a signal tribute to his ability was paid in January, 1911, when a distinguished Boston physician, visiting
the Isthmus in company with other skilled surgeons, called upon Dr. Noland to perform the operation when he was stricken with acute appendicitis.
The operation was successful, and one more triumph was added to the Chief of the Surgical Clinic. When one has become acquainted with the work of
the physicians in the great hospitals at Ancon and Colon, they come to appreciate the full meaning of the saying which you hear on the Isthmus: "No
sick person that reaches either hospital ever dies." Thousands of grateful men who are now enjoying health and strength will attest to the truth of this,
and till their dying day will return thanks for having fallen into the hands of the accomplished Dr. Noland.









Samuel T. Darling, M. D.

D R. DARLING is a native of Harrison, N. J. He came to the Isthmus Feb. 28, 1905, and his
professional duties have included: Interne; Physician; Pathologist; and Chief of Laboratory.
Dr. Darling received his medical education at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore,
Md., where he graduated in 1903. After graduating he was appointed Resident Pathologist of the
City Hospital in Baltimore, and was an instructor in Histology and Pathology in his alma mater
1903-1905. He was President of the Canal Zone Medical Association, in 1907; he is a corresponding
member of the Soci6t6 Pathologie Exotique of France; a fellow of the Society of Tropical Medicine
and Hygiene of London; a member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine; a member of the
American Medical Association, and of the Medical Association of the Canal Zone. Dr. Darling was
married in 1905 to Miss Llewellyn of Charlottesville, Va. His published researches include: The
Transmission of Malarial Fever in the Canal Zone by Anopheles Mosquitoes, 1909; Studies in Relation
to Malaria, 191o; Pneumococcus Infections in the Canal Zone, 191o; Studies in Strongyloidosis,
1910; Autochthonous Oriental Sore in Panama, 191o; Murrina, a Trypanosomal Disease of Equines
in the Canal Zone, 191o; Sarcosporidiosis in the Opossum and Its Experimental Production in the
Guinea Pig, 191o; Equine Trypanosomiasis in the Canal Zone, 191o; Experimental Sarcosporidiosis
in the Guinea Pig and Its Relation to a Case of Sarcosporidiosis in Man, 1909; Sarcosporidiosis in
Man, 1909; The Relapsing Fever of Panama, 1909; The Morphology of the Parasite (IHistoplasma-
Capsulatum) and the Lesions of Histoplasmosis, a Fatal Disease of Tropical America, 1909; Histo-
plasmosis, 1909; Notes on Histoplasmosis, 1908; A Protozoon General Infection Producing Pseudo-
tubercles in the Lungs and Focal Necroses in the Liver, Spleen and Lymphnodes, 1907; Pneumo-
coccus Infections and the Accessory Nasal Sinuses, 1907; Typhoid Orchitis, 1905.









Thomas Leroy Clear


A REMARKABLE aptitude for accounting and an attractive personality have combined to place
Mr. Thomas Leroy Clear in a very enviable position in the Canal Zone. The former has brought
him high commendation from those who have oversight of his work, and the latter has endeared him
to everyone with whom he has come in contact either through his official duties or in a social way.
He now holds the position of Assistant Examiner of Accounts and Assistant Auditor of the Govern-
ment of the Canal Zone, and is a most efficient righthand man for the head of the Department. Mr.
Clear was born in Washington, D. C., and received his education there. He was graduated with the
class of goo1900 from Columbian University of that city, and in 1902, desiring to have the very last word
there was to be taught in his particular line, took a special course in the Science of Railway Accounting
at the University of Chicago. Mr. Clear's first experience with accounting came in bank work. He
was employed as early as 1890 by the Washington National Building and Loan Association and the
Ohio National Bank of Washington. He entered the government service in February, 1900, in
the Department of the Interior. Assigned to the Census Bureau, he was given charge of the work
of organizing the accounting system for the twelfth census of the United States. Having gotten his
system into working order, he resigned from the government service at the end of the fiscal year,
June 30, 1902. He then went to work for the great Santa Fe Railway system in its Chicago offices
and was there when called to the Canal Zone as Assistant Auditor, September 12, 1908. Mr. Clear
is a member of Lafayette Lodge, F. & A. M., Washington, D. C. He was married November 29, 1892,
to Miss Laura Virginia Cronise, and they have one child, Robert Leroy Clear. Mr. Clear's expe-
rience both in the government service and in the railway service gave him the best possible training
for his present situation. He is entirely capable of designing new systems if they become necessary,
and is at home in any part of the complicated machinery of the audit office.










/


GATUN LOCKS: VIEW SHOWING PORTION OF DUPLEX CABLEWAY PLANT AND DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF LOCK WALLS


7--


d


w .









Joseph A. LePrince

S- AMAN whose education and training fit him to shinebrilliantlyin many different capacities is Joseph A.LePrince,
.C. E., A. M., Chief Sanitary Inspector of the Canal Zone. He has been on the Isthmus since June, 1904, and has
therefore seen the development of the American system of warding off disease. He has not only seen it develop but
he has had an active part therein. He was acting health officer of the City of Panama during the yellow fever cam-
paign, and the records will bear out the statement that he was a most efficient official. Since then he has been Chief
Sanitary Inspector of the Canal Zone, directing the anti-malarial work, looking after general sanitation and directing
the preventive measures against the introduction of yellow fever. Mr LePrince is entirely at home in this sort of work,
for before coming to the Isthmus he had been through the trying campaign in Havana. In the Cuban city he was
Assistant to the Chief Sanitary Officer and was General Inspector of the Department of Sanitation. He was in charge
of the anti-malarial measures and the eradication of the stegomyia (yellow fever mosquito) at Havana, Santiago, Las
Vegas, San Antonio and elsewhere. All of this work would be quite enough for one life story, but before taking up the
scientific study of sanitation Mr. LePrince had established a reputation as a Civil Engineer. Though educated in this
country, he was born in Leeds, England, in 1875. Coming to this country, he fitted for college at Sach's Collegiate
Institute in New York City and then entered the College of Mines in Columbia University, New York City, being
graduated therefrom in 1898 with the degree of Civil Engineer. He then took a post-graduate course and in 1899 was
given the degree of Master of Arts. That same year he began the active practice of his profession, being engaged on
engineering and construction work in Wetzel county, West Virginia. Later he was employed as Resident Engineer in
Pennsylvania and in McDowell County, West Virginia. From this work he went into the sanitary corps in Cuba and
has become one of the recognized authorities in his particular phase of the modern warfare on disease germs. Mr.
LePrince was married in 1902 in Havana, Cuba, to Julia Mercedes Lluria and they have a charming family of four children. Mr. LePrince belongs to
the Sigma Chi college fraternity and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

