Title: Caribbean review of books
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094097/00004
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean review of books
Alternate Title: CRB
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Publisher: UWIPA
Place of Publication: Mona Kingston Jamaica
Mona, Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: May 1992
Copyright Date: 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Caribbean literature -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Imprints -- Book reviews -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Aug. 1991)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1994?
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 10 (Nov. 1993).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094097
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25144524
lccn - 92658675
issn - 1018-2926

Full Text

Number 4, May 1992
"The complete source for Caribbean book news"

ISSN 1018-2926

The Intended, by David
Dabydeen, London, Secker and
Warburg, 1991, 245 pp., ISBN 0
436 20007 4 HB, 13.99.

by Norval Nadi Edwards

known as a poet with
two published works to
his credit : Slave Song
(1984) which was awarded the
1984 Commonwealth Prize for
Poetry, and Coolie Odyssey
(1987). I must confess that I dis-
like Slave Song with its forced
vernacular, its histrionic rage,
and, worst of all, Dabydeen's
boldface Anansi-like attempt to
give the whole affair an ap-
pearance of infinite profundity
by assembling an entire critical
and explanatory apparatus to ac-
company the poems. There is a
certain tongue-in-cheek
audacity about the enterprise
but the explanatory parapher-
nalia are distractions that
preclude total engagement with
the text. Coolie Odyssey, how-
ever, is a far more compelling
work textured by personal and

collective ironies that emerge out
of the experience of displace-
ment. The poems in this collec-
tion evoke an awareness of
multiple identities, origins, and
destinations : India, Guyana,
and Britain. They also explore

the problematic sexual politics of
dark-skinned migrant Caliban
and white native Miranda in an
ironic revisioning of postcolonial
relationships within the
metropole itself.

Like Coolie Odyssey,
Dabydeen's first novel, The In-
tended, explores the experience
of the Indian diaspora in the
Caribbean (specifically Guyana)
and Britain. It is a welcome addi-
tion to the genre of the Carib-
bean bildungsroman,
semi-autobiographical works
that focus on the experience of
childhood and development. Pre-
vious works in this genre, from
George Lamming's In the Castle
of My Skin to Jamaica Kincaid's
Annie John, have tended to
focus almost exclusively on their
protagonists' experiences in the
Caribbean, delineating the
various factors-individual and
social- that send them into
exile. Dabydeen, however,
begins at the destination rather
than at the point of departure.
He transforms the realities of
displacement and marginalisa-
tion into a sensitive, and
psychologically fine-tuned ac-
count of childhood and adoles-
cence in Guyana and London.
The Intended, like Coolie Odys-
sey, has a very self-conscious
ironic awareness of the
problems and possibilities atten-

Coolie Odyssey Revisited

continued on page 8

m3flVwt GWJ LB3DxDB i

With this issue CRB
completes its first
cycle of four ap-
pearances. As we
enter our second year we look
back in gratitude on our sub-
scribers, contributors, adver-
tisers, printers, our production
team and the many friends who
encouraged us and helped us-
come this far. We thank you all
and look forward to your con-
tinued support.
In this issue we publish a
review which attempts to focus
on what transforms a good
textbook into a good Caribbean
textbook. The review in this issue
looks at the question from an
academic point of view although
we appreciate that there are
other considerations than the
purely academic ones in produc-
ing a good Caribbean text. There
is much more to the production
of a text than its content, and at
the Book Fair '91 organized by
the Book Industry Association of
Jamaica, representatives of pub-
lishers, booksellers and teachers
discussed some aspects of this
question. A short summary of


Textbooks in the Caribbean -----14
Velma Pollard Winner of the Casa
de las Americas Prize, 1992 ------ 17
Focus on Caribbean Journals -
Tropical Agriculture -------------6
A Selection of Columbus Books-- 24

The Intended---------------------1
Education and Society in
the Commonwealth Caribbean-------3
The Islands and the Sea -----------5
The Poverty of Nations-----------7
Caribbean Biology------------- 11
The Making of a Sugar Giant:
Tate and Lyle 1859-1989 -------- 10
In Times Like These---------- 16
The Single European Market of
1992: Implications and Options for
Caribbean Agriculture ---- 18
New Books ------ 20

