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Title: Caribbean review of books
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094097/00005
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean review of books
Alternate Title: CRB
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Publisher: UWIPA
Place of Publication: Mona Kingston Jamaica
Mona, Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: August 1992
Copyright Date: 1992
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean literature -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Imprints -- Book reviews -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Aug. 1991)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1994?
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 10 (Nov. 1993).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094097
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25144524
lccn - 92658675
issn - 1018-2926

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Full Text






















Number 5, August 1992
"The complete source for Caribbean book news"


From UWIPA
ISSN 1018-2926


The Great Yacht Race by Anthony C.
Winkler, Kingston Publishers,
(forthcoming) September 1992, 976-
625-027-8


by Susan Knight
After reading The Great
Yacht Race, one wonders
what author Anthony
Winkler would make of
post-socialist, neo-capitalist
Jamaica with its Saints Bob and
Michael. The Jamaica of his novels,
while vividly and pungently
described, resembles today's grim
reality about as much as The Little
Mermaid resembles Little Nell.
The Great Yacht Race puts one in
mind of Mittelholzer's A Morning At
The Office as re-written by Tom
Sharpe. Like Sharpe, Winkler pos-
sesses the rare gift of blithely
describing fornication, genitalia,
acts of excretion, human waste and
assorted eccentric sexual acts and
fantasies in a manner that renders
them almost endearing. Like Mittel-
holzer, he describes in precise, un-
sparing detail each of the racial
types and mixtures inhabiting his
book. Like Sharpe, he spares none
and mocks all.
Sharpe was eventually thrown
out of South Africa for offending


every racial group there. Winkler
has so far steered clear of such con-
troversy here. Whether this reflects
the boundless tolerance of
Jamaicans or their well-known disin-
terest in reading has yet to be deter-
mined.
The Great Yacht Race is
Winkler's third novel concerning


Jamaica and follows The Painted
Canoe and The Lunatic, both of
which books are readily found in
every souvenir shop on the island
and form obligatory gifts to relatives
abroad. The books deserve a much
wider audience. The Painted Canoe
is a beautifully written, sensitive


"The Great Yacht Race
begins in Jamaica in
1955. It concerns life in
Montego Bay, that
peculiar seaside town
wont to consider itself
a republic and today
classified a city."


book about a fisherman's odyssey at
sea. The Lunatic has all the magic of
a fable, set in countryside inhabited
by talking trees, religious-minded
bushes and assorted eccentric and
libidinous humans of various
shades and colours. It is funny,
whimsical and occasionally derisive.
The Great Yacht Race begins in
Jamaica in 1955. It concerns life in
Montego Bay, that peculiar seaside
town wont to consider itself a
republic and today classified a city.
Most of the characters and events
revolve around the annual regatta
put on by the town's yacht club, a
bastion of the white and light-
skinned.
The major characters are
painted in almost as much detail as
their boats. O'Hara (owner of Grand
Sam, an ancient but agile sloop) is
the white and gnomic hotel


continued on page 4


JAMAICA IN PRINT see page 24


(05


i_


cc










Jamaicans celebrate the
anniversary of their Inde-
pendence. In 1992 as we
mark three decades of free nation-
hood and look back upon what we
have been able to achieve and look
forward to new goals CRB is happy
to join in that celebration by looking
at our record in the world of books.
People who write and publish books
record the intellectual and creative
activity of the nation and it is most
appropriate for any nation to look at
its books to see what is reflected in
them as it is through these records
that outsiders and the future genera-
tions will see what has taken place
in the community over the years
that have gone by. What we now
present in these pages is both our
tribute to Jamaican authors and
publishers for their role in the
nation's thirty years of Inde-
pendence and an invitation to all to
see what we as members of a com-
munity have chosen to record and to
communicate. We are aware that it
is not as comprehensive and all-
embracing a record as we would like


Contents


Jamaican Publisher Ian Randle-------7
Interview with Edouard Glissant--- 17
Focus on Caribbean Journals -
West Indian Medical Journal-------- 6
Jamaica in Print ------------------ 24

Reviews
The Great Yacht Race -------------1
Two Cookbooks --------------------3
Sir Arthur Lewis------------------5
Understanding Jamaican Patois--- 10
Slave Society in the Danish
West Indies----------------------- 12
Myth and History in
Caribbean Fiction ------------ 16
Ideology and Class
Conflict in Jamaica ----------- 28
Jamaica Handbook ---------------- 30
New Books -----------------------20



No. 5, August 1992


to have made it, but we believe that
even within the limitations imposed
on us it does provide a fair picture of
our energies and efforts in intellec-
tual and creative endeavour.
Through our reviews and the count
presented in the first of a two part
listing of 'Jamaica in Print' CRB


celebrates this occasion and the spe-
cial way in which it is being com-
memorated in Washington D.C. with
Jamfest 30. We are grateful to the
organizers of Jamfest and Jamaican
publishers for the opportunity to par-
ticipate in this way. We invite other
members of the Caribbean family to
use CRB in this way to carry and
spread information on their contribu-
tion to the pool of Caribbean books.
Our special feature, Jamaica in
Print is taken from a data base that
we have just begun to develop with
the aim of producing a more exten-
sive Caribbean Books in Print. Before
long we hope to communicate with


CRB Ispublls hddiuartyrlyb| 6e'JWIrPA,
In AuguijtNo6ember, Februa ar d May.

Editor: .'
Samuel B Banaara

Production-Editor and Designer:
Annie-Paul ..

Editorial : -* "
Advisers:
Alan Moss (Barbados)'.
Edward Baugh (Jamalca)-
Selwyn Ryan (Trinidad and Tobago)

Editorial
Representatives.
Ermlna Osoba (Antigua)
Matthew William (The'Bdhamas)
Joslyn Nembhard (Belizey
Vernon Shaw (Dominica)
SBeverley Steele (Grenada)
Howard Fergus (Montserral)
Constdntlne Richardson (St. Kilts & Nevis)
;Mqrilyn Floissdc (St. Lucia).
Adrian Fr6ser(St. Vlnc'nt)
Charles Wheatley-(Brtlsh.Vlrgln-slands) -


publishers in and out of the region
who produce Caribbean books re-
questing their in-print lists of Carib-
beana to be included in the data
base and to appear in a printed
volume. When available in a printed
version it will be a valuable tool for
Caribbean book people as a source
of information on their books, and
we look forward to receiving their
help in fashioning this instrument
for all of us to use.
In August this year the Depart-
ment of English at the University of
the West Indies and WIACLALS
(West Indian Association of Com-
monwealth Language and Literature
Studies) will host the ninth ACLALS
Conference at the Mona Campus.
CRB welcomes the participants to
the Caribbean and to Jamaica, and
wishes all of them a productive and
stimulating experience. As a relative-
ly young organ concerned with
books and their creators from our
region CRB wishes all participants
of Voyages happy reading and many
pleasant memories of Caribbean
books to carry away with them from
Kingston 1992.


UWIPA, 1991 .
ISSN: 1018-2926

Annual Subscription:
US$10.00
Per issue:
US$3.00
Air Mail add-
USS6.00 per annum
US$1.50 per Issue
Caribbean currencies equivalent to the
above accepted.


Editorial mail to:
CRB Subscriptions to:
P.O. Box 139 CRB
Mona, Kgn 7 P.O. Box 42
Jamaica, W. Indies Mona, Kgn 7

Fax: 809-927-2409
Tel: 809-927-1201

Advertising rates available on request


.- ... ..... .-.-.








A Collection of 19th Century
Jamaican Cookery and Herbal
Recipes. Kingston, The Mill Press,
1990. 88 p. ill. 976-8092-32-7,
US$18.00 J$395.00


Rosamund Grant's Caribbean and
African Cookery. Kingston, Jamaica:
lan Randle Publishers, 1992. 160 p.
Paper 976-8100-06-0 US$12.95,
Hardback 976-8100-07-9 US$18.50


by Victor Chang
There is a wise and ancient
saying "Show me what you
eat and I'll tell you what you
are" and it came strongly to
mind as I looked through these two
books, one a re-setting of a book
originally published in 1893. with
text by John Pringle and calligraphy
by Peter McClure, and the other a
recent shared imprint by a local
Jamaican publisher of a book
originally published in England in
1988.
Both books are fascinating in
their own way because they reveal
and reflect, as much as travel books
do, the history and culture of a par-
ticular people at a particular time.
And this is rightly so, for food is the
substance of life and it is the
Chinese who have recognized its
premier place in their lives by their
greeting anyone met for the first
time with a solicitous "Have you had
your rice already today?"
Food and its preparation are an
inextricable part of one's culture so
much so that the cuisines of the
world are indelibly associated in our
minds with their originating cul-
tures. We think automatically, for in-
stance, of China whenever we hear
of sweet and sour pork, of India and
curries, of France and coq au vin, of
England and Yorkshire pudding, of
Jamaica and ackee and saltfish, and
so on. We even talk about 'national
dishes' so that identity is tied up
with the food we eat. So, it is very
true that we can tell who people are
by what they eat.
The Mill Press collection (original-
ly published in 1893 for 18 pencel)
is a melange of 19th century food
recipes, caveats ("Mutton with
Guinea Hen Weed. Avoid this al-
together") and herbal recipes (one


for a bush bath, for example),
handed down, we are told, to John
Pringle by his aunt Marjorie and is a
handsome and lavishly produced
book, aesthetically very pleasing.
The book reveals its origins and
leaves little doubt in our minds that
it emanates from a world of privilege
and from a group of people who do
not see themselves as part of the
West Indies but as outsiders looking
on. We read, for instance, that "the
natives are fond of breadfruit", "the
people live on mangoes during the
mango season", "the natives eat
bananas in its green state boiled,
and added to their salt fish". Indeed,
the introductory blurb to the chap-


ter on Salt Fish notes: "in Jamaica
there is hardly a more popular dish
among the natives and often among
the upper classes than the despised
salt fish, eaten at home not from
choice, but as a sort of penitential
dish".
What the remark reveals is that
the process of creolization is taking
place, virtually unnoticed: the food
of the folk is now appealing to the
palates of the colonizers, and what
was despised "at home" is now being
enjoyed! What Is first attempted is a
re-creation of the meals from "home"
and so we get recipes for scones.
muffins, coffee cakes, breakfast rolls
and omelettes, cutlets and croquet-
tes. Very soon, however, the recipes
have gone "local". There are only 16
meat recipes, for instance, and none


of them deals with pork, beef or
poultry and all, except two, require
"kid or goat mutton". In an age of
great inflation, one reads wistfully of
a time when goat mutton was "six
pence per pound", pork was from
"six pence to seven and a half
pence" a pound and poultry "nine
pence a pound"!
The biggest section in the book
deals with puddings and preserves
and the recipes call for a wide
variety of Jamaican fruit and
vegetables in combinations which
have largely disappeared but which
sound fascinating. One can sample
cocoanut (sic) and cassava pud-
ding, otaheite apple stew, Seville
Orange pudding, ackee pudding,
yam pudding and stewed green
tamarinds. It was interesting, too,
to hear that avocado was treated as
a dessert, mashed, sweetened, with
sherry and nutmeg added and that
the young calabash was used as a
savoury pickle!
Rosamund Grant's cookbook is a
warm and chatty book, filled with
personal reminiscences and recollec-
tions of great food eaten and of
places and people in the Caribbean.
She is Guyanese and the book
reveals the varying aspects of the dif-
ferent cuisines of the world which
have gone to making up the potpour-
ri we call West Indian: African,
Chinese, Indian and European and
in this respect the food again tells
us about the people. Many of her
recipes are of her own creation. So
in the soup section, for instance,
not only does she include a West
African style Peanut Soup, and a
Callaloo Soup. she includes her own
Coconut and Noodle Soup and
South American Medley which
sound delicious.
At first, I wondered why she
bothered to distinguish between
Caribbean and African cooking.
since they have become so fused in
many ways. The recipe for akkras.
for example, is no longer even
thought of as uniquely African, but I
suppose Tatale (Ghanaian plantain
cakes), Buea Coconut Joloffe Rice,
Mandazi (East African bread). Yassa
(Senegalese style chicken or fish) are
sufficiently distinctive to justify the
book's title.
Her Indian Guyanese mix is
revealed in her Bebis Aubergine
Choka which is a muhy eggplant
continued on page 11


..:..'.b-:t ?:: : .:'-"-: o :::,-. Caribbean Review of Books (~aiean Revew of Books






R3wyfl(vwr aff BlDI3R
GREAT YACHT RACE, continued from page 1

manager with his "little business"
and his fiery Trinidadian wife. The
Honourable William Angwin (Char-
lene, a stout and sturdy two-and-a-
half-ton sloop) is the gaunt and
inscrutable brownskin magistrate,
with a Scottish wife. Fitzpatrick or
'Fritzie' (Hi-Tide, a much envied
and very fast ketch) is a lecherous
barrister "possessing an insatiable
fondness for the flesh of black and
brown women". His wife is a dyed
blonde American. Alexander Biddle
(She Two, slow but steady cutter
with keel made of concrete) is a
young and handsome Gleaner cor-
respondent with a black mother, an
unknown father and a half-Chinese
mistress.
There are also some characters
who have nothing to do with sailing.
Father Huck is the American priest
who becomes tortured by depres-
sion over the fate of a madman sen-
tenced to death by Magistrate
Angwin. He eats and preaches fero-
ciously and engages in bouts of
kicking and the fondling of saintly
statues until his housekeeper Mis-
sus Grandison rescues him by
"holding him down" in his bed one
night, and regularly thereafter on
Wednesday and Thursdays. Mis-
sus Grandison is immensely fond of
priests but has little respect for the
views of the Pope who in her mind
needs a good washing out with bit-
terwood enema." Celibacy is to her
nothing but "a calculated and per-
sonal insult to her womanhood",
sheer "rudeness and impertinence."
Unfortunately, the results of Mis-
sus Grandison's remedy is to cause
Father Huck to preach only love
and peace, to the great dismay of
his congregation who enjoy a good
dose of rousing brimstone.
Meanwhile, Fritzle has begun lust-
ing after his attractive brown
secretary who feels that if she goes
on his boat alone with him as
asked, that either "he ride or she
swim" so very properly insists the
rent be paid first. Alexander Biddle
gets his half-Chinese mistress preg-
nant and is astounded when his
beloved mother moves her into their
home and both women turn on him.
He buys his cutter and enters the
yacht race.


All of the characters are drawn
with a wicked and funny eye for
detail. Then as now, Jamaicans are
seen sitting on verandahs discuss-
ing the servant problems, crime and
the imminent uprising of the poorer
classes. Times however, are chang-
ing. Fritzie tells an arrogant client
on trial for murder "You thinking be-
cause you're a brown man and you
have money, you not going hang.
But let me tell you this, while
brown man with money usually
don't hang in Jamaica, inde-
pendence is in the breeze. Times
change. We due to hang a rich
brown man any day now." The man
duly takes note and attends court
armed with a cut onion so as to ap-
pear properly repentent.
The race takes place. Winkler
manages to keep even the reader ig-
norant of sailing and nautical ter-
minology interested in the fate of
each boat and its owner. One can-
not help but sense his love of the
sport, the sea and good times past.
Eventually the race is won and the
winner duly honoured. Much
carousing takes place at the yacht
club bar.
The epilogue concerns a brief
scene at the new Sailing Club bar in
1979, during the period of
Democratic Socialism. The govern-
ment doesn't like yacht races so
they no longer take place. A white
man is drunkenly crying over his
memories. A black minister of
government is looking on in disgust
as he voices his hatred for white
people. The brown bartender is
trying to be tactful. For once,
Winkler's tone lacks humour.
The Great Yacht Race, like both
of his other novels, is essentially the
work of a master story-teller. The
characters escape being caricatures
but retain the sort of whimsicality
that makes cartoon characters so
beloved of children and adults. It is
this quality that allows Winkler to
describe normally taboo subjects
such as religion, race and sexuality
without being overly offensive. He
obviously relishes taking them all
on.
There are those who found The
Lunatic too coarse for their taste
and who will no doubt be unable to
stomach The Great Yacht Race, but
Winkler probably doesn't write for


this type of reader. He has in fact
practically invented a genre. He
makes the vulgar quaint. Even the
tasteless becomes charming in
Winkler's hands. Odd-ball
sexuality, acts of perversion and
generally out-of-order behaviour be-
come merely human. Even the nor-
mally divisive topic of race is dealt
with in a manner both pointed and
funny. Winkler manages to combine
mockery with benevolence, ac-
curacy with absurdity and the hard
facts of life with a sort of magical
humour.
Despite its whimsicality, his writ-
ing does not lose strength. His
ironic humour and determination to
call a spade a spade guarantee this.
If The Great Yacht Race has a
fault, it is due to its author's prolific
imagination. Although the priest
and Missus Grandison are marvel-
lous characters, it is difficult to see
where they really fit in to the story.
One feels that having sprung into
life in Winkler's mind, he couldn't
bear to leave them out. He should
perhaps have kept them for another
book where their possibilities could
have been better exploited.
The story begins to unwind
somewhat at the end. The reader is
suddenly presented with a brief ac-
count of what happens to each char-
acter in a rather dizzying manner.
The priest and Missus Grandison
reappear for a final bow. So too do
two characters last encountered in
the first few chapters and now
rather improbably in Heaven. One
feels that tighter editing would have
helped.
To the sophisticated and to
those who can tolerate the entire
spectrum of human behaviour,
Winkler's writing provides the light
relief so essential to survival in an
increasingly ugly world. Those who
take life seriously, those whose sen-
sibilities are easily offended and
those who feel that subjects such as
sex or colour must never be dealt
with in a frivolous manner, will
probably dislike this book intensely.
For the frivolous few still capable of
tolerance and who enjoy a good
story and a good laugh, The Great
Yacht Race will be a godsend.

Susan Knight is a psychologist with the
Department of Child Health, UWI, Mona.


No. 5, August 1992













M &
'V *,~,-,, ~ *'l:.'1
,~~,~:s.~;;I..~ ~~..


New Books


ChristopherAdam, William
Cavendish, Percy Mistry

ADJUSTING PRIVATIZATION
Case Studies from Developing
Countries

The buzz word in the Caribbean
these days as in other parts of the
developing world is Privatization. It
is viewed in some quarters as a cure-













pill 11 slilt. S i lalial Ken.)
S llllill Nell G(uilliIt mitllalii

all for the ills of the public sector and
is often used by governments as a
quick method of financing
budgetary deficits. But does
Privatization work, and if so how?
In this book, the authors examine
Privatization from an economic
rather than political standpoint. The
book is in two parts:
Part I consists of an overview of the
theory of ownership transfer and a
summary of the main findings from
the country studies.
Part II consists of seven country case
studies. Each charts the growth of
the state-owned enterprise sector
and the emergence of the privatiza-


1 -7
X.-~ii .i


tion policy. The countries studied
are Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi,
Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri
Lanka and Trinidad & Tobago.
This volume which is the result of an
extensive research project was car-
ried out by the authors at the Interna-
tional Development Centre at the
University of Oxford, England. Two
of the authors have worked for the
World Bank and all three have
worked in developing economies.
1992 400 pages
Paper 976-8100-15-X


Carl C. Campbell

COLONY AND NATION
A Short History of Education in
Trinidad & Tobago 1834 -
1986

This study of the educational system
of Trinidad and Tobago for the first
time tells the story of the develop-
ment of education from slavery up
to the 1980s. It throws a comprehen-


Colony & Nation

A Short History of Education
in Trinidad & Tobago




L
4 - .


-i fl iii ili pr
:-:---^i,.


sive light on the history of
colonialism and post-colonialism in
the twin-island republic. Interesting
chapters are devoted to Tobago, the


,* ... ;.-.. "







Indian experience and the highly in-
dividual position of women. The as-
sessment of the years between the
1950s and the 1980s illuminates the
evolution of Society.
Carl Campbell is Professor of
History at the University of the West
Indies, Mona, Jamaica W.I.
1992 112 pages
Paper 976-8100-05-2


Rosamund Grant

CARIBBEAN AND AFRICAN
COOKERY

Foreword by Maya Angelou


Rosamund Grant is a successful res-
taurateur, demonstrator and teacher.
Here, she explores the unmistakable
connection between West African,
Caribbean and AfricanAmerican
Cooking and captures the rich diver-
sity of her home cooking and its his-
tory in these pages with lively
anecdotes and delicious dishes.
For an African in the Caribbean this
is not just a recipe book; it is more a
cultural handbook that uses recipes
to celebrate the varying influences of
Africa, India, Spain, France and Por-
tugal on Caribbean life.


. Special Advertising Suplement








In her foreword to the book Maya
Angelou writes: 'When Rosamund
Grant invites us to join her Carib-
bean feasts we can almost hear reg-
gae, sitar, and Spanish music in the
background. Here at her table are
the influences of Africa, India, Spain,
France and Portugal. We are offered
painless lessons in healthful eating
and are asked only to bring open
minds and expectant palates!'
The book has a combination of full-
colour photos of table settings depict-
ing some of the most exciting dishes
and numerous black and white line
illustrations. There is also an exten-
sive 17-page glossary with many il-
lustrations of the more unusual
foods, vegetables and fruits.
1992 160 pages
Paper 976-8100-06-0
Hardback 976-8100-07-9



Forthcoming

Books


Our forward publishing list is
dominated by five major books
which will add to an understanding
of the major elements which make
up the modern Caribbean. Beckles
and Shepherd provide the historical
context in Caribbean Freedom:
Economy and Society from Eman-
cipation to the Present; Anthony
Payne and Paul Sutton explore the
dynamics of contemporary Carib-
bean Politics in Modern Caribbean
Politics (to be published jointly with
Johns Hopkins University Press).
The Lalta and Freckleton collection
Development and Discontent in the
Caribbean Economy takes a detailed
look at the internal dimensions of
the opportunities, obstacles and chal-
lenges to growth and transformation
in Caribbean economies. This book
is complemented by Hilbourne
Watson's The Caribbean in the
Global Political Economy which
takes a somewhat different perspec-
tive with a focus on the global issues
which affect Caribbean economic


development within a theoretical
framework of global capitalism.
Finally, Carl Stone at once narrows
the perspective to focus on the
management issues affecting Carib-
bean development in his forthcom-
ing book, Third World Political
Economy, at the same time widening
the context of the debate by support-
ing his analyses with comparative
data from 30 developing countries.
Taken separately or together this list
is a MUST for any Caribbean Studies
course at both undergraduate and
graduate levels.


