Title: Caribbean review of books
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094097/00006
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean review of books
Alternate Title: CRB
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Publisher: UWIPA
Place of Publication: Mona Kingston Jamaica
Mona, Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 1993
Copyright Date: 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Caribbean literature -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Imprints -- Book reviews -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Aug. 1991)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1994?
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 10 (Nov. 1993).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094097
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25144524
lccn - 92658675
issn - 1018-2926

Full Text

"*' -' '-n---------|

Number 7, February 1993 j y
"The complete source for Caribbean bo k n&"ys

ISSN 1018-2926

pointspt, journalists now have access to many in-
Haiti's Bad Press, Robert Lawless, Shenkman BoofhAJ ofoinied and balanced accounts of Haitian life. Ig-
Rochester, 1992. pp. 261 norance is no longer a valid excuse for persisting with
what he calls "the western folk model" and its dis-
l torted images of Haiti.
by J. M1ichael Dash This study of the biases against Haiti that exist in
A ndre Gide once defined journalism as what the Western press is not a cold-eyed and dispassionate
we will not read tomorrow. Gide's aphorism one. Lawless pursues his subject with a crusading
is both as patently accurate as it underes- zeal. At times we have less of a sense of an
timates the power of the press to reinforce anthropological survey of the creation of Haiti's other-
and encourage stereotype in the public's ness in the western imagination than a thinly
mind. There is perhaps, no more notorious veiled polemic in favour of a more just at-
an example of the damaging ef- a titude to Haiti and Haitians.
fects of prejudiced reporting Lawless concentrates on the
than that of Haiti which United States and that country's
has for almost two cen- .. reporting of Haiti. Indeed, al-
turies served as fodder for k though he entitles one chap-
sensationalist Journalism. ter "France and Haiti", Law-
As Robert Lawless less is really knowledgeable
pointed out in his earlier about one situation, that of
bibliography of writing in his home country. He is par-
English on Haiti, Haiti, A ticularly angry at the way in
Research Handbook which the hysteria as-
(1990), there is "probably sociated with early reporting
more nonsense per capital of the AIDS epidemic
written about Haitians than focused on Haiti. As he observes,
about any other people in the AIDS is the latest manifestation of
world". the popular American view of
His present volume, Haiti's Haitian society as strange and
Bad Press, examines the "nonsense" deviant. Voodoo, Boat People, blood-
that has appeared in the media, travel thirsty dictators, Cannibalism and Zom-
writing and ethnographic accounts on bies are all part of the same system of
the subject of Haiti. Since Haiti is beliefs that exists in the American "folk
once more flavour of the month with Devil and Doves by Serge model" of Haiti.
the international press, Lawless' study Jolimeau, 1988 The durability of this view of Haiti as
is a timely and illuminating one. His argument against 'high risk' is further illustrated by Lawless in examples
a blind continuation of the image of Haiti as hopeless- as diverse as an episode of the American television
Iv alien, is particularly persuasive today since, as he series, 'Miami Vice', and a recent ethnobotanic study

hael Dash is head of the Department of French at UWI, Mona

continued on page 4

Interview with Anthony Winkler-page 17

1- I

J. Mlcl

- F

St is rarely that one has the oppor-
S' l tunity of being happy to admit
that one was wrong. I was wrong
in much of what I wrote about
Bim in the CRB 6 and I am very
happy to have been proven wrong.
BIM No.74 (December 1992) has ap-
peared proudly announcing itself as
"A 50th Anniversary Issue, 1942-
1992" and we at UWIPA and CRB
are grateful for the fruitful fifty years
and wish and pray for many more
years of still greater strength and
productivity for the journal. We con-
gratulate the editors, John Gilmore,
Andy Taitt and John Wickham for
the fine fiftieth birthday number and
offer our best wishes towards achiev-
ing what John Wickham promises to
do: "..we appear as often as we can
and promise to continue to do our
best". As he observes about institu-
tions, "the older they are, the longer
they live." May Bim live long and
have many issues to enrich the
Caribbean literary scene.
CRB 4 announced the launching
of the University of the West Indies
Press. This issue carries an an-
nouncement from The Press telling
us more about their programme (pp.
22-23) which is now fully operation-
al. Another new Jamaican entity for
publishing, importing, exporting and
retailing books, West Indies Publish-

ing, has come into being from com-
bining the strengths of the former
Heinemann (Caribbean), Book
Traders Caribbean, and the Book-
shop. WIP will be publishing under
the imprint Carib. CRB wishes the
new group every success.
We hope that more of our

From the Editor

regional publishers will begin to use
CRB to convey information about
their titles in print new and
forthcoming titles. Recently we had
a letter from the Southern Illinois
University at Carbondale telling us
about two new Caribbean titles of
which we were unaware. This is the
type of help we welcome and we
thank Lise Winer for taking the
trouble to pass on the information.
There are several overseas publish-
ers who keep CRB informed of their
new titles and send us review
copies. However it is unfortunate
that the same enthusiasm is not to
be seen in the case of many of our
regional publishers. Perhaps this is
due to the pattern we have
developed of concentrating our best
efforts in producing the book but
leaving the product thereafter to sell
itself with little or no effort at

marketing. In establishing CRB one
of the aims of UWIPA was to provide
an organ for Caribbean books to
reach their market, and we invite
publishers of Caribbean titles to use
this facility.
1993 marks the 200th anniver-
sary of the arrival of breadfruit in
the Caribbean, in St. Vincent in
January 1793 and a month later in
Jamaica. Tropical Fuits Newsletter
which we featured in CRB 6 has
four contributions on the breadfruit
Atrocarpus altilis (also known as A.
communis) including a 'Bicenten-
nnial Review' in issue no 6 (March
1993). Dulcie Powell's book The
Voyage of the Plant Nursery,
H.M.S.Providence. 1791-1993 (In-
stitute of Jamaica, 1973, Bulletin of
the IOJ, Science Series, no.15, part
2, which is still in print) gives a fas-
cinating account of the expedition
and the distribution of not only the
breadfruit but quite a number of
other useful plants brought to the
Caribbean by Captain William Bligh
and his company on that voyage. It
is a pity we do not have a book so
far this year to re-examine the story
of the impact of these plants on the
Caribbean but this year's Con-
ference ot the Association of Carib-
bean Historians to be held in Mona
in late March has plans for a ses-
sion on Caribbean Foods.


Focus on Caribbean
Journals Jamaica Journal- 6
Interview with
Anthony Winkler ------------17
Report on The Press-UWI---22

Haiti's Bad Press 1
The Caribbean Artist's
Movement, 1966-72------- 3
Sharks and Sardines 5
Five Peepal Tree Poets------ 9
Conflict and Competition -12
Ethnicity and Development:
A review essay 13
Adjusting Privatization ---15
Suriname and the
Netherland Antilles 16
New Books -25

No. 7, February 1993

4011i published quarterly by the Adrian Frasel(StlVincenit) .-. .
,UWIPA, in Augusl, November, February Charles Wheafley (British Virgin Islands)
and May. UWIPA, 1993 .
.: ISSN: 1018-2926
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,editorial -
SRepresentatives: Editorial mail to: Subscriptions to:
E mina Osoba (Antigua) CRB CRB
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.:Constantine Richardson (St. Kitts &,. .. -Fax:; [10-.927-249 or809.497-2660
I 'Tel:8P-s2u-1020 or 809-977r-2859.

I 7.

The Caribbean Artists Movement,
1966-1972: A Literary and Cultural
History. by Anne Walmsley. London
and Port-of Spain, New Beacon
Books, 1992. xx, 356pp. Ill.

by Joe Pereira

ment (CAM) operated at a
watershed period in West In-
dian political and cultural
history and had an impact way
beyond its immediate activities that
would change the character, content
and scope of intellectual life in the
English-speaking Caribbean. Out of
an exhaustive research undertaking,
one of its participants, Anne
Walmsley, has produced a well-
developed cultural history not mere-
ly of the Movement but of the
Anglophone Caribbean in those
years of ferment and new directions.
The scope of CAM extended
beyond writers to include visual and
performing arts, and although the
main focus of the study is on the
West Indian artist in Britain, the
writer, of necessity, had situated
this British "away from home" ac-
tivity within the happenings in, and
its links to, "home". Eleven chapters
are used to present the background,
CAM's formation, brief flourish, in-
teraction with the Caribbean and,
rather than its decline, its transfor-
mation and resurgence in new fea-
tures in the cultural process in the
Caribbean. The final chapter,
'Postscript', gives a useful analytical
summary of CAM's character, im-
pact and legacy.
One is impressed by the breadth
of information and opinions that
have gone into producing this book.
For example, fully 89 CAM as-
sociates are listed as having been in-
terviewed and taped between Dec.,
1985 and April 1991. Anne
Walmsley herself, as participant in
the movement, had access not only
to the tapes and typescripts of CAM
meetings and conferences but to the
formidable archives of key CAM per-
sonalities, especially E. Kamau
Brathwaite and Andrew Salkey. The
average reader might prefer the
analytical and summary section of
the text rather than the detailed ac-

count of CAM activity which, while
interesting to the specialist and re-
searcher, sometimes goes into more
detail than helps the reader to
retain a sense of the overall picture
and essence of CAM.
The introductory chapter ex-
amines the phenomenon of migra-
tion from the Caribbean to Britain
that set the basis for CAM. What
emerges is two essentially different
types of migrant: the "intellectual"
migrant in search of higher educa-
tion prior to the development of the
University of the West Indies or in
search of a more "receptive"-e viron-
ment for their creative work on the

1 U

Aubrey Williams at the New Vision Gallery,
1958. Photo from the book.

one hand, and the later working
class migrants attracted to Britain
by prospects of material advance-
ment. Walmsley indicates how these
two strands with generally different
class backgrounds and outlooks in-
fluence the character and direction
of the Movement in its fairly brief ex-
It is also clear that CAM's for-
tunes were affected by the reluc-
tance of many of the creative talents
to become involved in a type of
politics that they perceived as en-
dangering the real role of the artist.
This came to a head with the radical
pressures of the Black Power move-
ment and the Rodney affair when
militants sought to get CAM in-
volved in a more defined and rigid
political activism. Walmsley sug-
gests that this pressure was more
the work of non-activists and per-
ceived as deflecting the cultural

movement from its objectives. It
caused a falling away of some CAM
associates without a compensatory
recruitment of new and vigorous
talents. Coupled with an inherent
looseness of organizational strength
and disposition, it was one of the
factors for the withering away of
CAM. Additional factors included
the return of various writers to the
Caribbean, the development of
Caribbean-based intellectual and
higher education (UWI) activity, the
reduction of migration to Britain
and the growth of a second-genera-
tinr Caribbean population in Britain
with a more "British-based" set of
The Movement itself obviously
supported an unstated liberal
politics by its very interest in
developing and strengthening pan-
Caribbean cultural ties and ac-
tivities. Not only does it challenge
the old colonial presumptions and
values in the English-speaking
region but it poses, even if tentative-
ly, a notion of Caribbean identity
that deliberately includes the
Spanish and French-speaking Carib-
bean. CAM's leaders adopted a
pluralist approach, seeking to tap
the talent of creative artists regard-
less of their outlook or style, but its
focus on writing and the visual arts
tended to overlook popular cultural
It is the activities of CAM (1966-
72) at that crucial post-inde-
pendence period of nationalist and
subsequently black power and in-
cipient socialist ferment that
provided a new charge of ideas and
discussion to excite and activate a
discourse among West Indians both
in Britain and in the Caribbean on
the issues posed and the new
talents being revealed. Although it
may be argued that it is the product
more of the Brathwaites' doggedness
than CAM itself, Savacou became
the CAM offshoot most influential in
charting new thoughts, revealing
new writing and contending with
outgrown or invalid interpretations
of Caribbean society and the writer's
One is struck by the patient per-
sistence of E. Kamau and Doris
Brathwaite in anchoring and en-
couraging CAM activity. Walmsley

Joe Pereira is Senior Lecturer In Spanish at UWI, Mona and Director
of the Institute of Caribbean Studies

Cyabb:?:a Z 'es-w of "'COk Caribbean Review of Books Carbean Review ofBoobs

continued overleaf

also, by her analysis of CAM as-
sociates back in the Caribbean,
clarifies their influence on thought
(Ramchand, Rohlehr, Brathwaite) in
UWI and on the production of new
textual material to back up the
decolonizing process. But the limita-
tions of CAM are also documented,
notably its shying away from struc-
ture or from governmental support
yet incapable of sustaining its or-
ganization through voluntarism

The book is enriched by a very
generous use of illustrations crea-
tively formatted, sometimes in the
ample margins of the page, giving
us an unmatched pictorial record
not only of most of the cultural per-
sonalities involved but also of the
documents and other facets of the
creative production and activities of
CAM and its associates. These
black and white photos are supple-
mented by twenty one colour plates
of art work in an eight-page inser-

tion. The documentation is con-
solidated by appendices setting out
a comprehensive listing of CAM
meetings and activities as well as a
select bibliography and discography
of the works of CAM people. Ever
mindful of the scholar, there is an
extensive index to the text itself.
Walmsley has given us a valu-
able document of an important
movement and period in Caribbean
thought and culture, hitherto under-
examined and under-assessed. U

HAITI, continued from page 1

of zombification in Haiti done for
Harvard University by Wade Davis.
This research earned him a Ph.D.
from a prestigious American Univer-
sity. Davis' 'scientific' research later
became the inspiration for the
movie The Serpent and the Rainbow
made by the directors of the horror
movie A Nightmare on Elm Street.
The Harvard ethnobotanist, a
blond, non-creole speaking foreign-
er, becomes an authority on the
practices of Haiti's secret societies.
Davis, ultimately, continues the traf-
fic in racist sensationalism which
probably achieved its most influen-
tial expression in William
Seabrook's The Magic Island. (1929).
Lawless is equally aware that
these biases are not harmless or
gratuitous but have a demonstrable
effect on international relations and
foreign policy. Consequently, while
his first three chapters deal with
the subject of biases, their develop-
ment and origin, the following chap-
ters deal with policy formulation.
Because Haiti is the blackest
country in the western Hemisphere
and is mostly made up of a massive
peasantry that does not speak a
European language, American reac-
tions to Haiti have ranged from
racist ostracism to benevolent
neglect. Lawless' discussion ex-
amines American attitudes during
the occupation of 1915 as well as
the more recent activities of
U.S.A.I.D., which was responsible
for the eradication of Haitian pigs
because of the fear of swine fever,
and the American government's es-
tablishment of 'detention facilities'
in Florida to deal with Haitian
Lawless' case against successive
American administrations and their

racist biases is a strong one. Per-
haps, however, he is often so insis-
tent on pointing an accusing finger
at the misguided notions of his com-
patriots that he forgets the larger
picture. One would have hoped to
see in a work such as this one,
some reference to the question of
race in U.S. foreign policy as a
whole. For instance, Michael Hunt's
Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy and
George Black's The Good Neighbour
(1988) are very useful in this
regard. Haiti is surely part of a pat-

Devil on a Bicycle by Adrian Louis

ter of racial stereotyping that ac-
companies and ultimately justifies
the American drive for preeminence
in this hemisphere from the turn of
the century.
Indeed, in a more general con-
text, the inscrutable oriental, the
volatile latino, the barbaric
Japanese and so on, are some of
the products of the same racial
theorising that fixes Haiti in a condi-
tion of irredeemable savagery. There
has been much theoretical energy
put into understanding the emer-
gence of discourses of Otherness
and Difference in the western im-
agination. In this area, Edward
Said's Orientalism (1978) is one of