No. 4, May 1992

that discussion is also included
in this issue. We hope this will
start off a serious examination of
the subject and we welcome com-
ments from publishers and
authors on other aspects of the

On a different note, this being
the 500th year since Columbus
appeared on our shores, CRB
chooses to note the quincenten-
ary of this happening by listing a
selection of 'Columbus books', a
list by no means exhaustive.
CRB invites short notes on other
Columbus books we may have
left out.
The review of the book on
Tate and Lyle appearing in this
issue is somewhat different from
the average book review. Here
Alan Eyre attempts to look at the
historical account in the book
from a Caribbean perspective,
and does so with a view to widen
and deepen our understanding

CRB is published quarterly by the UWIPA,
In August, November. February and May.

Samuel B. Bandara

Production Editor and Designer:
Annie Paul

Alan Moss (Barbados)
Edward Baugh (Jamaica)
Selwyn Ryan (Trinidad and Tobago)

Ermlna Osoba (Antigua)
Matthew William (The Bahamas)
Joslyn Nembhard (Belize)
Vernon Shaw (Dominica)
Beverley Steele (Grenada)
Howard Fergus (Montserrat)
Constantine Richardson (St. Kitts & Nevis)
Marilyn Floissac (St. Lucia)
Adrian Fraser(St. Vincent)
Charles Wheatley (British Virgin Islands)

of a history on some aspects of
which there have been several
opinions and views expressed in
the past. The questions the
reviewer asks and the answers
he gleans from the text will
provoke further thought, we
On 24th April 1992 the first
book bearing the imprint of the
University of the West Indies
Press, Slave Society in the
Danish West Indies by the late
Dr. Neville Hall was launched.
The new press was also
launched at the same ceremony.
For Caribbean book people this
is a most significant event. CRB,
especially being the offspring of
the University of the West Indies
Publishers' Association (UWIPA),
cannot let this opportunity pass
without expressing its joy at this
achievement, its thanks to the
editor and those who provided
the support for this first book to
become a reality and its hope
that this title will be the begin-
ning of a long and an illustrious

ic' UWIPA, 1991
ISSN: 1018-2926

Annual Subscription:
Per issue:
LISS3 00
Air Mail add:
US$6.00 per annum
US$1.50 per issue
Caribbean currencies equivalent to the
above accepted.

Editorial mail to:
P.O. Box 139
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Subscriptions to:
P.O. Box 42
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Fax: 809-927-2409
Tel: 809-927-1201

Advertising rates available on request

LRGwfl,5w (MxDfil

With this issue CRB
completes its first
cycle of four ap-
pearances. As we
enter our second year we look
back in gratitude on our sub-
scribers, contributors, adver-
tisers, printers, our production
team and the many friends who
encouraged us and helped us-
come this far. We thank you all
and look forward to your con-
tinued support.
In this issue we publish a
review which attempts to focus
on what transforms a good
textbook into a good Caribbean
textbook. The review in this issue
looks at the question from an
academic point of view although
we appreciate that there are
other considerations than the
purely academic ones in produc-
ing a good Caribbean text. There
is much more to the production
of a text than its content, and at
the Book Fair '91 organized by
the Book Industry Association of
Jamaica, representatives of pub-
lishers, booksellers and teachers
discussed some aspects of this
question. A short summary of


Textbooks in the Caribbean ------14
Velma Pollard Winner of the Casa
de las Americas Prize, 1992 -----17
Focus on Caribbean Journals -
TropicalAgriculture----------- 6
A Selection of Columbus Books-- 24

The Intended -------- ------- 1
Education and Society in
the Commonwealth Caribbean------3
The Islands and the Sea ----------5
The Poverty of Nations ---------------7
Caribbean Biology----------- 11
The Making ofa Sugar Giant:
Tate and Lyle 1859-1989 -----10
In Times Like These-------- 16
The Single European Market of
1992: Implications and Options for
Caribbean Agriculture - 18
New Books ---------20