Frank A. Gause

F you should take a vote of the parents of the Panama Canal Zone, you would find that, according to the mother's
point of view one of the most efficient officials in the employ of the Isthmian Canal Commission is Mr. Frank A.
Gause, the Superintendent of Schools for the Canal Zone. It may be said to the credit of the United States that
education of the little ones has not been neglected in the least, even in the rush and turmoil of digging the great canal.
Wheresoever the flag has gone, the school teacher has followed, and those who have studied Isthmian conditions are
agreed that the schools of the Canal Zone will compare favorably with the best in the States. The school buildings
have been built with as much care as the hospital buildings, the office-structures and the hotels and dwellings. They
are bright and cheerful, equipped with all that is latest and best in the pedagogical world, and the teaching force is a
carefully picked and specially trained corps. The teachers fully understand their responsibility, and the boy from the
States whose father works in the Canal Zone for three or four years will not find himself behind the procession when
the canal is completed and he goes "back home." The standard of excellence which is maintained is high, and full
credit belongs to Mr. Gause, who is indefatigible in his efforts to attain and maintain the highest possible degree of
efficiency. Mr Gause was born in Westfield, Indiana, in 1874, and there attended the Friends' Academy. Later he
went to the University of Indiana. He received his A. B. in 1904 and his A. M. in 1905. He has also done a year's
post-graduate work in the University of Chicago. He was Superintendent of Schools in Cicero, Indiana, from 1897
to 1904, and in Salem, Indiana from 1905 to 1909. He came to the Isthmus in August, 1909, and has had charge of
the school system ever since. He belongs to the Sigma Nu college fraternity, is a Mason, a member of the Knights of
Phythias and the Red Men.








D. F. Reeder, M.D.

T HE career of the subject of this sketch illustrates the old adage that "nothing succeeds like success." Ancon Hos-
pital is justly famed for its medical staff, and among those who, in addition to being good all-round practitioners,
are recognized leaders in certain lines, must be classed Dr. D. F. Reeder, chief of the eye, ear, nose and throat clinic.
Dr. Reeder was born in Kentucky. He received his early education in the common schools, then went through
Benton Seminary preparatory to his college course. He entered the Kentucky University (now the University of
Louisville) in 1901, graduated in the class of 1904-5 with degree of M.D., and took up the work of eye, ear, nose and
throat, for which he was prepared in the Broadway Infirmary and the Louisville City Hospital. Later he located in
Paducah, Ky., and practiced with Dr. J. W. Pendley, physician to the county hospital. In 1906 he heard the "call
of the tropics" and came to Panama under appointment from the Isthmian Canal Commission, soon thereafter being
assigned as assistant to the chief of the eye, ear, nose and throat clinic, Major T. C. Lyster. He served in this
capacity until November, 1909, when he succeeded Major Lyster, who left for service in the Philippines.
The magnitude of the eye, ear, nose and throat work on the Canal Zone may be illustrated by citing the fact
that, as a side line, about 1o,ooo prescriptions have been issued in the past five years for eyeglasses. The Eye and Ear
section of Ancon Hospital provides accommodations for seventy-five patients, with operating room, dark rooms, and
other necessary accessories for carrying on the work.
Dr. Reeder is a member and former president of the Pacific Masonic Club, member of the American Medical
Association, and Secretary of the Canal Zone Medical Association. In addition to his skill as a surgeon, Dr. Reeder
exudes health and possesses unlimited endurance and patience, qualities equally desirable in such exacting work. Dr.
Reeder's interesting family consists of his wife, who was Miss Minnie Sargent, of Kentucky, and daughter Kathleen.


Howard V. Dutrow, M.D.

IF there is anything which you might wish to know concerning the hospital work at various places along the Canal
Zone and were not minded to consult official reports, it would be possible to secure very accurate data from a young
Maryland physician, who, in the course of five years, has quite completely boxed the local compass. This physician
is Howard V. Dutrow, who was born in Charlesville, Frederick county, Maryland. There he attended the public
schools, spent three years in private schools and then entered the University of Maryland at Baltimore, taking up
the study of medicine. He was graduated in the class of 1904 with the degree of M. D., and in July of his gradua-
tion year began the practice of his profession in Frederick, Md. He thought there was an opportunity for interest-
ing experience on the Isthmus and consequently applied for a place in the Sanitary Department of the Canal Zone.
The appointment was forthcoming, and he ultimately arrived on the Isthmus on Christmas Day, 1905. He spent
the next year as a member of the staff of the Colon Hospital on the Atlantic side of the canal. Then he moved on-
ward to Culebra, where for eighteen months he was assistant physician. For the next two years he was District
Physician at Corozal, and February i, 1910, he was made assistant to the chief of Clinic of the Eye and Ear Depart-
ment of Ancon Hospital. Thus in his five years he has moved entirely across the Isthmus from Colon on the east to
Ancon on the west. And at the same time he has been moving upward in his profession and is already regarded as
a physician of unusual prospects. He belongs to the American Medical Association and the Canal Zone Medical
Association. ),Outside his professional affiliations, he enjoys being counted as a member of the Elks, belonging to the
B. P. O. E. lodge in Frederick, Md. He is also a member of the National Geographic Society in Washington, D. C.
He was married December 14, 1905 to Emma Agnes Thomas.