No. 7, February 1993

the seminal texts. Lawless, however
tends to shy away from theoretical
concerns. This is even the case
when he is dealing with attitudes to
something as specific as AIDS
where Susan Sontag's perceptive
analysis of the disease (AIDS and its
Metaphors, 1989) could help with
explaining the American willingness
to believe that the disease was yet
another scourge of the 'tristes
Ultimately, Lawless' aim is not
so much scholarly as reformist. The
final chapter of this book has little
to do with the title and concentrates
on the author's personal view of
Haiti. Here, he tends to be less criti-
cally alert and appears to accept un-
reservedly the view that Haiti is so
unique that only an "indigenous" ap-
proach can provide a solution to its
problems. Lawless sees Haiti's salva-
tion in Creole authenticity and the
restoration of Voodoo as a national
religion. Only through such
'indigenous' reforms can Haiti ap-
parently survive..."the deleterious
grasp of North American capitalists
seeking cheap labor" and "monetary
entanglements with First World
financial institutions". Surely, Law-
less is offering little more than the
political equivalent of snake oil and
is himself guilty of a potentially
dangerous mythification of Haiti.
Once.again, and this time ironi-
cally from abroad, we are offered an
academic homily on the dangers of
deculturation. This is a position
taken by some Haitian scholars (eg.
Patrick Bellegrade-Smith) as well as
neo-Duvalierist elements in Haiti.
The argument goes that Haiti needs
to return to its true Afro-Haitian
soul in order to survive. However,
the argument for cultural authen-
continued on page 16

Sharks and Sardines: Blacks in Busi-
ness in Trinidad and Tobago. Selwyn
Ryan and Lou-Ann Barclay,
Reviewed by Brian Alleyne. Sub-
mitted on 1 March, 1993

by Brian Alleyne
n Sharks and Sardines, Selwyn
Ryan and Lou-Ann Barclay offer
us a study of why Afro-
Trinidadians (note the politically
correct designation for this ethnic
group) as a group have not suc-
ceeded in business in Trinidad and
Tobago. This work is part of a series
on the differential degrees of busi-
ness success of the various ethnic
groups in the country. While this
work is a welcome contribution to
social science in Trinidad and
Tobago, I find that it promises more
than it delivers.
Ryan and Barclay offer what is
largely a cultural and idealist ex-
planation for the failure of Afro-
Trinidadian entrepreneurs: the
latter do not do well in business be-
cause they have the wrong attitudes
to enterprise and the wrong family
values. Their account may well be at-
tractive to some, particularly in the
currently tepid environment of Carib-
bean social science, but it is ul-
timately not substantial. The main
problem appears to be the failure of
the authors to ground their analysis
in a full structural (and dare I say it
in these post-Cold War times -
materialist) framework. The 'cultural
style' of the black community is ad-
vanced as a key explanation for the
failure of blacks in business (p 79).
Nowjust what is this 'cultural
style'? The term is laid out before us
like a bolt of cloth at a fabric bazaar:
we are asked to buy or move on. But
this will not do at all. Culture is one
of the most elusive concepts in so-
cial science yet Ryan and Barclay
show little awareness of the
problematic nature of culture. Un-
less the reader, like Alice in Through
the Looking Glass is to accept the
dictum that 'a word means what I
say it means', then it is not un-
reasonable to object to the casual
use of 'culture' and 'cultural style'.
That there is a distinct 'cultural

style' of the black community must
be established by presentation ot
evidence and theoretical argumenta-
tion, not by assertion.
The lack of 'native business
intelligence', which is held to be
more characteristic of blacks than
other ethnic groups. is not, accord-
ing to Ryan's respondents, a main
factor in accounting for black busi-
ness failure (p 79). Fine, except that
earlier, Ryan suggests that business
- and as such, native business in-
telligence would appear to be an
A major contradiction not
resolved in the book revolves around
the role of the family in business.

Ryan suggests that black families in
the Caribbean are too individualistic
in their value orientation to accumu-
late wealth on a familial basis, then
goes on to discuss studies of African
families in Ghana and Uganda,
which studies conclude that these
families are too 'communalistic' to
succeed in business. What is going
on here? Now given that it is part of
Ryan's overall position that Afro-
Caribbean and African families have
not succeeded in business in their
respective countries for broadly
similar cultural reasons ('cultural
style' again), one is entitled to
wonder if, given that black families
do not generally succeed in business
because some are too individualistic
while others are too communalistic,
the main reason for black families'
business failure is that they are
...well ...black. But we know that a
Caribbean academic of Ryan's ex-
perience and stature could not be

No. 7, February 1993
advancing, or is it resurrecting, a ra-
cial essentialist argument.
Ryan has what appears to be an
original conception of the family as
an economic unit (economists take
By contrast (to Indian,
Chinese and Syrian-
Lebanese families) the Afro-
Trinidadian family does not
function as an economic
unit. Only in a very few
cases did respondents claim
that their family members
contributed physically as
well as financially to their
businesses (p 149)
Is not economics as much about
consumption, subsistence, distribu-
tion (and survival) as production? If
so, then it is clear that the defining
characteristic of the family as an
economic unit cannot solely or even
mainly be material and human con-
tribution to a family business.
A weakness of the work as a
whole is its tendency to totalize eth-
nic communities and in the process
run rough-shod over class and
gender conflicts within these com-
munities. The black community is
discussed as a homogenous group-
ing, with no consideration of the
deep conflict of interests between
middle class Afro-Trinidadians and
working class and unemployed Afro-
Trinidadians or between black
males and females. East Indians as
well are totalized into a bloc: one
could easily come away from this
book with the impression that most,
if not all, Indo-Trinidadians are suc-
cessful business people. Anyone
familiar with contemporary
Trinidadian society will know that
this is not the case. No doubt Ryan
and Barclay are aware that there
are considerable differentials in the
quality of life of Indo-Trinidadians:
what they must ensure is that the
reader too, is made aware of this
Methodologically the study has
two weaknesses. First there is an an-
noying reification of entities which
go by the name of 'the banks' (p 79).
We are told that 'the banks' denied
that they were racist in their lending
policies towards black business. But
of course, 'banks' do not deny: only
people do. And we should be told

Brian Alleyne is a final-year student at the Consortium Graduate
School of Social Sciences. continued on page 12

C -;,- n jT.!t e > ,-ksCaribbean ReNvew of B o oks Ca" bb RM-evW. of B

Jamaica Journal. ed. by Leeta
Hearne. Published 3 times a year for
the Institute of Jamaica by the IOJ
Publications Ltd., 2a Suthermere
Road, Kingston 10. Annual subscrip-
tion: J$140.00 in Jamaica, 15.00
for individuals and 20.00 for institu-
tions in the UK., Elsewhere
US$25.00 and 30.00. Some back is-
sues available in original printing,
entire series available in microfilm
from University Microfilms. Current
issue vol. 24, no. 3 (February 1993)
ISSN 0021-4124.

by Evadne McLean

(IOJ) was established in
1879 to foster and en-
courage the development of
culture, science and the exploration
of history in the national interest.
The need to fulfill this mandate be-
came more urgent in post-colonial
Jamaica. The Institute had some ex-
perience with serials. The Journal of
the Institute of Jamaica (vol. 1, no.
1:1891 vol. 2, no. 6:1899) had a
very short existence. However, the
Bulletin of the Institute of Jamaica,
Science Series, used for more ad-
vanced scientific monographs had a
longer life, appearing as an oc-
casional publication between 1940
and the 1970s. A few issues in this
series are still in print, including no.
15, pt.2 The Voyage of the Plant
Nursery, H.M.S. Providence, 1791-
1793 (1973) by Dulcie Powell. In the
mid-sixties there was a felt need for
an organ to foster the awareness
and development of Jamaica's cul-
ture and history and to encourage
science: the raison d'etre for the
creation of JJ was this need. It was
brought into being as the quarterly
organ of the Institute.
According to the IOJ Director's
report for the years 1967/69 the
aims of the new journal were
threefold: to establish a national
Journal of taste and self awareness
in which Jamaicans could read
about themselves and their island
and to offer to strangers an introduc-
tion to the cultural and scientific

Evadne McLean is a Librarian at UWI, Mona.

thought of the country: to give
Jamaicans and those interested in
Jamaica an opportunity to express
themselves pictorially and in writ-
ing: and to make the diverse work
and cultural interests of the IOJ
known in Jamaica.
The first issue, under the able
guidance of Alex Gradussov, himself
a prolific writer, appeared in Decem-
ber 1967 at a price of five shillings
per copy. The early issues featured
contributions on the history of
Jamaica and the IOJ and scientific
thought in Jamaica expressed in
language accessible to the layman.
It contained contributions on art, in
creative writing, music and literary
comment. Due to its attractive and
readable appearance and perhaps
because it also provided a platform
for communication to Jamaicans
who created work of excellence in
keeping with the journal's aims, the
newjournal was well-received by
the Jamaican public.
Contributions came from a wide
range of sources including the staff
of the IOJ. Award-winning literary
and artistic works in the Annual Na-
tional Festival Competitions were
also published. Contributions came
from national institutions such as
the School of Music. Today there are
not many well-known literary and
academic writers in Jamaica who
have not published in the JJ. Olive
Lewin, Gloria Escoffery, Pamella O'-
Gorman, Sylvia Wynter, John
Hearne and Mervyn Morris are but a
few of Jamaica's distinguished
writers whose works have appeared
in the pages of JJ.
In celebrating its second
birthday in the September 1979
issue (vol. 3, no. 3), JJs editor noted
that the journal has managed to set
"a high standard which was in-
digenous, had managed to give
everyone a chance and had always
appeared on time". In the 1970
Report the Director of IOJ noted
that the JJ had continued to attract
favourable attention locally and in-
ternationally and had approximately
1,400 subscribers.
The Journal has covered a rich
and varied range of-subjects: Under-

standing Jamaican bauxite
(Carlton E. Davis, 1976), The secret
lives of Jamaica's plants and
animals (Peter Bretting, 1983),
Slackness hiding from culture:
erotic play in the dancehall
(Carolyn Cooper, 1989-90), are a
few of the outstanding contribu-
tions. With the mix and variety it
has continued to bring in its pages
one can see why UWI Professor of
English Edward Baugh sees the JJ
as a multi-disciplinary publication
which has blended the academic
and the popular in a very fascinat-
ing way.
The wide and exhaustive
coverage of various aspects of the
Island's life in JJ for more than 25
years is brought home by an ex-
amination of the content of Ingram's
Jamaica (World Bibliographical
Series, vol. 45, 1984), the leading
general bibliographical guide to the
Island. Of the 35 subject areas dealt
with in his work, Ingram cites from
JJ for 21. From the Index to JJ one
can readily identify standard ar-
ticles in the other 14 areas. In
education and the labour move-
ment, two of these 14 areas, for in-
stance, JJs index leads us to 11
and 3 entries respectively.
There.have been several special
issues of JJ that have provided in-
depth information on specific areas,
producing a record that is read, re-
read and treasured for future use by
readers. Prominent among these are
the 1982 (no. 46) issue on
Jamaica's 20th anniversary of Inde-
pendence, a retrospective of twenty
years of art, dance, theatre, music,
politics and much more; vol. 17, no.
3 (1984) celebrating the 150th an-
niversary of the abolition of slavery;
and vol. 20, no. 3 (1987) marking
the Marcus Garvey centenary. The
latter is devoted to an examination
of aspects of Garvey's life, legend
and the heritage he left to future
Begun as a quarterly, the publi-
cation of JJwas curtailed in the late
70s due to rising printing costs.
After vol. 11 (1978-81) issues ap-
peared less frequently and the
volume sequence was given up.

continued on page 8

No. 7, February 1993


No. 7, February 1993


Publishers of Jamaica Journal

SArticles on Jamaica's ...
.. art
natural history

over 600u Subscription:
J a subject $140.00 annually -3 issues

1967 1989 covered News stand price: $50.00 per copy

and books about Jamaica


From Our Yard
Jimaiema Poeiry Since lndepandence


.2 S tI,.....
.. .. .. ..6 I ... .. ...

.("i," R:w. -' :,f .. ;,. Caribbean Review of Books CaRtban Ievtew of [ooks


Issue numbers (42-46) were used in-
. stead. The size was also reduced
from the original 28x21.5cm. to a
smaller 23x20cm. From time to time
these constraints have also caused a
reduction of the page length of Is-
sues, as well as the use of smaller
type. Double issues have also been
used to compensate for empty
periods. However with issue no. 46,
JJ returned to the original size and
with vol. 16, no. 1 (1983) both
quarterly issues and the volume se-
quence were resumed. The Journal's
problems do not seem to be over yet.
The June 1991 issue carried a mes-
sage from the Chairman of the Board
announcing an increase in the sub-
scription cost as well as a decrease
in frequency to three issues per an-
nual volume. Of volume 23 only one
issue appeared. These changes were
due to financial difficulties.
Amidst all these vicissitudes the
journal has kept up the high stand-
ard of its content and appearance for
which the editorial committees and
the editors must be commended.
Since vol. 9, no. 1 which featured
Cuban and Mexican art and writing,
JJ has attempted to achieve a
thematic unity in planning the con-
tent. The June 1970 issue was an
extra large one to accommodate fea-
tures on the Cultural Conservation
Conference sponsored by the
Jamaican Government and UNESCO
in July/August 1970.
Under Olive Senior's editorship
(no. 46/vol. 15, 1982 to vol. 22,
1989) JJ made great strides in its
development, a trend now being
maintained under the current editor
Leeta Hearne, and designer Dennis
Ranston. The masthead/ content
page was given a more attractive for-
mat with bold type and photographs
illustrating the contents of each
issue. Colour illustrations and spe-
cial features which then included an-
nouncements of contents of the next
issue and forthcoming titles from IOJ

were attractively presented. Another
innovation was a review feature on
the arts. A new section, 'Writers and
Books' that still continues gave space
to literary comment such as "Dennis
Scott: A Remembrance" by Mervyn
Morris in the March 1992 issue. It
has been the custom to record the
recipients of Musgrave Medals
awarded by the Institute to
Jamaicans for outstanding contribu-
tions to literature, science and the
arts. In 1989, on the centenary of the
Musgrave Medals, John Aarons' ar-
ticle "Recognizing excellence: The
Institute's Musgrave Medals" was
published. Youth Journal, the latest
new feature, commenced with vol.
24, no. 2 (March 1992) for which the
inaugural contribution was an infor-
mative interview with Mutabaruka
conducted by Shivaun Hearne. This
new feature will no doubt be attrac-
tive and useful for high school stu-
For some time now the content of
each issue has been sectionalized
under History and Life. Science and
Technology, The Arts, and Regular
Features, the latter usually including
Art, Music, Books and Writers and
Youth Journal. This arrangement
gives readers an idea of what to ex-
pect in the next issue and also allows
the editor to plan for future issues in
an organized manner. Such an arran-
gement is necessary when the editor
continues to receive more contribu-
tions than can be accommodated
(about nine in each issue). Often, in
spite of a long waiting list for con-
tributions already received, there is
the need to ask for contributions
from experts for special issues. Al-
though some articles by established
authorities in their fields are not
refereed, there is often the need to ob-
tain expert opinion on papers sub-
mitted. Most articles appearing in JJ
are illustrated by contemporary
photographs as well as those of his-
toric or ethnographic interest drawn

from the collections of the National
Library of Jamaica. Reproductions of
Jamaican art provide a regular
documentary window for this
material. Produced on good quality
paper, all these features make the JJ
a useful and an attractive publica-
tion of which Jamaicans can be
JJ was published by the Institute
until 1984 when the Institute of
Jamaica Publications Ltd., was
registered as a limited liability com-
pany, and as the publishing arm of
IOJ, took over the journal. Jamaica
Journal is the star publication of this
company which, over the years, has
built up a substantial list of impor-
tant titles. Currently JJ enjoys a cir-
culation of over 5,000 copies and
has subscribers all over the world as
far away as Finland, Japan and
Australia. It is sought after as a gift
for family and friends and by visitors
from overseas. Well deserved recogni-
tion came in 1987 when Olive Senior
received the Archie Undo Award
from the Press Association of
Jamaica for outstanding public ser-
vice resulting from her work with JJ
and also in 1990 when the JJitself
was selected by the Book Industry
Association of Jamaica for their
Award for the Best Journal.
An index to the content of JJ in
its first 22 years (1967-89) was pub-
lished in 1991, providing better and
easier access to the many important
studies contained in its pages. It is a
multi-series index to authors, sub-
jects, art reproductions,
photographic studies and poems ap-
pearing in its pages. Reviewing the
index in Caribbean Review of Books
(2, Nov. 1991) Judy Rao observed
that "readers will no longer have to
resort to serendipity to access the
journal's contents". There are plans
to issue supplements to this index.
The first is expected to appear in the
next issue (vol. 25, no. 1). C