No. 4, May 1992

that discussion is also included
in this issue. We hope this will
start off a serious examination of
the subject and we welcome com-
ments from publishers and
authors on other aspects of the

On a different note, this being
the 500th year since Columbus
appeared on our shores, CRB
chooses to note the quincenten-
ary of this happening by listing a
selection of 'Columbus books', a
list by no means exhaustive.
CRB invites short notes on other
Columbus books we may have
left out.
The review of the book on
Tate and Lyle appearing in this
issue is somewhat different from

the average book rev
Alan Eyre attempts
historical account iri
from a Caribbean pe
and does so with a
and deepen our und

CRB Is published quarterly by the UWIPA,
In August, November, February and May.

Samuel B. Bandara

Production Editor and Designer:
Annie Paul

Alan Moss (Barbados)
Edward Baugh (Jamaica)
Selwyn Ryan (Trinidad and Tobago)

Ermlna Osoba (Antigua)
Matthew William (The Bahamas)
Joslyn Nembhard (Belize)
Vernon Show (Dominico)
Beverley Steele (Grenada)
Howard Fergus (Montserrat)
Constantine Richardson (St. Kitts & Nevls)
Marilyn Flolssac (St. Lucia)
Adrian Fraser(St. Vincent)
Charles Wheatley (British Virgin Islands)

of a history on some aspects of
which there have been several
opinions and views expressed in
the past. The questions the
reviewer asks and the answers
he gleans from the text will
provoke further thought, we
On 24th April 1992 the first
book bearing the imprint of the
University of the West Indies
Press, Slave Society in the
Danish West Indies by the late
Dr. Neville Hall was launched.
The new press was also
launched at the same ceremony.
For Caribbean book people this
is a most significant event. CRB,
especially being the offspring of
the University of the West Indies
Publishers' Association (UWIPA),
cannot let this opportunity pass
without expressing its joy at this
achievement, its thanks to the
editor and those who provided
th.i ,rn r"+ tnr +-i4 aro ft-o +n^t f


P. 23 last item in Colum
Slave Society in the a

SUWIPA. 1991
ISSN- 1018-2926

Annual Subscription:
Per issue.
Air Mail add
US$6.00 per annum
USS 1 50 per Issue
Caribbean currencies equivalent to the
above accepted.

Editorial mail to:
P.O. Box 139
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Subscriptions to:
P.O. Box 42
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Fax: 809-927-2409
Tel: 809-927-1201

Advertising rates available on request

Education and Society in the
Commonwealth Caribbean edited
by Errol Miller. Kingston, ISER,
1991, vii, 271p. ISBN 976-40-
0035-5. US$10.00.

by Amy Robertson

Faculty of Education,
University of the West
Indies (UWI), Marlene
Hamilton said, "Valuable data
contained in academic papers,
studies and theses are often hid-
den away in the Universities'
libraries where they are virtually
ignored except by those who
have an academic interest in the
particular area addressed." The
contents of this book will make
available some of these very im-
portant papers, to a wide
audience of researchers, policy
planners and interested readers.
This will no doubt please Sir
Alister McIntyre, Vice Chancellor
of UWI, who in the foreword ac-
knowledges the central role of
the University in the develop-
ment strategies of the region but
warns researchers that they
must find ways of bringing the
findings of their investigations to
policy planners and to the wider
society, and warns policy plan-
ners that "Development without
research is a recipe for failure."
The work has its genesis in
an unusual type of seminarjoint-
ly sponsored by the New York-
based Research Institute for the
Study of Man (RISM) and the
UWI Faculty of Education.
Between 1987 and 1990,
RISM conducted the Spencer
Foundation Research Project
which studied the relation be-
tween Education and Society in
Barbados, Grenada and Trinidad
& Tobago. Some work had al-
ready been done, particularly on
the three Campus territories of
Barbados, Trinidad & Tobago
and Jamaica, by UWI re-
searchers. Errol Miller, the
editor of this work, had himself