James Monroe Hagan

T HE popular and efficient Superintendent of Construction for the Empire District, James Monroe
Hagan, is a native of Greenville, Illinois. He received his education in the public schools, and
when school days were over he turned to railroad construction. That was in 1880, and the great
systems of to-day were just beginning to unkink and wind their steel tentacles into the growing business
centers of the Farther West. The earlier railroad construction had been of a nature which, so to speak,
only hit the high places. About the time that Mr. Hagan began work the roads were developing in
all directions. It was a busy time and good men were in demand. Mr. Hagan's first work was on the
Burlington & Missouri River Railway, then building into Denver. When that was accomplished he
went onto the construction work of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway and helped build it into
the Black Hills. His next move was to the South, where he was superintendent of construction on the
Shreveport & Red River Valley Railway, and was later superintendent for the Griggsby Construction
Company of Texas. This work in the South made him familiar with Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana,
but it was by no means to be the extent of his industrial travels. The year 1897 found him way down
in South America superintending construction on the Guayaquil & Quito Railroad, a job that made
him acquainted with men and methods to the south of the U. S. A. Well, he came back from Ecuador
to Louisiana and Texas, where he remained for three years, and for the next three years he was en-
gaged in railway construction down in the neighboring republic of Mexico. This was more good
experience in the ways of other peoples, and so it came about that when he arrived on the Isthmus
of Panama on the second day of December, 1907, he was exceptionally well qualified to handle any
sort of a crew. He began work on the Isthmus as General Foreman. At the end of six months they
had found out that Hagan was one man in a thousand when it came to handling men and getting
the work out on time. Therefore, they made him Assistant Superintendent. He entered into the
discharge of his new duties with characteristic zeal, and the opinion in which he was held by
Colonel Goethals and the other engineers went up several additional points. From that time it kept
on going up, and no one was surprised and everyone was pleased when, on the eleventh day of May,
1910, they dropped the Assistant in front of the Superintendent. On that date he was made Superintendent of the entire Empire District, which runs .
from the Empire bridge to the Gamboa bridge. From that day to this the Empire District has been a model, and Superintendent Hagan is trusted in
every possible way by his superiors. They regard his ability highly and he merits this esteem by the uniform excellence of the service which he renders.
Mr. Hagan has a very happy home life, his wife having been Elizabeth H. Meyer, whom he wedded in New Orleans.








J. W. Sneed

-N the responsible position of Superintendent of the Chagres Section of the Panama Canal is an
American who has conclusively shown that individual attention to business will carry a man well
up the ladder of success. This particular American is J. W. Sneed, who was born in 1MIemphis, Ten-
nessee, brought up in the State of Mississippi, educated in the public schools of the latter State, and
trained in the railway service of the United States and elsewhere for his present place. The manner
in which he won promotion after coming to the Isthmus is almost without parallel, even in the Canal
Zone, where promotion has been rapid for many. When he landed in the Zone in September, 1906,
he was made a conductor, but inside of the first month his superiors found that they had a man who
was capable of higher responsibilities, and six weeks from the date of his landing lie received the wel-
come announcement of his advancement to the grade of Foreman Conductor. From Foreman Con-
ductor he rose to Supervisor, and when the Central Division was reorganized he was made Assistant
Superintendent of the Bas Obispo District. In June, 1907, he was promoted to the Superintendency
of the entire Bas Obispo District. This is a truly remarkable record-from Conductor to District
Superintendent in the short space of ten months! He served in the office of Superintendent from June,
1907, to May, 1910, when the District was abolished as a result of a general scheme of reorganization.
He was then assigned to the Superintendency of the Chagres Section, which position he is still filling
Iwith marked success. Though Mr. Sneed attended the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical
College for a short time, he had no special technical training for his life work, and what he has accom-
plished stands to his individual credit. He is in the broadest and best sense of the term a "self-made "
man. He began railroading on the 28th of September in the year 1889, going to work at McComb
City, Mississippi, as a brakesman for the Illinois Central. He worked hard, showed that he could
be depended upon himself, and that he could get work out of a train crew, and was very soon advanced
to the position of conductor. He stayed with the Illinois Central till 1892, and then worked for the
Alley "L" in Chicago, was on the Y. & M. V. T. C. branch of the T. & P. and M. K. & T. railroads
for a few years, and in 1895 took up construction work. During the period from 1895 to his coming
to Panama in 1906, he was engaged in construction work in various parts of the tropics. He knows the tropics like a book, and his added knowledge
of how to get the maximum of labor from tropical employes has been a very valuable asset for him since be entered the service of the Isthmian Canal
Commission. Many men from the States have been handicapped by lack of this knowledge, though in other respects they have been fully equal to their
tasks, but Mr. Sneed had nothing to learn and his district has always shown a high percentage of efficiency. Mr. Sneed is unmarried, and has never gone
in for secret orders. He is, however, a member of that select organization known to tropical fame as the "Tropical Tramps," and is one of the leading
spirits at the meetings. He has won a large circle of friends to him in the time that he has been on the Isthmus, and is extremely popular with all classes.