Hilary Beckles and Verene Shepherd
(Editors)

CARIBBEAN FREEDOM:
Economy and Society from
Emancipation to the Present

This is the second volume of read-
ings by the team of Beckles and
Shepherd following the successful
publication of Caribbean Slave
Society and Economy in 1991. This
new volume takes up the period im-
mediately after emancipation and ex-
amines the problems and challenges
of adjustment for both the new class
of freed men and their former
masters. Thereafter, under clearly
defined themes, the editors trace the
evolution of the new Caribbean
economy and society over the suc-
ceeding 150 years up to the 1980s.
There is an extensive introduction
which serves to integrate the 13 sec-
tions making up the collection. Each
section is preceded by its own short
introduction and as in the first
volume the select bibliography at the
end is a special feature.
While this volume is tailor-made for
undergraduate courses in Caribbean
History, its broad scope and multi-
disciplinary approach should make
it equally indispensable for any un-
dergraduate programme in Carib-
bean Studies generally.
The treatment throughout is Pan-
Caribbean and trans-imperial in its
focus providing comparative
analyses among the Spanish,


English, Dutch and French Carib-
bean.

List of Sections
1. Expectations of a New Beginning.
2. Emancipation in Action.
3. Peasants and Planters.
4. Immigrants and Indentured
Labourers. 5. Government Political
Control and Popular Revolt.
6. Women and Gender. 7. Social
Policy and Class Formation. 8. The
Sugar Industry: Crisis and Adjust-
ment. 9. The Labour Movement,
Decolonization and Democracy.
10. Economic Diversification and
Transformation. 11. Political and
Economic Integration. 12. Protest,
Socialism and Revolution.
January 1993 500 pages approx.
Paperback 976-8100-11-7


Anthony Payne and Paul Sutton
(Editors)

MODERN CARIBBEAN POLITICS

Modern Caribbean Politics com-
prehensively reviews the develop-
ments of the 1980s during the critical
period of the Reagan administration
which sought to exert U.S.
hegemony in the area. The coverage
in this collection is broad, including
not only the major English and
Spanish speaking territories but also
Haiti and Suriname. The introduc-
tion sets the stage for this inclusive
treatment of the Caribbean, laying
out the common heritage of the
region and the major patterns of
political development. By the very
nature of its broad coverage the
book offers an excellent introduction
to modern Caribbean politics. It will
have two audiences: first and
foremost undergraduate and
graduate students in classes on
Caribbean politics and second, com-
parativists in the Social Sciences
who need basic information about
political developments in the Carib-
bean in the 1980s.


No. 5, August 1992






iii No. 5, August 1992


Contents and
Contributions
Introduction: The Contours of
Modern Caribbean Politics -
Anthony Payne and Paul Sutton.
1. Liberal Economics vs Electoral
Politics in Jamaica Anthony
Payne.
2. Democracy and Disillusionment
in the Dominican Republic -
Jan Kippers Black.
3. The Duvalier Dictatorship and
its legacy of Crisis in Haiti -
James Ferguson.
4. Race, Politics and Succession in
Trinidad and Guyana Ralph
Premdas.
5. The March of Militarization in
Suriname Peter Meel.
6. Revolution, Democracy and
Regional Integration in the East-
ern Caribbean Tony
Thorndike.
7. Politics and Development in
Revolutionary Grenada -
Courtney Smith.
8. Political Economy and Foreign
Policy in Puerto Rico Jorge
Heine and Juan Garcia-Passalu-
qua.
9. The Odyssey of Revolution in
Cuba Michael Erisman.
10. Domestic Policy, the External
Environment and the Economic
Crisis in the Caribbean -
Ramesh Ramsaran.
11. The Offshore Caribbean An-
thony Maingot.
12. United State Intervention,
Regional Security and
Militarization in the Caribbean
Paul Sutton.
Anthony Payne teaches in the
Department of Politics, University of
Sheffield, England.
Paul Sutton teaches in the Depart-
ment of Politics, University of Hull,
England.
Publication date March 1993
Paperback 976-8100-12-5
300 pages approx.


Stanley Lalta and Marie Freckleton
(Editors)

DEVELOPMENT AND
DISCONTENT IN THE
CARIBBEAN ECONOMY

The editors of this impressive
volume draw on the insights and ex-
periences of fellow academics,
policy-makers and representatives of
non-governmental organizations to
present the reader with a com-
prehensive picture of the develop-
ment policies, obstacles, and
challenges to growth in the Carib-
bean particularly in the lost decade
of the 1980s. At the centre of their
concern is the continuing challenge
of under-development and fragility
in the small open economies of the
Caribbean.
The book has four sections:
Section I: provides a theoretical
framework for the examination and
analysis of Caribbean Development
Issues.
Section II: explores the international
dimensions of the Caribbean predica-
ment focusing on such issues as
Debt and Balance of Payments
problems; foreign capital flows,
economic integration, export perfor-
mance and the challenges posed by
a United Europe in 1992.
Section III: focuses on key sectorial
and strategic issues. These include
the role of the state sector, analyses
of the performance and prospects for
the agricultural, bauxite/alumina,
oil and gas, and tourism sectors.
Issues of fiscal reform and financial
intermediation are also examined.
Section IV: discusses the elements of
the emerging development pattern
of the 1990s and beyond. Con-
tributors present an alternative
perspective to Caribbean develop-
ment and examine and assess the
prospects for economic transforma-
tion, development planning and sus-
tainable development.
Stanley Lalta is a research fellow at
the Institute of Social and Economic
Research of the U.W.I. Mona.


Marie Freckleton teaches in the
Department of Economics, U.W.I.
Mona.
Publication date: November 1992
Paperback, approximately 300 pages.


Hilbourne Watson (Editor)

THE CARIBBEAN IN THE
GLOBAL ECONOMY

The essays in this book address is-
sues of theory at the level of provid-
ing explanations about the nature of
Caribbean political economy in the
global context. These explanations
are also linked to concerns about the
relationship between academic
analysis, public policy and technol-
ogy; debt and structural adjustment
issues, the role of the state, interna-
tional development strategies for the
region, privatization, gender issues,
regional economic trends and nation-
al case studies of attempts at in-
dustrial restructuring.
The volume includes coverage of
Commonwealth Caribbean
countries, Haiti, the Dominican
Republic, Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Part I: starts with an overview of
Global Capitalism and the Techno-
Paradigm shift, and Caribbean
economic performance in the 1990s.
Part II: provides the theoretical
framework for the examination of
global capitalism.
Part III: is concerned with the issue
of restructuring at the national level
with case studies of five Caribbean
countries.
Part IV: examines globalization,
restructuring and regional issues
like women in production, privatiza-
tion, labour unions with a conclud-
ing chapter on the Caribbean
options under Global Capitalism.
Hilbourne Watson is Professor in
the Department of Political Science,
Howard University.
Publication March 1993.
Paperback approx. 250 pages


C-a:,i.. : R.,-:: =., :-:.'.* Caribbean Review of Books Clbbean Review of oohs





Bwflew oDYf (DBoixiDE


Carl Stone

THIRD WORLD POLITICAL
ECONOMY

This new book by political
sociologist Carl Stone has as its
central theme the examination of the
impact of political variables on effec-
tual management in Third World
countries. The study covers a 30-
year period from 1960-1990 and
draws samples from 30 developing
countries in Asia, Africa, Latin
America, the Caribbean and the
Middle East.
CONTENTS
1. Understanding Political and
Policy Management
2. The Democracy Solution
3. Public spending and the role of
government
4. Strategies towards economic
transformation
5. Managing Inflation
6. Ideology and Statecraft
7. The Impact of Culture and
Religion
8. The World Bank and the IMF -
convenient villains
9. The success cases and the
failures
10. The lessons of the past 30 years
Publication date March 1993


Christine Barrow
illustrations by Wendy Donowa

AND I REMEMBER MANY
THINGS....................Folklore of
the Caribbean

This delightful collection of stories,
myths, legends, and traditional prac-
tices from the 'old' Caribbean will
thrill both adults and children alike.
Many of the selections are drawn
from the Leeward Islands and have
been compiled from actual inter-
views with older folk. They speak of
reverence for old traditions many of
which are lost to contemporary


youth and of respect for parents and
those in authority. Focus on good
manners, respect for neighbours etc.
are themes which appear in many of
the selections.
The stories are beautifully illustrated
with charcoal sketches by Wendy
Donowa.
Publication date November 1992
Hardcover 64 pages
ISBN 976-8100-14-1


Enid Donaldson

THE REAL TASTE OF JAMAICA

Here at last is the cookbook that
Jamaicans at home and abroad and
visitors alike have been waiting for!
Enid Donaldson, often described as
the Julia Child' of Jamaica has cap-
tured in this lavishly illustrated cook-
book the current, the popular, the
traditional, the unusual and many of
the forgotten recipes that have made
Jamaican cuisine world famous.
Readers familiar with her weekly
column The Housewife in the Gleaner
will know that this is not just a book
of recipes. Filled with witty anec-
dotes, it is a home entertainer's
delight and a must for every young
housewife setting up house for the
first time. It has useful tips for
budget menus, unusual methods of
preparing and presenting 'ordinary'
dishes and helpful suggestions
about substitutes for expensive or
hard-to-find ingredients.
Enid Donaldson not only needs no
introduction, her credentials are im-
peccable. Whether as a housewife, a
restaurateur, a consultant to many
Jamaican food manufacturers or a
food ambassador for Jamaica with
the Tourist Board, she is acknow-
ledged as the true authority on the
Real Taste of Jamaica.
Features of the book:
* Size 8 1/2x10
* Full colour cover, hardback and
paperback spiral bound
* 30 full-page colour illustrations
* Fully illustrated glossary
Publication date November 1992


Backlist Titles


D.G.R. Walker

COLUMBUS AND THE GOLDEN
WORLD OF THE ISLAND
ARA WAKS














In this beautifully illustrated and im-
peccably researched book, Donald
Walker acknowledges Columbus's
undoubted importance in world his-
tory. At the same time, he merciless-
ly charts the destructive effects of his
achievements on the indigenous
Americans. While not perfect, the Is-
land Arawaks' way of life was as
near idyllic as any yet found outside
the pages of the Bible or More's
Utopia. And yet within three genera-
tions of the Spaniards' arrival, they
were all dead; their civilization gone;
their ever having been on earth no
more than a beautiful memory
lovingly evoked in this book.
'With great sympathy and under-
standing Don Walker recounts the
story of Columbus and the Island
Arawaks. Though the story is tragic
the book is not one of gloom and
doom. For nine years Don Walker
worked on the records of the Colum-
bus period bringing together into
one book the story of a remarkable
people and their world.
He writes objectively and with un-
derstanding' Sir Philip Sherlock.
This book provides a rare and price-
less account of the Arawaks culture
and life and of their sad and sub-
sequent demise.' Caribbean Travel
and Life March/April 1992.
Contents: Introduction. 1. A New
World and a New People. 2. Prelude


No. 5, August 1992









Sir Arthur Lewis. An Economic and
Political Portrait. Edited by Ralph
Premdas and Eric St. Cyr. Mona,
Jamaica: Regional Programme for
Monetary Studies. Institute of Social
and Economic Research. 1991.
125p. 976-40-0028-2 US$8.00


by Joan Vacianna
G Caribbean Vision" was the
theme chosen for the Four-
teenth Annual Conference of
the Caribbean Studies As-
sociation held in Barbados in 1989
- a conference in honour of Sir Ar-
thur Lewis, economist and political
thinker, Nobel Prize Winner and one
of the "Caribbean's most renowned
intellectuals".
This publication is a compilation
of the papers presented at the con-
ference under the editorship of Eric
St. Cyr and Ralph Premdas, both of
whom also delivered papers.
In addition to an introductory
chapter by the editors, the book is
divided into two sections, one deal-
ing with Arthur Lewis the economist
and the second with his political
thought. There is an even balance
between the sections, both consist-
ing of three chapters each. The con-
tributors are experts in the fields of
economics and political science from
the University of the West Indies
and prominent universities in the
United States.
In the opening chapter, "Sir Ar-
thur Lewis: Symbol of Democracy,
Defender of Human Rights, Friend
of the Poor," the editors introduce
the reader to the man and his ideas
as well as the themes which are dis-
cussed in the ensuing chapters,
Thus, early in the picture the
reader becomes aware of Sir
Arthur's stand on colonialism, his
firm belief in the ballot box and his
abhorrence for the one-party system
of government, as well as the terms
which came to be closely associated
with him, such as "compromise" and
"consensus" in democratic govern-
ment "consociational democracy"
(Lijphart.1977) "industrialization by
invitation" "class versus plural
societies" etc. It is at this stage too
that the reader is made aware of Sir
Arthur's reaction to the Moyne Com-


mission. This introduction, I find
very helpful for the understanding of
the rest of the book.
The three chapters on Sir Arthur
the economist are written by Stanley
Lalta, Alex Dupuy and Eric St. Cyr.
the first one being Lalta's "The per-
sistence of Lewis' theory of un-
limited supplies of labour".The basic
principles of this theory provide a
model for development in a dual
economy a fast-moving modem
sector with access to international
markets and a traditional subsis-
tence sector with an inexhaustible
supply of cheap labour.Other tenets
of this theory assume constant
wages and income in favour of the


investor who would in turn plough
some of the profits back into expand-
ing the modem sector. Lalta shows
the strengths and weaknesses and
uses the theory to bring to light cer-
tain aspects of the Export Process-
ing Zones or 807 operations in the
Caribbean. He also measures the
model with the ideas of Caribbean
economists such as Girvan, Demas,
Thomas and St. Cyr. Postulated as it
was more than three decades ago,
Sir Arthur's model is now regarded
as a framework with some refine-
ment and advancement as some
critical issues are still unresolved.
Lalta remarks that it is amazing that
Sir Arthur's theory keeps reappear-
ing in the discussions of so many
later economists and concludes that
even those who do not agree with
the theory cannot ignore it.
An admirable feature of this sec-
tion is the manner in which one
chapter flows smoothly and logically


No. 5, August 1992
into the next although written by dif-
ferent persons. In the third chapter
entitled "Export-led development
and the Lewis model in Haiti".
Dupuy picks up the theme of un-
limited labour supply in a particular
country. Sir Arthur is credited for
the introduction of the strategy of
"Industrialization by Invitation" into
the Caribbean. This concept en-
couraged foreign investors in
manufacturing in a country with
cheap labour and low production
costs. The investor would benefit
from various tax and other conces-
sions whereas the country would
benefit from increased employment,
improvement in the standard of
living and in other ways.
Dupuy examines this model as it
was applied to Haiti under the
Duvalier regime. Despite heavy in-
vestments from France, the United
States and other developed nations,
the Haitian economy remained un-
derdeveloped and many economists
viewed this as the failure of the
Lewis model. Dupuy diagnoses the
problem as a breakdown of the class
relational approach in Haiti. The
agricultural sector remained back-
ward because the urban industrial,
commercial and state sectors did
not reinvest the profits. Instead they
spent on luxury housing and the im-
portation of consumer goods. Dupuy
concludes that Lewis' model did not
fail in Haiti, failure occurred be-
cause the model was not properly
applied. Thus the events in Haiti
strengthened rather than weakened
the validity of the model.
To continue what seems to be a
natural progression, St. Cyr in Chap-
ter 4 looks "Beyond Lewis: alterna-
tive long run strategies for
Caribbean economies". He contends
that the Caribbean economies' per-
formance was good after World War
II but since the mid-seventies with
the oil crisis, the breakdown of the
Bretton Woods System and disloca-
tions in commodity markets the
region has been experiencing
serious difficulties.
St. Cyr looks at the shift in the
structure of the world economy from
goods to services as well as the vital
role of technological advancements.
He suggests a strategy in which
more attention should be paid to


continued on page 15


8. : ,.a i:: ...:i,: :0i::` c Caribbean Review of Books Carlbbn Revew of Books







-- - I
ts,
~\~;~I:~~'R 22 A;S


West Indian Medical Journal,
Editor-in-Chief and Chairman of the
Editorial Board: Professor Vasil Per-
saud. Published by the Faculty of
Medical Sciences, University of the
West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7,
Jamaica.
ISSN 0043-3144 Subscription: Over-
seas US$50.00, add.$15.00 for air-
mail, Jamaica J$250.00


by Evadne McLean

Although the West Indian
Medical Journal (WIMJ)
does not enjoy the distinc-
tion of being the first of its
kind historically in the Caribbean, it
has earned the right to be called one
of the premier scientific journals of
the region.
In 1948, when the Faculty of
Medicine of the University College of
the West Indies (UCWI) came into
being in Jamaica, the English-speak-
ing Caribbean already had two medi-
cal journals Jamaica Medical
Review, (JMR) focusing on medical
problems in Jamaica and published
since 1947 by a small group of local
practitioners, and Caribbean Medi-
cal Journal coming out of Trinidad.
The latter, continuing to be publish-
ed up to the present time focused its
attention on medical problems in
Trinidad and Tobago.
The need for a medical journal to
serve the entire British Caribbean,
just as the UCWI Medical Faculty
would serve the entire community,
was recognized and had to be ad-
dressed. In 1951, the Publications
Committee of the JMR which had
ceased publication in the previous
year, donated its remaining assets
and goodwill to UCWI. At the time
UCWI was trying to bring together
in its Medical Faculty those resour-
ces such as personnel, network con-
nections and research and library
facilities as important for the main-
tenance of a good medical journal
on a regional scale as they were to
run an effective medical school. It is
in this context UCWI's Medical
Faculty brought out the new
regional medical journal, WIMJ.
publishing its first issue in 1951 as
successor to JMR.


The editorial in the inaugural
issue of the newjournal announced
its mission to be the publication of
original articles and reviews with
particular attention to medicine in
the West Indies. Now, after more
than four decades, it is quite clear
that WIMJ has indeed been success-
ful in achieving that mission. That
first editorial stated the expectation
that WIMJ would develop into "a ref-
erence journal of the diseases of the
West Indies and as a medium for
spreading knowledge of diseases in
the West Indies among the local
practitioners and/or the medical
world as a whole." According to
T.V.N. Persaud, a former editor, "It
was largely due to this fact that the
new journal was well received and
immediately recognized as filling a
real need for a professional journal
of a high standard in the Caribbean
area." (WIMJ, 202, 1971 p. 73)
The second issue of WIMJwas
not published until 1952 but by
1953 the journal was established as
a quarterly with issues appearing in
March, June, September and
December. In the first issue of
Volume 5 (1956) we find a contribu-
tion already citing work previously
reported in the journal. This is part-
ly a self-citation as one of the
authors of the 1956 paper was a
joint author of the 1954 paper cited.
In Volume 7 (1958) we find a second
citation from WIMJ, this time from
Volume 4 (1955). Thereafter re-
search reported in the journal is
used increasingly by later authors
as a basis to build upon, thus
demonstrating the value of the
WIMJ as an organ reporting original
work paving the way to new inves-
tigations.
WIMJ's affair s are car licd out by
an Editorial Board comprising
Professors, Heads of Depar (ment of
the Faculty and eminent non-faculty
professionals. 'lhe first Editorial
Board had a representative of the
Editorial Committee of the former
JMR in recognition of its connection
in founding the new journal. The
late Kenneth Hill. the first UCWI
Professor of Pathology was the first
Chairman of the Board. and J.L.Staf-
ford. Haematologist at UCWI was
the first Editor. Members of the


Editorial Board, in addition to
refereeing responsibilities, also par-
ticipate in making policy decisions
for the journal. Editors during the
period 1951-75 were as follows: J.L.
Stafford (1951-55), J.A. Tulloch
(1956-60), D. Gore (1961-62 and 63-
66), C.P. Douglas (1962-63), P. Cur-
zen (Jan.-Sept., 1967), R.A. Irvine
(67-69), T.V.N. Persaud (1970-72),
G.A.O. Alleyne (1973-75). The
present Editor, Vasil Persaud who
took over in 1975 has not only
served in that capacity for the
longest spell; more than a third of
the entire span of the journal's exist-
ence so far, but also as the Chair-
man of the Board from 1981. In a
special editorial entitled "The West
Indian Medical Journal: Past,
Present and Future" (1990) he
points out what an onerous task it
is to edit and manage such a jour-
nal. (WIMJ, 39, 1990 pp. 1-3)
The editorial board of WIMJ has
devoted much thought and atten-
tion to improving the appearance of
the journal and to maintaining its
international reputation and the
cost effectiveness of its production,
and these efforts are seen in the
several changes of format the publi-
cation has gone through. Until 1964
the WIMJ appeared in single column
pages in white covers with bold
black lettering. In 1964 the Univer-
sity crest was added to the cover
design (in 1962 UCWI granting
degrees within a special relationship
with the London University had be-
come the independent University of
the West Indies -UWI) and in 1967
the black lettering on the cover were
replaced with blue. From 1970 the
table of contents was placed on the
front cover and continued on the in-
side of the back cover, and in 1972
the cover was printed in white let-
ters on a dark blue background. In
1981, in the issues for the 30th an-
niversary, the cover was made more
impressive with a change to black
lettering on a white background
with a larger crest in full detail in-
cluding the motto Oriens ex occi-
dente lux (a light rising from the
west) printed in full colour. Within
the new cover the margins were
reduced to allow 200 more words on
each page, in an effort to reduce


continued on page 14


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


Just over a year ago, a new Jamaican publishing house,
lan Randle Publishers, opened its doors for business. In
that first year they produced a book on average every two


months, and this year, at the rate of one a month. Also
these are books of a sort that no other Jamaican publish-
er is presently producing. How do they do it?