reviewed educational research in
the area up to 1984. The semi-
nar was therefore planned to up-
date Miller's work by noting
recent.university studies related
to the areas of achievement, ac-
cess and socialization, and
senior academics were commis-

andSocietyin the

Edited by Errol Miller
sioned to undertake reviews on
their respective campuses. In
non-campus countries where
educational research was not so
well developed, policy makers
and education officials were in-
vited to review the state of educa-
tion. Grenada, a project country
which had undergone a consider-
able degree of political upheaval
was reviewed by a practising
politician, and St. Kitts-Nevis
reviewed by the Chief Education
The interface of the RISM re-
search team with project country
paper presenters resulted in rich
interdisciplinary contributions of
educationists, anthropologists
and sociologists. Anthony
Layne's contribution on Bar-
bados is critiqued by Josep
Llobera of Goldsmith College,
London University, Patricia
Mohammed's on Trinidad and
Tobago by Philip Burnham of the
Department of Anthropology,
London University, and George
Brizan's on Grenada by George
Mentore of the Department of
Anthropology, University of Vir-
ginia, U.S.A.

The thorough analysis of the
Jamaican educational research
scene provided by Marlene
Hamilton adds valuable com-
parison to the Eastern Carib-
bean material as does
well-known sociologist Derek
Gordon's paper "Access to high
school education in post-war
Jamaica". Joseph Halliday
provides for St. Kitts-Nevis a
comprehensive review of the
aims, objectives and assump-
tions of education there, show-
ing how fundamental and
far-reaching reforms have con-
solidated social, economic and
political changes, observations
which may well have implica-
tions for other OECS countries.
In documenting the contribu-
tions of RISM to Caribbean
scholarship, Director Lambros
Comitas speaks of "scholarly
and practical benefits to be
garnered from the focused dis-
cussions of specialists on educa-
tion in societal context". He sees
the book as an attempt of Carib-
bean educationists and others to
help grapple with the problems
of education and to find solu-
tions. M.G. Smith of the In-
stitute and well-known
Caribbeanist outlines the aims
and objectives of the project, ac-
knowledging the work of Rex Net-
tleford in its organization.
In his deliberations, Net-
tleford looks at the entire Carib-
bean area from the standpoint of
issues and.problems which he
places in a broad socio-cultural
setting. He sees research studies
as the means of reshaping and
giving Caribbean people a global
vision. He maintains that "Carib-
bean education will have to be
primed into the habit of looking
at the Caribbean in new ways ...
for a future still unknown." The
future he contends will belong to
the intelligent
The final chapter consists of
the editor's penetrating reflec-
tions on the individual presenta-
tions. His own experience and
intimate knowledge of Caribbean
continued on page 5

k's- Caribbean Review of Books C41Ibbean Revwew of BSooks



Carole Bnvrc

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Edited By Mbye Cham

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Women and Literature
Edited by
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If our self-discovering is to take
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Marcus Garvey's Footsoldiers of the
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Jeannette Smith-Irvin
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Essays on Caribbean Cinema






Marcus Garvey
Anti-Colonial Champion
Rupert Lewis
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Rupet Lewis and
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Jan Carew
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Rasta and Resistance, From
Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney
Horace Campbell
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Mavis C. Campbell
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Theresa Lewis
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The Legacy of Marcus Garvey
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SInre yjuanury AnLounI

MOM=& TtT Y ..

C-YIN,,*. .MD. -O ~_
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L__ __ ____ ___ __ __ __ __ __ __ JI

No. 4, May 1992


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The Islands and the Sea: Five
Centuries of Nature Writing from
the Caribbean, edited by John
A. Murray. New York and Ox-
ford: Oxford University Press,
1991. pp. xvi, 329, maps, illus.
0-19-506677-4. US$22.95.

by B. W. Higman

A nthologies of travel
writing are by na-
ture exhausting.
The reader is
hustled on and off boats,
trains and planes, given time
to do no more than catch a
quick glimpse of some
bucolic, picturesque or hor-
rendous slice of the
landscape before being hur-
ried into some fresh niche or
vista. When 500 years' ex-
perience is compressed into
a single volume the exhaus-
tion is likely to be complete.
So reviewers of The Islands
and the Sea must be for-
given for emerging a little
breathless, unable to remem-
ber what exactly struck
them most vividly, to remember
what may be best forgotten and
to think what meaning could be
extracted from the total trip.
There are many splendid pas-
sages in Murray's collection and
he is to be congratulated on put-
ting it together. Kennan's ac-
count of the eruption of Mt.