William T. Reynolds

AN official in the employ of the Isthmian Canal Commission to whom promotion has come rapidly
A and who has earned every advancement is William T. Reynolds, now holding the rating of
Superintendent of Construction. The still more agreeable part of this promotion has been the fact
that each upward movement has given fully as much pleasure to his hosts of friends as it has to Mr.
.* Reynolds himself. Few men in the thousands who have come to Panama have succeeded in making
themselves so generally agreeable as the gentleman whose portrait adorns this page. He is so exacting
-- in his demands that the men under him give proper service to the government which is paying them,
S~ but his firmness is kindly and he never takes unfair advantage of a man. His men have a feeling
that so long as they do their work to the best of their abilities they are certain of a friend in the Super-
- I intendent. It is probable that this attitude on his part is responsible for the high regard in which
he is held by those who work under his superintendence, and his genial nature and cheery disposition
are sufficient to account for his general popularity throughout the Canal Zone. Mr. Reynolds came
to Panama on the fifteenth of October, 1906, and began work as an Assistant Supervisor. On the
first day of the following March came his first promotion, when he was advanced to the post of Super-
visor. He remained a Supervisor till the first day of July, 1907, when again the call came to come up
higher. This time it was to the position of Assistant Superintendent of Construction. But the end
was not reached even then. He was Assistant Superintendent for exactly nine months, and then he
was promoted to his present position of Superintendent of Construction. In every capacity in which
he has been assigned he has given the Commission his best effort, and the regularity with which he
has been promoted indicates that his work has been fully appreciated. Mr. Reynolds is a native of
Maryland, the State which has furnished a great many of the leading spirits in the construction of
the canal. He was born in the town of Elk Ridge, and it was there that he first went to school. After
completing the work laid down in the common school course he put in three years at Rock Hill College,
Ellicotts City, Maryland. Deciding that he wished a more specifically practical course of training,
he left college at the end of his sophomore year and entered Sadler's, Bryant & Stratton's Business
College in Baltimore. The work in this commercial college was to his liking, and he applied himself studiously to his studies, graduating with good
record. Thus equipped for meeting the world from which he was determined to win a living, he settled down to hard work. His first employment was
at Patton, Cambria County, Pennsylvania. The date of his official entry into the world at large was the first day of August, 1892. Since that time he
has been continuously engaged in the construction business, and there is no part of the work which he isn't qualified to supervise. In that period of
nearly twenty years he has seen much of the country, and has had a share in many notable pieces of construction work. Though his work demands
practically all of his time, he is a member of the University Club of Panama City, and is a favorite at the clubhouse. He has yet to join the ranks of the
married men, and claims to be one of the settled-for-all-time bachelors.








Arthur Sessions

I.F you would like to become acquainted with one of the busiest men in the world, let this be your
introduction. There may be men here and there in the civilized lands of the globe who are busier
S.. than Mr. Arthur Sessions, but those who know Mr. Sessions wouldn't be inclined to admit as much
without listening to some very conclusive evidence, and they might rightfully demand a practical
demonstration. The gentleman thus introduced is the Superintendent of Transportation for the
entire Central Division of the great canal project. It is he who has charge of the movement of all
trains that carry away the rock and dirt which the steam shovels are scooping out of the record-breaking
C. cut at Culebra. These trains shuttle back and forth day in and day out, and so regularly do they
S":-:. : arrive and depart that one might think they were so many buckets on an endless belt. But they are
S. nothing of the sort. Each train is in charge of a complete railroad crew, and that they work so smoothly
S is due to the perfection of Mr. Sessions' system. He leaves nothing to chance, and by studying the
transportation question from every phase, making necessary adjustments to meet new conditions
he evolved an arrangement which permits the work of excavation to go on as fast as the battery of
'e shovels can fill the cars. While Sessions is '' Super," there will be no delay on the transportation end.
Like all the rest, he has the pride of his work ever before him, and it is his constant endeavor to do
everything in his power to help along the completion of the big ditch. He is most certainly a hustler
4 from Hustlerville, and the efficiency of his department speaks volumes for his clear-headedness and
for the loyalty of the hundreds of engineers, conductors and other men under him. They are always
' willing to make special effort when he asks it, and they hold him in highest personal regard. He is
implicitly trusted by the officials over his part of the construction work. Mr. Sessions is a native
1of Mississippi, having been born in the city of Macon. He went through the lower schools and finished
with the high school. Then he began railroading. His first work was with the old "M. & 0." at Macon,
VI Miss. He began as so many other successful railroad men have begun-as a telegraph operator.
He soon became known as a fast and accurate operator, and in time was made a train dispatcher.
He also worked for a time as a conductor, and then returned to the room where the Morse characters
were being constantly reeled off the keys, but this time it was as Chief Dispatcher. Then he was a train master. And always he was giving satisfaction.
That has been characteristic of him wherever placed. He came to the Isthmus on the fifteenth of May, 1905, and began work as train master. On the
first day of July, 1906, he was promoted to the post of Assistant Superintendent of Transportation, and two years later he was made Superintendent for
the entire Central Division. Mr. Sessions is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, being a member of Oklahoma lodge, No. 4, of Atska, Okla. He was
married December twenty-first, 1898, to Daisy Dean Smith, of Denison, Texas, and they have one child, a promising boy who is seven years of age.