JAMAICAN PUBLISHER IAN RANDLE GIVES SOME ANSWERS


by Wenty Bowen
WB: Ian, when did lan Randle Pub-
lishers come into being?
IR: We started literally on the first of
January 1991, so we are now
eighteen months old.
WB: How have those eighteen
months been?
IR: They have been a very heady
eighteen months. In fact the first
twelve months we were on such a
high that the last six months
have presented a challenge to
us in maintaining that high.
You almost feel that you
shouldn't have any low
periods, and should be always
on a high.
WB: What accounted for the
high?
IR: It was the challenge and
excitement of starting all over
again after fifteen years, at
what was arguably the most
difficult period in Jamaica, at
a time when interest rates
went through the roof, and when the
prices of things got very high and
people were reluctant to buy new
books. The other aspect was the in-
credibly high level of support we got
from everybody with whom we dealt,
both locally and internationally. I
was amazed at the places where an-
nouncements of the existence of the
company appeared. Internationally,
notices appeared in the Bookseller
(we organized that ourselves), and
from there in Publisher's Weekly in
the United States, and then in a
host of other allied book journals
and magazines around the world.
One of the results of that was
various enquiries from individuals
and from other publishers about
what we were doing: queries about
whether we were interested in repre-
senting them in the region:
proposals for joint publishing opera-
tions: and so on.
WB: How many books have you pub-
lished so far?


IR: In the eighteen months we have
produced, let's see, six books in the
first twelve months and another five
since, with six months of the year to
go. Eleven books so far. In the next
six months we'll have another three
books out.
WB: How have sales been so far?
IR: Sales have been slower than we
expected, if I'm to be frank about it.
The pressure has been to get the
books out, and as a result the


marketing has lagged behind, and
that has been due of course, to the
fact that we have a very small staff,
and our whole marketing
mechanism hasn't been set up as ef-
fectively as we would like at this
stage. We probably need to slow
down the publishing a little bit and
get ourselves organized to improve
the marketing. But we have to a
large extent achieved immediate
bulk copy sales by selling editions
overseas outright.
WB: Is that part of the joint publish-
ing mechanism?
WB: Yes, that's part of the joint
publishing mechanism. It also ex-
plains how we've been able to get so
many books out so quickly.
WB: How does the business of co-
publishing work?
IR: The process of co-editions is basi-
cally trying to match up a particular
book with a particular publisher.
Looking at it from our end, there are


a number of university and
academic presses, both in the US
and the UK, which are interested in
publishing for the Caribbean. The
idea is to identify the publisher who
is most likely to be interested in a
particular title with which you are
working. Having identified the pub-
lisher, you actually make the ap-
proach as early as the proposal
stage. I've had the experience of sell-
ing the rights to a particular book
just on the basis of the outline
of the book, the reason being
that it was by an author who
has a good reputation and on a
topic in which they were par-
ticularly interested. The arrange-
ments can also be made once
Sthe publisher actually has a
Manuscript.
Looking at it from the other
side, let's say Johns Hopkins
has a manuscript. They know
the areas in which I'm par-
ticularly interested and will
send and ask if I'm interested in
a Caribbean edition. They send
the proposal with their readers'
reports.and if I'm sufficiently inter-
ested. I'll then ask them to send me
the manuscript. In some cases the
decision of the overseas publisher to
publish will depend on whether I'll
bring out a Caribbean edition. So
very often its a joint decision. We
have the manuscript read and
evaluated by our own readers, and
we make suggestions for changes.
so it's a full publishing involvement.
They do the same thing on their side
when we send them a manuscript.
WB: How long does such a process
take?
IR: A process like that can take
three to four months to get tied up.
There are tremendous advantages
for both partners in a co-publishing
arrangement. If you are the originat-
ing publisher, it means that you are
guaranteed sales of a certain num-
ber of copies which will eventually
determine your print run. And that
continued overleaf


(",b:-.:: :..,' ::,i i-'.::-:: Caribbean Review of Books Carlbean Revlewof ~ooks







IEswfiewr oiAf !BooKIhs


guarantee might make the difference
between your going ahead with the
book and abandoning It. For the co-
publisher it means, first, you don't
have to make the total investment as
if you were the originating publisher:
second, it saves a lot of in-house
editorial work which you would have
had to do; and third, it normally
gives you access to authors and
books you might not have had access
to otherwise.
A good example is the book we
did with Johns Hopkins Press, A
Problem of Freedom by Thomas Holt,
which we wouldn't have got if we
hadn't gone into a co-publishing deal
with them.
WB: In such deals do you pay royal-
ties to their authors?
IR- The deal that you make with the
originating publisher is usually royal-
ty inclusive, so you pay a cost per
copy which includes a royalty pay-
ment. So it saves the co-publisher
the administrative problem of keep-
ing royalty accounts for those books.
The negatives, of course, are the
market restrictions. You are in fact
sharing up the market. If I'd done a
book entirely by myself I'd be able to
sell worldwide and get foreign ex-
change from both sides of the Atlan-
tic. In a co-publishing arrangement
you get a guarantee of sales to one or
two publishers overseas, but then
you sacrifice the freedom to sell in
their markets.
WB: You would be restricted to the
Caribbean market?
IR: Johns Hopkins would restrict me
to the Caribbean market and they
would sell to the rest of the world. In
some deals, where I sell only a UK
edition to a co-publisher, we would
leave the rest of the world open so
that either party could sell to the rest
of the world.
WB: Are your books priced differently
for the Caribbean market?
IR: The prices are different. Vastly dif-
ferent. In my joint editions with
James Curry in the UK, for instance,
his prices are a minimum of 25 %
higher than mine. The reason, I
think, is that he has a clearly identifi-
able market. He knows the kinds of
prices his markets can take and he
prices according to those
marketabilities. For us, we are con-


stantly conscious of the price sen-
sitivities of the Caribbean market
and have to come to terms with what
people can afford in these markets.
Very often our Caribbean prices are
lower than the prices we fix for
markets outside the region.
WB: What about the design of the
book, the cover, and so on?
IR: The originator usually has full
control over the design and specifica-
tions of the book. There are cases of
course, where one of the partners
might insist on a completely different
cover. That would involve additional
costs which one is always trying to
avoid. Also there are situations in
which the book will be identical in all
respects for the two partners. They
will have the same cover, bear joint
imprints, and have the two
companies' logos on. The only dif-
ference would be the ISBN.
WB: Is there an advantage in that
sort of arrangement?
IR: The advantage is that if I decide
to take 750 copies and they are sold
out in three months, I can take more
copies without my co-publisher
having to do an additional print-run
for me. Also, if my 750 copies sell
very slowly he can take back copies
from me.
WB: Do you print in the Caribbean?
IR: Fve printed no books in the Carib-
bean because I print at the cheapest
source, and this might be the Far
East, Europe or the Caribbean. But
in no case to date have I found the
Caribbean to be the cheapest source
of printing. I find the cheapest print-
ing in Europe, in Spain, or even the
UK. US printing prices are coming
closer to prices in other centres, but
often their terms of trade are more
stringent than the Far East. They
will give you 30 days to pay, whereas
in the Far East you can get up to 90
days credit from the date of ship-
ment.
WB: Is credit important in the in-
dustry?
IR: Credit is very important in the
publishing industry and has become
increasingly so over the last twelve
months because of what is happen-
ing to the Jamaican dollar.
WB: But how easy is it to communi-
cate with overseas printers? Do you


have to go to the Far East to see
them?
IR: No. It can all be done by Fax and
telephone. It's the same for dealing
with publishers in the US and the
UK. There is an international lan-
guage of publishing which, if you
know your business, makes it very
easy to talk with one another.
WB: What's the outlook for
Jamaican publishing at the moment?
IR: I think it's going through a very
bad period. It's bad because the
readership is not expanding, if any-
thing it's declining, because people
are losing the habit of reading. I
think that the readership base in
this country outside of text books is
actually declining, and one can't con-
fidently produce any book these days
with the expectation that you will
have anything you can describe as a
best seller, which in Jamaica these
days would be anything from three
to five thousand copies. Even for text
books, there is, I think, a lull in
textbook production at the moment.
Two main reasons for this are that
any text book produced now will be
so expensive because of the ex-
change rate as to make it un-
marketable. Secondly, budgetary
restrictions and cost considerations
make schools and the Ministry of
Education reluctant to introduce
new textbooks into the system, even
though they might recognize the
merits of a new textbook over what's
there. They equate change to cost.
Any change is seen as an additional
cost, without any consideration of
the perceived benefits from a new
textbook.
WB: Is that the situation in the other
islands as well?
IR: This is true throughout the Carib-
bean. There is a distinct reluctance
now to make any changes. They are
having the same money problems we
are having. Barbados is in a critical
situation for book purchases this
year. In many of the small Caribbean
islands the book lists are evaluated
once every three years. If you don't
get in at the start of the cycle there's
no hope of getting in for another
three years. In textbook publishing
this is not disastrous because one
constantly has to take a long term
view. Education is a dynamic
process no matter how difficult times


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


are. People eventually have to make
changes because there are changes
in curricula and syllabuses. The
schools may be reluctant to change
today, but three years down the road
may be eager to take on a book they
are reluctant to take today. Which is
why text book publishers can't stop
publishing when times are bad; be-
cause when times change for the bet-
ter you won't have anything to sell.
One is caught in a constant leap of
faith. But looking back on the
Jamaican book market, it's sorting it-
self out in a very interesting kind of
way.
WB: What do you mean?
IR: Well, for instance, you have
Kingston Publishers who can clearly
now be described as a general pub-
lisher, staying away from any
kind of textbook publishing.
Then there is Carlong Publish-
ers, an outgrowth of the old
Longmans, which so far, ap-
pears to be touching nothing
but textbooks. And then there
are ourselves. We, if anything,
are showing a leaning towards
academic publishing, meaning
text books at the university
level and books on academic
subjects which are not neces-
sarily course related.
My stuff has been
predominantly academic but
I've also dabbled with one or
two general books and will, in 1993,
move vigorously into textbooks, most-
ly for the primary level. The oppor-
tunities for secondary textbook
publishing are limited at the mo-
ment, but at the primary level
throughout the Caribbean, in all the
core curriculum subjects, I think the
textbooks are due for a major over-
haul. As to where the financial
resources to do that will come from is
another matter.
WB: Does this mean you have to
keep in close touch with the schools
and with teachers?
IR: One has to anticipate what the
curriculum planners and developers
are doing; the trends in education;
and even at times to pre-empt them.
One has to keep in close touch with
the education establishment, or even
more relevant, with the leading
figures in curriculum development.


Because very often the individuals
are in a position to move much more
quickly than institutions.
WB: What guiding philosophy does
your company have?
IR: The guiding philosophy of my
company? I've never thought about
it. I just wanted to get out there and
produce good books of a high quality
and sell them as widely as possible.
But given the fairly wide scope of our
company's operations, if there is one
element which we value here more
than any other, it is giving good ser-
vice.
WB: Is the company a partnership?
IR: Is it a partnership? No. It's a
limited company of which my wife
and I are the shareholders.


WB: So far all your books are history
books?
IR: I wouldn't say all my books are
history books. A more accurate way
of putting it would be to say that the
strength of the list is in history. But
I've done one each in politics and
economics, and a cookbook. And
later this year we will publish one on
Caribbean folklore, and another
major cookery book is on the drawing
board.
WB: Who are your top-selling
authors?
IR: My top selling authors are Be-
ckles and Shepherd, Caribbean Slave
Society and Economy, of which a
second volume is being published
covering the post-slavery period up
to the present. My other big seller is
the more recently published title,
Rosamund Grant's Caribbean and
African Cookery with a foreword by


Maya Angelou. Rosamund is a
Guyanese living in England. I bought
the rights at Frankfurt last year.
WB: You attend book fairs regularly?
IR: I wouldn't say I attend regularly.
They are expensive to get to and you
might come back with nothing. On
the other hand you might get lucky
and either buy or sell something.
Last year was my first in operation
and I went to Frankfurt for the first
time and ended up selling one book
and buying one, so it was extremely
successful.
WB: You are competing against other
publishers for the same book?
IR: One is bidding against other pub-
lishers.
WB: And where does one get exper-
tise about subsidiary rights
and things like that?
IR: Stuff like bidding for
rights, you learn from other
people and pick up over a
period of time, asking the
advice of colleagues who
have been doing it for
years. And you can read
about it in books. With
every book though, it's a
bargaining and a haggling
operation.
WB: Do you have a lawyer
present?
IR: No lawyers are present.
They are not necessary at
all. Despite all the changes in
publishing it's still very much a
gentlemen's profession, even down to
the policing of rights. You agree on
particular market areas when you
negotiate rights and you are expected
to sell only in those market areas,
and by and large, that happens.
There are some cases of selling out-
side your area but nobody looks over
your shoulder to see if you are doing
it. Also, in the same way that the
relationship between another publish-
er and yourself is entirely a matter of
trust, so is it between author and
publisher. If the publisher tells an
author he's sold two thousand copies
of your book and pays you for 2000,
it's extremely rare for an author to
question the figures of the publisher.
Similarly in a rights deal based on
paying royalties on copies sold, it is a
matter of trust.
To be continued in CRB # 6, November 1992


aOvboan Revieww ot B'oks Caribbean Review of Books Cadbbean Review ofBooks









Understanding Jamaican Patois, An
Introduction to Afro-Jamaican Gram-
mar, with a childhood tale by Llewel-
lyn 'Dada" Adams, by L. Emilie
Adams, Kingston Publishers,
Kingston, 1991, 109 pp.


by Pauline Christie
Mrs. Adams is to be highly
commended for having
conceived the idea of writ-
ing an introduction to the
grammar of the "folk speech" for
visitors to Jamaica. Her book at-
tempts to fill a gap. As she points out
(pp. 1-2), existing descriptions are
not readily available to the "casual
beginner who wants quick access to
the language" (p.2).
Evidence that she has
succeeded to some ex-
tent is provided by the
tokens of appreciation
on the back cover of the
book. Her perseverance
in the face of what ap-
peared to be insur-
mountable problems,
such as that of finding
an appropriate writing
system, does her further
credit.
The linguist who un-
dertakes to write a
review of such a book is
faced with a dilemma.
While one is pleasantly
surprised to find that the task has
been undertaken at all, one neverthe-
less feels obliged to indicate certain
shortcomings which might not be ob-
vious to a lay person. It is difficult to
do this without appearing pedantic or
patronizing. It must therefore be em-
phasized that the following com-
ments are in no way intended to
belittle Mrs. Adams' effort. Rather,
the aim is to provide a few simple
suggestions as to how her purpose
might have been better served.
The fact that contrast with stand-
ard English is the chief basis for Mrs.
Adams' description of "Afro-
Jamaican" reflects her view that it is
"a variation of the grand old English
language" (p.7). This is most obvious
in her description of pronunciation
discussing the grammar of nouns,
she states:


"The singular form of the
noun is the form for both sin-
gular of (sic) plural..." (p.13).
"The noun" here clearly refers to
the standard English noun. The im-
pression unwittingly given, therefore,
is that the Jamaican speakers in
question constantly have the forms of
this variety in mind when they use
"Afro-Jamaican". This is clearly not
true. The following is considered a
more appropriate description of the
same usage, since it presents "Afro-
Jamaican" on its own terms and in a
way which is nevertheless easily un-
derstandable:
"A single form of a noun may
have either singular or plural
meaning.."


Taken from The Daily Gleaner, M


Similarly,
"The same form sometimes
serves as adjective and ad-
verb"
is preferable to:
"The adverbial ending -LY is
usually dispensed with" (p.16).
Suitable examples with English
glosses could serve as illustrations in
each case.
The alternative description sug-
gested above show clearly that "Afro-
Jamaican" has rules and that these
are in some cases quite different from
those of standard English. The
author's failure to demonstrate these
two facts can only serve to per-
petuate the popular view that the
Jamaican speech is ungrammatical
English, a view with which she clear-
ly disagrees (p.1). It also leads her


into making even more illogical state-
ments than those already quoted, for
example, the following:
"...the Afro-Jamaican verb
deh is still the adverb "there
in spite of its functioning as a
verb" (p. 38).
The fact that similar statements
are to be found in some widely ac-
cepted grammars does not make this
one any less illogical.
There can be no doubt that both a
historical relationship and a continu-
ing relationship exist between
English and "Afro-Jamaican". How-
ever, it does not follow from this faot
that the grammar of "Afro-Jamaican"
has to be described with reference to
English. In any event, it must be
remembered that forms of English
which differed in many
respects from modem
standard English, are like-
ly to have been the main
w contributors to the forma-
tion of "Afro-Jamaican".
Some of the author's
problems in relation to
spelling "Afro-Jamaican"
also stem from her idea
that it is merely a form of
English. Thus, the view is
expressed that words
which are pronounced as
ay 7, 1992 in English must be spelled
as in that language, even
despite its admitted incon-
sistencies. On the other
hand, the spelling system
devised by Cassidy is regarded as ar-
cane, apparently because it differs
from the one used for English. It is
described as giving "the impression
that Afro-Jamaican is a fully African
language, forbidding any casual out-
sider to penetrate its secrets" (p.8).
While the author's assessment of it is
somewhat exaggerated, in addition to
reflecting the unjustifiable view that
strange equals African, this system
does appear difficult to one who is ac-
customed to reading English. It must
be admitted that the problem of devis-
ing a writing system for Jamaican
speech which is likely to be readily
accepted by those already literate, is
one that linguists have not satisfac-
torily solved either. It may well be an
impossible task.
The next set of comments relates
to the author's vagueness about what


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


constitutes grammar. Lists of forms,
classified according to parts of
speech, occur where explanation of
their roles would have been more
useful. For example, the section on
the definite article (p. 15) deals only
with its various pronunciations and
does not mention how it is used in
sentences at all, presumably on the
assumption that its functions coin-
cide with those of its standard
English counterpart. The fact that
Daag a man bes fren, the Jamaican
equivalent of The dog is man's best
friend does not require the definite
article illustrates that this is not
necessarily the case. The difference
shown in this example is not ar-
bitrary. Articles in "Afro-Jamaican"
are never used in reference to a class
of entities, whereas the English ar-
ticles can be so used.
At other times, the author fails to
relate forms which have identical
grammatical function and thus un-
necessarily complicates her descrip-
tion. Thus, the fact that mi ben deh
say, mi wen da say (p.28) represent
the same grammatical structure as
im ena say, im wena say (p.27) is


overlooked, the latter pair being
treated as examples of a 'peculiar
tense'. In fact, ben, wen and en are
simply variant forms of what might
be roughly described as the past
tense indicator and deh, da and a
are similarly variants of the progres-
sive indicator. The differences be-
tween the forms in each case
concern pronunciation, not what is
usually considered grammar.
The notion that Jamaican usage
is peculiar where it differs from
English usage (see for example, pp.
7,19,27) is also unfortunate. The
truth is that many of the usages so
described are found in other varieties
which are generally considered lan-
guages in their own right. In any
event, this and the many other ex-
amples of "subjectivity" (p,27) in
referring to specific aspects of
Jamaican speech, are out of place in
a grammatical description.
Some of the statements presented
as facts do not necessarily belong in
that category. It is certainly true that
many Jamaican structures have
counterparts in African languages,
but the relationship in specific cases


is far less certain than etymologies
presented in the book suggest. In ad-
dition, the idea that the Jamaican
negative form no derives from
Spanish no (p.35) ignores the fact
that no is the usual form produced
by beginning learners of English
from a wide variety of language back-
grounds, including children learning
English as a first language.
Readers might conclude that the
mere publication of Mrs. Adams'
book is a sad reflection on us lin-
guists. This is a judgement we must
humbly accept. For although we
have long been describing the gram-
mar of Jamaican speech for
academic purposes, it has been left
to a lay person and an outsider, not
only to identify the need to make this
grammar more accessible to casual
visitors to the island, but also to be
the first to publish a book specifical-
ly designed to meet this need.

Pauline Christie is the Dean of the Faculty
of Arts and General Studies and Senior
Lecturer in the Department of Linguistics,
UWI, Mona.


COOKBOOKS. continued from page 5
mix, served with roti or dhalpuri, in
her korilla and potato curry (korilla
is her rendition of caralli, koraili, bit-
ter gourd, or cerasee as Jamaicans
know it), her crab curry, green
mango and potato Curry. But the
book ranges all over the Caribbean
and includes recipes from Jamaica
such as Hopewell Snapper, Ital
Rundown, Red Beans with ackee,
Saltfish buljol (Trinidad), channa
(Trinidad and Guyana), escovished
fish (all over the West Indiesi) flying
fish and coo-coo (Barbados), Prawn
Low Mein (Chinese influencedl.
The book is a veritable West In-
dian smorgasbord, filled with spicy,
delicious, easy, mouthwatering
recipes. There is a glossary which


HOW TO PEEL A PINEAPPLE


reveals that the author had an eye
on the foreign market since she lists
most of the major ingredients of
West Indian cooking but more oddly,
tells us how to peel a pineapple, how
to cook plantains and how to clean
and prepare fish!
But the book is a very Caribbean
book and well worth acquiring. As
Maya Angelou says in her Foreword
"When Rosamund Grant invites us
to join her Caribbean feasts we can
almost hear reggae, sitar and
Spanish music in the background.
Here at her table are the influences
of Africa, India, Spain, France and
Portugal".