EDUCATION, contd from page 3
educational affairs gives excel-
lent perspective to the contribu-
tions. An acknowledged expert
on educational research in the
Caribbean, he contributed the
chapter "Education and Society
in Jamaica" in the 1976 work
Sociology ofEducation: a Carib-
bean Reader (ed. Figueroa and
There are a few editorial
mishaps: On p. 105 the chapter

Pele is gripping stuff, and
Hemingway on the great
Matecumbe hurricane of 1935 is
equally good. The overall picture
of nature presented in the book
is however much milder than
these two examples might sug-
gest, and to that extent the book
fails to present a picture repre-
sentative of local perception.

The things that Caribbean
people find remarkable in the
natural world they inhabit tend
to represent the harsh side of
the environment earthquake,
flood, drought, hurricane, tidal
wave. These are the things wor-
thy of great literature and oral

heading should read Jamaica
and on p.55 Allen and'Union for
Allen and Unwin. For me, the
cover design is too literal an in-
terpretation of Eric Williams' dic-
tum that the role of the
education system should be that
of midwife to the emerging social
order, not a chambermaid of the
existing social order. But these
are minor faults, compared with
the intrinsic worth of the book

No. 4, May 1992
record, not the placid waters
and picturesque scenes.
The imbalance in perspective
found in Murray's anthology is
easily sketched in quantitative
terms. Of 48 extracts, identifi-
able Caribbean-bor authors
number just three (Naipaul, Wal-
cott and Jamaica Kincaid); ex-
amples from folklore account for
another two (both collected
by North Americans). Thus
the "five centuries of nature
writing from the Caribbean"
are not so much rooted in
the region as expressions of
outsider views, dominated by
the accounts of travellers.
Sometimes Murray himself
seems to equate "nature
writers" with travellers (p. 9).
As well as the marginal
numerical representation of
Caribbean writers in the an-
thology, we can note their
recency, the earliest extract
being from Naipaul's The Mid-
dle Passage of 1962. Even
the Naipaul and Kincaid fit
the traveller/outsider model
well enough; only Walcott's
poems (on fish, frogs, turtles
and butterflies) deviate from
the norm. Interestingly, Murray
includes the Caribbeans with
"modem writers of the alterna-
tive tradition".
Another problem with
Murray's anthology has to do
with its intention. The emphasis
is on writing, and writing in
English at that. Murray is a
continued on page 14
which will please researchers at
every level. Thirty-four pages of
detailed statistics, some as cur-
rent as 1988, as well as tables
in the texts, extensive references
and the scholarship of senior
academicians make this an out-
standing work. Caribbean na-
tionals studying abroad find the
education systems of their
countries fertile ground for re-
search. For them the book will

continued on page 13

t --bbsi R\ ~~ew B-..oks CCaribbean Review of Books Cadbbean Review of Iooks

TopicalAgriculture: The Journal
of the Faculty of Agriculture (Im-
perial College of Tropical Agricul-
ture) University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine. Published
by Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Subscription enquiries to: But-
terworth-Heinemann US, 80
Montvale Avenue, Stoneham,
MA 02180, USA. Tel: (617) 438-
8464. Annual subscription from
Vol. 69: UK & Europe 200.00,
single copy 60.00, rest of the
world 220.00, single copy