John Burke


AT the head of the great Commissary Department of the Panama Railroad Company is a very
popular individual named John Burke. Everyone on the Isthmus knows Mr. Burke, and everyone
that knows him likes him, which is another way of saying that Mr. Burke has more friends than he
could count up in a week's time. He's one of the men that other men take to and inasmuch as he
has been on the Isthmus since the thirteenth of February, 1905, he's seen most of the present-day
officials and workmen come onto the big engineering job. His first work was as a member of the
board of survey that surveyed and appraised the old French material and supplies which Uncle Samuel
took over when he started in to build the canal. In April of that year he was put in charge of the
receipt of supplies on the Atlantic side of the Zone, and in February, 19o6, he was made Storekeeper
in charge of General Stores at Mount Hope. But it was not until the twenty-ninth of April, 1907,
that he really came into his own. It was on that date that he was made Manager of the Commissary
4 Department of the Panama Railroad Company, the position which he has been filling with such
signal ability ever since. No one who hasn't had actual experience on the Isthmus can appreciate
the magnitude of the department which Mr. Burke manages. It is as gargantuan in its way as the
great canal itself. After what he has been through on the Isthmus the feeding of an army would be
mere child's play. To begin with, he has an office force of seventy-three men, and they do nothing
but keep track of the routine business of the department. In the entire department, taking their
orders from Mr. Burke or his lieutenants, are a round thousand men. The work of the department
is grouped in three major departments, which in turn are many times sub-divided. There is the
Retail Department handled by an Inspector, the Wholesale Department handled by a General Store-
keeper, and the Manufacturing Plants handled by a Superintendent. The chiefs of these departments
report directly to Mr. Burke, also the Storekeeper of .the Cold Storage Plant and the Local Buyer
of the Panama Purchasing Agency. The Retail Department furnishes employment for nearly 400
men and has stores from one side of the Zone to the other. Some of them are very small affairs,
while others are quite metropolitan. The Cristobal store employs 54 men, the Gatun store has 48,
the Empire store uses 45, while little Monte Lirio gets along comfortably with only three men. It takes between 50 and 6o men in the Wholesale
Department, and in the various Manufacturing Plants over 400 men find steady work. The Power Plant keeps nearly a hundred busy; it takes eight
men to run the Ice Cream Plant, nineteen to make ice at the Ice Plant, fifty-two to keep the Bakery going at full clip; thirty-nine work in the Raw Mate-
rial Store, and over 15o are kept at work in the Laundry. This little skeleton will give the reader a partial comprehension of the activities of Mr. Burke
and one needs to visit the Canal Zone to have a full appreciation. Mr. Burke was born in Ashland, Pennsylvania, and began railroading at Knights-
ville, Indiana, in I882 on the Vandalia. His first work was at the telegraph key. From that he rose to Agent and then to General Storekeeper, and was
so employed on the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf Division of the Rock Island system when he came to Panama. He is a thirty-two degree Mason, a
member of the Columbia Club of Indianapolis, one of the organizers of the Strangers Club of Colon, and is married. His wife was Miss Ida E. Cox of
Columbus, Indiana. They were married in 1893, and have two daughters.








Lindsey Louin Jewel


T HE forty-six mammoth lock gates for the Panama Canal, one of the largest and most important
features of the work, as also one of the most gigantic undertakings in steel construction in the
history of engineering, are being built by contract under the personal direction of Mr. Jewel. He
represents the McClintic Marshall Construction Company, which was organized in 190o, and which
in ten years has grown to be the largest independent structural steel fabricating company in the world.
The Panama contract itself is one of the largest contracts ever let, involving about Oo,ooo tons of
structural steel, and the sum of $5,500,000.00. Mr. Jewel's concern did not make its hid until it had
asa sent him to the Isthmus and let him study the proposition at close range. Then it asked him to make
S" up the bid, the result of which was the securing of the contract. Mr. Jewel is a native of Montgomery
County, Virginia, and was born on the 24th of November, 1877, from which it is interesting to note
that he has forged to the very front in his chosen profession before reaching the age of thirty-five.
%r . VHe secured his early education in the free graded and private schools, and also attended for two years
a boys' preparatory school. When it came time for higher education, he went to the Virginia Poly-
technic Institute, and was graduated therefrom in the class of 1900oo as a bachelor of science. Two
years later he received his degree of civil engineer from the same institution, though in the meantime
he had begun his active professional career, working as a draftsman for the Penn Bridge Company
at Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. It was in February, 19o3, that he accepted a position with the Mc-
Clintic Marshall Construction Company at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He began work as a draftsman,
then became a designing engineer, and finally rose to the head of the erection department. It was as
Manager that he came to Panama in May, iOi0, to make a personal inspection of the lock sites.
In June of that year he returned to Washington and there put in a successful bid for his Company.
In the fall of that year an assistant was put in charge of the general erection office in Pittsburg, and
he returned to the Canal Zone to direct in person the execution of the gigantic contract for the lock<
gates. But large as that contract is, it does not take the full measure of Mr. Jewel's executive capacity,
for he is handling a number of other contracts in addition. Mr. Jewel is a member of the American
Society of Civil Engineers. and has won a place for himself as a successful doer of big things. Still in the very edge of his working years, it takes no
prophet or son of a prophet to foresee that he has before him a brilliant career in the field of structural engineering, and the completion of the lock gates
within the contract time will make his name known throughout the engineering world. Mr. Jewel has but one hobby, and that is ornithology. He is an
associate member of the American Ornithological Union and of the National Association of Audubon Societies. When he isn't at work or at home, it is
a fairly safe wager that he is in pursuit of some new species of the feathered tribe to add to his growing collection. He was married on the i5th of April,
1903, to Miss Retta Lofland Gibboney of Wytheville, Virginia. He is a fine type of the progressive young American, and his genial sincerity has endeared
him to a wide circle of acquaintances.