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

In 1992 Peepal Tree Books published
the following books by Jamaican
poets. The press is located in Leeds,
England. Against Linearity, Earl Mc-
Kenzie, 59 pages. 4.95. The Chase:
A Collection ofPoems 1941-1989,
John Figueroa, 151 pages, 8.95.
Shame Trees Don't Grow Here... But
Poincianas Bloom, Velma Pollard, 71
pages. 4.95. A Light Left On, Rachel
Manley, 55 pages. 4.95. The Denting
of a Wave, Ralph Thompson, 85
pages, 6.95.

by Louis Simpson

Jamaican poets is timely, fol-
lowing the award of a Nobel
Prize to Derek Walcott that
has focused attention on Caribbean
writing. The publishers, Peepal Tree
Books, have done well by their
authors: the editions are attractively
designed and printed. There is excel-
lent poetry to be found among the
five, and some that only a sociologist
could like. The bad writing, I am glad
to say, is far out-weighed by the good.
Earl McKenzie writes of a women
who has two different languages:
Miss Ida speaks only English
to God.
Scholars cannot fault the dic-
of her graces and prayers...
But in her dealings with her
fellow mortals:
she speaks Creole,
the tongue of the markets
and the fields;
the language of labrish,
su-su, proverbs and stories,
hot-words, tracings and
it is the way to get
hard-ears pickney to listen...
Miss Ida could be a school-
teacher, she isn't a poet-poets have
a mind and style of their own. Earl
McKenzie writes in conversational
English. He is a Jamaican poet not
because he writes in the English of
the King James version or Miss Ida's
"tongue of the market and the fields,"
but because he is a poet and thinks
of himself as Jamaican.
The writing in Against Linearity is
clear and thoughtful, quickening

with anger when it speaks of violence
and cruelty:
mule hauling sustenance of
skin burnt with whip and sun
tired hoofs slithering on par-
ched asphalt
foam rising endlessly in its
tortured mouth
eyes pained and wild
eyes staring without com-
McKenzie writes free verse, as do
all the poets under consideration,
though John Figueroa also includes
some early poems in meter and
rhyme. McKenzie's "After the Hur-
ricane, the Moon" shows his most
consistent mood, elegiac and quietly
After the hurricane, the moon
poured its gold over the rub-
From our roofless house,
now without TV,
we watched it rising
on the sky's screen.....
The poem concludes with an ex-
planation of the poet's feelings:
...we who watched
from our shattered house
felt both blasted and blessed.
How much better it would have
been if McKenzie had spared us the
explanation and ended with these
lines that come before it:
The storm destroyed
and the moon rose
both going their way
in nature's indifference.
This would have left us with some-
thing to think about. But when the
writer tells you what he felt and
thought he shuts you out of the ex-
perience. Not only McKenzie....all of
these poets are liable to explain what
their poetry means.
McKenzie has some poems of "so-
cial significance," and these are fairly
predictable-a poem, for example,
titled "The Lynching"- but "Burglar
Bars" is original. This poem speaks
of a topic, crime, that is discussed in
every newspaper, but from a per-
sonal point of view. We are looking at
the bars that are placed on doors
and windows to keep crime out:
Burglar bars have become an
art form
In this our nervous land.

The masters of this renais-
sance of dread
work in studios with appren-
They work late at night
Designing patterns of steel,
Elegant geometries
And shapes of plants and
To keep the burglars out.
The poem ends:
Only cold metallic webs of
Stand between us and the
This is not the kind of explaining
I've been objecting to: the "cold metal-
lic webs of beauty" present a new
idea and leave the thinking up to us.
There are other poems of this caliber
in Against Linearity: Earl McKenzie is
a poet with ideas and a fine control
of language and the cadences of
John Figueroa's The Chase: A Col-
lection ofPoems 1941-1989 repre-
sents a lifetime of writing and is the
bulkiest of the books published by
Peepal Tree. The author has taught
in universities and edited an anthol-
ogy of Caribbean poetry. I was there-
fore surprised to come across these
lines in his book:
What is Barbados or Peru
Provence or Rome
But places which Any Man
Can make their home?
I turned the pages hoping that
this was an aberration, but I'm sorry
to say it wasn't: many passages
would qualify for inclusion in The
Stuffed Owl, the classic anthology of
bad verse. This for example, from a
poem titled "From the Caribbean
With Love":
...Why be proud
of what
You or I could not
did not
And would have done?
We must have done?
We must know
While not denying the nur-
Of history and the per-
manent peace
Of a lawn cared for for a
thousand years
We must know the span of

Louis Simpson is a poet and critic for the New York limes Book Review.
continued overleaf

:i-. :' t:-:-:vi- w .. 8:. (Caribbean Review of Books Cadean eview of ooks

As many depend on the
Backward nearly forever.
This writing has no form and
doesn't make sense
With some difficulty I found a
poem in The Chase that could be
read with pleasure, "The Garden,
Green and Great." This is from a
description of the garden
Around the pond are sweet
Around the bowers green
Flecked with mauve and yel-
low blossoms;
Red hibiscus, yellow
Allamanda, purple bougain-
Surround and dome the
This is followed by an equally at-
tractive picture of four women: A deli-
cate Chinese with almond eyes and
yoghurt skin," "A tall black girl whose
skin shines," a "white Juno," and
...with a glitter and a tinkle
The golden sari and black-
bird blackness
Of the Indian's hair.
So Figueroa is capable of writing
well. The trouble, I think, is that he
has not been required to do so. He
has written for people who know very
little poetry and are easily pleased.
In Shame Trees Don't Grow
Here...But Poincianas Do Velma Pol-
lard writes about history and her
travels. The history is simple, like
movies in the thirties about Drake
and Hawkins and other English wor-
thies-she has simply turned the
values around so that these men
were intruders in an idyllic world. As
for Christopher Columbus ...
Perhaps they should have
stoned him
that first time he came
pelted poison from the arrow
but too much gentleness
third world of love
offered to men who know not
and cannot comprehend it ..

Her reference to a "third world"
and use of the present tense brings
her history up to the present: it's not
just Columbus and the conquis-

tadors she would like to meet with
stones and poisoned arrows, but
present-day intruders in her idyllic
world. It does not occur to her that
her anger is the opposite of the peace-
ableness for which the Arawaks are
It is the same when she travels
out of Jamaica-she is filled with
righteous indignation and sees only
what she wishes to see. In upstate
New York she finds:
of head-hunters
hunted by Harrimans
The writer who could find this in
Harriman, New York, could find a
grievance anywhere. She prides her-
self on having "a shame Tree (that) ex-
ists in the conscience of most
Jamaicans." She might consider the
tree that reminds you not to be so su-
The poems in which she under-
takes to instruct us are prosaic
...lines without rhythm, language
with no color.
The poems subtitled "But Poin-
clanas Bloom," that deal with ex-
perience and the world she knows at
first hand, are livelier. Real history
begins with observations such as
these, in the poem "Bridgetown (sum-
mer '78)":
Because the sea
walks slowly in
or lapping fast
caresses every moment of
your sound
that city hands you heaven

street side
the city traffic rushes
crowding the kitchen din
crowding the gentle alterca-
child with child
The poems of Rachel Manley in A
Light Left On are like Chopin
preludes: a moment in a garden, a
night with rain playing on the roof.
There is regret for the Edenic,
vanished world of a family. Some-
times she writes forcefully, as in the
poem titled "Cropover":
Now they have cut the canes
and I don't know whether
they leave
like Jews hoarded off to
or protesting children

to Sunday school,
but the land is gross and torn
and I am afflicted.
At the beginning of this article I
said that it would not be a peculiar
use of language that would identify a
writer as Jamaican-a tourist could
use it-but the writer's thinking of
herself as Jamaican. Rachel Manley
uses standard English, but I cannot
imagine a more "Jamaican" poem
than "Cropover". The essential thing,
however, is that it is poetry of a high
order. Questions of identity may be
interesting but they are not essential.
The longest poem in A Light Left
On is dedicated to the poet Rilke and
evokes the volatile images and com-
paction of language in the Duino
Elegies. Manley's brief lyrics can be
enchanting, but "Raron" is on a
higher level of achievement al-
together: the poetry is not just per-
sonal, it moves into a larger world,
the arena of myths and legends: The
speaker is climbing one of the Alps
and arrives at a graveyard. "Is it only
the old who climb this mountain/
pacing their weakened steps up the
quiet path?"
Pass through the gate, it
neither opens
nor shuts; only the body folds
its curtains behind. Consider
the rose
who begins her journey
Come to the lawn of beds,
each resting
brave tucked into the sum of
his worth.
A host of crosses turns at the
sound of steps
their arms outreached like
beseeching memory for each
mute constituent. They mark
the place
where man's imagination left
its luggage
as it journeyed on
I look forward to the poems
Rachel Manley may write as she
gains confidence and moves, as in
"Raron", beyond the lyric to express
all that she knows and can imagine.
Ezra Pound said that we ask the
poet to build us his world, and in The
Denting of a Wave Ralph Thompson
gives us places to walk around in

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

and people and things to look at. He
begins with a carpenter's building a
one-room house in Jamaica, in the
bush, and ends with a Jamaican air-
man, who is stationed in Japan, look-
ing at a fishing boat in Tokyo Bay
and feeling homesick. Thompson's
poetry is open to the world but al-
ways riveted to things as they are,
wherever he may be. He is both a
narrative and meditative poet, the
meditations rising directly out of an
incident or situation.
The narrator was ten years old
when Mr. Coombs built the
narrator's friend Malcolm his dream
Pencil tucked behind his ear,
Mr Coombs
bends over a beam bridging
two inverted
forty-gallon drums-its yel-
low fur erect, ready for
the razor tongue of plane to
shave its splinters.
to peel its skin down to the
smell of pine and pitch
while Mr. Coombs up to his
unlaced boots in clay
whistles through gold-
capped teeth, blessing with

flicks of sweat the curtilage
of Malcolm's plot.
When the house is finished they
celebrate with a bottle of white rum
and invite the boy in.
Hardly listening to the drift
of their post mortem, I
choose the toolbox as my
pondering the career of car-
This is an enjoyable opening to a
book of poems, and the enjoyment
continues. The writing is full of ac-
curately rendered and therefore inter-
esting details. Reading The Denting of
a Wave is like having a conversation
with a friend who is intelligent and
gifted with a sense of humor. It is not
only a world that the poet builds us,
but his life inside that world, from
the opening poems about boyhood to
his poetry of a grandfather. The sub-
jects range from the one-room house
in the bush to "Harbour View" ...a
view, I take it, of Kingston Harbour.
This is one of the most perfectly real-
ized poems in the book--perfectly be-
cause the poet refrains from trying to
make anything grander and more sig-
nificant of the view than it is. The ef-

fect of the poem is in the composi-
tion, like a picture.
Beyond the edge of my win-
overlooking the harbour
the prow of a red cargo boat
floats without motion
on the blue water
"But," he says, "it will not last."
Either the ship will be "eaten up with
demurrage," or it will sink or sail, or
be driven onshore by wind and sea,
"or I, unable to be a witness to
defeat/ will close the curtain." The
closing of the curtain closes the
poem, making it one with the view.
Like all first-rate poetry, The Dent-
ing of a Wave demands something of
the reader, and there are places
where the writer's meaning is not as
clear as it might be. But the general
sense is always clear. Ralph
Thompson speaks of himself as a
"watcher of horizons" and a "hillside
dweller," and his poetry has both
breadth and height. But more than
anything else perhaps, it is the voice
of the writer that stays with you after
you have closed the book: observant,
knowledgable about the world and, I
am happy to say, very entertaining.Q

Co i-, n R. iew f J:soks Caribbean Review of Books Cdbbean Review of ooks



The Beauty and the Soul..."

Is to the visitor, a testament of the beauty and sold of a people.
For the Jamaican, it rekindles feelings of enormous pride and passion.

Now available at leading bookstores or contact:

*1 HF A.4ID %P L' -E

19 Ballater Ave., Kingston 10 Tel.: 929-2625, 929-4096 Fax: 929-9469



:' SHARKS, contd from page 5
who these people are who speak for
'the banks'. Not their names, but at
least their ethnicity. Secondly, in
what is an even more glaring lack of
rigour in method, we learn on page
193 that Ryan actually asked per-
sons of the 'French Creole' ethnic
group if they still thought that they
controlled as much Trinidadian busi-
ness as they historically did. Now
the issue of the ethnic structure of
business ownership is an empirical
question, it seems to me, to be set-
tled by research into who actually
owns businesses, not by asking
people for their estimation of the ex-
tent of business ownership of their
own ethnic group.
It is incredible that the impact of
colonialism and slavery on black con-
sciousness and material circumstan-

Conflict and Competition: The Latin
American Church in a Changing En-
vironment ed by Edward L. Cleary
and Hannah Stewart-Gambino.
Boulder and London, Lynne Rienner,
1992. vi, 234pp. 1-55587-251-4
US$35.00 (hdc) 1-55587-332-4 (pbk)

by Samuel B. Bandara

These essays focus on the
Catholic Church in the midst
of changes in the 1990s as
seen in Brazil. Chile, Cuba,
Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru and
Venezuela. Chapter 8, "(Still) Waiting
for John Paul III: The Church in
Cuba" (pp. 147-65) will be of interest
to readers of CRB. Following on the
previous work of the author, John
M.Kirk, it is perhaps the best con-
tribution available today on the most
recent developments in the Church in
Cuba. Kirk contributed the study
"From Counter-revolution to Modus
Vivendi 1959-1984" in the collection
he co-edited with Sandor Halebsky,

ces is given only passing mention in
the book: instead of a rigorous at-
tempt to situate the black
entrepreneur structurally and his-
torically, we are offered the neo-
liberal commonplace that blacks
must stop blaming the past for their
economic woes and 'learn to trade'.
It is disturbing to have the senti-
ments of the neo-liberal intel-
ligentsia voiced by one of our own.
I tried in vain to discern some
theoretical framework which guided
the work. It now seems in vogue for
some regional social scientists to
reject grand theory and concomitant-
ly embrace empiricist (not just em-
pirical) approaches: Sharks and
Sardines is an example of this. This
is a development to be deplored:
Frantz Fanon, CLR James, the New

Cuba: Twenty Five Years of Revolu-
tion, 1959-1984 (Praeger, 1985) ex-
amining the first period after 1959,
and his monograph Between God and
Party: Religion and Politics in Revolu-
tionary Cuba (Univ. Presses of
Florida, 1989) was a more com-
prehensive study with the concluding
chapter ("The Beginnings of
Dialogue") examining the period 1979-
1987. This latter work was accom-
panied by his "Religion and Politics in
Revolutionary Cuba: A Bibliog-
raphical Guide" published in 1987 in
the Interamerican Review of Bibliog-
raphy (37,3 pp.327-43), a most use-
ful examination of the sources for the
study of the Church in Cuba. Now
with the essay in the present collec-
tion he brings his coverage of the sub-
ject up-to-date by discussing the slow
but big changes that have taken
place during the last 12 years, chan-
ges Kirk recognizes as the develop-
ment of the Church in Cuba into a
Cuban Church. He explores the
process of this change, as seen in the
variety of sources, presenting a study

World Group and Walter Rodney
realized the need to do serious
theoretical preparation before going
out to gather data. The real value of
the Caribbean intellectual tradition,
for me, lay in its members' willing-
ness to bring fresh insight to old
situations, and in their steadfast op-
position to all forms of oppression.
Must the end of the Cold War mean
the end of theoretically-driven and
politically-committed analysis?
Despite the criticisms, I commend
Ryan and Barclay for attempting to
come to terms with a most important
issue and I hope more work in this
vein will follow, and that some of it
will have the courage to attempt a
historical materialist analysis of
black experience in business. O

with ease and versatility, and this
chapter is essential reading for
anyone wanting to keep abreast with
the latest moves and concerns of
Cuba's Catholic Church in the early
The developments recorded with
understanding in this essay are the
signs of healthy changes secured
through a process in which the
Cuban Church "discovers its true
Mission", a process in which leaders
of both the Church and the political
establishment have actively and keen-
ly participated. It is a process which
as it unfolds further and moves for-
ward should prove to cause the Carib-
bean churches outside of Cuba in the
"free" societies some embarrassment
for their own record of discovering
their mission in the era of Inde-
pendence. Professor Kirk has made a
lasting contribution to Caribbean
studies in the series he has produced
in this area, now capped by this well
documented assessment. 0

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

Ethnicity And Development: a review essay

Forging Identities and Pattern of
Development, Harry P. Diaz, Joanna
W.A. Rummens and Patrick D.M.
Taylor (eds.), Canadian Scholars'
Press, 1991

Ethnic Conflict and Development The
Case of Guyana, Ralph R. Premdas,
United Nations Research Institute for
Social Development, DP 30, January

Hindu Trinidad: Religion, Ethnicity
and Socio-Economic Change, Macmil-
lan Caribbean, 1992.

by Bill Harris
This essay gathers and views
the convergence between eth-
nicity as a salient concept in
human affairs and positive
development in human societies. Eth-
nicity, per se, can be considered to
be a potent concept in human
societies. Recent political changes
which are purported to remove the
barriers between globally opposed in-
ternational forces have, in fact, led to
new internal divisions. Thus, while
we celebrate the demise of oppressive
political regimes in the former Soviet
Union and the former Yugoslavia, we
are alarmed by the appearance of
cleavages among identifiable ethnic
groups in those countries. Added to
these woes are the ongoing conflicts
in the Asian subcontinent, Canada,
the United States and Africa which
turn on ethnic differences. Clearly,
the need to understand and reconcile
ethnic differences will occupy our
scholars and politicians for some
time to come.
While ethnic differences can be a
spur to conflict within and across na-
tional borders, ethnic similarities can
spur positive development within eth-
nic groups. While ethnic conflict is a
bane to national development, posi-
tive development in whatever sector
must be considered to be a boon.
Schonwalder's analysis (in Diaz et al.