by Evadne McLean
This is one of the longest
standing Caribbean
serials. The Imperial
Department of Agricul-
ture for the West Indies estab-
lished in 1899 commenced
publishing a journal West Indian
Bulletin for the West Indies in
1902. The Imperial Department
was the predecessor of the Im-
perial College of Tropical Agricul-
ture (ICTA) which came into
being 20 years later (1922). the
new institution, ICTA, issued the
first issue of Tropical Agriculture
in January 1924 as a continua-
tion of the West Indian Bulletin
for the West Indies and since
then with interesting changes in
format, content, and con-
tributors the journal of ICTA has
been published without a break
and today it is one of the leading
scientific journals communicat-
ing research findings in tropical
When ICTA published the
first issue, in addition to com-
municating latest discoveries in
research and problems identified
as needing scientific solutions,
the journal had other objectives.
According to the editorial of the
first issue it sought to make the
activities of the College known,
and to present in broad but

exact terms understandable by
all classes of readers what tropi-
cal agriculture means. These lat-
ter objectives illustrate the
beginnings of a new discipline
and a new academic institute
that was attempting to establish
itself as a centre of excellence in
the new field. During the early
years there was 'College news',
'Sports news' with photographs
of ICTA teams, staff lists printed
on the inside cover, accessions
lists, Principal's report,
obituaries and examination
results. In 1934 a new College
News Bulletin was begun to
carry information on college and
student activities. Until 1940 the
journal published regular
columns labelled West Indian
News, and a series of Notes -
Chemical, Entomological, Tropi-
cal World, Sugar and Miscel-
laneous and a report on market
trends in tropical crop products.
These were columns compiled
from information from other jour-
nals. After 1940 only the Chemi-
cal Notes produced by the
Department of Chemistry and
Soil Science was continued;
During its life the journal has
gone through several changes of
format and size.

* 1924 Monthly issues of 16
double-column pages of 280 x
216 mm size

* 1925 24 pages per issue
(288 per volume)

1932 32 pages per issue
(384 per volume)

1939-45 (War years) 240
pages per volume

1947-49 due to paper
shortages etc. small size, 1947
volume only 144 pages.
Monthly issues discontinued,
half yearly and quarterly is-

No. 4, May 1992

* 1950 single-column pages
of 254 x 165 mm size.

* 1954 248 x 152 mm. An-
nual volume over 300 pages.

* 1982 298 x 210 mm.
Double-column pages.
From the beginning until
1953 the annual subscription
rate (including postage)
remained a constant six shill-
ings within the British Empire
and seven shillings for others.
Until 1954 when Butterworths
Scientific Publications began
publishing the journal within an
agreement with the College,
Topical Agriculture was
produced (printed at the Govern-
ment Printery) and distributed
from Trinidad. With the new
publishing arrangements under
which the new publisher
received the licence to print and
publish the journal on behalf of
ICTA with exclusive rights to
world distribution and to adver-
tising, the annual subscription
rate was increased to 2.00.
Thereafter there was a rapid in-
crease in subscription 2.10
(1960), 4.10 (1969), 8.00
(1970), 14.00 (1975), 30.00
(1979) reaching the current
rate of 73.00 in Britain and
82.00 overseas in 1988. Under
the new agreement the Editor-in-
Chief (appointed by ICTA in con-
sultation with the Publisher)
was resident in the U.K. (for the
years 1981-85 however, Profes-
sor Cope who was Editor-in-
Chief resided in Trinidad).
During the first eight years,
each annual volume carried an
average of 84 research papers
(each of 3 pages) well illustrated
with graphs, tables, maps and
photographs. Around 64 per
cent of papers included were con-
tributed by ICTA Faculty with
the remainder from British tropi-
cal territories. Here we see the
new journal being supported by
continued on page 10