Charles Liebermann Parker

M R. CHARLES L. PARKER, who holds the position of Assistant Depot Quartermaster at Mount
Hope, is one of the veterans of the Canal Zone. He received his appointment to the service
of the Isthmian Canal Commission on the twenty-fifth day of October, 1904, and six days later he
reported for duty on the Isthmus. He was assigned to the Quartermaster's Department and began
work under Captain E. L. King, General Quartermaster. He soon developed exceptional clerical
capacity and in June of the following year was made Chief Clerk of his office. Indeed, so indis-
pensable was he considered that he retained his position under Jackson Smith when the department
became known as the Department of Labor and Quarters. He continued to do his work so well that
in August, 19o6, he was singled out for promotion, being advanced to the position of Superintendent
of Labor, Quarters and Subsistence and assigned to the Gorgona District. This district extended
from Haut Obispo to Frijoles, and as Superintendent he had charge of all quarters, commission hotels
and the various "messes" and "kitchens" in which the army of workmen are housed and boarded.
After two years of successful administration as Superintendent he was made an Inspector in the
Quartermaster's Department under Colonel Devol, the Chief Quartermaster. In December, 19o9,
he was promoted to his present position as Assistant Depot Quartermaster at Mount Hope. Mr.
Parker's success may be traced to several sources, one of which is a broad education, but principally
to his never-varying habit of doing everything with the utmost care. It makes no difference to him
whether his work is likely to come under the eye of his superiors-if it is given him to do, he believes
in doing it well. This habit of his has won him steadily increasing favor in the service of the I. C. C.
and will probably lead to his further advancement before the great engineering project is completed.
Mr. Parker is a native of the city of Washington, D. C. He received his early education in that city's
public and private schools. He went through the graded schools and then attended the Central
High School, after which he was a pupil at the Friends' Select School in the same city. He completed
his educational work by taking a course in electrical engineering at the Corcoran Scientific School of
Columbian University, Washington, being a member of the class of 1897. He began work in a broker-
age office in Washington, serving through the various branches till he reached the cashier's desk. This position he resigned in 90oI when he went to China
as a member of the Indoor Staff of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs. He was in China two years, returning to this country after passing through
a very severe illness. On fully recovering his strength, he applied for and received an appointment to the Panama work, and has been making good on
the Isthmus ever since. He is a member of the Kappa Alpha fraternity, and belongs to Ancient Landmark Masonic lodge of Boston, Mass. He was
married February 13, 1907, to Elizabeth Kittredge. While he has been one of the busiest of many busy men ever since he came to Panama, he has
found time to make a host of friends up and down the Zone.









George H. Ruggles, C. E.

MR. GEORGE H. RUGGLES is one of the men who have proven in the Panama Canal Service that there is always room at the top. When he came to
the Canal Zone in 1904 he started in as an instrument man with a survey party. That was when Uncle Samuel was just getting a good grip on the
canal-digging proposition. He was finding out what he had to do, and at the same time finding out what he had to build it with in the shape of men,
machinery and materials. The good material and the good machinery he laid aside to be ready when wanted, and the good men he approvingly noted
for prompt advancement. One of these men was Mr. Ruggles. At the end of a very short time he had convinced his superiors that he was fully qual-
ified for large responsibilities and was one of the men to be depended on in an emergency of any kind. When it became necessary to construct the large
docks at La Boca, now called Balboa, it was Mr. Ruggles who was given charge of the work. He was made a Supervisor in the Building and Con-
struction Department, and was so employed for nearly two years. He demonstrated his worth in other lines, and was appointed Assistant Engineer in
the Department of Municipal Engineering, a phase of work which has been regarded as extremely important throughout the Canal Zone. He was em-
ployed at this for two years, and was then made Assistant Superintendent of Construction for the Culebra section. He was for a year given charge of the
combined work of municipal engineering and construction and was then Superintendent of Public Works for a like period. He was employed as an
engineer in charge on the location of the Panama-David Railroad, and at the end of ten months was advanced to his present position as Engineer of Docks
at Cristobal. At every stage of his Isthmian career Mr. Ruggles has been found a hard worker. Indeed, he believes that hard work is the best medicine
there is, and that a willingness to work is a great deal better than genius which lacks energy. He is a Michigan man by birth, Bloomingdale being his
native place. He received his early education in the public schools, and having decided upon engineering as a profession, fitted himself for Lehigh Uni-
versity. From this institution he received his degree of Civil Engineer. He began the active practice of his profession on the Illinois Central, being a
member of the engineering force of that great system for six years. Then came two years as superintendent and engineer for the firm of C. D. Snith
& Co., general contractors. This work kept him in the southern States, and it was while he was so engaged that he became interested in the Panama work.
The more he read and heard of the Isthmian Canal Commission's undertaking, the more interested he became, and it resulted in his leaving for the
Isthmus in September, 1904. He arrived in the Zone on the seventeenth, and has been a very busy individual ever since that time. He has made good
from the beginning, and can number his friends by the hundred in all parts of the Canal Zone. He is modest but efficient, and no amount of work ever
daunts him. He is a leading member of many secret orders. In Masonry he has not only been raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason, but has
advanced to the degree of the Royal Arch and has received the Order of the Temple. He has also trod the hot sands of the Shrine and been refreshed
with the niilk of the camel. In addition to this, he is at home in the lodges of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and since coming to the
Isthmus has joined the Independent Order of Panamanian Kangaroos.







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OFFICIALS AND CLERICAL FORCE OF ATLANTIC DIVISION


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Cloyd A. McIlvaine


E VERY person who has had business which has taken him to the office of the Chairman and Chief Engineer of the
Isthmian Canal Commission has come away impressed with the clock-like manner in which the office is conducted.
And if the visitor has been of an enquiring turn of mind he has discovered that this clock-like regularity is due to Mr.
Cloyd A. McIlvaine, the Chief Clerk, Chief of Division and Stenographer to the Chairman. Mr McIlvaine is one of
those quiet but capable individuals who "know how to do things" and who very soon make themselves indispensable.
The saying that there should be "a place for everything and everything in its place" finds a practical demonstration
in the office over which Mr. McIlvaine has clerical direction. Voluminous as the paper work is, the Chief Clerk has
things so systematized that he can find any document within a brief space of time. Having been in the Canal Zone
since the latter part of the first year of American occupancy, he is well-informed regarding the sequence of events, and
this knowledge is of great value to one in his position. He is liked by all, for he is as democratic as he is efficient-and
that's saying a great deal! Mr. McIlvaine was born in Creston, Ohio, February 22, 1877, attended the schools in that
place, graduated from the high school, took a special course at the Wooster University and Normal University at Ada,
Ohio, and then pursued a business college course in Cleveland. He taught school for five years, was a steel worker for a
year and then followed stenography for three years in New York City and Cleveland, coming to the Isthmus on the 28th
of December, 1904. He was married December 31, 1903, to Lois M. Brigham of Painesville, Ohio. As Chief Clerk
he has charge of the office and handles all official correspondence except that which is specified to be handled by the
Secretary to the Chairman. He signs much of the routine paper work and prepares the rest so that it is ready for the
Chairman's signature; also signs the daily leave orders and, in general, keeps everything moving on schedule time.