1991) of development In the informal
sector as a function of markets or
bureaucracies begs the question:
What is the function of ethnic iden-
tity in the development of the infor-
mal sector? There is the possibility
that ethnic development can provide
a model for pluralist national develop-
ment. There is the possibility that
transnational ethnic identification
can lead to markets for economic
development. There is the possibility
that the half empty glass of conflict
can be seen as the half full glass of
Let us take care at the outset to
specify how the topics of ethnicity
and development are located within
the scholarly disciplines and how the
study of the convergence of these
topics is to be organized. This busi-
ness of orientation to the topic is as
important as factual information on
the topic. Facts change but ap-
proaches endure the difference be-
tween dinner and fishing.
The concept of ethnic relations is
usually addressed in the social
science disciplines In combination
with the concept of race relations.
Both concepts are relevant to many
instances of social behaviour other
than those in which racial or ethnic
identity is an apparent issue or vari-
able. There are differences in ideology
or belief which often give rise to so-
cial behaviours associated with dif-
ferences in race. Again, in present
day Europe there are daily reports of
conflict between persons of the same
race but holding different religious
beliefs. The nature of such conflicts
is apparently quite similar to those
involving racial or ethnic differences.
The definition of the concept of
race itself is a paradox. On the one
hand, there are biological indicators
associated with racial identity. But
the biological indicators are apparent-
ly meaningless in terms of the
capacity of persons of different races
to enter into the human drama. Per-
sons of all races are equally capable
of intellectual achievement, athletic
achievement, artistic achievement, in-
terracial sexual reproduction, subsis-

tence, and survival all of the
qualities that are common to the
human species. The important part
of the definition of race is not biologi-
cal but sociological As W.I. Thomas
said: If a person defines something
as real, it becomes real in its conse-
The term, ethnicity, is derived
from the Greek ethnos or "nation."
As the peoples of the world migrated
from their nations of origin, there
developed a consciousness of cul-
tural differences. The identification
of ethnicity in itself is no problem.
The problem of coexistence arises
when, in Erickson's (1967) terms,
the outgroup is conceptualized as a
"pseudo-species." The cognitive in-
vention of a pseudo-species involves
a mentality associated with an over-
blown sense of racial or cultural iden-
tity. It is a condition which often
leads to the oppression of other
races and cultures as though they
were members of another species.
Development, once seen as a con-
cept solely addressed by economics
is now studied in all the disciplines
of the social sciences. According to
Arratia (In Diaz et al. 1991). "develop-
ment is a cultural activity, and cul-
ture and social identity are, of
course, intimately linked." Social,
political, cultural and administrative
activities are recognized as contexts
which contribute to positive change
in the national interest. As a concept
which basically refers to social
change, development finds its
strongest adversary in cultural tradi-
tions. Ethnic cultures have often
been cited as possessing values
which support development, but
transfer of those values have usually
been seen as unlikely (Farley and
Allen 1987: 366).
There are several situations in
which development is initiated in
relation to ethnic identity. The
analysis here surveys changes in in-
terethnic contact brought on by im-
migration, independence, and social
movements. Immigration creates a
situation in which ethnic cohorts
coalesce for the benefits found in

continued overleaf

(18...'.::: .' vw : l.Bi: Caribbean Review of Books Caribbean Revlew of Books

Bill Harris is in the Department of Sociology at Boston College, MA, USA.

j A ETHNIC, continued from page 13
. group solidarity. Successive waves of
--.. immigrants to the North American
mainland have gravitated toward eth-
nic communities and ethnically held
occupational niches as the launching
pads for further development. Yon (in
Diaz et al. 1991) reports on the pres-
sures that move Caribbean students
in Toronto to form an identifiable
"subculture" as part of their social
development in a new land. Repre-
sentatives of the dominant segments
of society (teachers) communicate
the society's hostility and the sub-
dominant segments (Caribbean stu-
dents) react by affecting the "roots"
The postcolonial situation creates
another context for the activation of
ethnic development. When a group
has been dominated as a colony or
an artificially constructed political en-
tity, the establishment of inde-
pendent political status can give rise
to development based on ethnic
grounds. In Eastern Europe today we
witness the events in such processes
going awry. There are other examples
in the newly independent nations of
Africa and the Caribbean beginning
in the 1960s. In his paper on ethnic
conflict in Guyana, Premdas (1992)
discusses the negative effect of the
political system inherited from the
colonial power. Given the existence
of ethnic pluralism and the estab-
lished patterns of strong government
control, the parliamentary system
was translated into a system of eth-
nic parties seeking hegemony in vic-
tory and purging opponents as a
matter of course. As he states the
matter: "The overdeveloped state be-
came a ready tool for ethnic oppres-
sion" (1992: 14)
Premdas (1992) analyzes the im-
pact of ethnic conflict on the politi-
cal, economic, socio-cultural and
psychological dimensions of
Guyanese development. Politically,
the conflict served to increase ethnic
solidarity and interethnic awareness.
At the same time, all issues became
ethnically politicized and excesses of
corruption and violence were jus-
tified on the grounds of the inter-
group competition. Economically,
Guyana has suffered the effects of an
"ethnic nuclear bomb" (1992:22). Be-
cause of the dominance of African
workers in the public sector and In-
dian workers in the agricultural sec-

tor, the political ascendance of either
group has brought non-cooperation
and stagnation in the form of strikes
and falling productivity. Cultural
forms which once identified a shared
creole culture have been transformed
into intra-ethnic institutions in the
shattered social system. Psychologi-
cally damaging "ethnic conflicts can
endanger a level of solidarity that
over-saturates the need for (a sense
of) belongingness" (1992:26).
In an analysis of the record of the
Indian experience in Guyana, Per-
saud (in Diaz et al. 1991) urges a
postmodern erasure of the objectifica-
tion placed on those studied. In con-
trasting the views of Rodney (1981)
that class was salient in the
nineteenth century and Moore (1987)
that race was salient after inde-
pendence, Persaud chides Rodney
and comes down on the side of
Moore. It is an analysis that ignores
the apparent realities of historical
periods in order to advance scholarly
ideas en vogue. As Rosenau
(1992:51) states, "to erase the distinc-
tion between (researcher) and the
(group) being studied would be to do
away with the field itself". Further,
the postmodern vision, by denounc-
ing objectivity as a mirage, leaves the
field to the one with the most
forceful argument). This would serve
to exacerbate situations of conflict.
The third situation which can
spur development based on ethnicity
is conceptualized as the revitalization
movement or messianic movement
(Wallace 1956). This takes place in a
group that has been established in a
given geographic area and in contact
with other ethnic groups over a
period of time. Through a precipitant
bootstrapping process the focal
group engages in heightened develop-
ment activities. Vertovec (1992:192)
describes the recent emergence of a
strong Hindu culture in Trinidad in
exactly these terms:
Trinidad Hindus sharpened
their spiritual sensitivity and
increased their doctrinal
knowledge, forged or
bolstered all kinds of social
ties, and revitalized or
reworked a variety of cul-
tural forms and values. In
short, an ethnic resurgence
took place.

Although Trinidad is subject to
the same ethnic competition as
Guyana, that occurring between
Africans and Indians, development in
Trinidad has often transcended the
conflict. During the oil boom of the
70s, the Hindu population was able
to thrive in the construction and
transportation sectors because these
were not controlled by the African
bureaucracy (Vertovec 1992:142).
The Aymara group of Chile,
described by Arratia (in Diaz et al.
1991), could also be in the process of
revitalization. Those who analyze so-
cial movements in terms of organiza-
tional precursors would be struck by
the multiplicity of Aymara organiza-
tions in the urban setting.
As the three referenced conditions
suggest, development activities per
se involve the concept of change.
Development in which ethnicity is a
salient issue usually includes some
condition of change or renegotiation
between the focal group and other
groups in the social environment.
Ethnic development among im-
migrants is usually considered as a
way station to an ultimate integra-
tion into the body politic. However,
the other conditions involving ethnic
development test the pluralistic
boundaries of a society. If
policymakers can tolerate the abun-
dance that can occur in pockets of
diversity, ethnic development can be
viewed as sectoral development. In
this perspective the ebb and flow of
activity in the ethnic sector of a na-
tion are taken to be evidence of the
strength of democratic processes.
By modeling the broad empathy
necessary for the reconciliation of
sectoral differences the democratic
government derives gain from the
progress of all groups within the na-
tion. The group establishing national
leadership in development today is
the beacon for other groups seeking
the path to cultural change and

Erickson, E.H. (1967) -The concept of
identity in race relations: notes and
queries," In T. Parsons and K.B. Clark
(eds) The Negro American. Boston: Beacon
Press. Pp. 227-253.
Farley R and W.R. Allen (1987) The Color
Line and the Quality of Life in America.
New York: Oxford University Press.
continued on page 16

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

Adjusting Privatization: Case Studies
From Developing Countries, Chris-
topher Adams, William Cavendish
and Percy Mistry, lan Randle Publish-
er, 1992.

by Gladstone A. Hutchinson
Adjusting Privatization
provides a sensible analyti-
cal case studies treatment
of the issues important to
public sector reform through
privatization in developing countries.
The book makes a number of impor-
tant contributions to the literature
on this topic. First, unlike other ef-
forts that apply the same analytical
framework to explain privatization in
both industrial and developing
countries, Adjusting Privatization ac-
commodates the uniqueness of the
developing country environment in
its analysis. Its case studies focus ex-
clusively on developing countries
that have been engaging in the
realignment of their public sectors
through privatization (Jamaica,
Trinidad and Tobago, Malaysia, Sri
Lanka, Kenya, Papua, New Guinea,
Malawi). Hence it smartly avoids
(mis)judging the experiences of
developing countries by indis-
criminately applying lessons and
biases derived from the experiences
of industrial countries. For example,
the presumption that the private sec-
tor is generally more efficient than
the public sector in the production of
economic goods and services would
have more legitimacy as a basis for
policy in industrial economies rather
than in developing economies where,
as the case is made in Adjusting
Privatization, the combination of in-
stitutional weaknesses and market
concentration problems make owner-
ship arrangements no longer the only
critical determinant of performance.
The second important contribu-
tion made by Adjusting Privatization
is that it presents a strong case for
the superiority of the efficiency objec-
tives for privatization programs.
Specifically, the case is made that
when privatization programs have im-
plicit political, financial or rent-seek-
ing objectives, the task faced by

policymakers is inherently in conflict
with the efficiency objective, and this
situation often results in outcomes
that are detrimental to the good per-
formance of the economy. This, the
authors recognize, is specially a prob-
lem in the case of developing
countries where the economies are al-
ready hampered by institutional,
structural, and regulatory weak-
nesses. Hence, the book argues, if im-
proved economic performance is the
major objective and measurement
yardstick of privatization programs,
then the only legitimate focus of
policymakers should be the efficiency
The book is divided into two sec-
tions. Section One (Chapter One
through Six) presents a theoretical
overview of the economic issues per-
tinent to the privatization debate
within the developing country con-
text and outlines the experiences of
the seven selected developing
countries. Chapter Three sum-
marizes observed patterns in growth
of the state sectors in the seven
countries and provides useful in-
sights into the assigned respon-
sibilities of the public versus the
private sector in these countries prior
to the recent privatization wave. The
reassignment of some of these
responsibilities to the private sector
is the major objective of privatization.
Chapter Four presents a summary of
the countries' respective experiences
with this task. Chapter Five is of par-
ticular interest in that it offers a use-
ful presentation of the intellectual
and analytical foundation underlying
the economic justifications for
privatization within this environ-
ment. This chapter should be of great
interest and value to policymakers
and scholars grappling with the
problems of privatization. The discus-
sion linking successful privatization
to the market structure and
regulatory framework in developing
countries is exceptionally good and
insightful. Chapter Six follows up the
presentation in Chapter Five by offer-
ing the tenets of a program for suc-
cessful privatization.
Section Two (Chapter Seven
through Thirteen) consists of case
studies from the seven selected

countries. While Chapter Seven on
Jamaica and Chapter Eight on
Trinidad and Tobago will be of par-
ticular interest to readers from the
Caribbean, the case studies on the
other countries should not be over-
looked since they provide a useful ref-
erence point to the experiences of the
two Caribbean countries. The
privatization program in Jamaica is
the most extensive of all the
countries studied and offers some in-
teresting guidelines. First, the politi-
cal commitment, receptiveness of the
environment, planning and close at-
tention to programming details ex-
hibited in Jamaica have helped in
insulating the country from the
major privatization failures docu-
mented in some of the other
countries. The Jamaican experience
has not been without problems, how-
ever, as, according to the authors, its
privatization program has been some-
what constrained by the low absorp-
tive capacity of the domestic private
sector, the weak regulatory capacity
of the government, and its willing-
ness to subordinate the efficiency
goals to less legitimate objectives of
privatization. In the case of Trinidad
and Tobago, the authors found an en-
vironment that was more resistant to
the rationale and goals of privatiza-
tion than was the case in Jamaica,
and doubted that the country would
make a strong commitment to policy
of privatization without a serious
deterioration in the financial position
of her public sector. Malaysia and
Kenya were found to have the
greatest structural and financial
capacities for successful privatiza-
tion, but have remained politically
committed to a reliance on their
strong and involved public sectors in
the ownership of resources and the
management of their economies.
This, in the opinion of the authors,
prevented them from reaping the full
benefits of privatization. Papua, New
Guinea, Sri Lanka and Malawi have
experienced many political, struc-
tural and managerial problems in
trying to put in place successful
privatization programs. The authors
were not optimistic about privatiza-
tion programs with much vitality and
focus being implemented successful-