The Poverty of Nations: Reflec-
tions on Underdevelopment and
the World Economy by Michael
Manley. Pluto Press: London and
Concord. 122pp. 0-7453-0314-5

by Carlene J. Edie
Prime Minister Michael
Manley of Jamaica has
had a full life as a jour-
nalist, trade unionist,
politician and scholar. The Pover-
ty of Nations is his sixth
scholarly book. His other
books include The Politics of
Chance (1974), A Voice at the
Workplace (1975), Jamaica:
Struggle in the Periphery
(1982), Global Challenge:
From Crisis to Cooperation -
Breaking the North-South
Stalenmae (1985) and Up the
Down Escalator: Development
and the International
Economy A Jamaican Case
(1987). With the exception of
A Voice at the Workplace which
focuses on unions and politics in
Jamaica, all of his books are
centered on issues of under-
development and the world
The Poverty of Nations
emerged from lectures presented
at Columbia University. Al-
though it is brief, consisting of
only 122 pages, it is informative,
providing a concise summary of
the historical evolution of mer-
cantilism, colonialism and lais-
sez-faire capitalism assessing
their intimate linkage to poverty
in the Third World, For the begin-
ner, the author provides useful
learning tools and definitions of
key words and terms in an Ap-
pendix. There is also a short bib-
liography of a representative
sample of authors who stimu-
lated the work. This is not only
an academic work, it is also
policy-oriented, designed to in-
fluence debate on North-South
relations. It is valuable s a refer-
ence for undergraduate courses

on Third World development. It
may also be a useful handbook
for journalists in need of a basic
introduction to issues of develop-
ment in the Third World.
The aim of the book is to dis-
cuss the origins of Third World
poverty and to propose solutions
for its elimination. The thesis is
not new. Manley has expressed
these ideas elsewhere, orally and
in writing. He reiterates the well-
known contention shared by
many dependent theorists and


Marxists, that mercantilism,
colonialism and capitalism led to
a vast concentration of the
means of production, technology
and capital in the industrialized
West, and simultaneously
destroyed the productive forces
of the Third World, leaving it as
an impoverished waste-land. In
a very lucid summary, he covers
old ground in the dispute be-
tween the modernization and de-
pendency approaches, offering
nothing new to the initiated.
Manley acknowledges the
enormous diversity among Third
World countries. He spends an
entire chapter comparing
development models adopted by
Cuba, Jamaica, Tanzania, Puer-
to Rico, South Korea, Taiwan
and Singapore, evaluating their
adequacy in overcoming under-
development. He argues that the
'success' stories of Puerto Rico,
South Korea, Taiwan and Sin-
gapore may be due in part to
their special relationship with
the United States and their

No. 4, May 1992
geopolitical importance to the
latter's ideological interests
during the Cold War. The Puerto
Rican "dependent capitalist"
model and the "export-oriented"
model of the East Asian nations
are both rejected as viable
models for Third World develop-
ment. Manley acknowledges the
failure of his own "democratic
socialist" strategy in Jamaica
during the 1970s and the failed
policies of UJAMAA socialism in
Tanzania. Cuba has had much
success in terms of social
welfare, but Manley notes
that economic growth has
been slow and democratic
processes are absent.
Despite the author's
ideological commitment to
democratic socialism, like
Seaga, his predecessor as
Prime Minister of Jamaica,
his policies in his current
administration reflect, in
his own words. "a new at-
tempt to reintroduce the
Puerto Rican model ... despite
continuing evidence of the con-
tradictions inherent in that
path" (p. 61).
For Manley, the solution to
Third World poverty has been
defined in terms of two impera-
tives: (1) restructuring interna-
tional economic relations and (2)
South-South cooperation.
Restructuring international
economic relations should give
Third World countries greater
sovereignty and control over
development policies. Here, he
abandons his earlier romantic il-
lusions about the charity of the
North, and concedes that Third
World advocates of a New Inter-
national Economic Order (NIEO)
have been stalled by powerful
forces in the United States and
Western Europe who see NIEO
as "global welfarism" and inter-
ference with the free market. He
believes that effective com-
promises can still be made if the
decision-makers in the "First
World" are interested in even a
continued on page 14