Victor Chang is Senior Lecturer and Head
of the Department of English, UWI, Mona


fmJk-oksi Caribbean Review of Books Cadbbeam Review of Iiools






B3ieowew If [BaxDUs



Slave Society in the Danish West In-
dies: St. Thomas, St. John and St.
Croix, Neville AT. Hall. The Univer-
sity of the West Indies Press, 1992.
xxvi, 287 pp. 976-41-0029-5
US$16.00


by Bill Harris
n Neville Hall's posthumously
published monograph we find an
analysis of the colonial condi-
tions in the islands that have be-
come known as the United States
Virgin Islands. Hall dedicated more
than a decade of study to the African
presence in Denmark's Caribbean
colony. As the first title from the
University of the West Indies Press,
Neville Hall's book con-
stitutes an auspicious
beginning. The book is
an important contribu- I
tion to the record of
African peoples in the
Caribbean because it
gathers within a single
cover previously pub- ,
lished works of an im-
portant scholar which
had been scattered in
various journals; in ad-
dition, material in five
of the twelve chapters
was previously un-
published.
Following Neville
Hall's untimely death in 1986 and at
the behest of Hall's family, the task
of completing this book was taken
up by Dr. B.W. Higman. Scholars in
Caribbean studies will be thankful
for the collegiality that guided Dr.
Higman's labours.
Through the study of the Danish
language Neville Hall was able to
bring important materials to bear in
the task of chronicling sociocultural
development among persons of
African descent during the period of
slavery in the Danish West Indies.
Hall's work revises some stock no-
tions regarding colonialism, slavery,
and freedom as they unfolded in
these small islands. For example,
Denmark's tenure as colonial power
and executant of the plantation
model was constrained by forces, ex-
ternal in the form of European im-


perialism, and internal in the form of
a multicultural population, slave and
free, determined to chart a separate
destiny. And, while the literature on
slavery contains many references to
the assignment of slaves to paradoxi-
cal occupations such as the military;
in Hall's work we find slaves curious-
ly employed as seamen. "It was not
unusual for crewmen, singly or in
numbers, to jump ship in West In-
dian waters" (p.132).
In this historical pageant Neville
Hall brings to the stage many charac-
ters previously unencountered in Vir-
gin Islands histories. He presents the
1847 petition to Christian VIII from
William F.A. Gilbert, a former slave,
who had escaped from the Danish
colony to Boston, Massachusettes.
Gilbert's experience and plea evokes


MENDING ROADS, BARBADOES.


that of Frederick Douglass. Hall's ac-
counts of individuals are particularly
impressive in the case of women. He
includes mention not only of such
well known individuals as Anna
Heegaard, but also interesting minor
players such as Catherine Oxholm,
Jenny Almeyda, and Catherine
Abrams. The women in the book
have more than token presence;
they are found to be stone-throwers
(p 104), litigants in the courts (p.
165), and revolutionaries (pp. 225-
226). Hall cites Frederick von Schol-
ten, the governor general's brother,
who noted that
"Among the black population,
women play a role of great im-
portance. They do the same
work that the men do and
their physical build and size
render them formidable adver-
saries in the rough and


tumble of a fight. Throughout
the [1848 slave revolt] they
were more aggressive, venge-
ful and altogether more
violent in their passion than
the men" (p. 225)
The book informs us that Den-
mark, a would-be colonial power,
faced uncertainty in both domestic
and international relations. During
the period of slavery in the Danish
colony, from the earliest years until
emancipation in 1848 slaves and
freedmen of African descent outnum-
bered whites by pluralities that
ranged from thirty percent to seven
hundred percent. The ruling
minority white government con-
tinually developed social policies
reflecting the diffuse fears of slave
revolts that plagued the minds of the
white population. The
black majority, slave
and free, continually
tested the limits of a
pariah status defined
by race.
Contention for
hegemony in colonial
geopolitics resulted in a
low position for Den-
mark in the internation-
al pecking order. Even
at the outset of its
vision of a Caribbean
empire, Denmark lack-
ed the resources in
capital and population
necessary to establish such a ven-
ture. After abortive attempts to use
indentured Danish workers in the
monocrop cultivation of sugar, the
Danish West India Company turned
to the accepted system of labour in
the islands: slave labour. Unable to
lure sufficient population from the
home country to the colonies,
planters and merchants were
recruited from other European
populations. This multinational sys-
tem of "colonization by invitation"
resulted in the presence of persons
who would compromise the imprint
of Danish culture in the colony. Fur-
thermore, foreign Europeans had the
potential to be a subversive internal
force in the event of international
European squabbling. Danes were al-
ways numerically in the minority
among the white populations. The


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


Danish presence was economically
overshadowed by a lease to the Prus-
sian Brandenburger Company from
1685 to 1715. Culturally, the Dutch,
both whites and creoles, became an
influential presence as early as 1685.
Their influence could be perceived in
the form of the Dutch Reformed
Church and the currency of the
Dutch language, even in official docu-
ments. Militarily, the Danes were not
the masters of their own affairs at
home nor in the colonies. The slave
revolt of 1733 in St. John was
quelled only through the intervention
of colonial French troops. And as the
colonial venture was approaching its
demise, the British inflicted paired in-
vasions on the colonies and Copen-
hagen in both 1801 and 1807. By
1814 Denmark had suffered the cap-
ture of its fleet, the loss of its
maritime trade and the loss of the
colony of Norway.
Hall's reporting treats the jousting
among the imperialist European
states as an ancillary issue in the
Danish colonial drama: the center
stage is held by the captive genera-
tions of Africans and their counter-
parts who held a tenuous status as
free persons. Hall presents a concep-
tion of the reconstruction of com-
munity in the islands that took place
among the diverse groups originally
derived from Africa. He says of the
slaves, By the time of emancipation
they had created a culture, neither
wholly African nor yet European,
retaining, adapting, borrowing and
adopting" (p. 122). Acculturation be-
tween Europeans and Africans was
not a one way process:
"Masters as well as slaves
were caught up in the process
of cultural interchange. The
whites enjoyed or learnt to
enjoy foods like cassava
bread, and some, at any rate,
slaves' sports like stick-fight-
ing. Donors of their religions,
they became recipients of the
slaves' language..." (p. 123).
A major theme in Hall's history of
slavery in the Danish colonies is the
continual occurrences of resistance
among the enslaved against their op-
pressors and their conditions of op-
pression. Hall reckons various and
sundry behaviors as those indicating


resistance. These range from the
slave revolts of 1733 in St. John and
1848 in St. Croix to incidents of
stone throwing and running away
from bondage. Hall's categories of
resistance are to be compared and
contrasted with those defined by Carl
Degler in Neither Black Nor White.
Degler stringently defined only physi-
cal confrontation as resistance; other
behaviors he took to be indicative of
alienation, but ineffective for the over-
throw of the condition of slavery.
Given Hall's emphasis on slave
resistance, it is curious to find that
he makes only passing mention of
the most notable instance of slave
resistance in the Danish West Indies,
the 1733 rebellion in St. John in
which over fifty whites were killed.
On the other hand, he devotes a full
chapter to the 1848 slave uprising in
St. Croix, which brought an end to
the institution of slavery in these is-
lands. The events of 1848 occasion
one of Hall's observations of histori-
cal paradox: because of excessive ex-
uberance and violence after the
cause was won, the leadership and
political potential of non-European
Crucians was lost through sub-
sequent trials, executions and exile.
The most grievous loss of leadership
was that of Gotlieb Bordeaux
('General Buddhoe') who was
banished to Trinidad.
In the face of overwhelming
majority populations of slaves and
driven by fears of slave revolts near
and far, the colonial authorities
severely circumscribed the movement
and behavior of all persons of African
descent in the islands. In the slave
code prepared by State Counsellor in
1783, slaves were constrained to
"step out of the way of any
white and either with bared
head to go slowly by or, when
recovered, to remain still until
that white person had passed.
If slaves were mounted they
should dismount or else slow-
ly ride out of the way, neither
galloping nor hurrying nor,
worse yet, to ride alongside"
(p. 37).
And, there was a directive to
"respect and obey orders from all
whites, regardless of whether the lat-
ter were their owners" (Ibid.). "This


was to apply with particular force
when there was verbal or physical al-
tercation between slaves, and whites
intervened to put an end to them
(sic)" (p. 38).
Whippings were prescribed for
slaves who disobeyed such rules, as
many as 200 lashes if rude words
were added to disobedience. Hall
cites an insightful quote from LUn-
demann:
"'It must be noted that the
slaves in North America are
not treated nearly as harshly
as is the case on the islands,
where much stricter dis-
cipline is a necessity consider-
ing the small number of
whites in relation to the mass
of slaves'"(p. 38)
The practice of obeah was specifi-
cally proscribed and punishable by
whipping in eighteenth century slave
codes. Hall notes that the record is
conspicuously silent on the topic in
the nineteenth century. He takes this
to be an indicator that "[obeah] prac-
tices pari passu fell into abeyance"
(p. 113) in the later years. Hall's con-
clusion in this matter is curious. In
the former Danish colony there has
been continuing concern about
obeah, extending into the modem
era. A prime example of this is the
1944 controversy over and near ban-
ning of favorite son Antonio Jarvis'
book, The Virgin Islands and Their
People because of his chapter on
the topic.
The most severe colonial punish-
ments, in the form of mutilations
and tortures, were exacted for rebel-
lion and maronage. The latter resis-
tance usually entailed grand
maronage, flight to a foreign ter-
ritory. Hall makes mention, however,
of petit maronage in the anonymous
crowds of the towns or in the refuge
in Maronbjerg, the northwestern
highlands of St. Croix.
A population of non-European
free persons developed from former
slaves who had been manumitted
and others, immigrants or runaways
from distant territories, who had
managed to establish and maintain
free identities. Males in this group
were often used as security forces as-
signed to keep the slave population
in check. Freedwomen, who con-
continued on page 23


:!.~-: : j:(:',i:- -o ::-::- Caribbean Review of Books Calbbean Revlew of Books







WIMJ, continued from page 6
costs. In the latest change, In 1991,
the size was increased from 8"x10" to
8.5"xl 1.5" and the page format
changed from single to double
column. A colour pattern for the
covers of the four issues (blue for
no.1 in March, and red for 2 in June
etc.) has been introduced for easy
identification of issues. Perhaps a
better choice would have been to
change colours by the volume, allow-
ing the four issues of a volume to be
readily picked from the shelf using
the colour code.
The presentation of the contents
has also been improved. From the is-
sues for 1973 the editor Introduced a
uniform format for each article and
compartmentalized each issue into
sections such as Editorial, Special
Communication, Review Articles,
Original Papers, Case Reports,
Books Received and Books Reviewed.
An annual index was introduced in
1977 and now appears regularly in
the December (no. 4) issue.
Although produced primarily for
the medical community, WIMJ at
times publishes material of interest
to other readers. The Guest
Editorials The Doctor in Court'
(Frazer, Golding and Trotman,
(1981), 30:55-6), 'Problems of Al-
coholism in the Commonwealth
Caribbean' (Beaubrun (1984), 33:1-
2) and 'On Obeah, Myalism and
Magical Death in Jamaica' (Morrow
(1983), 32:4-6) are examples. From
time to time WIMJ has carried
obituaries at the passing of those
who had been associated with and
made their valued contribution to
the journal. In December 1986
(35:273-4) Professor, Sir Henry An-
namunthodo (1920-86) who had
been appointed the first Senior Surgi-
cal Registrar when the University
College Hospital opened in 1953 was
so remembered and honoured by
WIMJ. The December 1974 issue
(23:191) contains 'A Tribute from the
Commonwealth Caribbean' to Robert
Cruickshank, first Professor of Social
and Preventive Medicine.
Special issues focusing on impor-
tant events and subjects have ap-
peared from time to time. Examples
are 'Guidelines to young child feed-
ing in the contemporary Caribbean'
in Volume 20. no. 3 (1971), the Sup-


plement to Volume 29, no. 4 (1980)
on 'A Decade of open heart surgery
(1968-1978) at the University Hospi-
tal of the West Indies, Kingston,
Jamaica' and the September 1974
(Volume 23, no. 3) commemorating
the 25th anniversary of the Univer-
sity.
WIMJ also issues an annual sup-
plement containing the abstracts
and programme of the Scientific
Meetings of the Commonwealth
Caribbean Medical Research Council
(CCMRC). Formerly the proceedings
were included in an issue of the jour-
nal but since 1983 a grant from
Wyelth Ayerst International, Inc.,
has made a separate supplement
possible. From the Caribbean
Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) in
Trinidad comes the 'CAREC
Epidemiological Notes and Reports'
Included in the WIMJ providing cur-
rent regional data in this area. This
feature started In 1989. Analyzing
the content of a recent volume (40,
1991) we found an interesting mix of
contributors, justifying the claim
that WIMJ is truly a regional journal
with an international reputation.
Authors of the 50 contributions in
the volume examined came from the
following groups in the numbers indi-


cated:
UWI Faculty
Regional (Caribbean)
non-UWI Faculty
UWI Faculty jointly
with Non-UWI
Faculty
UWI Faculty jointly
with non-Caribbean
authors
Non-Caribbean
authors


26 (52%)

14 (28%)


5 (10%)


3 (6%)

2 (4%)


The cumulation of a body of medi-
cal literature on the region in WIMJ
over the years has focused on the
need for access to that body of
knowledge for current use. Laxmi
Mansingh, compiler of the first com-
prehensive medical bibliography for
the region, Medical Caribbeana has
the following to say about how her
project began: "The compilation of a
bibliography of medical Caribbeana
was started in March 1979, and a
computer printout indexing the first


thirty volumes of the West Indian
Medical Journal was made available
to the users of the Medical Library in
June of the same year. The work was
gradually extended to cover other
sources of literature, and the index
grew to over 6, 000 entries in 1982
and 10, 000 entries by early 1988."
(Kingston, UWI Library, 1988 p. vi)
WIMJ is Indexed by major interna-
tional services such as Current Con-
tents, Index Medicus, and Excerpta
Medical. It is also indexed by the UWI
Medical Library for the MEDCARIB
database from which entries are also
sent to BIREME (Latin American
Centre for Health Science Informa-
tion for the LILACS (Latin American
and Caribbean Health Sciences)
database which is distributed on CD-
ROM.
The journal now receives around
100 manuscripts each year from
which about 50 are published after
careful peer review. WIMJ is
produced in an edition of about 1.
200 copies and is circulated
worldwide. Through the exchange
programme of the UWI Library WIMJ
reaches almost 100 libraries
worldwide. The journal receives ad-
vertising support from pharmaceuti-
cal corporations.
Like many similar journals WIMJ
faces many problems that need at-
tention. The incumbent editor in his
editorial The West Indian Medical
Journal: Past, Present and Future'
(Volume 39, no. 1, 1990) points out
the need for dedicated reviewers for
manuscripts, further support and co-
operation from the Faculty, an assis-
tant editor, additional staff for the
journal's office, and a full-time editor
to ensure the maintenance of the
present standards and future suc-
cess. The editor, the present staff
and others concerned with the af-
fairs of the journal are to be com-
mended for its appearance on time,
its budgetary viability, and its high
standard which has earned the con-
fidence of the medical community of
the Caribbean and beyond. As Mrs.
Bridget Williams, Editorial Assistant
says, "It is a wonderful thing for a
third world medical school to have a
journal of the calibre of WIMJ."

Evadne McLean is a Librarian at UWI,
Mona.


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


LEWIS, continued from page 5

speciality industries, services and
agriculture and more emphasis
placed on human resource develop-
ment. He uses as an example the pos-
sibilities existing in Trinidadian steel
band music and also mentions other
areas such as medical tourism and
geriatric care. The surplus accrued
from these exportable industries
should be reinvested, among other
areas, into human resource develop-
ment if the country is to keep abreast
with technological changes. St. Cyr
concludes with a summary of his
strategy for new economic paths
showing the roles to be played by the
residentiary as well as the export sec-
tor. A key point is the one which in-
volves the reallocation of the
investible surplus away from the
manufacturing proposed by Lewis
into human resource development as
this is the basis of active participa-
tion in the international economy.
The chapters in the first section
are all accompanied by adequate
notes but those at the end of St.
Cyr's paper stand out. They are a
combination of lists of readings, ac-
knowledgements and further explana-
tions in a style which makes for
interesting reading.
The first chapter in the second
section on the political thinking of
Sir Arthur Lewis, is by Ralph Prem-
das entitled 'The politics of inter-eth-
nic accommodation in a democracy."
The term 'consociational democracy'
is most closely associated with Arend
UJphart, but Premdas proves in his
paper that this form of democracy is
based on ideas expounded by Arthur
Lewis several years before, in his
book Politics in West Africa an area
which according to Lewis had politi-
cal problems similar to those of Asia
and the Caribbean.
This chapter describes in detail
the problems of multi-ethnicity and
cultural pluralism and sees the solu-
tions in a democracy with free elec-
tions to obtain representatives for
collective decision making, a good op-
position, proportional representation,
coalitions and in a large country -
decentralization and absolutely no
place for a one-party system. In a
comparison of UJphart and Lewis,
Premdas shows few differences be-
tween the two, probably resulting
from the fact that both used as a


base the idea of the unsuitability of
democracy in the Anglo-American
form with its zero-sum feature, for
third world conditions. Lewis'
proposal for coalition, decentraliza-
tion and proportional representation
- to name just a few, find their way
into Lijphart's ideas with the slight
difference that Ujphart's are some-
times more detailed because they
come after Lewis and therefore had
an opportunity to "build". One
criticism of the two is the possibility
of having no opposition and thus a
one-party state could result from the
coalition proposed by them. Premdas
points out that many of the features
recommended by both men are still
practised in third world countries -
democratic as well as undemocratic.
They should therefore be regarded as
general principles and not detailed
prescriptions.
The second of the 'politics' papers
is by John Gaffar La Guerre and en-
titled "Arthur Lewis and the Moyne
Commission." It deals with the reac-
tions of Lewis to the report of the
Commission set up in 1938 to inves-
tigate the social and economic condi-
tions in the British West Indian
territories. Lewis' aim was "to analyze
some of the main issues relevant to
social welfare in the British West In-
dies and to suggest steps likely to in-
crease the material and cultural well
being of the masses."
He first looked at the question of
poverty. Whereas the Commission
saw a solution in agricultural pur-
suits, Lewis proposed an end to
British monopoly in trading and turn-
ing towards American markets, even-
tual self-government and a future in
industrialization to escape depend-
ence on agriculture. On the matter of
the peasantry and the land, both
Lewis and the Commission were criti-
cal of the distribution of wealth and
the land in favour of a small white
oligarchy. Their positions on taxation
and industrial relations also coin-
cided, agreeing that the right to
strike and to peaceful picketing
should be extended to West Indian
workers. On the matter of constitu-
tional reform, there were major dif-
ferences. To Lewis the major problem
was the inadequacy of the constitu-
tional machinery and his solution
was the extension of the franchise by


removing property and income
qualifications for membership of the
legislative council his proposal
came close to self-government. The
Commission however was against
universal adult suffrage, federation
and certainly self-government.
Percy C. Hintzen in the final chap-
ter deals with "Arthur Lewis and the
development of middle class ideol-
ogy." In formulating his ideas, Lewis
questioned the non-emergence of a
middle class or mass consumption
sector in the lesser developed
countries whereas in the metropole
at the time, such a class was being
created out of a "social and
democratic alliance between
capitalists and workers." The cause
was identified as being related to the
unlimited supply of labour which
under colonialism tended to result in
constrained development.
Lewis saw his role as having to
formulate strategies for such a trans-
formation in the lesser developed
countries but his biggest hindrance
was in the colonial system. His
proposal therefore had to include
breaking the colonial hold on the
LDCs. He felt it was right for the
state to organize industries but the
lack of middle class skills would be a
problem. His ideas for the political
and economic development of Africa
with its tribal and religious problems,
hinged heavily on the presence of an
educated middle class to put in place
the "consociational democracy" he
proposed. This would result in a lot
of power and authority for the
bureaucrats and professionals at na-
tional and local levels. Hintzen sees
Lewis as one of the foremost
ideologists in the lesser developed
countries his ideas having con-
tributed much to the increased mid-
dle class political power in those
areas although that class has not yet
formulated institutions to counter
"the onslaught of international capi-
tal." The answer lies in state domina-
tion of the economy. Hintzen
questions the future of the middle
class and how the interests of the
labouring class will be served.
The chapters in the second sec-
tion do not flow as logically as those
in section 1. They are all followed by
notes and a fine bibliography.
Premdas' notes consists of 66 num-
continued on page 28