Gladstone Hutchinson teaches in the Department of Economics at
Lafayette College in Pennsylvania, USA. continued overleaf

k,,- f Caribbean Review of Books COMM Revie of Books

continued from page 15

ly in these countries in the near fu-
One weakness of the otherwise
excellent discussion on privatization
is the book's failure to recognize that
successful privatization, as judged
by the improvement in the perfor-
mance of the affected economy, rests
critically on the correct realignment
of the activities of the public and the
private sector in accordance with
their respective comparative ad-

vantages. Privatization programs
must safeguard against the transfer
of economic activities more suited
for public sector execution. This type
of transfer, however, is a distinct pos-
sibility in many developing countries
given the financial constraints that
many governments find themselves
subject to. Of note, Malaysia's insis-
tence on her public sector playing a
role in the intermediation of finan-
cial risk may possibly reflect her

determination that this activity falls
within the purview of the compara-
tive advantages of her public sector.
In sum, Adjusting Privatization is
timely and engaging, and the argu-
ments are insightful and well con-
strued. This book should be required
reading for policymakers and
scholars concerned with the
problems of adjusting a developing
country economy through a policy of
privatization. U

Suriname and the Netherlands Antil-
les: An Annotated English-Language
Bibliography. by Enid Brown.
Methuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow
Press, 1992. 275pp. 0-8108-2576-7

by Joe Derkx

items, mainly in the
humanities and social scien-
ces, on surname, the
Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, writ-
ten in English and located in
libraries in the Dutch and British
Caribbean, Guyana and Suriname.
The holdings of the following
libraries are listed: Anton de Kom
University Library of Suriname,

Aruba National Library, Bonaire
Public Library, Curacao Public
iUbrary, National Library of Jamaica,
Philipsburg Jubilee iUbrary, St. Eus-
tatius Public Library, University of
Guyana Library, University of the
Netherlands Library and the libraries
of the University of the West Indies
at St. Augustine Campus, Cave Hill
Campus and Mona Campus.
The entries are arranged al-
phabetically be author, editor, cor-
poration or first word of the title and
are numbered in sequence. It in-
cludes five appendices, namely: a
subject index, an index of joint
authors or editors, a list of informa-
tion concerning libraries in which
the publications are located, a list of
20 major journals consulted in the
preparation of this bibliography and

an inventory of 223 publications for
which it was impossible to verify bib-
liographic details or confirm any
location. This unverified items inven-
tory is not very user-friendly in case
one is looking for all publications of
one author, but this disadvantage
will be taken away by an extensive
subject index.
Another minus point is the sub-
title 'An Annotated English Language
Bibliography', because only a few
entries are annotated.
Summing up, this bibliography is
useful for students and researchers
who are interested in published and
unpublished works, written only in
English, on Suriname, the Nether-
lands Antilles and last but not least
Aruba held in various libraries in the
Region. U

Jo Derkx is the Documentalist at the Department of Caribbean Studies at
the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology in Leiden and editor of
several bibliographical publications on the Dutch Caribbean published

ETHNIC, continued from page 14
Moore, B.L. (1987) Race, Power and
Social Segmentation in Colonial
Society: Guyana After Slavery, 1838-
1891. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Rodney, W.A. (1981) A History of the
Guyanese Working People, 1881-
1905. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press.
Rosenau, P.M. (1992) Post-Moder-
nism and the Social Sciences. Prin-
ceton: Princeton University Press.
Wallace. A.F.C. (1956) "Revitalization
movements", American
Anthropologist 58:264-281 E

HAITI, continued from page 4

ticity and its justification of the ex-
cesses of the Duvalierist hermit
state must today seem absurd in
the face of changes brought by
modem technology and the
progressive role played by radical
catholicism in the transformation
of Haitian society. It is a pity that
national mystification should

prove so infectious among the well-
intentioned. Perhaps, what we see
at work here is a blindly pas-
sionate liberalism that makes
Lawless' work, despite its merits,
a victim of the very mystification
that he so rightly condemns in
others. u

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

This interview took place on October
3, 1992 while Tony Winkler was in
Kingston to launch his third novel The
Great Yacht Race. Annie Paul who
had been asked to speak at the
launch later interviewed Winklerfor

AP: I remember turning on ,
the radio in my car two
days ago and hearing you
in the middle of telling the
host how you started writ-
ing, something to do with
your grandfather. What
was that story?
AW: Yes, my grandfather
wrote a novel when he was
in the final years of his life.
He called the novel Kath-
leen -
AP: He was a farmer, was
AW: No, no, my great From left
grandfather, his father, was Kim Robi
the first piano importer in
Jamaica. I have all the documenta-
tion of his life including his last will
and testament. He died in 1929, he
lived to be a man in his eighties
which was an achievement for those
years. But he brought the first piano
to Jamaica and his son inherited the
business from him so he was actual-
ly in the musical instrument importa-
tion business. Anyway, he was a
piano importer and towards the end
of his life he got it in his head that
he wanted to write this novel and he
wrote this novel called Kathleen and
later on I realized its sort of vaguely
like The Cloister and the Hearth, I
don't know if you know it?
AP: No, I've heard of it but I haven't
read it.
AW: Well, Grandfather's book had a
very basic plot about a couple of
lovers in Ireland as children who be-
cause of familial intervention were
unable to marry and broken-hearted-
ly the man went to sea and the girl
became a nun. She ended up being
posted in Jamaica during the World
War II years and the story kind of
tracks the individual lives of these

two people and brings them together
through the torpedoing of a ship off
the coast of Jamaica. One of the sur-
vivors turns out to be this man who
is brought to the hospital where he's
tended to by this nun who is his
nurse and Grandfather wrestled with

to right, Mrs. Winkler, Tony Winkler, Annie Paul a
nson at launch of The Great Yacht Race.
the idea of whether she should give
up her religious vows and go back to
him or whether she should stay faith-
ful to them and renounce him. He
finally decided I think to work it out
that she would go back to him and
give up her religious life. So he wrote
the novel and it was sort of tragic be-
cause it was very long. I remember it
in a big box, and he sent it away and
it was almost published. The publish-
er really was quite keen on it and
wrote him back a detailed letter sug-
gesting some cuts and he threw him-
self enthusiastically into the job of
editing the novel but he died before
it could be published and then the
odd thing was that the first thing his
wife did was to burn it!
AP: Very strange!
AW: Well, you know, first of all un-
like you who love Jamaica, she hated
Jamaica. She was brought here as a
young woman in her early twenties.
My grandfather had gone abroad and
met her and brought her back to
Jamaica as his bride.
AP: Where was she from?

AW: New Jersey, and she literally I
think, regarded Jamaica as her land
of exile. She is buried now in
Matilda's Corer beside him but all
her life she pined to go back home,
never could, never did. They could
never afford it, they were too poor.
Grandfather in his childhood
was a relatively wealthy man
because the business he was
left by his father was a very
prosperous one but he was a
spendthrift and he was a
man given to spiritualism
and not at all the sort that
Should pay attention to busi-
AP: And you said something
to the effect that that was
probably what had inspired
you to write?
S AW: I don't know if it in-
spired me to write because I
nd sort of feel like writing is
something that's inborn in
AP: But it was something that you al-
ways wanted to do? You wanted to
write even when you were a child?
AW: Yeah, I was telling this guy the
other day that when I was about
eight years old I had this distinct feel-
ing that I used to be Jack London
(laughs) and you know where it came
from? I don't know, what age are you
when you lose your milk teeth?
AP: Around seven?
AW: Yeah, around seven, well I had
lost these two teeth and I remember
walking around thinking that this
feels vaguely familiar and then I read
something about Jack London
having had no front teeth and it sud-
denly clicked and I said Yeah, Yeah,
that's why, I remember that- but I
always felt like I wanted to write
from I was a very young person and
the first story I had published was
published when I was fifteen-
AP: Is that right, where was this, the
AW: Yeah, by the Gleaner, it was
called Weary by Bus. I had just been
fired from my job and-

continued overleaf

...ribbe -- R -iew o Bo-, Caribbean Review of Books C(rbbean Review of ooks

la*-Na o-Ta -Emo Roo-V a4 E *-

AP: You used to work at fifteen?
AW: Yeah, I was kicked out of school.
I think I was just turning fifteen
when I was expelled.
AP: Why were you expelled?
AW: I refused to take a caning. I'd
been caned all my life and I frankly,
even to this day feel as if half of the
canings I got were motivated by ra-
cial reasons that were below the sur-
face. You know that there was this
one tutor who just literally despised
me and I could not figure out how to
appease this man. I would move
heaven and earth to try and appease
this man and never could and I final-
ly decided that it was me as a symbol
that he hated and not me as a child.
I mean, this man used to cane me
every Friday night, every Friday after-
noon and I used to think how could
he cane me every Friday, I mean was
I that stupid that I knew he was
going to cane me and I would
deliberately do something to provoke
it? Obviously not but I can remember
he had me for the last class-
Spanish--and I would think almost
with a feeling of jubilation that the
class was winding down, that today I
wasn't going to get caned and then
he would say, "WINKLER-" and
then he would give me something to
conjugate, some impossible verb,
and you know nervous, I would
stumble and stammer and he would
say, "See me after class, boyl" and I'd
get a caning.
AP: This was at Cornwall?
AW: Yes. I used to, on Fridays, I used
to put on three or four underpants, I
knew I was going to get a caning.
AP: So you were expelled because
you refused to be caned once and
then you started to work?
AW: Yes, I drifted around doing odd
jobs and I ended up working. I came
back to Kingston, ended up working
for Hannah's Wholesale and I got
fired one time, I can't remember why
but I probably deserved to get fired
because I really hated dry goods. I
hated the atmosphere of the place
and I ended up doing something to
offend the boss and he fired me. Very
peremptorily he said, "You're fired"
and that was it. And on the way
home on the bus an incident oc-
curred with a man who came on the
bus smoking a cigarette which- a
sign used to be on the front of the

bus which said "No smoking on the
bus not even Royal Blend"- have
you ever seen that sign? It was an ad-
vertisement for Royal Blend cigaret-
tes. So this guy comes on smoking, I
guess he's a little bit tipsy and the
conductor tells him to put out the
cigarette and he points to the sign
and says "A nuh Royal Blend a Four
Aces", he was smoking Four Aces
cigarettes. (laughs) And of course
there was a big to do about it and
the bus driver had to pull over, the
police were called and I wrote it up in
a humorous vignette and sent it to
the Gleaner and they published it.
And Mr. Sealy wrote me a letter
shortly after-
AP: Theodore Sealy?
AW: Mm hmm, he sent for me and I
went to his office really walking on
air, thinking that he was going to
offer me a job, because in the letter
he had said that he was most im-
pressed with my story, would I come
by and introduce myself to him? So I
went down there and he took one
look at me and all he did was to hem
and haw and shake my hand and
then dismiss me.
AP: Why? Why would he do that?
AW: I think it was racial. Now, I don't
know if Mr. Sealy who is still alive
will admit this but there's a
Jamaican writer that I had tea with
yesterday, Diana Macaulay, you
know her? She won the Lifestyle
Short Story Award, she and I were
talking and she thinks that as a
white Jamaican she is very often
blocked from positions that she
would otherwise have been entitled
to because of her qualifications and
I've always felt that that is a real
event that occurs in the life of white
Jamaicans in Jamaica.
AP: That's true, I suppose its one of
the casualties of reverse discrimina-
AW: But, and not to defend it, be-
cause obviously this is an indefen-
sible thing, but when I was a boy
growing up I like to think I was ob-
servant- and one of the things you
would notice in the Jamaican banks
for instance is that there would be a
kind of a line of colour with the
lighter shades in the forefront of the
bank and then as you descended
back towards the desk in the rear
the shade of the complexions got

darker and darker-but as a boy in
Jamaica I don't think I would, I think
you would rarely encounter a teller
who was all black-
AP: Yes, rye heard that mentioned
again and again, the example of
AW: Yeah, you'd see brown skin,
light brown, Chinese, Indian, but
never black, but in the back you'd
see the black. So discrimination was
practiced even in those days, unfor-
tunately now its the other way
around. Its wrong in either case I
AP: So are you working on a new
book now?
AW: Yes, Im always working on
something. I find that I'm like a cow
who must always be chewing some
fictional cud. If I don't have a cud to
chew I'm a little bit unhappy so I al-
ways have something that crops up
and you know its something that I
chew on for a long time and I work
on it and I come back to it. Very rare-
ly do I have the chance to sit down
and just write fiction uninterrupted-
ly. I get months when I can do that,
like two or three-month stretches
but usually what happens is that a
commercial project intervenes and
then I have to do the commercial
project in order to put food on the
AP: But what do you mean by com-
mercial project?
AW: Textbook project. For instance
when I go back home next week Tues-
day I'm right in the middle of finish-
ing up a book tentatively titled The
Journal Reader. Its a collection of
diary entries and journal entries
which we have selected and graded
according to difficulty. Anyway, when
I get back I'm going to have to throw
my attention into that because
there's a deadline of December on it.
So I'm not really going to have a lot
of time to write fiction even though I
am working on a book right now
called The Duppy.
AP: The Duppy?
AW: Yeah, about a man who dies
and goes to heaven in a minibus.
AP: Yes, I can see all kinds of pos-
sibilities for humorous scenarios
there. But you're about the only
Jamaican or Caribbean writer who's
actually published by a local publish-

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

SmiOngAstron P ,oulbIshers ULEmN ted0

The Painted Canoe

The Lunatic

The Great Yacht Race

All by Anthony Winkler

For these and other titles con-
tact us at:
1A Norwood Avenue
Kingston 5
Phone: 926-0091/968-7806
Fax: 926-0042

Children's Books:

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Kim Robinson

Isabel Marvin

Upcoming Children's Books:

Tilly Bummie and other Stories

My Book of Caribbean Fruits

er. Most of the others are published
by UK publishers or American pub-
lishers and so on. How did that come
AW: Well, The Painted Canoe was
rejected by virtually every publisher
in the United States and none of
them rejected it because they said it
was no good, they all rejected it be-
cause they said it wasn't commercial.
In fact I got some rather flattering let-
ters from publishers who said you
know this is really quite wonderful
but we can't publish it it simply
doesn't fit our list. How it came to be
published was quite an accident-
AP: You didn't try anyone in the UK?
Any British publishers?
AW: I had an agent who tried one
place and it was rejected there-no,
tried two places--and it was rejected
there for similar reasons. So I had
given up on trying to publish it,
frankly, and I never really thought
that I would be a published writer-
in fiction-I always thought I would
end up writing books, fiction, novels
and that when I died somebody
would find them and say this is nice,

I like this. I never wrote really for
adulation, public adulation, that was
never my goal. I always wrote to satis-
fy something internal. My mother
came over and she had nothing to
do. She's a voracious reader so she
said let me read your book again and
she dug it out and read it. And she
said this deserves to be published.
I'm going to Jamaica next week, I'm
going to carry it down and get it pub-
AP: So that's how it happened.
AW: Yeah, that's how It happened
and literally she came here with the
manuscript and she got a friend of
hers from childhood days to take her
to every publisher they could find
listed in the phone book and they
kept badgering, knocking on doors,
knocking on doors and a lot of them
wouldn't even look at it but at
Kingston Publishers there was some-
body who took the manuscript and
put it aside and said it would be read
and then what happened is that it
languished there probably for a year
and a half and I called my sister-in-
law in Jamaica and I said do some-
thing about this for me nuh, maybe

you could find out what they've done
with it and she-her technique was
to charge into Kingston Publishers'
office where she met Kim (Robinson)
and she pulled the manuscript off of
the desk where it was under a pile of
litter and she put it on Kim's desk
and she said to Kim- this is the
story she tells me-"Read this
manuscript by Monday, this was a
Friday, or I'm coming back to take it.
I'm going to take it away and give it
to somebody else. This is a good
manuscript, you should read it."
Then n Monday or Tuesday of the
following week I got a call from my
niece who said that the person from
Kingston Publishers had called and
said they wanted to publish my
AP: Great! That is a tremendous
story, I mean a lot of people will
probably feel very inspired to keep
trying to write, all the ones whove
been rejected-not that all of them
deserve to be published but maybe
there's one or two there like your-
self-which of the three that have
been published is your favourite? It's
just three novels that have been pub-

Ca ',i : Rev.ejw o? Bi. S Caribbean Review of Books CAdbbean RIiew of Books

CO lashed right? Or do you have a
Cr- favourite even?
CZ> AW: I really don't know if I have a
favourite, you know, I like to think of
each as being like an individual
child. If you ask me do I love my son
more than my daughter I can't-it's
Impossible to say. Funnily enough,
the book that everybody seems to
like the most is the one I personally
feel is the weakest and that's The
Lunatic. I love The Painted Canoe be-
cause The Painted Canoe is a very
personal book to me, first of all I
wrote most of it while I was living in
Jamaica, in Moneague, and secondly
there's a very personal story behind
the writing of that book. There was
this fisherman...when we moved to
Montego Bay I was eight years old
and there was a cave behind our
house and we discovered that the
cave was being used as a storage
area by this fisherman who was keep-
ing his nets there and his fishing
equipment. He was keeping his fish-
pots there and when we moved into
the house he came hat in hand to
my father and said you know, I use
your cave as a storage area sir, do
you mind? and my father said no
man, go ahead-his name was Baba
and as a child I always wanted to go
fishing with him so I always used to
ask him, "Baba, take me fishing with
you nuh man", and he always gave
me the same answer, he'd always
say "You too young to go fishing with
me, you too young." He's the
prototype for Zachariah. He looks ex-
actly the way Zachariah is described.
Now, he died when I was about ten,
he had a heart attack and all of a
sudden he disappeared from our
lives, from my life, and the week
after he died somebody came, some-
body unknown who identified them-
selves as Baba's relatives and
cleaned out the cave, took all his
fishing stuff with them, took his
canoe and that was the end of that. I
was just aghast that this man could
just disappear off the face of the
earth as if he had never existed. No
marker, no memorial, nothing be-
hind him, absolutely wiped off the
face of the earth as if he had never
been here. Even at that age I was
just stunned that this could happen
to him. Sb I like to think that even
though Baba didn't take me fishing I
took him fishing when I became a
man and wrote The Painted Canoe.