William Howard May


C OLONEL GOETHALS, the Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, has been fortu-
nate in many things, but it is quite likely that if you pinned him down to basic facts when he was in a communi-
cative mood, he would say that in no way had the Gods of Hard Work been kinder to him than in the secretary
who has been at his right hand since July, 1907. It was in that month that Mr. William Howard May left Washing-
ton and came to the Isthmus to be Secretary to the Chairman. He was by no means new to the work of secretary at
that, for he had been filling that sort of post for over sixteen years, having in that time served two famous members
of the United States Senate. Mr. May is a native of Maryland, having been born in Elkton on the nineteenth of
February, 1873. He received his education in the private schools, at Elkton Academy, and at Goldey Commercial
College at Wilmington, Delaware. It was in June, 1890, that he began work as a stenographer, and his first employer
was the Hon. Arthur Pue Gorman, then a United States Senator from Maryland. The year following he became the
Senator's secretary, and remained with him till his death on the fourth of June, 1906. Senator Blackburn of
Kentucky, who succeeded Mr. Gorman as Chairman of the Democratic Caucus, retained Mr. May, and he continued
at the Senate until the 15th of July, 1907, when he resigned to come to the Isthmus as Secretary to the Chairman and
Chief Engineer. In this capacity he handles all the personal affairs of the Chairman; prepares the minutes of Com-
mission meetings and the correspondence relating thereto; looks after general correspondence, special investigations
and other matters at the direction of the Chairman. He is a member of the University Club of the Isthmus, the
Century Club of Washington, and the Annapolitan Club of Annapolis, Maryland.









Colonel James Perry Fyffe

HAT there is in the whole wide world no more orderly strip of mixed nationalities than is to be
Found in the Panama Canal Zone is a great credit to Zone police. Colonel James Perry Fyffe
Sis head of the Division of Police and Prisons, an office that includes not only the general administrative
conduct of such affairs, but the immediate personal oversight and discipline of the police and the
prisons. Down in Panama it is a case of individually and collectively making good. There is no
superabundance of officials and no division whatsoever of responsibility. If a certain part of the
work is entrusted to an individual, the ethics of the Zone require that the individual make good or
individually shoulder the blame. It's a hard school for the inefficients, but it gives proper credit
to the men who are worth while. Their success gets its proper credit-and, best of all, no man gets
credit for success unless he fairly earns it. Therefore, a gentleman named Fyffe has reason to feel
pride in the orderly conditions which prevail in Panama. The peace of the Isthmus would not last
for a day if the underworld did not know that there is a tangible, forceful head in the police department
to-day. It is the knowledge that the Zone policeman is ever on the lookout which keeps the Zone
on its even keel so far as disorders are concerned. The persistent and occasional breakers of laws have
found that he is always "on the job." Therefore, they either curb their predatory instincts or seek
., another field of action. They know that in the language of the day there is "nothing doing" in the
Zone. Colonel Fyffe is a great organizer and his part of the governmental machinery is sure to run
smoothly. He is always impartial, and his men know that he will stand behind them just so long as
they are in the right. It makes no odds who lodges a complaint against one of his men-the complaint
will be sifted to the bottom and the man will be punished or acquitted strictly according to the evidence
developed. This course is making the men of the department understand that they are not only
the guardians of the peace, but friends of the people and entitled to esteem to the extent to
Which they deserve it. Colonel Fyffe was born in Maysville, Kentucky, received his early education
B. I L in the private and city schools and Kentucky State University, and then received his LL.B. from
Cincinnati University. He was a practising attorney from 1888 to 1895, when he entered the
newspaper field, in which he remained till his appointment to the Canal Zone in February, 1910. Fraternally, he is a member of the Oddfellows and the
Knights of Pythias, but it is perhaps as a member of the National Guard that he has been best known hitherto. He belonged to the Kentucky Guard
from 1880 to 1888, then joining the Tennessee Guard, in which he holds the rank of brigadier-general on the retired list. He was colonel of the Third
Tennessee during the Spanish-American War. Colonel Fyffe was married January 12, 1911, to Miss Nellie B. Frost.