,bb~ar.n e< \iew o B Cks ~ aribbean Review of Books Cadbbean Revlew oflooks







Ii3MwVHGW Tff LR3fIM


Myth and History in Caribbean
Fiction, Barbara Webb, Amherst,
University of Massachusetts Press,
1992, 176 pages. (forthcoming)


by J. Michael Dash


Barnes' Flaubert's Parrot
provokingly suggests that a
quota system should be in-
troduced for fiction set in South
America in order to curb what he
calls "package tour baroque". He
fears that what was once unique to
South American novels is now
spreading to encompass all prose fic-
tion. Opera houses overgrown by the
jungle, levitating virgins, exotic
tyrants, risk becom-
ing the stock in
trade of commer-
ciallsed fantasy, a
kind of tropicalised
Gothic style. Be-
hind this joke is the
reality that
'marvellous realism'
has indeed emerged
as an international-
ly accepted style
whose practitioners
are as diverse as
Salman Rushdie,
Thomas Pynchon Jonkannu by
and Angela Carter.
In Myth and His-
tory in Caribbean Fiction Barbara
Webb does not share the same
frivolous concerns as Bares'
protagonist. She focuses on the
original and serious use of fantasy
by some of the most demanding
novelists from the Caribbean. Alejo
Carpentier, Wilson Harris and
Edouard Glissant all use fantasy as
an imaginative tool in order to ex-
plore their various societies. It is no
coincidence that this intensely ex-
perimental writing should emerge in
societies where material disposses-
sion is extreme and where the artists
must look beyond documentary
realism as a means of explaining
complex and elusive social and politi-
cal phenomena.
In focusing on the Caribbean
dimensions of Marvellous Realism
and in her use of a pan-Caribbean
perspective, Barbara Webb has writ-


ten a study which, whatever its
flaws, is destined to be an Important
contribution to literary scholarship
in the region. In this shift from a nar-
row linguistic insularity to a broad,
regional intertextuality Webb
demonstrates the limitations of such
traditional critical approaches to
Caribbean literature as Common-
wealth or Francophonle. Putting
together novelists from Martinique.
Guyana and Cuba, Webb illustrates
the importance of the comparative
regional model. She has also chosen
writers who themselves are aware of
operating in not only a pan-Carib-
bean context but more broadly
within a New World aesthetic. To
treat these writers in particular in
any other fashion would be to deny


Vern


or falsify the nature of their sen-
sibility.
All three novelists are equally im-
portant as theorists and all three
share similar concerns. They are all
dissatisfied with traditional models
for explaining the Caribbean and in-
sist on the hybrid and cross-cultural
nature of the region's culture. Webb
concentrates on one vital area of
their concerns the question of his-
tory. Harris, Carpentier and Glissant
are not simply worried that Carib-
bean history is traditionally
Eurocentric. The radical nature of
their scepticism makes them ques-
tion the very nature of the historical
method. Not only is this method
ruthlessly selective, it also is built
around a linear evolutionary pattern.
Such a model falsifies the true na-
ture of Caribbean history which is
constituted from an intricate branch-
ing, diverse arbitrary contacts which


do not yield to traditional historical
method. Derek Walcott, who is not
treated in this work but whose ideas
hover over Webb's text, put it neatly
when he declared "Sea is history".
Similarly Edouard Glissant insists
on the elusive complexity of the
Caribbean when he states "... les his-
toires 16zardent l'Histoire" (History is
fissured by histories/stories).
Webb's hypothesis is that these
writers reject history for myth. Her
study consequently tends to polarise
folk and intellectual, oral and writ-
ten, irrational and rational. These bi-
nary opposition can lead to
simplifications about the ideas that
concern her. It is far more useful to
recognize that these writers are
driven by a radical scepticism, an in-
tense sense of irony that
could only be described
Sas Modernist. Webb, how-
ever, tends to disregard
the Modernist context for
this writing. She is
drawn rather to an unil-
luminating suspicion
that is seen in the quota-
tion she uses from Gor-
don Rohlehr "modernist
aesthetics ... highlights
the alienation of the in-
dividual ... lost in a
universe of open pos-
sibilities." For Rohlehr all
modernism is reduced to
the bleak premonitions of
Sartrean Existentialism.
The lack of a context and any dis-
cussion of Modernist poetics is a
weakness from which this study
never quite recovers. Her first chap-
ter treats Marvellous Realism in the
Caribbean. Here there is a detailed
expose of the ideas of the Haitian
novelist Jacques Stephen Alexis. The
question then arises as to why he
was not chosen as one of the
novelists discussed. Alexis' ideas
while original for 1956 clearly were
the start of an aesthetic theory
which he never lived to complete. In
this chapter he is joined by Carpen-
tier and Harris. However, Webb's
treatment of these writers is too
timid and respectful to produce radi-
cally new insights into their work.
The same tentative approach is a
distinct drawback in the following
chapters which are dominated by
continued on page 18


No. 5, August 1992


-----------------
..0111110ow- ---






No. 5, August 1992


l.o NoTo E* RoVa Ie E W


In April of this year Edouard Glissant
briefly visited the Mona campus, UWI.
In the midst of his hectic schedule he
found the time to be interviewed by
Michael Dash.
M.D. This is not your first visit to
Kingston. Do you have any memories
of your stay in 1976 during the
Carifesta celebrations?
E.G. Carifesta in Kingston was
wonderful. There were theatre
groups, orchestras from all over the
Caribbean. It was an extraordinary
encounter. I travelled around a bit;
to Montego Bay, everywhere in the
Caribbean there are Montego Bays. I
also crossed the mountains of
Jamaica which are magnificent.
What I realized was that ultimately
each Caribbean island is different
and each one is related to the others.
When you are in Jamaica you think
of the Haitian landscape or that of
the North of Martinique. And yet
there is a small difference or a great
peculiarity to each island. You
realise that all the islands have some-
thing to do with each other and each
has its own specific
nature. I think that
is the vital feature
we must bear in
mind.
M.D. Can you say
something about
the relationship be-
tween landscape
and creative writing
in the Caribbean?
E.G. This can be ap-
proached in
everyday terms.
When I am in Mar-
tinique I see how
the Martiniquan
population whose JAMAICA SEA
houses were tradi-
tionally on the lowland and not on
the hillsides, has begun little by little
to realise that you can build houses
on the hill tops, traditionally
restricted to the b&kes, that is the
white colonials. You see how the Mar-
tiniquan people has begun to tame
the hill tops, to place houses on
them, to cease being afraid of the
wi


nd and so on. You can trace the his-
tory of the land through this transfor-
mation of habitat, of the way of
siting houses. It is not true that
today it is only people who ar well off
who build on hilltops. It was true at
the beginning of the century but is
no longer so. Everyone begins to see
that you can spread over the entire
landscape and not only remain on
the lowlands and therefore the
landscape has been transformed and
become familiar progressively with
the growth of the collective con-
sciousness. Now people have a sense
of the landscape which is no longer
silent space for us. This can be seen
in the fact that Martiniquans have
become extremely conscious of their
environment, that is they are con-
cerned about the invasion of cars, of
cement, of concrete. Martiniquan
politicians continue to be blind to
this but the people are not blind to
their countryside. They now know
that it forms part of their lives, of
their sensibility and that it is not
merely decor. I feel that shapes our
own vision of literature. Literature is


-.--




SIDE by Judith Salmon

not only the expression of our ideas,
or of our struggles, or of our political
evolution etc. Literature is the ex-
pression of a sensibility which is
ours and which has a long history
and which immediately forms part of
our modernity. Literature not only
reveals the preoccupations of a com-
munity, the struggles against aliena-


tion, against ignorance but also the
joy of being in the world, a kind of
pleasure from being in one's own
country. Therefore, the fight to
defend one's own country is not
simply a moral struggle, it is the
struggle of pleasure against the ab-
sence of pleasure. I think a literature
written from this perspective comes
up with forms which one would hard-
ly imagine otherwise. For instance it
shows that the opposition between
heights and hollows, hill and plain,
shapes a new way of telling stories
which did not exist when one was
not aware of this kind of force in the
landscape.
M.D. Does the sea have a special sig-
nificance?
E.G. First we must not forget where
we came from, we cannot forget the
Middle Passage. Not I alone, all
Caribbean writers for instance
Derek Walcott said "Sea is history" -
approach the sea as the place which
we furrowed with the suffering of the
Middle Passage. One image is par-
ticularly striking, it comes from
when the slaves
ships, while being
chased, threw over-
board the Africans
weighted down with
lead so that they
would not be found
on board. Each time I
i- cross the Atlantic I
S- S .. cannot help thinking
of those bodies on the
ocean floor, skeletons,
' scattered bones with
Their lead weights.
-- And I say to myself
our unconscious sure-
ly manifests itself in a
concrete way. What
does the beach mean,
the shoreline? Firstly,
the place where we were offloaded
and one with no association of
pleasure. Secondly, it is the place to
which the tourist comes but the
tourist never sees the tragic side of
this offloading of the bodies of our
ancestors on these beaches. Each
time I see a beach in the Caribbean,
my mind goes back to their disem
continued overleaf


*- -" RevL.. ', .- ,'- (- Caribbean Review of Books CAdbbean Irvew of Bood






Lff wflwro (9)1 xBOIiS
MYTH and HISTORY, continued from page 16
long, detailed plot summaries of the
novels selected. One also is never
quite sure why one novel Is selected
instead of another. Sometimes, selec-
tion is made according to a pattern
of images e.g. the spiral or a recur-
ring figure e.g. the maroon. This
does not, however, allow for a full
discussion of such issues as "The
Folk Imagination" or "The Quest for
Origins" or "The Poetics of Identity".
In her desire to keep theory and fic-
tion separate, Webb has no discus-
sion of ideas after the first chapter.
This means that critical comment on


EDOUARD GUSSANT, continued from page 17


Glissant in particular is limited since
he never associated himself with
Marvellous Realism despite some
overlapping in ideas.
Ideally a book on these issues
and these writers should be bold
and tough and not bland and admir-
ing. Perhaps, the publisher saw it as
an introduction to some unknown
Caribbean novelists which would ex-
plain the book's tentativeness. Pre-
dictably, the conclusion has a rather
general and evangelising sweep to it.
Writers who were never particularly
pan-Caribbean as Aime Cesaire, are


included in Webb's literary pantheon
as she envisages a new dawn of "cul-
tural dialogue among the peoples of
the Caribbean". Webb's intuition is
right, her perspective impeccable,
her choice of novelists laudable. It is
a pity that her own critical appraisal
of the most important voices in
Caribbean literature was not more
self-assured and adventurous.

J. Michael Dash is Reader in and Head of
the Department of French, UWI, Mona


barkation and I sense the two stories
that the beach tells. Finally, the
beach is the place of arrival but it is
also the place of departure. There is
yet a third dimension to the
coastline, to the shores of our is-
lands. It Is the place from which I
can see St. Lucia and so the beach
becomes for me the very symbol of
our openness and our solidarity. It is
the place from which we can signal
to each other and therefore, the
beach is not simply a vacation spot
but space charged with meaning.
M.D. But in the past the sea had
negative associations. With you there
is a revaluation of the sea, another
way of seeing...
E.G. Because the sea is our uncon-
scious, that which is deep within us
and with which we have not yet come
to terms. Because when we are filled
with anger against those who op-
press us, we are still in a way de-
pendent on them. I feel that once we
have come to terms with all of the
sea, that is our entire unconscious:
once we have explored it, that is
known what is in it, what has been
thrown there and belongs to us, then
we will all begin, we Caribbean
people, to understand our relation-
ship with the other and to conceive
of our identity as composed of ele-
ments coming from all directions.
M.D. This brings to mind your image
of the banyan tree, quoted by Derek
Walcott in Another Life. Perhaps, you
can say something about the relation-
ship between your work and that of
other Caribbean writers.


E.G. My relationship with Derek Wal-
cott is obvious. Kamau Brathwaite
also from the point of view of the
problematic of language. Walcott is
not a theorist of language but Brath-
waite is. Also from the point of view
of history, the impossible nature of
history, its discontinuity in the Carib-
bean, Walcott, Carpentier and I have
something in common and what is in-
teresting is that we never consulted
each other because the works were
written separately. It is only after-
wards that we met each other, I feel
that the issue of history and time is
our shared point of departure. For in-
stance, Carpentier's Explosion in a
Cathedral and The Lost Steps are
profound meditations on the discon-
tinuity of time, on the futility of going
back in time, of reconstructing his-
tory. And I. not only in my novels but
in poems and theoretical works, have
worked a lot on these issues, on our
exploded histories. I think it is impor-
tant because it has permitted us to
revise the conception of history
which was imposed on us. History
with a capital "H". a linear history
promoted by the West and which
would lead us all towards a kind of
transparent model of humanity. I
think we have completely broken this
model and seen that history with a
capital "H" is dead, finished. The con-
vergence of the history of all people
today on the earth pushes us
towards new conceptions of history
which are no longer monolithic and
linear, which no longer have a pur-
pose or final goal. We are faced with
the great adventure of the juxtaposi-
tion of all histories coming together


today but none of which is valued
more highly than any other.
M.D. I would like you to talk about
the links in the Forties with moder-
nism in the francophone and
hispanophone Caribbean. Issues
raised in 1941 in Martinique and
1946 in Haiti, emerged much later in
the anglophone islands.
E.G. I believe that the advantage of
the francophone Caribbean in this
regard is perhaps due to its lack of
political development. I remember
something very striking that the
Cubans have always said to me.
They have always said that you
people from the francophone Carib-
bean are sharper because you are
the most vulnerable. In fact, there
has been an outward movement
from the Caribbean to the world out-
side. There was Padmore who was al-
most the chief theoretician of Ghana:
Fanon in Algeria: Cesaire whose
work inspired all Africa. There is a
tendency to go towards the other but
in the internal reorganisation of the
Caribbean. which is something that
negritude did not take into account,
the anglophone islands were very cut
off. Firstly, because they very quickly
gained a kind of internal autonomy.
These islands became nations or at
any rate responsible communities. I
think that this advantage on the
political level brought about in the
anglophone countries a kind of
placidity. They saw that they were
responsible for themselves while
others struggled with terrifying
problems. Perhaps. that which was a
political advantage became a disad-


No. 5, August 1992







No. 5, August 1992


vantage in the debate with modernity
in our cultures. It is because we felt
threatened in Martinique,
Guadaloupe and French Guyana that
we sought out new directions which
were not the traditional ones of politi-
cal struggle, the creation of national
assemblies, choosing Prime Ministers
etc. We looked elsewhere how could
the world help us, how could we un-
derstand the modern world, what
would be our contribution, what
changes could we make etc.
Moreover, we met intellectuals like
Breton, Levi Strauss, the
modem painters Masson, Max
Emist and so on. That created
a shock. For instance, in my
youth, after exhausting the
classics of French literature, I
was deep in the study of
Lautreamont, Rimbaud,
Breton, the Surrealists, dream
and action, reality and the im-
agination etc. All that helped
us enormously. For example,
Carpentier launched a theory
of Marvellous Realism. Alexis
did the same in Haiti. It is cer-
tain that the Surrealists' in-
fluence was central to these
ideas. Interestingly, Breton was
in revolt against classicism,
western tradition and so we
were plunged deeply into
modernism. That is the social, politi-
cal and economic advantages of the
anglophone islands prevented them
from entering in the whole debate
surrounding modernism. That is one
of the basic reasons, I believe. The
other is perhaps the barrier that has
always existed between the
anglophone islands and the
hispanophone and francophone
ones. Paris was a place, a
crossroads, where one could meet
Guillen, Carpentier, Retamar and so
on. In London West Indians met only
anglophone Africans and not the rest
of the Caribbean. It is only at
Presence Africaine that I began to
meet people like George Lamming. I
could not meet them in London. So
there was a kind of sealed barrier
separating the anglophone Caribbean
on the one hand from the fran-
cophone and hispanophone islands
on the other hand. What we must do
now is break down these barriers,
the linguistic divisions, the mental
barriers, those imposed by the state
so that we could now meet not in


Paris or elsewhere but in the Carib-
bean, like now in Kingston.
M.D.Your last book of essays
Poetique de la Relation (A Poetics of
Relating) is a global vision of the
world's cultural diversity. Can you
tell us about this work?
E.G. That is difficult because the
book's aim is so wide-ranging and is-
sues are handled in a somewhat
chaotic fashion. You see I believe
that up to now the world had been
controlled be the Western vision of
history, of time which was that we


were all moving towards a kind of ul-
timate perfection of humanism and
Western rationality. We can now see
that this is not the case, that
Western humanism can lead to mas-
sive disorder and also that many
civilisations which were not on the
great world scene, as Cesaire once
said, are now there and we can be in
contact with them. We finally have
realized that the West had always
proposed to us models for identity
which I classify as 'single-root-
identity'. We also see the damage
caused by this notion of identity.
Fundamentalism, ultra-nationalism,
forms of racism etc., are all
phenomena promoted by this concep-
tion of 'single-root-identity'. One of
the great catastrophes of decolonisa-
tion is that it was based on that
model. Each one of the countries
from Africa, Asia, America which be-
came liberated immediately sought to
become a world power. The tiniest
Caribbean island wants to behave
like a world power, because
decolonisation was based on that


model handed down to us, the model
of 'single-root-identity'. I think that
we face now a'chaos-world' which is
chaos because everything rushes
towards us at the same time, chaos
because the model imposed on us
ends up in disorder ecological disor-
der, the failure of Western faith in
science, the disorder of kinds of
nationalism, forms of intolerance. I
feel that what we must propose and
practice is a cross-culture identity
not single-root-identity. We must be
capable of understanding that a part
of the other is a part of me, not
all of me, if so I would be
alienated, I would be inex-
tricable from the other, but simp-
ly a part. I must be able to
devise a dialectical process in
relation to myself in relation to
the other and what I call identity
in terms of relating. If we do
not fight for this we are lost. For
instance, Caribbean people in
Europe, if we hold on to single-
root-identity, we do not have a
chance. They are crushed be-
tween the single-root-identity of
the Jamaican or Martiniquan
and the single-root-identity of
the English or the French. Mem-
bers of the second generation of
immigrants are shattered be-
cause they continue to think in
those terms. But were we to change
imaginatively and conceptually and
impose the notion of identity in
terms of relating, then the immigrant
no longer has an inferior status. He
is in a cross-cultural state. He is the
one who establishes the relation be-
tween the European side and the
Caribbean side of his composite self.
But that is a real struggle because
we must convince people that it is
not because they are in another
country that they are lost since they
can no longer belong to their own
country or to their host country. On
the contrary, you create a new pat-
tern of relationships. You enrich the
human dimension with another one.
we must fight for that idea and that
will be our only means of changing
the mental panorama, the field of
sensitivity in the world today.
M.D. I want to thank you for this in-
terview. I hope your visit represents
the beginning of a relationship be-
tween the anglophone and fran-
cophone Caribbean.


( :: ? a.`l. :: Bo~:,-. Caribbean Review of Books CiAhbben Review of 1Books


De-s d& Cer Pcni









QK Kr A.*::.
1 iI< I I ~i i i
1m: 1L (1 ^ m
J J ..






(If you wish to review any of these books write to the editor)


NOTE: Prices indicated are obtained from
sources available to the editor and may not
be up-to-date. They should be used as es-
timated costs rather than definitive indica-
tions.

From the West Indies Law
Indexing Project

Compiled at the Faculty of Law Library,
University of the West Indies, Cave Hill,
Barbados. Published by Wm. W. Gaunt &
Sons inc., Gaunt Bldg., 3011 Gulf Drive,
Holmes Beach, FL 34217-2199.
Guyana: Consolidated Index of
Statutes and Subsldary Legislation to
1st January 1991. 1991. xiv, 116pp.

Montserrat: Consolidated Index of
Statutes and Subsidary Legislation to
IstJanuary 1991. 1991. x, 80pp.
Available from the Publisher or the
Faculty of Law Library, University of
the West Indies, P.O.Box 64,
Bridgetown. Barbados.


Adjusting Privatization: Case Studies
from Developing Countries. by Chris-
topher Adam. William Cavendish and
Percy S. Mistry. London, James Cur-
rey, Portsmouth, N.H.. Heinemann,
Kingston, lan Randle. 1992. xtv. 400
pp. James Currey: Cloth 0-85255-
132-0 35.00, Paper 0-85255-133-9
16.95, Heinemann: 0-435-08068-7,
lan Randle: 976-8100-15-X. The case
studies presented in Part I (Part I
pp.1-103, gives an overview of
privatization in five chapters) ex-
amines Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago,
Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri
Lanka, Kenya and Malawi.


Archaeological and Historical Perspec-
tives on the Spanish Borderlands East.
ed. by David Hurst Thomas.
Washington, DC., Smithsonian In-
stitution Press, 1992. 586pp. (Colum-
bian Consequences vol.2) 087474-390-7
US$60.00
.......................................


.......................................

The Art of Derek Walcott. ed. by
Stewart Brown. Seren Books/ Dufour
Editions, 1991. 231pp. 0-8023-1290-
X US$35.00


Back to the Brink- Proceedings of the
Moscow Conference on the Cuban Mis-
sile Crisis, 1989. ed by Bruce J. Allyn.
Cambridge, Mass., Univ. Press of
America, 1992. 223pp. (CSIA Occ.
Papers, no.9) 0-8191-7923-X
US$33.50


Beautiful Senoritas and other Plays. by
Delores Prida. ed by Judith Weiss.
Houston TX, Arte Publico Press, 1991.
180pp. 1-558-85026-0
........... ............3.....

Between the Islands: Dominican Inter-
national Migration. by Sherri Gras-
muck and Patricia R. Pessar. Berkeley,
University of California Press, 1991.
xviii, 247 pp. 0-520-07149-2 hdc
US$40.00 0-520-07150-6 pbk.


Black Ordeal of Slavery and Slave
Trading in the French West Indies,
1625-1715: by Clarence J. Munford.
Edwin Mellon Press. vol. 1: Slave Trad-
ing in Africa.1991. xxii, 270pp. 0-
7734-9741-2 US$59.95. vol. 3:
Culture, Terror and Resistance. 1991.
xxii, 270pp. 0-7734-9433-2 US$79.95


Capitalism in Colonial Puerto Rico:
Central San Vicente in the Late
Nineteenth Century. Univ. Presses of
Florida, 1992. 189pp. (Univ. of Florida
Monographs, No. 78) 0-8130-1110-8
US$27.95.