That's why I say it has a very per-
sonal meaning for me.
AP: It's a lovely story. I wish I had
read The Great Yacht Race. I was
really intrigued by what you said
about the review we carried (CRB #5,
August 1992), that the point was
AW: Yes, she missed the point, not
only did she miss the point but she
missed some crucial practical things
like for instance she said that
Mother Laidlar(?) ends up in heaven,
of course she doesn't end up in
heaven. Father Huck has a dream
that she is in heaven but I think she
missed the point that the or-
chestrated point behind the whole
novel is the interrelationship be-
tween the races and the classes of
Montego Bay society and the yacht
race is simply a sort of an expedien-
cy to unite all these people and get
the story moving, to explore the ra-
cial and class relationships that ex-
isted between them. And that's the
point I think she missed, she got the
particulars right and she said some
nice things about the book.
AP: Well the reviewer did have to
read it in a hurry, she wasn't given
much time and she also had to do it
from the manuscript which rm sure
didn't help.
AW: I think you know I am a little
bit... I don't know if apprehensive is
the word...because I don't feel ap-
prehension about how people react
to my work, I mean you like to be en-
joyed but you know you can't do any
better than your best but I think
that if people are approaching Yacht
Race as if it is a kind of a mini
Lunatic they're going to be very disap-
pointed. Yacht Race in my mind is a
much more serious book, a much
more stately work than Lunatic is. To
me Lunatic is kind of picaresque fic-
tion, Yacht Race if I had to typecast
it I would say its more like a Russian
novel with all the characters coexist-
ing, and coming in and out and inter-
connecting and then disappearing
and unravelling and yet they're all
crescendoing towards some major
event that affects them all. There is
humour in the Yacht Race but the
driving thrust behind Lunatic was
this comic tone and this burlesque,
satirical feeling that I think per-
meates the whole thing. The driving
thrust behind Yacht Race is an at-

tempt to understand how these char-
acters microcosmically related
around the issue of class, sex and
AP: OK, I'm glad you brought that up
because it is a danger one faces,
when one of your works is very suc-
cessful people tend to sort of
typecast you and look for that sort of
thing again and again, so it's a good
thing you mentioned that because
the book has just come out and it
will give people an indication of what
it's like.
AW: And you know I believe that a
parrot should repeat himself but a
human being shouldn't. (laughs)
AP: So each of the books is very very
different then.
AW: I would like to think so because
if they weren't then I wouldn't be
going as a writer. I'd be just knead-
ing old dough and baking the same
loaf of bread. I would like to think
that I am growing as a writer and as
a man, I mean I'd like to think that
at fifty rm not the same person as I
was at forty or at thirty. Of course,
you know you don't know if this is
the case but you'd like to think so I
mean everybody likes to think that
life is growth, don't you?
AP: Yes, yes that's the only thing
that keeps it from being boring. So
do you plan to come back to Jamaica
to live at some point? I heard you
saying, maybe on the same radio in-
terview, that you really love Jamaica.
AW: I do love Jamaica. You know its
so hard -and this is what a lot of
people don't understand-when
you're an expatriate you become so
enmeshed in the society you're living
in, not only economically, but you be-
come enmeshed emotionally, you be-
come enmeshed in terms of the duty
you have as a citizen. You become
enmeshed basically financially and it
becomes very hard to go back to
where you came from, to go back
until your life has reached a certain
plateau. Because the economic con-
sequences to my moving back to
Jamaica are incalculable. Where
would I make a living? How would I
make a living. I'm a full-time writer
and I'm writing for a specialized
market-American colleges and
universities- so if I am cut off from
my natural audience that is putting
food on the table, how am I going to

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

live? I have not made any money
from these novels at all you know. I
told the interviewer on the radio be-
cause he was implying that I had
been making a fortune in royalties,
my royalty check for this year is thir-
teen thousand Jamaican dollars. The
sales of two novels over the course of
an entire year. You calculate that,
that's five hundred US dollars. I
mean, you know, you can't live on
AP: And the movie? You didn't get
anything from that?
AW: Alright, the movie, I got twenty
five thousand US dollars for doing
the script, one shot. So its very hard
to make a living as a writer if you're
living in Jamaica.
AP: That's true. Last week I inter-
viewed Olive Senior-you know who
she is, right?
AW: Oh I do. A good writer.
AP: Yes, a very good writer and she
left Jamaica three years ago because
she decided to become a full-time
writer, not that she couldn't get a job
here, she had a very good Job but it
didn't involve writing. But she
decided that she Just wanted to write
and then she realized that that
meant that she couldn't live here
and she thought she would come
back after three years but it's three
years now and she says there's no
way she can come back because she
doesn't know what she would do
here because she doesn't want to
stop writing. She's been very produc-
tive and its hard on her to be living
out of a suitcase but-
AW: Where is she now?
AP: She's-I think right now she's in
Canada but she said she's been
knocking around Europe for the last
three years, just going around giving
lectures and writing. She was in
England I think as a British Council
writer-in-residence for a year.
AW: Do you know how most writers
in America make a living? They don't
make a living from royalties. When I
say writers I mean good writers, I
don't mean people who write com-
mercial fiction. If you happen to be
lucky enough to have a book of com-
mercial fiction published and it is a
spectacular success it can give you a
nest egg that will last for a while.

But in fact most people who write
non-commercial fiction make their
living by attaching themselves to
universities or doing readings. I
know a very good writer, fellow by
the name of Bob Shachochis who-
AP: Yes I know, Ive got one of his
books, something about islands-
AW: Easy in the Islands. It won the
(American) National Book Award
about three years ago. Now Bob lives
with a girl who has been his com-
mon-law wife for about ten or fifteen

from some institute in Rome and he
had a year, all expenses paid writer-
in-residencejob in Rome someplace
where he was given a villa and told
to write and come out and give a lec-
ture once a week or something like
AP: Sounds like an ideal situation for
a writer.
AW: Yes, but it was only for a year.
Then he came back to the US and he
has another writer-in-residence
tenure someplace. I know like Clark

Tony Winkler with Dawn Chambers, marketing manager of Kingston Publishers
Tony Winkler with Dawn Chambers, marketing manager of Kingston Publishers

years and they live separately be-
cause he gets temporary lecturer-
ships and visiting writer-in-residence
lecturerships at various universities
across the US for stretches of maybe
four months or five months or a
semester. The last I heard from him
he had got one at the University of
Kansas for a semester. They were
paying him fifteen thousand dollars
for three months.
AP: Was he-wasn't he also book
critic for the Washington Post? That
was him?
AW: Yeah, he does book criticism for
them but he doesn't make that much
money doing that. The pay is nice
but its small, better than you'd get
writing for the Gleaner but I mean
not enough to put food on the table.
Then he won the Grand Prix Award

Blaize-we were talking earlier about
Bharati Mukherjee-Bharati has
eclipsed Clark in her career. She's at
Berkeley now, she has a three-year
appointment there and she got that
after her book became a National
Book Award winner.
AP: I see. No, she's become a
runaway success but she's done it
sort of by becoming-how do you say
it-the Complete American Im-
migrant sort of?
AW: Yes, now Clark her husband,
he's at the University of Iowa, the
Writer's Workshop and he's there for
another year and then he will
probably join her, he hopes to get
something on the West Coast.
Anyway, he's a guy that I really
respect, you know he sent me-
believe this or not-a royalty check
contd on page 24

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Slave Society in the Danish West Indies: St.
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Neville A.T. Hall
Edited by B.W. Higman SLAVE SOCIETY
"presents a fresh and in- IN THE
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Contributors: G4rard
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These papers were AFRKANI
originally presented at I
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1993 180 pages
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No. 7, February 1993 22

No. 7, February 1993

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Please send me the following:
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INTERVIEW, continued from page 21

for The Lunatic-you know why? He
took The Lunatic. he was teaching it
in his class as an example of I guess.
fringe fiction, or something like that
and he mimeographed copies of it
and distributed it to his students but
told them they had to pay me the
equivalent royalty that I would have
earned had they bought the books.
AP: That was nice of him.
AW: Very nice. He's a sweet man.
AP: One more thing. Are there any
writers who have influenced you?
AW: Boy, that's a hard question to
AP: Do you read Caribbean writers a
lot? To keep in touch-
AW: Not really. I don't read a lot of
Caribbean writers. The ones I've read
have been Vic Reid and I read a little
bit of John Hearne. I like John

AP: And you seemed also to be
familiar with Olive Senior's work?
AW: No. I've only read a couple of her
short stories in the Jamaica Journal.
Because I'll tell you I don't read fic-
tion when rm writing fiction, because
I think that you can easily become
confused, and you know the voice is
so fragile that you're trying to develop
as you write, that anything that can
intrude on it has the ability either to
throw you off or to cause you to im-
itate, both of which are terrible ef-
fects so when I'm writing fiction I
read non-fiction. I read history, I read
diaries, I read stuff like that. When
I'm not writing fiction, which is rare,
then I read fiction. But its not often
that I'm not writing fiction. Or if rm
writing fiction I will read an author
whose voice is so opposite to mine or
who's writing out of a tradition that
is so alien to the one rm working in
that there's no danger of influence.

Although one time when I was writ-
ing Yacht Race I really got screwed
up becatise I started to read Vanity
Fair. I went off on such a tangent
mat it was only after a hundred and
fifty pages that I realized what I had
AP: Because it's the same sort of
satire on society?
AW: Yes, boy he just led me off to a
place where I should not have been
going at all.
AP: So you had to rewrite.
AW: I had to rewrite completely. I
had to step back for about more than
a hundred pages and start from
scratch again. Which by the way is
the way I write fiction. I don't write
fiction--it doesn't gush out of me.
Sometimes it gushes but most of the
time it dribbles out one drop at a
time one word at a time. And then
even if it does gush out I am a heavy
reviser. I go over my-I bet you every
page of The Lunatic I read during the
course of composition from first word
to final submission to the publisher
and compositor-I bet you I went
over every word a hundred times at
least. At least a hundred times be-
cause one of the tricks anyone who
writes for a living will tell you is that
if you get lost the way to find your
way is to go back to page one, chap-
ter one, word one and work all the
way back up and then you will find
out where you made the misstep. If
you get lost the way to get your bear-
ing is not to go back to the chapter
preceding where you got lost, it is to
go all the way back to the first chap-
ter and then come all the way back.
Because sometimes you find that a
hundred pages earlier you made a
critical misstep and that this
manifested itself a hundred pages
later but if you had only gone back to
the preceding fifty pages you would
have missed this critical misstep.
That is if you're writing organic fic-
tion, which is the best. you know it
takes on a microcosmic life of its own
and it's literally a breathing, living
piece of tissue so you have to go all
the way back and see what happened.
AP: Well, you've given me more than
my fair share of time. Thank you
Tony, it's been a pleasure talking
with you. 0

No. 7, February 1993

Adult Education: Challenges and Op-
portunities. (Proceedings of the First
Annual Conference of the Joint Com-
mittee for Tertiary Education, October
1992). Kingston, University Council of
Jamaica for the Committee, 1992.
University Council of Jamaica (for ad-
dress see below under Directory of
Jamaican Tertiary Institutions) is the
co-ordinating body for the JCTE.

Africa in America: Slave Acculturation
and Resistance in the American South
and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831.
by Michael Mullin. Urbana, Univ. of
Illinois Press, 1992. 412pp. (Blacks in
the New World) 0-252-01889-3

American Holocaust: Columbus and the
Conquest of the New World. by David E.
Stannard. New York, Oxford Univ.
Press, 1992. 358pp. 0-19-507581-1
And I Remember Many Things...;
Folklore for the Caribbean. compiled
and ed. by Christine Barrow, ill. by
Wendy Donawa. Kingston. Ian Randle
Publishers, 1992. 10, 53pp. 976-8100-
14-1 (hdc) US$10.95, 6.95 J$220.00.
Atlantic American Societies: From
Columbus through Abolition, 1492-
1988. ed. by Alan A. Karras and John
McNeill. Routledge, 1992. 208pp. 0-
415-08072-X (hdc) US$49.95 0-415-
08073-8 (pbk) US$15.05

Banana Fallout. Class, Color and Cul-
ture among West Indians in Costa Rica.
by Trevor Purcell. UCLA Center for
Afro-American Studies Publications
(CAAS, 160, Haines Hall, FA05, Los
Angeles, CA90024-1545),1993. (Afro-
American Culture & Society, vol.12)

0-934934-37-1 (price to be announced
on publication in Spring 1993)

Black Trans-Atlantic Experience: Street
Life and Culture in Ghana, Jamaica,
England and the United States. by
Stephen Marc. Chicago, Univ. of Il-
linois Press, 1992. 137p. 0-252-
01955-5 US$50.00

by Kim Robinson

Britain's Dependent Territories: A Fist-
ful ofIslands. by George Drower. Alder-
shot, Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1992.
xxii, 276pp. 1-85521-242-0 (hdc)
In the first part of this book an attempt
is made to analyse "the reasons for
Britain's wish to decolonize the de-
pendent territories during the penul-
timate phase of empire". Then it
questions how far Britain was able to
deal with particular problems in the
territories by considering several case
studies. Among the Caribbean ter-
ritories used as case studies are Belize,
Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, Anguil-
la, St. Kitts-Nevis, Antigua and Bar-

buda, St. Vincent and the Grenadines
and the Bahamas. In part three dealing
with the Caribbean territories of Ber-
muda, Cayman Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands, Montserrat and British
Virgin Islands among others outside of
the Caribbean, the question is
"whether there are lessons from its
decolonization experience that Britain
can apply" to the few territories that
now form the remainder of the empire.

Cannibal Encounters: Europeans and
Island Caribs, 1492-1763. by Philip P.
Boucher. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Univ. Press, 1992. 217pp. 0-8018-
4365-0 US$32.95

The Caribbean at War: "British West
Indians" in World War II. ed. and re-
searched by Oliver Marshall. North
Kensington Archive at the Notting Dale
Urban Studies Centre (Harrow Club,
189 Freton Road, London W10 6TH),
1992. 1-874206-00-7.
Contributions by 13 individuals ob-
tained through interviews presented
with illustrations.