Dr. Claude Connor Pierce


D R. CLAUDE CONNOR PIERCE, a brilliant son of Tennessee, who is now Quarantine Officer
at Colon and Cristobal, holds the distinction of being the first representative of the Sanitary
Department to arrive on the Isthmus. He was sent to Panama by the Surgeon General of the United
States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, arriving at Colon January 4, 1904, reporting for
duty with the American Consul General. On May 4, 1904, he was present when the French flag was
lowered over the Canal Building and the property was turned over to the United States. During
that month, while the Canal Commission was on its way south, the quarantine work at Panama was
turned over to Dr. Pierce, this being done on the request of the State Department to the Panama
government. After the arrival of the Commission he continued as Quarantine Officer at Panama under
Colonel Gorgas, the Chief Sanitary Officer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. In January, 19o5,
he assumed the duties of Executive Officer for the Chief Sanitary Officer. From June of that year
until the August following he had charge of the sanitary work at Balboa after the occurrence of a
case of the plague. In August, 1905, he was appointed Quarantine Officer of Colon and Cristobal,
which position he now holds. In this capacity he also acts as the Immigration Officer for the Panama
Government as well as for the Canal Zone, and in carrying out this duty he has won high praise for
his vigilance in preventing undesirables from landing to reside on the Isthmus. In the splendid record
which he has made for himself in Panama, Dr. Pierce is simply continuing along the lines which have
ever marked his career. He was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, June 15, 1878, attended the public
schools there, taking a scientific course in the high school. He attended the Chattanooga Medical
College, and in March, 1898, received his degree of Doctor of Medicine. He was demonstrator of
anatomy in his senior year, and chief of the chemical laboratory, and on his graduation was awarded
first prize for general proficiency. Putting aside his professional chances for a time, he at once enlisted
as a private in the Hospital Corps of the Third Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, then recruiting for the
Spanish War. Within a week he was appointed hospital steward, and in November, 1898, was com-
missioned as First Lieutenant and assistant surgeon. He was mustered out of the United States service
in March, 1909, and entered private practice in Chattanooga, remaining there till June, 1900, when he entered the United States Public Health and
Marine Hospital Service as Assistant Surgeon. He was on duty in the Marine Hospitals at Mobile, Alabama, and Key West, Florida, and had charge
of the Tampa Bay Quarantine Station from October, g190, to November, 1903. He was promoted to Passed Assistant Surgeon in 1905. Dr. Pierce
is a member of the American Medical Association, the Canal Zone Medical Society, the Y. M. C. A., and the Stranger's Club in Colon. He was married
at Pembroke, Ontario, on May 17, 1905, to Tamar Reeves, and they have two fine sons, John, born in 1906, and George, born in 1909. Both children
were born in Cristobal. Dr. Pierce's ways have won him a large following in the Canal Zone, and he is regarded as one of the most popular as well as
the most efficient official in his part of the Sanitary Service.








Ben Johnson

S OMEONE has said that the Southerners are building the Panama Canal, and, indeed, when one
comes to look over the roster and note the representatives of good old Southern families who are
filling important positions in one part of the Zone and another, there is much to give the statement
semblance of truth. Among those Southerners who have come to Panama to have a share in the world's
greatest engineering project is the Superintendent of Locks, Ben Johnson. Mr. Johnson was born
in Greenville in the State of Mississippi, and after passing through the public schools entered the
University of the South at Suwanee, Tennessee. Finishing his studies there, he became enamored
of the military and sought and secured an appointment to the United States Military Academy at
West Point, New York. He put in four years at the Point and was graduated with the class of 1889.
But once through the Military Academy, and with nothing like active service in view, he gave up
the Army life, resigning in September of the year of his graduation. He began active work in 1890
as an engineer and contractor in the Southern States. He came to Panama on the nineteenth of Sep-
tember, 1907, as Assistant Superintendent at Gorgona. He remained in that position till May i9,
1909, when he was transferred to Gatun and promoted to Superintendent of Locks. Since that time
he has had charge of the locks which are steadily being fashioned into great concrete basins that will
float a monster battleship as easily as a match in a pail of water. When the canal is open and the people
/ of the world make the interoceanic trip, they will marvel at many things, but mostly at the great locks
at Gatun. There is the same rise in levels on both ends of the canal, but the break on the Pacific
side made by Miraflores Lake detracts from the impression of immensity which will be so pronounced
at Gatun. There, one lock after another will lift the ocean-going vessels up step after step on the
giant's staircase of locks. The massive concrete structure will rear itself like a man-made mountain
for the wonderment and admiration of all the ages to come, and when people see it for the first time
iH they are going to have a mighty wholesome regard for the man that was big enough to superintend
Sit all. That is where Mr. Johnson will get recognition for his share-that is to say, that is where he
will get public recognition from the world at large. He has been getting official recognition and
commendation ever since he took up the work of the superintendency in the early summer of go1909. It was the belief of those who had the selection of
a superintendent that Mr. Johnson was fitted by temperament and knowledge to make good. And make good he has, in every possible way. He is a
painstaking, hard-working official, and is a great favorite among all who know him. Mr. Johnson is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers
and of the Masonic fraternity. He was married April i, 1894, to Alice Stone, and they have one child.








Leslie Grant Thom

AMIONG the pioneers of the Isthmus is Mr. Leslie Grant Thom, Superintendent of Municipal
Engineering in the Atlantic Division. Mr. Thom came to the Canal Zone in July, 1904, after
four years' service in the United States Navy. While in the Navy he saw service in both the West
Indies and in the Philippine Islands. After the Spanish-American War, while in the Philippines, he
was employed on the geodetic surveys of the Sulu Archipelago.
Since coming to the Isthmus, he has been continuously connected with the Division of Muni-
cipal Engineering. During this time modern systems of water works, sewers, and street improvements
have been built in Panama and Colon, all the roadways on the Zone have been constructed, and dams
for reservoirs, filtration plants and water works have been erected.
Mr. Thom began his career with the Commission on the Pacific side as a member of the party
surveying the city of Panama. He then began to move toward the Atlantic, his first work being in
connection with the construction of Rio Grande reservoir. From there he moved to Gorgona where
he acted as Assistant Engineer of all municipal work from Empire to Tabernilla.
Upon the reorganization of the construction division, Mr. Thom came to Gatun as Superin-
tendent of Municipal Engineering in the Atlantic Division. Since that time Gatun has grown from
a handful of houses to one of the largest towns on the Zone. During most of this period "Building
and Construction" was in the hands of the Municipal Engineering department. A sixteen-foot
macadam road has been built from Colon to Gatun, a water system has been installed at Gatun,
furnishing three million gallons of water daily to the mighty construction work in progress there.
For this, a reservoir with a capacity of six hundred and fifty millions of gallons has been built,
and at present a thoroughly up-to-date rapid filtration plant is under construction.
At the same time Mr. Thorn has had charge of the raising of part of Colon from a swamp to a
maximum elevation of eight feet, thereby making it possible to drain the city. An eight-foot storm
sewer, also, has been constructed to carry off the water which was previously allowed to run off
above ground. In September, 1909, Mr. Thorn was married to Miss Eda Altstaetter.




























































OLD FRENCH EXCAVATOR. CAPACITY, 50 CUBIC YARDS PER HOUR




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