The Caribbean Artists Movement,
1966-1972: A Literary and Cutural His-
tory. by Anne Walmsley. London, New
Beacon Books, 1992. 376 pp. ill.
1873201-01-X 35.00 (hdc) 1873201-
06-0 14.95 (pbk) (New Beacon Books,


76. Stroud Green Road, London N4
3EN)


Caribbean Students in Canadian
Schools. Book 2. by Elizabeth Coelho in
collaboration with the Caribbean Stu-
dent Resource Book Committee.
Markham, Ont., Pippin Publishing
Ltd., 1991. 212pp. 0-88751-031-0
Book 1 of this two-part resource book
for teachers was published in 1988.
publisher's address: 150, Telson Road,
Markham, Ont., L3R 1E5


Claude McKay: A Black Poet's Struggle
for Identity. by Tyrone Tillery. Univ. of
Massachusetts Press, 1992. 235pp. 0-
87023-762-4 US$24.95.
.....................................

Colonialism and Science: Saint Domin-
go in the Old Regime. by James E.
McClellan. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Univ. Press, 1992. 393pp. 0-8018-
4270-0 US$52.00


Colony and Nation: A Short History of
Education in Trinidad and Tobago. by
Carl Campbell. Kingston, Ian Randle,
1992. 112pp. ill. 976-8100-05-2
US$22.00 J$550.00.


Columbus in Italy: An Italian Versifica-
tion of the Letter on the Dioscovery of
the New World. Introduced and tr. by
Martin Davies. London, The British
Library, 1991. 56pp. 0-7123-0263-8
12.00 (includes facsimile text in two
colours of the poem by the Florentine
priest Gulliano Dati)


Confronting Columbus: An Anthology.
ed. by John Yewell. McFarland,
1992.217pp. 0-89950-696-8
US$24.95


A Continent of Islands: Searching for
the Caribbean Destiny. by Kark Kur


No. 5, August 1992







No. 5, August 1992


lansky. Addison Wesley, 1992.
324pp. 0-201-52396-5 US$22.07


Cuba: A Different America. ed by
Wilbur A. Chaffee. Rowman & Lit-
tlefield, 1992.192pp. 0-8476-7694-
3 US$17.95 (reprint with new
epilogue by Gary Prevost of title first
published in 1989)


Cuba in Transition: Crisis and
Transformation. ed by Sandor
Halebsky. Westview Press, 1992.
244pp. 0-8133-8094-4 US$54.95
(Latin American Perspectives
Series, no. 9) (papers from a con-
ference of 1989)


Cuban Studies, vol. 21. ed by L. A.
Prez. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press/Cor-
nell Univ. Press, 1991. 315pp. (Pitt
Latin American Series) 0-8229-
3691-7 US$39.95


Cuban Women Confront the Future:
Three Decades after the Revolution. by
Vilma Espin, ed. by Deborah
Shnookal. Ocean Press, Australia/Tal-
man Co., 1991. 78pp. 1-87528-423-0
US$9.95


The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief
Account. by Bartholome de las Casas,
tr. by Herma Briffault. Baltimore,
Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992.
138pp. 0-8018-4430-4 US$11.95
(This is a reissue, with a new introduc-
tion, of the title first published in 1974)


Dominican Sugar Plantations: Produc-
tion and Foreign Labor Integration. by
Martin F. Murphy. Westport, CT.,
Praeger/ Greenwood, 1991. 186pp. 0-
275-93113-7 US$ 49.95.


Earliest Hispanic/Native American In-
teractions in the Caribbrean. ed with an
Introduction by William F. Keegan.
New York, Garland Publishing Inc.,
1991. xlvi, 383pp. 0-8240-1952-0 hdc.
US$60.00 (vol. 13 in the publisher's
series Spanish Borderlands Source
Books) Source material collected in
this volume presented in four sections
entitled Caribbean cultures at contact,
Caribbean ethno-history, Historical
demography and Consequences of
contact.
......................................


The Early Spanish Main. by Carl
Ortwin Sauer. Univ. of California
Press, 1992. 306pp. (first published
1966) 0-520-01125-2 US$40.00


Environmental Laws of the Common-
wealth Caribbean. Bridgetown, Bar-
bados, Caribbean Law Institue, 1991.
525pp. Caribbean price for the
Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Ber-
muda, Cayman Islands, and Turks
and Caicos Islands- US$50 plus
postage, for the other Caribbean
countries- Bds.$65 plus postage,
others US$ 50 plus postage. Address:
Caribbean Law Institute, Flat 4, CMRS
Building, Univ. of the West Indies,
P.O.Box 64, Bridgetown, Barbados.


Escribir en Cuba: Entrevistas con
Escritores Cubanos, 1979-1989. Edit.
Universitaria, Puerto Rico. 1991.
387pp. 0-8477-3661-X US$12.95.


Essays on Cuban Music: North
American and Cuban Perspectives. ed.
by Peter Manuel. Univ. Presses of
America, 1991. 327pp. 0-8191-8430-6
US$39.50
..S....................................

Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of
the Cuban Missile Crisis. by Dino A.
Brugioni, ed by Robert F. McCort. Ran-
dom House, 1991. 622pp. 0-679-
40523-2 US$34.50.
......U................................

A Fountain, a House of Stone: Poems,
a bilingual edition. by Huberto Padilla.


tr. from the Spanish by Alastair Reid.
New York, Ferrar Strauss and Giroux,
1991. 109pp. 0-374-15781-2 US$
19.95.


From Commoner to King: Robert Brad-
shaw, Crusaderfor Dignity and Justice
in the Caribbean. by Whitman T.
Browne. Univ. Press of America, 1992.
425pp. 0-8191-8443-8. US$43.50


A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and
Tobago. by Richard Efrench. 2nd ed.
Comstock, Comell Univ. Press, 1991.
426pp. 0-8014-2567-0 US$72-50


Haiti: Guide to the Periodical Literature
in English, 1800-1990. by Frantz Pratt.
Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1991.
310pp. 0-313-27855-5 US$45.00
(Bibliographies and Indexes in Latin
American and Caribbean Studeis,
No.1)


Haiti, Failure of Politics. by Brian
Weinstein. Praeger/ Greenwood Press,
1992. 203pp. 0-275-93172-2
US$45.00


Housing Conditions in Barbados: A
Geographical Analysis. by Robert Pot-
ter. Kingston, Institute of Social and
Economic Research, Univ. of the West
Indies, 1992. 976-40-0040-1
US$15.00


Hummingbirds of the Caribbean. Text
by Esther Quesada Tyrrell,
photographs by Robert A. Tyrrell. New
York, Crown Publishers, 1990.
238pp.ill. 0-517-57368-7. US$ 40.00
(postage additional)
Their earlier (1985) volume Hum-
mingbirds, Their Life and Behaviour: A
Photographic study of the North
American Species. is also still available
US$ 35.00 (postage additional)
Address: Robert A. Tyrrell, P.O.Box
5926, El Monte, CA 91734-1926, USA.
U.........................*............

Industrial Reform in Socialist
Countries: From Restructuring to
Revolution. ed by Ian Jeffries. Edward
Elgar/Ashgate Publ. Co., 1992. 294pp.
1-85278-380-X US$64.95 (Cuba is
one of the countries discussed)
....................................

Isaac Dookhan, A Scholar's Life and
Works. by Marylyn F. Krigger. Univ. of


i .$.e:: R. :I-," Bosak:: Caribbean Review of Books Cdbban Review of Books







owvftew (fD IBaxDks


the Virgin Islands, 1992. 39pp. (a spe-
cial issue of Caribbean Perspectives,
annual publication of the Univ. of the
Virgin Islands) US$5.00


Jews in Another Environment: Surinam
in the Second Half of the Eighteenth
Century. by Robert Cohen. Amster-
dam, E. J. Brill, 1991. 350pp. 90-04-
09373-7 US$76.95 (Brill's Series in
Jewish Studies, vol. 1)


Jumping Ship and Other Stories. by
Kelvin Christopher James. Villard
Books, London, Random House, 1992.
226pp. 0-679-41183-6 US$19.50
(Trinidad and Tobago author)


Kaligrafiando: Conversaciones con Cle-
mente Soto Velez. by Marithelma
Costa. Puerto Rico, Editorial Univer-
slataria, 1990. 157pp. 0-8477-3238-X
US$ 7.95


Letters on West Africa and the Slave
Trade: Paul Erdman Isert's Journey ...
to Columbia, 1788. ed. and tr. from the
German by Selena Axelrod Winsnes.
New York. Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.
278pp. 0-19-726105-1 US$63.00


Luz y Sombra. by Ana Roque. ed. by
L.Paravisini-Gebert. Puerto Rico, Inst.
Cultural Puertorriquena/Editorial
Universitaria, 1991. 174pp 0-8477-
3648-2 US$8.50 ( Colleccion Puertor-
riquena-3)


La Noche Oscura del Nino Avilles. by
Edgardo Rodriquez Julia. Puerto Rico,
Editorial Unlversitaria. 1991. 428pp.
0-8477-3664-4.


The Meaning of Freedom: Economics
Politics and Culture after Slavery. ed.
by Frank McGlynn. Pittsburgh, Univ.
of Pittsburgh Press. 1992. 333pp.(Pitt
Latin American Series) 0-8229-3695-X
US$44.95



Papiros de Babel: Antologia de la
Poesia Puertorriquena en Nueva York.
ed by Pedro Lopez-Adorno. Puerto
Rico, Editorial Universtaria, 1991.
509pp. 0-8477-3237-1 US$ 23.85.
.......................................


A Passage to England. Barbadian Lon-
donors Speak of Home. by John
Western. Minneapolis, Univ. of Min-
nesota Press, 1992. xxii, 314pp.
US$39.95


Salsiology: Afro-Cuban Music and the
Evolution of Salsa in New York City.
Greenwood Press, 1992. 386pp. 0-
313-28468-7


Shrimp Culture in North America and
the Caribbean. ed. by P. A. Sandifar.
Baton Rouge, IA, World Aquaculture
Society, 1991. 235pp. ill. (vol.4 of the
publisher's series Advances in World
Aquaculture). Proceedings of a sym-
posium held in Los Angeles in 1989,
reviewing the history and current
status of shrimp farming activities in
the region. US$ 45.00 (+$5.00 for


postage and handling) from World
Aquaculture Society, WAS Books, 143
J.M.Parker Clolseum, Louisiana State
University. Baton Rouge, LA 70803,
USA.


Small Country Development and Inter-
national Labour Flows: Experiences in
the Caribbean. ed. by A. P. Maingot.
Boulder, CO.. Westview Press, 1991.
266pp. 0-8133-8341-2. US$46.50.
(Series on Development and Interna-
tional Migration in Mexico, Central
America and the Caribbean Basin, vol.
5)
333333 . 333333333333333


Social Welfare in Socialist Countries.
ed.by John Dixon. London, Routledge,
Chapman Hall, 1992.260pp. 0-415-
07150-X US$67.50 (Cuba is one of the
countries examined.)


Society and Politics in the Caribbean.
ed. by Colin Clarke. New York, St.
Martin's Press, 1991. 295pp. 0312-
06583-3 US$65.00


Status and Potential of Aquaculture in
the Caribbean. ed. by J. A. Hargreaves
and D. E. Alston. 1991. 274pp. ill. (vol.
5 of the publisher's series Advances in
World Aquaculture)
Ten invited papers and discussion ses-
sions that followed each presentation
at a workshop held in St.Thomas, U.S.
Virgin Islands in November 1988. US$
45.00 (+5.00 for postage and handling)
from the publisher. for address see
above under Shrimp Culture...


Status of Research/Development on
Tropical and Subtropical Fruits in
Central Anerica. by Gerard Barbeau.
(extract from an original document
published in 1989. tr. from the French
by Sandra Toussaint and Antonio M.
Pinchinat) Port of Spain, IICA Office in
TRinidad and Tobago, 1992. 12pp.
(Miscellaneous Publications Series,
A2/Tr-92-01. ISSN 0534-5391) Al-
though this is outside CRB's strict
geographical area it is included here for
two reasons, first as it is from the Port
of Spain Office of the Inter-American
Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture
(IICA, 155-157, Tragarete Rd.,
Woodbrook, Port of Spain. Trinidad
and Tobago under the IICA Project for
Supporting the Development of Tropi-
cal Fruit Crops in the Caribbean.
Secondly it is the kind of work from our
neighboring countries in Central and
South America that need to become
more readily available for use in our
Region, a need articulated in the very
title of a second project from which this
publication received further support,
Project for Facilitating Latin-
American/ Caribbean Linkage and
Transfer of Technology for Agricultural
Development.
.......................................

Stedman's Surinam: Life in an
Eighteenth-century Slave Society. by
John Gabriel Stedman. ed. by Richard
Price. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ.


No. 5, August 1992


a 0







No. 5, August 1992


Press, 1992. Ixxv, 350pp. 0-8018-
4259-X US$60.00 Abridged version of
the Narrative of a Five Yaers Expedition
Against the Revolted Negros of
Surinam.


The Suffering Grass: Superpowers and
Regional Conflict in Southern Africa
and the Caribbean. ed by Thomas G.
Weiss. Boulder, and London, Lynne
Rienner, 1992. 182pp. 1-55587-276-X
US$30.00


The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the
People Who Greeted Columbus. by Ir-
ving Rouse. Yale Univ. Press, 1992.
211pp. 0-300-05181-6. US$25.00


TaxReform In the Caribbean. ed by Karl
Theodore. Kingston, Institute of Social
and Economic Research, Univ. of the
West Indies, 1992. 976-40-0030-40
US$15.00



Time for Action: Report of the West
Indian Commission. Black Rock, Bar-


bados, The Commission, 1992. xxvlii,
592pp. 976-8104-18-X
.......................................

El Tramo Ancla: Ensayos Puertorri-
quenos de Hoy. 2nd ed. ed.by Ana
Lydia Vega. Univ. of Puerto Rico Press,
1991. xl, 305pp. 0-8477-3649-0
US$10.50


Work and Democracy in Socialist Cuba.
by Linda Fuller. Philadelphia, Temple
Univ. Press, 1992. XX, 274pp. 0-
87722-893-0 US$44.95.


Writers of the Caribbean and Central
America: A Bibliography. 2 vols. by M.
J. Fenwick. Garland, 1992.
756pp.(Garland Reference Library of
the Humanities) 0-8240-4010-4
US$115.00


Writing in Limbo: Modernism and
Caribbean Literaure. by Simon Gikan-
di. Comell Univ. Press, 1992. 260pp.
0-8014-2575-1 US$36.95
..... A..A .............. M ......... ...


New Journals
NACOLAIS Newsletter. vol. 1, no.1
(January 1992). ISSN 1019-0279
edited by Sheila Lampart (Executive
Director, NACOLAIS) and published by
the National Council on Libraries, Ar-
chives and Information Systems
(NACOLAIS), Office of the Prime Mini-
ster, 1 Devon Road, Kingston 10,
Jamaica. Annual Subscription $15.00


INCARD Bibliography. 1992. (February
1992) Produced by the Caribbean Net-
work for Integrated Rural Develop-
ment (CNIRD), 40, Eastern Main Road,
St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
The acronym in the title of this publi-
cation stands for the Information Net-
work for Caribbean Rural
Development described in the Intro-
duction to this first issue as "one of the
main projects evolving out of the
regional activities" of CNIRD. For more
information contact CNIRD.
.......................................


SLAVE SOCIETY, continued from page 13


den to wear jewelry of pre-
cious stones, gold or silver,
material of silk, brocade,
chintz, lawn, linen, lace, or
velvet: gold or silver braid,
silk stockings; elaborate
upraised hair styles, with or
without decoration: or any
form of expensive clothing
whatsoever" (p. 149).


LEWIS. continued from page 14
page 77 the author sets out to "ex-
amine each of the structures..." but
after (i) Elections and Majority Rule,
there are no subsequent numbers
and the reader is left wondering if he
has missed something.


Freedpersons did not go silently
through their conditions of oppres-
sion, however, according to Neville
Hall. He offers records of verbal alter-
cations with whites and even mutiny
against military duty. All in all he
presents a fresh and inspiring view of
the contending forces of resistance
and regulation as they affected the


This is indeed a fine book and the
papers are a fitting tribute to such a
great man while he was still alive.
One comment made in the book is on
the ignorance of even U.W.I.
graduates of the contributions of Sir


development, acculturation, and
struggle for independence among
African peoples in the Virgin Islands.

William A. Harris is in the Department of
Sociology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill
MA 02167


Arthur. A book as readable as this is
a step in correcting that situation.

Joan Vadanna is a Librarian at the Main
Library, UWI, Mona.


( r b.a I'.. :::. of Bok Ca Cribbean Review of Books C(abbean Review ofBooks









JAMAICA IN PRINT: Books from Jamaican Presses


The following entries are taken from a
data collection being developed with
the aim ofproducing a Caribbean
Books in Print (CBIP). Due to limita-
tions of space this list is presented al-
phabetically under titles of books and
periodicals identified as being in print
from Jamaican publishers, with no ad-
ditional entries for authors' names
and other significant elements in the
entries. In the entries for periodicals
the elements provided are: Title, cur-
rent issue, publisher, ISSN, cost and
note indicating frequency and year of
first issue. To save space publishers
are identified by brief codes in the
entries with full details, addresses
and telephone numbers provided in
the list of publishers following the
main list of titles. Please note that the
common area code 809for all
telephone and telex numbers has
been left out.
We are grateful to the many publish-
ers in Jamaica who at very short
notice provided much of the informa-
tion included in these entries. Since
this is the first public announcement
of the CBIP Project as well as the first
public issue of a specimen list of
preliminary entries that willform the
CBIP we would like invite comments
and observations from our readers on
the form of entries seen here as well
as on the concept of a CBIP. Please ad-
dress all letters on the subject to
Editor, CRB-CBIP, P. O. Box 139,
Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.



Adjustments to Emancipation in Jamaica.
ed by Swithin L. Wilmot. SHP, 1988.
40pp. J$40.00
The Agriculture Sector and Environmental
Issues. by Lloyd Coke et al ISER, 1984.
183pp. J$25.00 US$12.00
As Nasty as They Wanna Be: The Uncen-
sored Story of Luther Campbell of the 2
Live Crew. by Luther Campbell and John
R. Miller. KP, 1992. xli, 244pp. ill. 976-
625-036-7 US$17.95 J$249.95
A-Z ofBarbadian Heritage. by Henry
Fraser and others. Heinemann, 1990.
224pp. 976-605-099-6 US$18.05
J$144.45
Bahamas in Slavery and Freedom. by
Howard Johnson. IRP, 1991. 224pp. 976-
8092-20-3 US$29.95 (postage and pack-
ing US$2.50)


Bauxite Tailings "Red Mud": Proceedings
of an Intemational Conference. ed. by
Arun S. Wagh and P Desai. JBI, 1987.
171pp. 976-8072-00-8 US$60.00
Beka Lamb (Study Guide). by E. O'Conner-
Callaghan. Helnemann, 1986. 76pp. 976-
605-053-89 US$3. 15 J$25.00
A Bibliographic Guide to Law in the Com-
monwealth Caribbean. by K Patchett.
ISER, 1973. 80pp. J$4.50 US$4.00
Bird Gang. by Christine Craig.
Heinemann, 1990. 64pp. 976-605-111-9
US$4. 38 J$35.00
Birds of Jamaica. by Frank Bernal.
Heinemann, 1989. 128pp. 976-605-097-X
US$34. 38 J$275.00
Black Inspiration (With Humour): A Royal
Guide to SelfAwareness, Motivation and
Success. by Lascelles J. Poyser. rev. ed. ,
New World, 1991. 302pp. 976-8091-13-4
US$20.00 J$200.00
A Boy Named Neville. by Linda Gambrill.
Heinemann, 1990. 32pp. 976-605-108-9
US$5. 63 J$45.00.
The Broken Vessel by Everard Palmer.
Heinemann, 1982. 117pp. US$2.50
J$25.00
The Builder. ed. by Michael McFarlane.
ADMARC, vol. 4, no3, (June 1992) (Bi-
monthly issued since 1989) free
Cane Cut: Poems from Jamaica. by Bob
Stewart. Kingston, Savacou Co-op. 1988.
30pp.
Caribbean Cooking. by Judy Bastyra.
Helnemann, 1989. 128pp. 976-605-079-1
US$18.00 J$350.00.
Caribbean Cooking and Menus. by
Leonard (Sonny) Henry. KP, 1991 (rev. ed)
92pp. 976-625-016-0 J$84.95
Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of
Jamaica, An Essay in Cultural Dynamics.
by Rex Nettleford. IOJ, 1978. 239pp.
US$10.00 (pbk) US$18.00 (hc)
Caribbean Democracy and Law Reform.
(Report of Seminar held in Jamaica, 23-
24, Febr., 19880. BIPIA, 1989. 70pp,
J$20.00 US$1.00
Caribbean Ecology and Economics. ed. by
N. Girvan and D. Simmons. CGS, 1991.
260pp. (a collection of papers presented at
the Caribbean Conference on Economics
and the Environment Barbados, Nov.
1989) 976-40-0028-2 US$20.00 J$180.00
(postage additional)
Caribbean Economy: Dependence and
Backwardness. ed. by George Beckford.
ISER, 1975 (reprinted 1984). J$20.00
US$9.00
Caribbean Finance and Management ed.
by Keith Worrell and Margaret Mendes.