Caribbean Economic Development: The
First Generation. ed. by Stanley Lalta
and Marie Freckleton. Kingston, Ian
Randle Publishers, 1993. x, 400pp.
J$350.00 US$15.95

Caribbean Environment Programme,
Technical Reports:
CEP-1 The Action Plan for the Carib-
bean Environment Programme: Evalua-
tion of its Development and
Achievements (1976-1987). UNEP,
(Caribbean Environment Programme,
Regional Coordinating Unit CAR/RCU)
1989. 96pp. (available in English
French and Spanish)
CEP-2 Regional Overview of Environ-
mental Problems and Priorities affecting
the Coastal and Marine Resources of
the Wider Caribbean. UNEP
(CAR/RCU),1989. 39pp. (in Eng. Fr.

Obe-A': Relvtiw oiX Bw ("I Caribbean Review of Books Caribbean Review of Books


x .. .. ... i

C and Sp.)
CEX CEP-3 Implications of Climatic Chan-
( < ges in the Wider Caribbean
Region.(Preliminary Conclusions of the
Task Team of Experts: Prepared by
George Maul, Wider Caribbean Task
Team Chairman). UNEP (CAR/RCU)
1989. 22pp. (in Eng. Fr. and Sp.)
CEP-4 Assessment of the Economic Im-
pacts of Hurricane Gilbert on Coastal
and Marine Resources in Jamaica.
UNEP (CAR/RCU) 1989. 104pp. (in
Eng. Fr. and Sp.)
CEP-5 The Strategy for the Develop-
ment of the Caribbean Programme.
UNEP (CAR/RCU) 1990. 13pp.(in Eng.
Fr. and Sp.)
CEP-6 Directory ofMarine Environmen-
tal Research Institutions in the Wider
Caribbean Region. UNEP (CAR/RCU)
1991. xx, 193pp (in English only) Lists
over 100 institutions.
CEP-7 The Transboundary Movement
of Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes in
the Wider Caribbean Region: A Callfor
a Legal Instrument within the
Cartagena Convention. UNEP
(CAR/RCU) 1991. 78pp. (in Eng. Fr.
and Sp.)
CEP-8 Report of the CEPPOL Regional
Workshop on Coastal Water Quality
Criteria and Effluent Guidelines for the
Wider Caribbean, San Juan, Puerto
Rico, 5-15 Nov., 1990. UNEP
(CAR/RCU) 1991. 92pp. (in Eng. Fr.
and Sp.)
CEP-9 Report of the CEPPOL Seminar
on Monitoring and Control of Sanitary
Quality of Bathing and Shellfish-grow-
ing Marine Waters in the Wider Carib-
bean Region, Kingston, Jamaica, 8-12
April 1991. UNEP (CAR/RCU) 1991.
38pp. (in Eng. Fr. and Sp.)
CEP's Regional Co-ordinating Unit's
(RCU) address is: 14-20 Port Royal
Street, Kingston, Jamaica. The
acronym CEPPOL appearing in
Reports 8 and 9 refers to CEP's
Regional Programme on Assessment
and Control of Marine Pollution.

Caribbean Herald Magazine, December
1992. ed. and published by Henry S.
Guy (4, Swan Lane, Kingston 16),
1992. 32pp. J$20.00
A publication produced and published
by the editor for several years, this
year's issue contains the regular
Christmas messages and an article by
Rickey Singh entitled "Unfinished
Business" on CARICOM, and by Colin
King, "Successful Stabilisation Opens
Promise" on the Barbados economy.
..................................... .

Caribbean Revolutions and Revolution-
ary Theory: An Analysis of Cuba,

Nigaragua and Grenada. by Brian
Meeks. London, Macmillan, 1993. x,
2 10pp. (Warwick University Caribbean
Studies) 0-333-57759-0 (pbk)

Carlong Primary Social Studies Series,
Book 4: Our Island Nation. by Pansy
Robinson and Wintlett Browne.
Kingston (33, Second St., Newport
West, P.O.Box 489, Kingston 10) Car-
long Publishers (Caribbean) Ltd.,
1992. (4), 124pp.ill. 976-8010-44-4
Social Studies textbook for grade 4

Chemistry for CXC. by Norman Lam-
bert and Marine Mohammed. Oxford,
Heinemann, 1993. 448pp. 8.99 (new
revised edition)

Children of the Americas: Child Sur-
vival, Protection and Integrated
Development in 1990's. Santafe de
Bogota, Colombia, UNICEF Regional
Office for Latin America and the Carib-
bean, 1992. (10), 86pp. tables.
This is the first issue in what appears
to be intended as an annual survey on
the children of the Americas, including
the Caribbean. The volume was first
published in Spanish. In November
1989 the UN Convention on the Rights
of the Child came into being and in
July 1991 the first Ibero-American
Summit on the subject was held in
Guadalajara, Mexico. The United Na-
tions established a Plan of Action for
implementing the World Declaration
on the Survival, Protection and
Development of Children in the 1990's
in September 1990. On the prelimi-
nary pages of this volume there is the
statement "Every country in Latin
America and the Caribbean except
Haiti has ratified the Convention on
the Rights of the Child, and signed the
Declaration and Plan of Action adopted
at the World Summit for Children."
However the copy examined for this
note has a similar statement crossed
out from the printed text on p.13.
There is a wealth of statistical and
other information on subjects such as
child mortality and health, nutrition,
education, access to drinking water
and sanitation services and it is hoped
that the publication of updated annual
issues with this valuable information
will continue in future years on a
regular basis. The address of the
UNICEF Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caribbean which
produced Children of the Americas is
as follows: Calle 72, no.10-71, piso 12,

Santafe de Bogota, Colombia. Fax. no.

C.L.RJames's Caribbean. ed. by Paget
Henry and Paul Buhle. London, Mac-
millan, 1992. xvi, 288pp 0-333-58247-
0 12.95 Published in the U.S. by
Duke University Press.
This volume planned with advice and
co-operation from James himself
before his death in May 1989 focuses
attention on "the lesser known Carib-
bean aspects of his ouevre, as well as
his influence upon the politics and
culture of the region" and is presented
in four parts. The first, entitled
'Portraits and Self Portraits' includes
the texts of three letters sent by James
to Constance Webb in 1944, (Con-
stance Webb later married him) the
first of which "begins as a satire of a
typical autobiography". In the same
section there is "A Portrait of
C.L.R.James" written by Stuart Hall, a
Jamaican, a former editor of New Left
Review and currently Professor of
Sociology at the Open University, and
the text of an interview with George
Lamming entitled "C.L.R. James: West
Indian". In Part II, 'The Early
Trinidadian Years' Selwyn Cudjoe has
a contribution on James's Trinidadian
background in which he makes an at-
tempt at filing some of the gaps in
understanding "the social, cultural,
and intellectual forces that shaped his
life." Also there is a combined text "The
Making of a Literary Life" by Paul
Buhle of several interviews he had with
James in London in 1987. Part III is
devoted to Textual explorations open-
ing with a study by Sylvia Wynter:
"Beyond the Categories of the Master
Conception: The Counterdoctrine of
the Jamesian Poiesis". The other two
contributions in this section are by Nei
Lazarus ("Cricket and National Cul-
ture in the Writings of C.L.R.James")
and by the two editors of the volume
who focus on James and Post-Colonial
In the concluding section, "Praxis"
Paget Henry writes on James and the
Caribbean Economic Tradition and in
a second essay explores the Jamesian
connection with the Afro/Antigua-
Caribbean Liberation Movement
(ACLM) and its implications (both
ways), Walton Look Lai writes on
James and Trinidadian Nationalism
and Kent Worcester takes a close look
at the content of Modem Politics, the
text of a series of six lectures given by
James in 1960 under the auspices of
the Adult Education Programme of the
Trinidad Public Library. A concise but
helpful chronology of James, especial-

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

ly useful in following the setting of the
events referred to in the book, is in-

Coastlines of the Caribbean. ed. by Gil-
lian Cambers. American Society of
Civil Engineers (345 East 47th Street,
New York, NY 10017-2398) 1991. viii,
187pp. 0-87262-836-1 (pbk)
This volume in the ASCE's series
Coastlines of the World (series ed. by
Orville T. Magoon) contains papers
presented at Coastal Zone '91, the
seventh Symposium on Coastal and
Ocean Management held in Long
Beach, California in July 1991.

Crosscurrents ofModernism: Four Latin
American Pioneers: Diego Rivera,
Joaquin Torres-Garcia, Wilfredo Lam,
Matta /Intercambios del modemismo...
byValerie Fletcher. Washington, D.C.,
Hirshhorn Museum of Sculp-
ture/Smithsonian Inst.,1992. 295pp.
1-560-98205-5 US$60.00

Cuba after Communism. by Eliana (A.)
Cardoso and Ann Helwege.
Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press, 1992.
xvi, 148pp. 0-262-03197-3 (hdc)

Cuban Theater in the United States: A
Critical Anthology. ed. and tr. from the
Spanish by Luis F. Gonzalez-Cruz.
Tempe. Arizona, Bilingual Review
Press, 1992. 186pp. 0-927534-26-6

Dale's Mango Tree. (children's book)
written and ill. by Kim Robinson.
Kingston Publishers, 1992. 28pp. 976-

Databank on Seminar Papers in Inter-
national Relations, 1975-1991. (Bibli-
ography) prepared by Cherill Farrell.
St. Augustine, Institute of Internation-
al Relations, Univ. of the West Indies,
1992. vi, 156pp.
Bibliography of papers by students
reading for the Diploma in Internation-
al Relations. Contains 570 records.

Directory of Caribbean Tertiary Institu-
tions, September 1992. Produced by
the Association of Caribbean Tertiary
Institutions (Researcher Euclid
S.King). ACTI (c/o the University of the

west Indies, Mona, Kingston 7) 1992.

Directory of Jamaican Tertiary Institu-
tions, September 1992. produced by
the University Council of Jamaica (25,
Dominica Drive, Kingston 5) The
Council. 1992. iv, 60pp. J$40.00
Lists over 40 institutions and provides
information on courses and program-
mes available. University Council of
Jamaica is a statutory body estab-
lished under the U.C.J.Act of 1987.
The Directory also contains a brief note
on the UCJ introducing its role and

The Faces of the Gods: Vodou and


by Kim Robinson

Roman Catholicism in Haiti by Leslie
Gerald Desmangles. Chapel Hill, Univ.
of North Carolina Press, 1992. 218pp.
0-8078-2059-9 US$32.50

First Regional Workshop on Tropical
Fruit Crops, Roseau, Dominica, Feb. 17-
22, 1991. Passion Fruit, Avocado and
Citrus. (Proceedings). Roseau,
Dominica, IICA Office in Dominica.
1992. vi, 122pp. (IICA Doc. no.
A2/DM-92-001: ISSN 0253-4746)
Contents: Country Papers, Technical
Papers, Conclusions from Working
Groups on Research, Production, and
Marketing and Post-Harvest Technol-

Forty Years of Steel: An Annotated Dis-
cography of Steel Band and Pan
Recordings, 1951-1991. Westport
Conn., Greenwood Press, 1992. xxxl,
307pp. (Discographies, no. 49) 0-313-
27952-7 US$55.00

A Fountain, A House of Stone: Poems.
by Herberto Padilla. tr. from the
Spanish by Alastair Reid. (Parallel
Spanish English text) New York, Noon-
day/ Farrar Straus Giroux, 1992.
109pp. 0-374-52364-9 US$10.00

Frommer's Comprehensive Travel
Guide: The Virgin Islands, '92-'93 by
Darwin Porter assisted by Danforth
Prince. New York, Prentice Hall Travel,
1992. (8), 217pp. )-13-334723-0 (ISSN
for the series: 1055-5447 8.99,
From the same publishers there is
another volume for the Caribbean in
their Comprehensive Guides series.

Gathering Rage: The Failure of Twen-
tieth Century Revolutions to Develop a
FeministAgenda. by Margaret Randall.
New York, Monthly Review Press,
1992. 192pp. 0-85345-860-X

Growing Up. (poems) by lan Boxill,
with a foreword by Glyne A. Griffith.
Mona, Kingston 7, lan Boxill. 1992.
28pp. 976-8091-40-1 (address:
author. c/o Dept. of Sociology, UWI,

Guyana at the Crossroads. ed. by Den-
nis Watson and Christine Craig. Univ.
of Miami North-South Center (P.O.Box
248205, Coral Gables, Fl. 33124-
3027) in cooperation with Transaction
Publishers (Rutgers-The State Univer-
sity. New Brunswick. New Jersey),
1992. (8), 95p p. 1-56000-642-9 (pbk)
Proceedings of a Seminar held in Nov.,
1991 in Coral Gables, sponsored by
the Caribbean Development Founda-
tion (CARDEV) in association with the
North-South Center, Univ. of Miami
and Florida State Univ.

Haiti's Bad Press. by Robert Lawless.
Rochester. Vt.. Schenkman Books,
1992. xxvii, 261pp. 0-87047-060-4

(..r.?:..t |vt- w B3s. ,.-, Caribbean Review of Books aibbean Revew of Ooks

Infant Social Studies. by Marcellus Al-
bertin. Marjorie Brathwaite and Car-
lyle Glean. Oxford. Heinemann. 1993.
New series of two books to complement
the four book series Primary Social
Studies by the same team of authors.
The two books are: 1 Our Family. Home
and School. 32pp.0-435-04324-2
2.70 and 2 Our Neighbourhood. 0-
435-04325-0 2.95

Into the Centre. (poems) by Jane King.
43pp. 976-8104-27-9
This book without an indication on the
copy seen by CRB of publisher, price or
place or date of publication should be
available from the author, who is a
Lecturer in English at the Sir Arthur
Lewis Community College, in Castries,
St. Lucia.

Issues and Problems in Caribbean
Public Administration. ed. by Selwyn
Ryan and Deryck Brown. St. Augus-
tine, Institute of Social and Economic
Research (ISER), Univ. of the West In-
dies. 1992. x. 374pp. 976-618-013-X

Jamaica's Michael Manley: The Great
Transformation (1972-92). by David
Panton. With a Foreword by Rex Net-
tleford. Kingston, Kingston Publishers,
1993. xxii. 225pp. 976-625-056-1

Karl. by Velma Pollard. Havana,
Ediciones Casa de las Americas. 1993.
203pp. (pbk) 959-04-0004-3
This is the novel which won the Casa
de las Americas Award for 1992

(Novela, Premio de litratura
anglocaribefia) now issued in a bilin-
gual edition, the English original ap-
pearing on pp.107-203 and the
Spanish translation by Felipe Cunill on
pp.7-105. For an announcement of the
Award and a short article on Velma
Pollard see CRB 4.

Listen to this Story: Tales from the West
Indies. by Grace Hallworth. ill. by Den-
nis Ranston. London, Mammoth (im-
print of Mandarin Paperbacks). 1992.
80pp. 0-7497-1058-6 2.50
First published by Methuen Children's
Books in 1977. reprinted in Methuen
Paperback in 1978. and Magnet Paper-
backs in 1985. Now reissued in this
new Mammoth ed.

The Man Who Loved Attending Funerals
and Other Stories. by Frank Collymore.
with an introduction by Harold Bar-
ratt. Oxford, Heinemann, 1993. 0 435
98931 6 4.50. (Caribbean Writers

Marcus Teaches Us. by Eleanor Wint.
illustrated by Ireko Baker. Kingston.
Institute of Jamaica Publications,
1992. 24pp. 976-8012-44-7 J$69.00.