UWI/DMS. vol. 6 nos. 1/2 (Summer &
Winter 1990, published Dec. 1991) (2 is-
sues per year) 0256-9647 Subscription
US$15.00 J$40.00 (individuals) US$20.00
J$65.00 (institutions)
Caribbean Geography. vol. 3, no. 1 (March
1991). ed. by David Barker. UWIPA. (two
issued per year) 0252-9939 subscription:
institutions US$30.00 personal US$15.00
single copies US$15.00 Institutions
US$8.00 personal
Caribbean Journal ofEducation.
Caribbean Labour Journa. ............
. Labcom (quarterly issued since 1991)an-
nual subscription J$240.00 US$40.00
Caribbean Life and Culture. by Sir Fred
Phillip. Heinemann, 1991. 268pp. 976-
605-124-0 US$29.50 J$375.00.
Caribbean Literature in Comparison. by J.
R. Pereira. ICS, 1985. 143pp. 976-41-
0026-0 US$5.00 (add $1.00 for postage)
A Caribbean Reader on Development by
George Beckford and others. ed. by Judith
Wedderburn. FES/ACS, 1987. 217pp.
976-8001-26-7 US$7.00 (including
postage)
Caribbean Review ofBooks. ed. by
Samuel B. Bandara. No. 5 (Aug. 1992)
UWIPA. (quarterly issued since 1991)
1018-2926 US$3.00 per issue US$10.00
annual subscription (US$1.50 per issue
for air mail)
Caribbean Slave Society and Economy: A
Student Reader. ed. by Hilary Beckles and
Verene Shepherd. IRP, 1991. 492pp. 976-
8100-01-X US$19.50 (postage and pack-
ing US$2.50)
Caribbean Social Studies Atlas
(Heinemann Phillip). Heinemann, 1986.
48pp. 0-540-05504-2 US$12.00
J$120.00.
Caribbean Women for Democracy. (Report
of a Seminar held in Dominica. 1985).
BIPIA, 1985. 44pp. J$20.00 US$1.00
Carifesta Forum. ed. by John Hearne. IOJ.
248pp. US$4.00
Children of the Caribbean, 1945-1984:
Progress in Child Survival, its Deter-
minants and Implications. by Dinesh P.
Sinha. CFNI, 1988. xxx, 246 pp. 976-626-
010-9 Price A. US$ 10.00 B. US$5.00
Church Morality and Democracy, by C. S.
Reid. BIPIA, 1987. 59pp. J$40.00 US$2.00
City ofMontego Bay, Jamaica. ed. by L.
Emile Martin. LEM, 1988. 130pp.
US$5.00 (postage not included)
The Coffee Industry of Jamaica. by R. Wil-
lams. ISER, 1975. 82pp. J$24.00
US$4.00


No. 5, August 1992







No. 5, August 1992


Colony and Nation: A Short History of
Education in Trinidad and Tobago. by Carl
Campbell. IRP, 1992. 112pp. ill. 976-8100-
05-2 US$22.00 J$550.00
Columbus and the Golden World of the Is-
land Arawaks: The Story of the First
Americans and their Caribbean Environ-
ment by D. J. R. Walker. IRP, 1992.
320pp. ill. 976-8100-04-4 (hdc)US$12.95
(postage and Packing US$2.50)
Commercial Arbitration. by M. J. Stoppi.
Heinemann, 1991. 128pp. 976-605-116-X
US$25.00 J$200.00
The Control of Diabetes Mellitus in the
Caribbean Community. CFNI Oointly with
PAHO/WHO) 1988. vi, 115 pp. price A.
US$2:00, B. US$1.00
Cordelia Finds Fame and Fortune. by
Diane Browne. Heinemann, 1990. 32pp.
976-605-110-0 US$5. 63 J$45.00
Creative Bahamian Cooking and Menus.
by Elsa Miller and Mike Henry. KP, 1991
(rev ed. ) 86pp. 976-625-030-8 J$84.95
Crick Crack Monkey (Study Guide). by
Christlene Henry. Heinemann, 1989.
84pp. 976-605-052-X US$3. 15 J$25.00
Crime and Violence: Causes and Solutions.
ed. by Peter Phillips and Judith Wedder-
burn. FES/UWI-DG, 1988. pp. 97641-
0014-7 US$7.00 (including postage)
(Univ. of the West Indies, Dept. of Govern-
ment, Occasional Paper No. 2)
Croaking Johnny and Dizzy Lizzy. by
Linda Gambrill. Heinemann, 1990. 32pp.
976-605-107-0 US$5. 63 J$45.00
Dale's Mango Tree. by Kim Robinson. KP,
1991. 976-625-020-0
Data Pac Caribbean Business Trends. ed.
by Huntley G. Manhertz. (vol. 11, no. 4,
1991) DRSI. (issued quarterly)
Debonair The Donkey. by Diane
Browne. revised ed. CWC, 1988. 24pp.
976-8012-21-8 US$4.00 J$20.00 (postage
Included)
Debt Adjustment and Development: Look-
ing to the 1990s. by Kari Polyani Levitt.
FES/ACS, 1989. 36pp. US$7 (including
postage)
The Debt Problem in Small Peripheral
Economies: Case Studies from the Carib-
bean and CentralAmerica. by Norman Gir-
van and others. FES/ACS, 1989. 36pp.
US$7 (including postage)
Democracy and Youth in the Caribbean.
(Report of Seminar held in Jamaica, 18-
19, Aug. 1987). BIPIA, 1988. 32pp.
J$20.00 US$1.00
Democracy by Default: Dependency and
Clientilism in Jamaica. by Carlene J. Edie.
IRP, 1991. 183pp. 976-8100-00-8
US$21.95 (postage and packing US$2.50)
Development in Suspense: Selected Papers
and Proceedings of the First Conference of


Caribbean Economists. ed. by George
Beckford and Norman Girvan. FES/ACS,
1989. 366pp. 976-8001031-1 US$20
(plus $1.00 postage)
Devon House Families. by Enid Shields.
IRP, 1991. 136pp. ill. 976-8100-03-8
US$10.95 (postage and packing US$2.50)
Dining Out in Jamaica Restaurant
Guide. ed by L. Emile Martin. LEM, 1990.
80pp. US$6.00 (postage not included) ***
Diplomacy for survival: CARICOM States in
a World of Change. ed. by Lloyd Searwar.
FES/ACS, 1991. 97pp. 976-8091-25-8
US$7 (including postage)
Directory of Further Education and Train-
ing in Jamaica, 1986. by Jim Halliwell.
UWI/FE. DETD, 1986. 268pp. 976-614-
008-1 US$15.00 J$50
Directory of Information Units in Jamaica:
Libraries, Archives and Docunmentation
Services. NACOIADS, 1980. xiv, 177pp.
J$15.00 US$15.00: 1986 edition, xvi,
200pp. J$15.00 US$15.00
Donald Quarrie. by Jimmy Carnegie. JPH,
1978. 133pp. US$5.50 (add 15% for
postage/handling)
Don't Ever Wake a Snake: Poems and
Storiesfor Children. by Pamela Claire Mor-
decai. Kingston, Sandberry Press, 1991.
20pp. 976-8070-07-2.
Double Trouble and Other Stories. by
Richard McCaw, Sonia Ellis, Jean Forbes,
Eda Jackson and Lorisse Da Costa. CWC,
.52pp. US$4.00 J$20.00 (postage in-
cluded)
Edna Manley: The Diaries. by Rachel Man-
ley. Heinemann, 1989. 320pp. 976-605-
084-8 US$24. 30 J$194.45
The Economy of Modem Jamaica: An Out-
line. by Keith Worrell. BIPIA, 1987. 54pp.
976-8058-00-5 J$40.00 US$2.00
Edible Fruits and Vegetables of the
English-speaking Caribbean. CFNI, 1987.
66pp. price A. US$8.00 B. US$4.00
Edna Manley, Sculptor. by David Boxer,
with a tribute by Rex Nettleford.
NGJ/EMF, 1990. 204pp. ill. 0-96238-362-
7 US$40.00 (postage additional)
Education and Society in the Common-
wealth Caribbean. ed. by Errol Miller.
ISER, 1991. 272pp. 976-400-035-5 (pbk)
US$10.00
Education in the Caribbean: Historical
Perspectives. ed. by Ruby Hope King.
UWI/FE, 1987. 208pp. US$12.00 J$35
(special issue of the Caribbean Journal of
Education)
Environmental Education: Global Concern,
Caribbean Focus. ed. by Joyce Glasgow.
UWI/FE, 1989. 136pp. (special issue of
Caribbean Journal ofEducation)
Essential Science. by Hortense Morgan,
Dorothy Pottinger and Gillian Allen.


Heinemann, 1989. 136pp. 976-605-082-1
US$6.75 J$135.00
Europe 1992 The Single Market and its
Implicationsfor Labour. (Report of a Con-
ference held in Kingston, Jamaica, 20-22,
May 1990). BIPIA, 1990. 122pp. J$40.00
US$2.00
Export Competitiveness in Manufacturing:
Organizational and Institutional Impedi-
ments, by Judy Whitehead. FES/ACS,
1989. 40pp. US$7 (including postage)
Familiar Jamaican Birds I. JIS, 1991.
32pp. US$1.00 J$20.00 (postage addition-
al)
Familiar Jamaican Birds H. by Rachel Mor-
decal. JIS, 1991. 32pp. 976-633-005-0
US$1.00 J$20.00 (postage additional)
Food for Disaster Preparedness and
Recovery: A Household Guide. comp. and
ed. by Kenneth A. Leslie. NFNCCJ, 1990.
72pp. 976-012-5 (pbk).
Food and Nutrition Education: A Guide for
College Tutors in the English-speaking
Caribbean. developed by the CFNI in as-
sociation with the Faculty of Education,
Univ. of the West Indies and the Trining
Colleges of the English-speaking Carib-
bean. CFNI, 1987. vi, 182 pp. ill. price A.
US$12.00 B. US$ 6.00
Food and Nutrition Education in the
Primary School: A Handbook for Caribbean
Teachers. by Doris Bramble and Jennifer
Michaels in assn. with CFNI. CFNI, 1984.
x., 152 pp. 1ll. price A. US$4.00 B.
US$2.00
Food Budgeting for Caribbean Families. by
Versada Campbell and Andrea Okwesa.
2nd ed. CFNI, 1985. vi, 74 pp. ill. 976-
626-002-8 price A. US$2.00 B. US$1.00
For the Secretary. by Daisy Hernandez.
JPH, 1980. 192pp. US$7.00 (add 15% for
postage/handling)
Forests ofJamaica. ed. by D. A.
Thompson and others. IOJ, 162pp. 976-
8017-02-3 US$18.00 (he)
The Fortifications of Kingston. by David
Buisseret. Bolivar, 1971. 51pp. US$9.00
J$195.00
A Free Press, Guardian of Democracy.
(Report of Seminar held in Christ Church,
Barbados, 10-13, April 1986). BIPIA,
1986. 80pp. J$20.00 US$1.00
A Free Press in a Free Society. (Report of
Press Seminar held by BIPIA in St.
George's Grenada, 20-25, Sept., 1985).
BIPIA, 1985. 38pp. J$20.00 US$1.00
From Our Yard: Jamaican Poetry Since In-
dependence. ed. by Pamela Mordecai. IOJ,
1987. 235pp. 976-8017-04-X US$5.00
From Plots to Plantations: Land Transac-
tions in Jamaica, 1869-1900. by Veront M.
Satchell. ISER, 1990. xiv, 197 pp. 976-40-
0015-0 US$16.50.


Caribbean Review of Books alffib review of BOOks







Efl-6wM off ExDTk1


From "The Black Churches. .. "A His-
torigraphic Taxonony of Religions in
Jamaica, Book One. by E. S. P. Mc-
Pherson. BIIP, 1988. 134pp. 976-8028-06-
8 US$15.00 J$220 (postage additional) ***
From We were Boys: The Story of the Mag-
nificent Cousins Manley and Bustamante.
by Jackie Ranston. BIPIA, 1989. 201pp.
976-8058-02-1 J$100 US$5.00
Gammon and the Woman's Tongue Tree.
by Diane Browne. CWC, 1987 (rep. 1990).
25pp. 976-8012-11-0 US$4.00 J$20.00
(postage included)
Graded Listening and Reading Comprehen-
sion Exercises. (CXC Spanish) by Errol
Caesar and Diego Valencia. Heinemann,
1986. 84pp. 976-605-048-1 US$6. 87
J$55.00
A Hamper of Recipes from Jamaica. by Jill
Roberts. Heinemann, 1987. 96pp. 976-
605-054-6 US$8.75 J$200.00
Helpful Hints for the Track and Field Offi-
cial A Handbook. by Velma Charlton.
UWI/FE. DTED, 1987. 22pp. 976-614-
007-3 US$3.00 J$15.00
Higglering, Sidewalk Vending, Informal
Commercial Trading in the Jamaican
Economy: Proceedings of a Symposium.
ed. by Michael Witter. FES/UWI-DE,
1989. pp. 976-41-0018-X
History and Time in Caribbean Literature.
by Claudette Williams. ICS, 1992. 80pp.
976-41-0034-1 US$5.00 (add $1.00 for
postage)
Home Economics for Caribbean Schools: C.
X C. Food and Nutrition. by Cynthia Mar-
chand and others. JPH, 1984. 175pp.
US$10.00 (add 15% for postage/handling)
Human Rights in Grenada A Survey of
Political and Civil Rights in Grenada
During the Period of 1970-1983. by
Donald Trotman and Keith Friday. BIPIA,
1984. 54pp. J$40.00 US$2.00
I Will Arise. by E. S. P. McPherson. BIIP,
1990. 976-8028, -11-4 US#3.00 J$: 60
(postage not included)
Identity in the Jamaican Context: Per-
sonality and Attitudes of Tertiary Stu-
dents. by Mary F. Richardson. UWI/FE,
1992. 96pp. 976-632-005-5. US$6.00
J$60.00
Inflation in the Caribbean. ed. by Compton
Bourne. ISER 1977. 166pp. J$7.00
US$8.50
Institutional Food Service: A Guide for Su-
pervisors. 2nd ed. CFNI, 1992. v, 237 pp.
976-626-015-X price A. US$8.00 B. US$
4.00
The Integrated Theory of Development As-
sistance; An Initial Treatment. by Davison
Budhoo. ISER, 1973. 79pp. J$4.00
US$4.00
Integration and Participatory Development:
A Selection of Papers from the Second Con-


ference of Caribbean Economists. ed. by
Judith Wedderburn. FES/ACS, 1990.
191pp. 976-8091-07-X US$10 (plus $1.00
postage)
Interim. by Neville Dawes. IOJ. 216pp.
US$3.00
Jamaica. ed. by Ray Chen. Periwinkle,
1984. 228pp. 0-9691792-0-0 US$45.00
(postage included)
Jamaica: A Geological Portrait by Anthony
Porter. IOJ, 1990. 200pp. 976-8017-11-2
(pbk) US$8.00 976-8017-12-0 (hc)
US$12.00
Jamaica: A Junior Geography. by Marjorie
Allen-Vassell and Wintlett Browne.
Heinemann, 1992. 160pp. 976-605-080-5
US$11.25 J$225.00
Jamaica: A Junior History. by Beryl Alien.
Heinemann, 1989. 112pp. 976-605-100-3
(cased) US$13.75 J$110.00 976-605-093-
7 (limp) US$8.75 J$70.00
Jamaica Business Annual ed. by Byron
Buckley. 1991. Buckley Communications.
Jamaica Five Year Development Plan.
PIOJ, 1990. 225pp. 976-8092-07-6
J$150.00 US$24.95
Jamaica Five Year Development Plan,
1990-1995, Agriculture. PIOJ, 1991. 50pp.
976-8092-22-X J$25.00 US$4.50


Jamaica Five Year
Development Plan,
1990-1995, Educa-
tion. PIOJ, 1991.
108pp. 976-8092-25-
4 J$35.00 US$6.00
Jamaica Five Year
Development Plan,
1990-1995, Non-
Bauxite Minerals.
PIOJ, 1991. 24pp.
976-8092-26-2
J$25.00 US$4.50
Jamaica Flue Year
Development Plan,
1990-1995, Housing.
PIOJ, 1991. 19pp.
976-8092-24-6
J$25.00 US$4.50
Jamaica Five Year
Development Plan,
1990-1995. Science
and Tecnology. PIOJ,
1991. 24pp. 976-
8092-18-1 J$25.00
US$4.50
Jamaica in Inde-
pendence: (A Collec-
tion of 12 Essays).
ed. by Rex Nettleford.
Heinemann, 1989.
376pp. 976-605-095-
3 (cased) US$25.00
J$200.00 976-605-


094-5 (limp) US$16. 67 J$133. 35
Jamaica in the World Aluminium Industry
1938-1973. voL 1. by Carlton E. Davis.
JBI, 1989. 412pp. 976-8072-01-6
(Hardcover) US$50.00 976-8072-02-4
(paperback) US$20.00
Jamaica 1938: The Living Conditions of
the Urban and Rural Poor Twvo Surveys.
ed. by Claus F. -Stolbert. SHP, 1990
61pp. J$ 40.00
Jamaica Poetry, A Checklist: Books, Paph-
lets, Broadsheets 1686-1978. by Edward
Kamau Brathwaite. JLS, 1979. 36pp.
US$2.00.
Jamaica Pink Pages Women in Busi-
ness. ed. by Brenda T. Skeffrey. EAMS,
vol. 9, 1992 (biannual issued since 1987)
J$10.00 US$1.50
Jamaica Postcard Book. ed. by Ray Chen.
Periwinkle, 1991. 32pp. 0-9691792-5-1
US$10.00 (postage included)
Jamaica Scholarship Pages. by Brenda T.
Skeffrey. EAMS, 1991-92 ed. (Annual Is-
sued since 1988) J$40.00 US$4.50
Jamaica Survey of Living Condition,
November 1989. PIOJ, 1992. 78pp.
J$40.00, for USA, Canada and the Carib-
bean, US$12.00, rest of the world
US$15.00
see page 29 for list of publishers


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No. 5, August 1992







No. 5, August 1992


New from ISER!
l Caribbean Ecology and Economics
Norman Girvan & David Simmons
976-8078-00-6 20.00
L Central Banking in a Developing Economy
Terrence Farrell
976-40-0032-0 14.50
E] Education and Society in the Commonwealth Caribbean
Errol Miller
976-40-0035-5 10.00
I Rethinking Development
Girvan/Mills/McIntyre/
Anderson/Stone & Witter
976-41-0027-9 10.00
] Sir Arthur Lewis: An Economic & Political Portrait
Ralph Premdas & Eric St. Cyr
976-40-0028-2 8.00
E[ The Chaining of a Continent: Export Demand for Captives
and the History of Africa Soutn of the Sahara, 1450-1870
J.E. Inikori
976-40-0039-8 7.50
E] Monetary Integration in the CARICOM
Fifth Adlith Brown Memorial Lecture
Karl Bennett
976-40-0038-X 3.00
[ Slave Society in the Danish West Indies
Neville A.T. Hall
976-41-0029-5 16.00

Reprints
] Small Garden, Bitter Weed
George Beckford & Michael Witter
0-86232-008-9 15.00
E] Garvey, His Work and Impact
Rupert Lewis & Patrick Bryan
PB 976-40-0012-6 19.00
HB 976-40-007-X 26.00
] Genderin Caribbean Development
Catherine Shepherd & Patricia Mohammed
976-8057-00-9 16.00

FORTHCOMING!
O Tax Reform in the Caribbean
edited by Karl Theodore
976-40-0030-40 15.00
0 Housing Conditions in Barbados
Robert B. Potter
976-40-0040-1 15.00


All prices quoted in US$ but payable in equivalent local currency. Please add 5% for postage and handling

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C .b-.. Revan i o. .,s. Caribbean Review of Books ibbean Review of Books







EEvftwY (0 LH3axvfl


Ideology and Class Conflict In
Jamaica: The Politics of Rebellion. by
Abigail S. Bakan. Montreal and
Kingston, McGill- Queen's Univ.
Press, 1990. 183pp. 0-7735-0745-0
US$34.95


by Patrick E. Bryan
This book's contribution to the
study of Caribbean societies
lies less in the presentation
of new historical data than in
the interpretation the author has
given to this data.
Bakan isolates, essentially, three
major events In Jamaican history -
the Sam Sharpe Rebellion of 1831,
the Morant Bay Upheaval of 1865
and the Labour Riots of 1938 to il-


lustrate the tradition of struggle by
Jamaican working classes. This tradi-
tion of struggle, Bakan argues, is
founded firstly in an ideology in-
fluenced By a powerful religious
idiom; secondly, an attitude that an-
ticipates benevolence or at least jus-
tice from the Crown; and thirdly, the
influence of race.
The link between the Baptist
Church, Sam Sharpe and the 1831
Christmas Rebellion is well known,
and so too is the importance of
Deacon Paul Bogle in the Morant Bay
events of 1865. As for 1938, no one
has disputed the messianic/charis-
matic leadership of Alexander Bus-
tamante and indeed the use of
religious symbolism in Jamaican
politics.


UWIPA M iling lits available
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S: Code Addresses) USS
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Bainl DIR-BNK. Car(World) 220 S36.00
Bookstores BKSTRCAR Car only 110 $16.00
BKSTRWW US,World 60 $10.00


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CSA) Indlv.& Inst.