Modem Caribbean Politics. ed. by An-
thony Payne and Paul Sutton.
Kingston. Ian Randle Publishers.
1993. 976-8100-12-5

Mome Sauteurs (Leaper's Hill): En-
counter Between Two Worlds in

Grenada, 1650-1654. by Omowale
David Franklyn. Talented House Pub-
lication (P.O.Box 881, St. Georges,
Grenada), 1992. xviii, 165pp. ill.
The author says the following in intro-
ducing the book: "This is an attempt to
share this truth of the encounter be-
tween the Caribs (Callinagoes) and the
Europeans (the French, in particular)
in Grenada, especially as the world is
observing the quincentennial of
Columbus arrival in the so-called New
World. of which Grenada is a part. It is
an attempt to challenge the perpetua-
tion of the myth (or myths) and to
challenge as well the justification for
the perpetration of one of the most
hideous and deliberate crimes against
humanity yet unrepented: the
genocide "that the Americas means for
those without guns" as Jan Carew
terms it in his poem dedicated to

Moses Migrating. by Sam Selvon.
Washington, D.C.. Three Continents
Press, 1992. 201pp. 0-89410-714-3

Mouth Open, Story Jump Out. by Grace
Hallworth. ill. by Art Derry. London,
Mammoth (imprint of Mandarin Paper-
backs). 1992. 12p. 0-7497-1038-1
Book by Trinidadian author first pub-
lished by Methuen Children's Books in
1984. reprinted in 1987, now reissued
in this Mammoth ed.

Natural Hazards in the Caribbean. ed.
by Rafi Ahmad. (Special Issue no. 12 of

No. 7, February 1993


Special issue on Derek Walcott
Vol. 38, # 4, 158pp. J$120.00, US$10.00
Includes the play Drums and Colours, poetry by Walcott
and Tributes to him
CQ Index, 1949-1990, an author, keyword and subject
index to volumes 1-36.
Also available are many back issues of CQ containing
Walcott's writings, e.g. Vol 14, #s 1&2 with Dream on
Monkey Mountain
Send orders to CRB
P.O. Box-42
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

No. 7, February 1993

The Journal of the Geological Society of
Jamaica containing papers from the
International Conference on Recent
Advances in Caribbean Geology,
Kingston, 18-20 Nov., 1988).Mona,
Kingston 7, The Society, 1992. 108pp.
976-41-0017-1 J$200.00

Old Havana, Cuba. by Nicolas Sapieha.
London, Tauris Parke Books/ St.
Martin's Press, 1990. 128pp. 1-85043-
219-8 US$24.95.
This book became available in the U.S.
through the issue of Tauris Parke Bks
ed. of 1992.

Oroonoko, the Rover and Other Works.
by Aphra Behn. London, Penguin,
1992. 400pp. 0-14043338-4 6.99
(Penguin Classics). This edition will be
of interest to readers in the Caribbean
as the short novel Oroonoko by Aphra
Behn, who is regarded as the first
professional woman writer in English,
is set in the Caribbean of the days of

Papers presented at the Annual Con-
ferences of the Society of Virgin Islands
Historians, held in St. Croix, U.S.Virgin
Islands 1988-1992. ed by Robert V.
Vaughn. Christiansted, The Society,
1992. viii, 131pp. 0-9627257-1-4 US$
12.95 plus postage.
This volume bearing the cover title
Society of Virgin Islands Historians
Conference Proceedings, 1988-1992
brings together a selection of nine
papers presented at four of the five
Conferences held during the period.
According to the list of Annual Con-
ferences and Society publications
given at the end of the volume (p.129)
every year since 1988 the annual Con-
ference was held in January and out of
the first (the one not represented in
this selection) came the first publica-
tion of the Society, a paper entitled The
Danish West India Company Records in
the Danish National Archives by Erik
Gobel issued in 1989. Since then the
Society seems to have established a
Bibliographic Series and so far four
publications have come out in this
series, all issued in 1990:
1. The Historical Records of the Lord
God of Sabaoth Lutheran Church,
Christiansted. St Croix. U.S.Virgin Is-
lands by Arnold R. Highfield (who is
also the author of one of the papers
"Rebekka Freundlich, A Moravian
life", in the Conference proceedings
2. Annotated and Indexed Bibliography

for the Study of the Physical Anthropol-
ogy of the Native Prehistoric West In-
dians by Alfredo E. Figueredo.
3. The Historical Records of the
Anglican Church, Christiansted, St.
Croix, U.S.Virgin Islands. by Arnold R.
4. The Historical Records of the
Moravian Churches of the United States
Virgin Islands in the Moravian Archives
in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. by Arnold
R. Highfield.
Thus we see the Society has been ac-
tive in its documentation of various
aspects of the history of the Virgin
Islands and this new volume of papers
is to be welcomed and encouraged as
it is a further attempt to continue the
publication programme. This
programme is an attempt to put the

by Kim Robinson
work of the members and presenters
into a form that facilitates and ex-
pedites their dissemination, and as the
editor of this volume says in his
Preface, "so that their valuable con-
tributions will be professionally recog-
nized and published for the benefit of
other researchers." Among the con-
tents of the present volume there are
the contributions: "A cartobibliog-
raphy for St. Croix, 1500-1922, a
Status Report" by William F. Cassell. "
The Dynamics of Striking the Balance
among Conservation, Recreation and
Business Development in the U.S.Vir-
gin Islands" by Barbara Gilliard-
Payne, "The Independence Option in
the Light of Certain Economic Con-
siderations: Focus of the U.S.Virgin
Islands" by S.B.Jones-Hendrickson
and "The Moravian Connection" by
Patricia Gill Murphy. This volume at
the price indicated above is available
from the Society at P.O.Box 5717,
Sunny Isle, Christiansted, St. Croix,
U.S.V.I. 00823.

Philip's Certificate Atlas for the Carib-
bean. Oxford, Heinemann, 1993.
160pp. 0-435-05701-0 7.00 new
1993 edition.

Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s
to 1990s: Canada, Latin America and
the West Indies. ed. by Charles D.
Ameringer. New York, Greenwood
Press, 1992. 697pp. (Greenwood His-
torical Encyclopedia of the World's
Political Parties) 0-313-27418-5

Politics, Race and Youth in Guyana. by
Madan M. Gopal. San Francisco, Mel-
len Research Univ. Press, 1992. xvi,
289pp. 0-7734-9964-4 (address for or-
ders: The Edwin Mellen Press, P.O.Box
450, Lewiston, N.Y. 14092.

Portrait of Cuba. (photographs) by
Michael Reagan. Text by Wayne S.
Smith. Kansas City, MA, Turner Publ.
Co./ Andrews and McMeel, 1991.
192pp. 1-87868-507-4 US$34.95

Power and Television in Latin America:
The Dominican Case. by Antonio V.
Menenedez Alarc6n. New York,
Praeger/ Greenwood, 1992. 199pp. 0-
275-94275-9 US$47.95

Ptolemy Turtle. written and ill. by
Melisande Potter-Hall. Kingston,
Kingston Publishers, 1992. (6) 40pp.

Public Finance in Small Open
Economies: The Caribbean Experience.
by Michael Howard. New York,
Praeger/Greenwood, 1992. 187pp. 0-
275-94205-8 US$45.00

Pursuing Postdependency Politics:
South-South Relations in the Carib-
bean. by H. Michael Erisman. Boulder
and London, Lynne Rienner Publish-
ers,1992. xii, 164pp. 1-55587-078-3
The CARICOM experience, the author
says, was selected as a case study for
two reasons: One "since dependency
theory has to a great extent been
developed within the sphere of Latin
American-Caribbean studies, it seems
appropriate that initial forays into
postdependency theory utilize the
same venue". Two, the vulnerabilities
of small island states such as in the

:.' .:: i:: .. : I Caribbean Review of Books Caribbean revew of Books

L.L West Indies provide a powerful incen-
L". tive for them to find ways to augment
C..,' their influence as they move out onto
the international stage .. The
CARICOM states have traditionally
displayed considerable Interest in
utilizing a South-South strategy to
achieve this end, the classical example
being their participation and leader-
ship within the Lome process. Thus,
they emerge as excellent candidates for
a case study in the problems and
prospects of small state postdepen-
dency South-South politics."

Rachel's Song: A Novel by Miguel Bar-
net. tr. from the Spanish by W. Nick
Hill. East Haven, CT., Curbstone
Press, 1991. 125pp. 0-915306-87-5

Reflexiones sobre Cuba y sufuturo. by
Luis Aguilar Leon. Miami, FL.,
Ediciones Universal, 1991. 155pp. 0-
89729-590-0 US$13.00

The Reagan Wars: A Constitutional
Perspective on War Powers and the
Presidency. by David Locke Hall.
Boulder, Westview Press, 1991.
279pp. 0-8133-1198-5 US$49.00

The Return of the Half Caste (novel) by
Lewiz Alyan. Printed and published by
Betty Lewis (7 Station Street and Vlis-
sengen Road, Newtown, Kitty, Guyana)
(1991) 249pp.(pbk) US$12.50.

Richard B. Moore, Caribbean Militant in
Harlem: Collected Writings, 1920-
1972. ed. by W. Burghardt Turner and
Joyce Moore Turner. Bloomington, In-
diana Univ. Press, 1992. 336pp. 0-
253-31299-X (hdc) US$57.50
0-253-20759-2 (pbk) US$14.95

Saving Joe Lewis. (children's book) by
Isabel Marvin. Kingston Publishers,
1992. 22pp. 976-625-022-7.

Selected Poems. by Lorna Goodison.
Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan
Press. 1992. x, 140pp. 0-472-09493-
9(hdc) 0-472-06493-2 (pbk)

Sharks and Sardines: Blacks in Busi-
ness in Trinidad and Tobago. by Sel-
wyn Ryan and Lou Anne Barclay. St.
Augustine, ISER, University of the
West Indies. 1992. xiv, 217pp. 976-

618-014-8 (Culture and
Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean
Series) see review in this issue.

Slavery in the Americas. ed. by
Wolfgang Binder. Verlag
K6nigshausen & Neumann (Postfach
6007, D-8700 Wirzberg), 1992. xii,
647pp. ill. (Studien zur Neuen Welt
Bd.4) 3-88479-713-1 DM98.00
This volume collects together 32
papers presented at the Conference on
Slavery in the Americas held at Pom-
mersfelden Castle in November 1989
at which a gathering of scholars from
several countries contributed studies
on the theme from the disciplines of
Literary History, Anthropology, Eth-
nology, Political Science, Economics
and History. Apart from the relevance
of the examination of the subject of
slavery in the Americas for Caribbean
studies, there are, among the 32
papers, several that focus specifically
on the Caribbean such as the paper by
Gad Heumann "From Slave Rebellion
to Morant Bay: The Tradition of Protest
in Jamaica", Wim Hoobergen's on
Slave Rebellions in Surinam and the
paper on the St. Lucian Flower
Societies 'La Rose' and 'La Margguerite'
by Mafred Kremser.

Sojourners in the Sun: Scottish
Migrants in Jamaica and the.
Chesapeake, 1740-1800. by Alan L.
Karras. Ithaca, NY., Cornell Univ.
Press, 1992. 256pp. ill. 0-8014-2691-
X US$34.50

Spring Cleaning. (poems) by Jean
'Binta' Breeze. London, Virago Press,
1992. (6) 89pp. 1-85381-253-6 5.99

Staging the Impossible: The Fantastic
mode in Moder Drama. ed. by Patrick
D. Murphy. New York, Greenwood
Press, 1992. 245pp. 0-313-27270-0
US$49-95. (Contributions to the Study
of Science Fiction and Fantasy, no. 54)

To Speak the Truth Why Washington's
'Cold War' Against Cuba Doesn't End.
(texts of addresses to UN General As-
sembly 1960, 1964, and 1979, and to
the Geneva Trade and Development
Conference, 1964 made)by Fidel
Castro and Che Guevara. New York,
Pathfinder Press, 1992. 232pp. ill. 0-
87348-633-1 US$16.95 9.95

Whirlpool: U.S.Foreign Policy Toward
Latin America and the Caribbean. by

Robert A. Pastor. Princeton, N.J., Prin-
ceton Univ. Press, 1992. 338pp. (Prin-
ceton Studies in International History
and Politics) 0-691-08651-6 US$24.95

Witchbroom. by Lawrence Scott. Ox-
ford, Heinemann 1993. 0-435-
98933-2 4.50. (Caribbean Writers
Series) First published in 1992, this is
now a new title in the Heinemann
Caribbean Writers Series

Archaeology Jamaica: A Newsletter of
the Archaeological Society of Jamaica.
No.6, December 1992. A Special Jour-
nal Issue. ed. by E. Kofi Agorsah.
The Society's Newsletter has so far
been issued as an internal organ for
the membership, and what is special
about this issue is its attempt to in-
clude several sholarly contributions on
Jamaican archaeology. There are
seven such articles in this issue some
of them on recent excavations. The
editor has contributed a paper on
Jamaica and Caribbean archaeology,
and John Wilman a paper on his inves-
tigations of the Upton site (Arawak) in
St. Ann. Sylvia Scudder discusses
Early Arawak Subsistence Strategies
based on findings from the Rodney
House site (St. Catherine) excavated by
Wilman and Medhurst in 1978.
presenting the analysis and results of
faunal remains obtained and in an
appendix gives an extensive list of the
faunal finds. There are two studies
from work at the Seville Plantation (St.
Ann) one by Mark Fleischman discuss-
ing skeletal remains of two burials
found in 1989 and 1990 in the early
slave village of the plantation and the
other by Douglas V. Armstrong who
examines the findings from the same
site in a study of spatial transforma-
tion (African Jamaican Housing). Mat-
thew Reeves gives an account of a
survey of Juan de Bolas Settlement
(St. Catherine) conducted in 1992.
There is also a paper on the Socio-cul-
tural life of Arawak Indians in Jamaica
based on the collections of George
Lechler and specifically finds from the
Harbour View site (in St. Andrew) for
which a classification is attempted.
This special issue, since it contains
these important contributions has
been produced with a small additional
number of copies and these are avail-
able to non-members at a cost of
US$6.00 from the Editor, c/o the
Department of History, University of

No. 7, February 1993

No. 7, February 1993

the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7,

The Literary Review. vol.35, no.4
(Summer 1992) issue is a special one
on "Women Poets of the Caribbean"
guest edited by Pam Mordecai and
Betty Wilson. TLR (ISSN 0024-4589) is
an international journal of contem-
porary writing published quarterly by
Fairleigh Dickinson University at
Madison, (285 Madison Avenue) NJ
07940, USA. Annual subscription
US$18.00 (domestic) and 21.00 (else-
where) single issues 5.00 (domestic)
and 6.00 (elsewhere).
This issue introduced by the guest
editors, brings together a very rich an-
thology of work by ten writers from
Cuba, nine from Jamaica, three from
Haiti, one from the Dominican
Republic, six from Puerto Rico, four

from Guadeloupe and Martinique, one
each from Dominica and St. Vincent,
Two each from St. Lucia, Guyana and
Surinam, four each from Barbados
and Trinidad and nine from Curacao.
In the main sequence the work by
poets from Cuba, Haiti, Dominican
Republic, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Curacao and Surinam are
presented in English versions (some
translated by the editors) and the
originals of these English versions are
also provided. Brief notes are provided
to introduce each poet.

The latest issue of the Caribbean
Quarterly (38. 2&3, June- September
1992) is a special issue on the "Carib-
bean Quincentennial" commemorat-
ing the "historical experience and
existential realities consequent on that
history of the past half a millennium .

With contributions focussing on this
theme on the past and present of in-
digenous peoples of the Caribbean and
their encounter with newcomers
(papers by Hilary McD. Beckles, Basil
Reid and Joseph Palacio), on Spanish
Jamaica (Patrick Bryan), on the
African Diaspora (Rupert Lewis), "Sug-
gestions for a Jamaican Theology of
Psycho-social Emancipation" (John
Sauve), "Surviving Columbus: Carib-
bean Achievements in the Encounter
of Worlds 1492-1992" (Rex Nettleford)
and a sequence of three poems by
Velma Pollard, this is a full and rich
issue which could have benefitted
much from more careful attention to
proof-reading than is evident on its

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Social and Economic Studies

SPECIAL !SSUE in memory of
George Beckford

Vol. 41, No. 3, September 1992
The Caribbean in a World of Economic Blocs -
Dennis A. Pantin
The Contribution of George Beckford Lloyd Best
The US--Canada Free Trade Agreement and the
Caribbean with a Case Study of Electronics
Assembly in Barbados Hilbourne A. Watson
Business Opportunities in Caribbean Cooperation -
Marie Claude Dern! et al
Sustainable Development Its Meaning for the
Caribbean Naresh C. Singh

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