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270 $50.00
450 $70.00
115 $17.00
155 $24.00

800 $120.00
150 $24.00
200 $30.00
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305 $50.00
70 $12.00
415 $78.00
30 $ 5.00
130 :,- $20.00
150 $24.00
1I2"66 $240.00

. ... - .-


What is of particular interest in
this book is the ideological associa-
tion of these three major events. Bus-
tamante was not, of course, formally
associated with the Baptist Church,
but he used religious symbolism to
lead a secular labour movement, on
the basis of a "divine right" to do so.
Bustamante's union (the Bus-
tamante Industrial Trade Union) is
not autonomous it consists of his
followers and disciples,autocratically
led by Bustamante, the messiah to
his own promised land of accom-
modation to the capitalist system.
Bakan emphasises the ability of the
Jamaican system to coopt, and there-
by maintain, the hegemonic power of
those who exercise social authority
and political power. She also notes
the modification of the outlook of the
People's National Party to accom-
modate itself to the structure of
power as exercised by Bustamante's
BITU/JLP, and as predetermined by
cold war issues in the 1950s.
The author successfully sustains
the argument that the British Crown
was effective in fostering program-
mes such as formal labour organiza-
tion, not so much to revise the
structure of class relations but to
promote social peace. Whether in-
tended or not, 1938 and after ap-
pears as an act of prestidigitation in
which the religious idiom, the
reverence for the crown, contradic-
tory race relations, are ably and fully
exploited to bring about a political in-
dependence where the working class
has been manoeuvred into a left in-
cline and a right about turn. "Each
party", insists Bakan, "paid ideologi-
cal and symbolic tribute to the
legacy of the working class struggle
that catapulted Jamaica into the
modem era." (p.135)
This book gives us something to
think about, especially in its inter-
pretation of the 1938 period, and the
roles of the founding fathers of the
Nation.

Patrick Bryan is Senior Lecturer in the
Department of History, UWI, Mona.


No. 5, August 1992






No. 5, August 1992


to Discovery and Aftermath. 3. Dis-
covery: The Bahamas. 4. Cuba.
5. Hispaniola. 6. Seed of Many Na-
tions: The Second Voyage. 7. Carib
Territory: The Lesser Antilles. 8. La
Navidad: The Turning Point.
9. Isabela. 10. Island Arawak Legend
and Custom: 1494. 11. The First In-
justice. 12. Discovery of Jamaica.
13. Western Cuba. 14. The South
Coast of Jamaica. 15. The Fatal
Years: Hispaniola 1494-1514. Bibliog-
raphy: The Columbus Literature.
Donald James Riddell Walker was
born in Jamaica. He has worked
both in the British Colonial Service
and in the Jamaican Diplomatic Ser-
vice.
1991 328 pages 37 line illustrations
10 full page maps 7 art plates
Hard back 976-8100-04-4


Hilary Beckles and Verene Shepherd

CARIBBEAN SLAVE SOCIETY
AND ECONOMY
A Student reader


CARIBBEAN

SLAVE

SOCIETY
AND ECONOMY

A Student Reader


Editors: HIL. IIR IIECKLES
& SERENE SHEPHERDI

Since the 1960s, there has been such
an upsurge of published work on
slavery that it constitutes an his-
toriographic revolution. This volume
provides thematic coverage which al-
lows detailed assessment and dis-
course.
The editors have two main objec-
tives. The first is to provide a pan-
Caribbean trans-imperial thematic
focus. Secondly, they set out to il-
lustrate the many forms of socio-
economic life and activity that
shaped the regions' heterogeneous
slave societies and to account for


their uneven pace and development.
The volume is conceived and
designed as a student/tutor com-
panion and has as its target the
debate environment of the Univer-
sity and College seminar on Com-
parative Caribbean Slave systems.
Contents: 1. Amerindians and
Slavery. 2. Origins and Large Scale
Slavery. 3. Production, Profitability
and Markets. 4. Caribbean Slavery
and the Capitalist World Economy.
5. Race, Colour and Ideology. 6.
Health, Nutrition and the Crisis of
Social Reproduction. 7. Slave
Women, Family and households. 8.
Social Culture and Autonomy. 9.
control, Resistance and revolt. 10.
Revolution, Reform and Emancipa-
tion. Select Bibliography.
Hilary Beckles is Head of the
Department of History and Reader
in History at the U.W.I., Cave Hill,
Barbados.
Verene Shepherd lectures in His-
tory at the Mona Campus of the
U.W.I. in Jamaica.
1991 492 pages 244x183
Paper 976-8100-01-x


Enid Shields

DEVON HOUSE FAMILIES

The story of this 'House of Dreams'
is being fully told for the first time in
this book by Enid Shields through


-. ., . .., '.. :I.:

the lives of the families who built,
owned and lived in Devon House.
Built in 1881 by George Stiebel,
reputedly Jamaica's first black mil-
lionaire, Devon House has had a


colourful, tragic and controversial
history. It was saved from the hands
of the developers in the 1960s and in
1990 won an American Express His-
toric Preservation Award. Today,
Devon house is the centre of social
life in Kingston for locals and
visitors alike.
Contents: Foreword. 1. The Rectors.
2. George Stiebel. 3. The Stiebel Jack-
sons. 4. Reginald Melhado. 5. Cecil
Lindo. 6. Devon house Modern
History. 7. Devon House Today. Ap-
pendices.
Enid Shields is an amateur historian
and writer who lives in Kingston,
Jamaica.
1991 136 pages 216x156
53 Illustrations
Cased 976-8100-03-8


Thomas C. Holt

THE PROBLEM OF FREEDOM:
Race, Labour and Politics in
Jamaica and Britain 1832-1938

l THOMAS C. HOLT

RACE. LABOR. AND POLITICS IN JAMAICA
AND BRITAIN. 1832-1938
111 \


This is a study of emancipation and
the post-emancipation society of
Jamaica, beginning with the slave
revolt of 1831-32 and ending with
the labour rebellion of 1938 and its
immediate aftermath.
Professor Holt addresses the ques-
tion of the meaning of freedom
through an exploration of the evolu-
tion of British policy and West In-
dian practice during the 'century of
emancipation'. The perspective is
Trans-Atlantic and the approach is
global.
Part I: examines the meaning of
freedom and the structured transi-


' b".='-r: R... w B:s-,.f Caribbean Review of Books aibbean Review of oolks





YF\Yf(Dky (ff MRMIxObs

tion from slavery to free labour.
Part II: discusses the establishing of
a new plantation economy and the
emergence of the peasant economy.
Part III: explores the implications for
state power and the Jamaican politi-
cal system particularly of the poten-
tial threat of a politically
empowered and mobilized
peasantry.
Part IV: examines the new departure
in British policy towards its former
slave colonies: benevolent guardian-
ship and trusteeship in political life
coupled with support for peasant
proprietorship.
Thomas Holt is a Professor in the
Department of History, University
of Chicago.
1991 512 pages 216x138mm
26 Illustrations Paper 976-8100-03-6


Howard Johnson

THE BAHAMAS IN SLAVERY
AND FREEDOM



The Bahamas

in Slavery

and Freedom






The book focuses on the organiza-
tion and control of labour before and
after slavery. The evidence from the
Bahamas indicates the need for a
modification of some of the
generalizations which scholars have
made about the British Caribbean.
Here, slavery and freedom were not
polar opposites either.before or after
1838. In its examination of the
similarities and divergences from
the model of the 'pure plantation
economy' and society with which
the British Caribbean is often as-
sociated, Howard Johnson's book
makes a valuable contribution.


Contents: 1. The Self-Hire System
during Slavery. 2. The Emergence of
a Peasantry during Slavery. 3. The
Liberated Africans 1811-60.4. The
Slave System During the 19th and
early 20th Centuries. 5. Post-Eman-
cipation Labour Systems. 6. The
Credit and Trust Systems. 7. The Re-
organization of the Police Force 1888-
93. 8. The Beginning of the
Immigration Restriction 1925-33.
9. Labour on the Move: West Indian
migration 1922-30. 10. Labour Migra-
tion to Florida.
Howard Johnson teaches in the
Department of Black American
Studies, University of Delaware.
1991 224 pages 216x138
Cased 976-8092-20-3


Carlene J. Edie

DEMOCRACY BY DEFAULT
Dependency and Clientilism
in Jamaica

Democracy by Default analyzes the
interface between the external ties of
dependency and internal democratic
processes. Professor Edie posits that
Jamaica's sociopolitical order is de-
pendent on resource transfers from


outside sources. Those resources, dis-
tributed by the state in the form of
clientilist patronage, guarantee sup-
port for the dominant political par-
ties. When the resources become
scarce when the 'external faucet'
is shut off, as it was during the Man-
ley administration the clientilist
system is threatened and social


groups mobilize against the govern-
ment, often removing it from office
in the next election.
Thus, argues Edie, democratic party
politics exist in Jamaica, not because
of a political culture committed to
liberal democracy, but because of
the state's capacity to obtain resour-
ces from friendly foreign govern-
ments and international financial
agencies and to dispense them to
strategic social classes. It is widely
shared material interests, rather than
ideological propensities, that ac-
counted for the decisive electoral
shifts of 1980 and 1989.
Carlene J. Edie is Assistant Profes-
sor in the Department of Political
Science at the University of Mas-
sachusetts, Amherst.
1991 183 pages
Cased 97608100-00-1


Books
distributed by and
available from lan
Randle Publishers


Olive Senior

WORKING MIRACLES:
Womens Lives in the English-
Speaking Caribbean

Olive Senior has in recent times been
acclaimed for her works of poetry
and fiction but in Working Miracles















her skills as a researcher and
academic are equally obvious. This
book is a product of the Women in
the Caribbean Project of the Univer-
sity of the West Indies, which


No. 5, August 1992






vii No. 5, August 1992


include detailed life and case his-
tories drawn from a sample of 1600
women in the Caribbean.
There are four sections:
Section I: Childhood and Socializa-
tion. Section II: Family and
Household. Section III: Sources of
Livelihood. Section IV: Women and
Others.
Paperback 224 pages
James Currey Publishers 1991
Available from Ian Randle Publishers


Kathy McAfee

STORM SIGNALS:
Structural Adjustments and
Development Alternatives in
the Caribbean

Two very different processes are
shaping the lives of the poor in the
Caribbean today. On the one hand
the region has been the target of a
series of US-inspired policies. On the
other hand local people have in-
itiated their own Caribbean-centered
development alternatives.
This book is about the conflict be-
tween these divergent perspectives
and represents a down-to-earth
policy, a relevant and readable ac-
count of Caribbean development
today.
Paperback 256 pages
ZED Press 1992
Available from Ian Randle Publishers


Errol Hill

THE JAMAICAN STAGE 1655 -
1900
Profile of a Colonial Theatre

In this pioneering work distin-
guished scholar Errol Hill discusses
the struggle to maintain viable
playhouses, the fortunes of visiting
professional troupes and the emer-
gence of an indigenous theatre. He
also explores the rituals, festival and
other forms of entertainment en-
joyed by the broad underclass of
Jamaicans most of whom were
slaves or slave descendants. By ex-


amining the record of theatrical
production and the variety of in-
digenous performances, Hill shows
how a synthesis of native and
foreign elements has occurred.
Hardback 320 pages 19 illustra-
tions
University of Massachusetts Press
Available from Ian Randle Publish-
ers Ltd.


Tyrone Tillery

CLAUDE MCKAY
A Black Poet's Struggle for
Identity

This book offers a fresh interpreta-
tion of the life and works of Claude
McKay, one of the central figures of
the Harlem Renaissance. It is at once
a biography that probes the roots of
McKay's complex personality and
an exploration of the dilemmas
faced by twentieth-century black in-
tellectuals. Tyrone Tillery draws
upon extensive archival research in-
cluding some recently declassified
government documents to present a
portrait of McKay the artist and an
exploration of his political
radicalism in greater depth than any
previous study.
Hardback 235 pages
University of Massachusetts Press
Available from lan Randle Publish-
ers Ltd.


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information about
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Adjusting Privatization
Colony and Nation
Caribbean and African Cookery
Caribbean and African Cookery
Caribbean Economic and Social History
Modem Caribbean Politics
Third World Political Economy
Development and Discontent in Caribbean Economy
Caribbean in Global Economy
And I Remember Many Things Folklore of the Caribbean
A Real Taste of Jamaica
Columbus and the Golden World of the Arawaks
Caribbean Slave Society and Economy
Devon House Families
The Problem of Freedom
Bahamas in Slavery and Freedom
Democracy by Default
Working Miracles
Storm Wamings
Claude Mckay


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continued overleaf


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LREGwVlC pfJ (L0 DBTT1


Jamaica Handbook. by Karl Luntta.
Kingston, Kingston Publishers, and
Chico, CA., Moon Publications Inc.,
1991. (10), 214 pp. ill. 0-918373-68-
9 US$ 12.95 J$250


by Samuel B. Bandara
This is both an interesting
and attractive publication
containing a great deal of in-
formation, useful not only to
visitors to Jamaica for whom it is
clearly intended, but also for others
who are not new to Jamaica but still
have need for a general reference
book on Jamaica. The long Introduc-
tion (82 pages) has good sections on
the land, flora and fauna, history,
music, arts etc., brought together in
a convenient, usable 'package' here.
Kingston Publishers have done a ser-
vice to local readers by making
(through their co-publishing arrange-
ment with Moon Publications) this
Handbook available at the Jamaican
price quoted.
Following the introduction the
text is arranged by the island geog-
raphy for tourists under areas Mon-
tego Bay, Negril and vicinity. The


Southwest Coast (covering Savanna-
la-Mar and vicinity, Black River and
the interior, and Mandeville),
Kingston and vicinity. The Blue
Mountains, Port Antonio and the
East Coast, Ocho Rios and vicinity,
and Runaway Bay and the North
Coast. The text is supported by more
than a dozen useful maps, and a
booklist that groups old and new tit-
les under ten headings. Information
about accommodation, food,
transport and entertainment is
provided for all of the areas under a
section labelled "Practicalities". A
good selection of illustrations includ-
ing old pictures selected from the
Collections of the National Library of
Jamaica, and many by Phyllis
Luntta, many of these latter in
colour, add to the attractiveness and
value of the handbook. The text is
presented with good humour and un-
derstanding, for example in the ad-
vise offered about what to pack:
"Bring photos of yourself and family
if you plan to spend time in the rural
areas people love to see and talk
about them" (p.78).
The Handbook's value as a refer-
ence work would have been en-
hanced if the index provided was


more extensive, to allow speedier ac-
cess to many points in the text that
record facts and bits of information
many of us need from time to time.
Through no fault of the author and
publishers, there is one area in
which the information recorded here
may now be history rather than cur-
rent reality; local prices have been
moving so fast that users of this
handbook must remember that it
was issued in November last year
and the prices and exchange rates
quoted in it are older than that.
Jamaica Handbook is presented
in just the right size for the traveller,
easy to carry about in the car or the
travel bag, even when one is on a
hike. A copy each of the Handbook
and the motor map of Jamaica in a
hardy re-sealable plastic bag will be
a good package for the publishers to
boost their sales and for adven-
turous travellers in Jamaica to buy.
This title on Jamaica is included
in a long series of 'Moon Handbooks'
produced by Moon Publications,Inc.,
(722 Wall Street, Chico, CA 95928
USA) which has another Caribbean
title, Belize Handbook written by
Chicki Mallan.


McF & Tan McFarlane and Tan Com-
munications (13A North Avenue, Kingston
5. Tel: 929-0297)
Mill Press (Constant Spring, Box 167,
Kingston 8. Tel: 925-6886 Fax: 929-5766)
MRC MRC Services Ltd. (2 Easern
Avenue, Kingston 5. Tel: 978-0650)
NACOLADS National Council on
Libraries, Archives and Documentation
Services: see under the Council's new
name NACOLAIS)
NACOLAIS National Council on
Libraries. Archives and Information Sys-
tems (Office of the Prime Minister, 1
Devon Road, Kingston 6. Tel: 927-0662)
New World New World House (12, Mel-
mac Avenue, P.O.Box 233, Kingston 5 Tel:
926-4005, 926-8848, 926-2820, 926-8383)
NFNCCJ National Food and Nutrition
Co-Ordinating Committee of Jamaica (c/o
CFNI at same address)
NGJ/EMF National Gallery of Jamaica
and The Edna Manley Foundation (NGJ.
12 Ocean Boulevard, Block 3, Kingston
Mall, Kingston. Tel: 922-1561-4
PE&A Packer-Evans and Associates
Ltd. (13 Stevenson Avenue, Kingston 8.
Tel: 924-5441)


Periwinkle Periwinkle Publishers (Ja)
ltd. (19, Ballater Avenue, Kingston 10. Tel:
929-2625, 926-4096 Fax: 929-9469)
PIOJ Planning Institute of Jamaica (36-
43 Barbados Avenue, Kingston 5. Tel: 926-
1480-8 Fax: 926-4670)
RPCDC Regional Pre-School Child
Development Centre (University of the
West indies, Mona, Kingston 7)
SCS School of Continuing Studies
(formerly Department of Extra Mural
Studies) (University of the West Indies, P.
O. Box 42 Kingston 7. Tel: 92-71201, Fax:
927-2409)
Selectco Selectco Publications (The
Gleaner Co. Ltd., 7 North Street, Kingston)
SHP Social History Project (Department
of History, University of the West Indies,
Mona, Kingston 7)
STATIN The Statistical Institute of
Jamaica (9 Swallowfield Road, Kingston 5
Tel: 926-4859 Fax: 926-0718
Sunseeker (available from CWC)
Tiong Gwan The (1B Braemar Avenue,
Kingston 10)
UWIPA University of the West Indies
Publishers Association (P.O.Box 42. Mona,
Kingston 7)


UWI/DF Department of French and
German, University of the West Indies
(Mona, Kingston 7 Tel: 927-2293)
UWI/DH University of the West Indies,
Department of History. (Head of Depart-
ment, Dept. of History, Univ. of the West
Indies, Mona, Kingston 7)
UWI/DMS University of the West In-
dies, Dept. of Management Studies (Mona.
Kingston 7)
UWI/DSP University of the West Indies,
Department of Spanish (Mona, Kingston
7)
UWI/FE University of the West Indies,
Faculty of Education (Publication Officer,
Faculty of Education, UWI. Kingston 7)
UWI/FE.DTED University of the West
Indies, Faculty of Education, Dept. of
Teacher Education Development (address
same as for UWI/FE)
UWI/FMS University of the West In-
dies, Faculty of Medical Sciences (Mona,
Kingston 7. Tel: 927-1214)
UWI/L Library, University of the West
Indies (Mona, Kingston 7. Tel: 927-2123,
Fax: 927-1073, 927-1926)
UWIPress University of the West Indies
Press (c/o ISER at same address)


No. 5, August 1992






New from ECI!

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point (A Novel) by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, University of the
Virgin Islands, St. Croix, 1991, 1SBN 0-932831-07-9, 308 pp, Soft $12.95 + $1.75 S&H

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point is a novel about growing up in Sandy Point, St. Kitts, West Indies, in the 1950's and 1960's. The novel is a
first in terms of social, cultural and political perspectives about growing up under conditions that are easy to laugh at and difficult to
forget.
Sonny Jim walked on the hot-pitch road to his real mother's house. He was about to start a new life with his real mother, his
queen...He jumped high to avoid the remains that were left behind the beach...The mongoose was on fire. The mongoose dashed
through the cane field, setting the cane field on fire...There was no way of saying if the light in mountain was a jumble or a sukinaw.
Sonny Jim was not going to wait to hear the end of the story.
...She told him that she was making out. That was a big problem for him..for her..for her mother. Should he stay in St. Thomas, Virgin
Islands? Or should he go back home and marry her?
In Sandy Point he would catch ground doves, fly grasshoppers and catch lizards...Saturday was the big day for cutting wood for
baking. Brimstone Hill has not been the same since. And when he stumbled his big toe and put that big toe in the washiecong, heaven
helped you if you were near the smell.

SONNY JIM OF SANDY POINT, a novel for all ages, will make you laugh and make you cry. You will laugh at the times but you will
not forget the times.


CARIBBEAN VISIONS edited by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-06-
0, 266 PP, HARD $25.95 + $1.75 S&H

You are invited to join the ranks of those who had the opportunity to hear ten Presidents outline their visions for and to the Caribbean
people over the period 1979 to 1989. From Curacao in the Netherlands Antilles to St. Kitts in the OECS, from Jamaica in the north to
Barbados in the south, these ten Presidents of the Caribbean Studies Association key in on critical issues which faced and will face the
people of the Caribbean at home and abroad.
You will be informed about:
Equality and Social Justice Wendell Bell
United States Dominance Vaughan Lewis
Labour Surplus and the Engine of Growth Ransford Palmer
Modem-Conservative Societies Anthony Maingot
Strategies for Progress in Post-Independenc SBJH
Human Values and Human Resources Faut Andic
Economies of the State and the People Compton Bourne
Challenges of Leadership Alma Young
Zone of Peace: Possibility or Utopia? Andres Serbin
CSA's Visions of Development Eddie Greene
Can you afford not to read this book? This book is important to those who make the Caribbean their home at home and abroad. The
book is also important to those who want to know more about the thinking of Caribbeanists and Caribbeaners as they chart their
visions of and for the Caribbean people over time and space.
The contributors are distinguished academics, scholars and practising decision/policy makers in the traditional Caribbean, the wider
Caribbean and in North America.
The Caribbean Studies Association, CSA, is the premier organization that studies the Caribbean. CSA is also a family. These ten ad-
dresses are ideas from our family to your family.
The Editor: S. B. Jones-Hendrickson (SBJH) is a Professor of Economics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Campus, USVI.
He is a founding member of the Caribbean Studies Association. He held positions as the first Secretary-Treasurer, Council Member,
Vice-President and President.
Pleaseorderfrom: EASTERN CARIBBEAN INSTITUTE or from your local

P.O. Box 1338 bookstore
Frederiksted, St. Croix
Virgin Islands 00841


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