:, / *<'P,1*:FIfN` > Caribbean Revew of Boolm 1 ""-."-evv-m& IoIrr

R3wflBwr (A LBflim

THE INTENDED, contd from page 1
dant on cultural and racial am-
bivalence. These larger issues are
evoked by Dabydeen's
scrupulous focus on the per-
sonal, as the novel, narrated by
the unnamed first-person nar-
rator tracks the development of a
group of boys from various parts
of the Indian diaspora as they
carve out various roles and iden-
tities for themselves in the Lon-
don suburb of Balham.
The narrator introduces us to
the group and each member's
relationship to particular origins
and identities:
It was the regrouping of the
Asian diaspora in a South
London playground. Shaz, of
Pakistani parents, was born
in Britain, had never travelled
to the subcontinent, could
barely speak a word of Urdu
and had never seen the inte-
rior of a mosque. Nasim was
more authentically Muslim. a
believer by upbringing, fluent
in his ancestral language and
devoted to family. Patel was
of Hindu stock, could speak
Gudjerati; his mother who
once visited the school to
bring her other son, wore a
sari and a dot on her
forehead. I was an Indian
West-Indian Guyanese, the
most mixed-up of the lot.
The narrator's sense of tripled
confusion is further complicated
by the one identity that all of the
boys are being shaped by:
Englishness, the unnamed yet
pervasive norm that constructs it-
self in opposition to their dark
migrant otherness. The develop-
ment of the narrator, in par-
ticular, is predicated on the
ability to negotiate these multiple
and conflicting identities. Identity
in the novel is subject to con-
stant refashioning; it is always
mobile, hence the confusions and
contradictions regarding self and
Dabydeen's plot is briskly
episodic. In two hundred and
forty-five deftly narrated pages,
we are treated to approximately

No. 4, May 1992

two years of the narrator's life in
London, between his Olevels,
and his winning of a scholarship
to Oxford University. But in be-
tween these two terminal points,
contained in four movements, is
a wealth of stories: stories con-
stituted by memory, stories of
loss and recall, of departure and
arrivals, of familial and personal
odysseys, of death, disillusion-
ment and sexual awakening.
The narrator is an incessant
storyteller. His stories spun from
his memories and musings, con-
stitute the novel's various
episodes. There is a two-tiered
time scheme to the action: the
present, set in Balham, London
and the past set in Berbice,
Guyana. The past is recalled
through flashbacks, often trig-
gered by present events, and it is
the nostalgically evoked world of
childhood. A world marked by
the relative stability and security
of the narrator's maternal
grandparents's home, the
abusive behaviour of his own
father, and the curiosity and in-
terest in knowing things of a
bright, inquisitive child. Nostalgia
provides a rapidly receding point
of origin. Even the idyllic
memories of the boy's vacations
in Albion Village, and his
grandfather's gifts of fruit, exist
perhaps only as an imaginative
counterpoint to the sordid ironies
of his present surroundings and
This is how I remember him,
but perhaps in the treeless
cold of Bedford Hill, vegeta-
tion rotting in the gutter and
the whores climbing in and
out of motorcars, I fabricate
his memory, and his stick be-
comes a wand which with one
wave conjures up a dream
world ofjamoon tree and
tropical fruit whose tastes are
now, like a magician's trick,
still fresh in my mouth (p:30).
The realities of the present:
unaccommodated, alienated
adolescence, racial, cultural, so-

cial and sexual uncertainties, af-
fect the boys in various ways.
Shaz, the most anglicised of
the lot, grows into a cynical foul-
mouthed young man who is
preoccupied with sex. He be-
comes more or less a pimp for
his prostitute-girlfriend Monica,
and becomes involved in an
aborted porno movie-making ven-
ture with Patel. The latter be-
comes a crass young Asian
storekeeper, who sells porno
videotapes and drugs. Nasim, the
good Muslim, leaves London to
live in Sheffield. His departure oc-
curs as a result of a brutal attack
on him by young white thugs on
a "Paki-bashing" spree. The other
boys secretly despise him for
having become a victim, the
stereotypical Paki. The beaten
Nasim becomes a symbol of their
own impotence, of their mar-
ginalised status, and of the
devastating impact of racism:
He was a little, brown-
skinned, beaten animal. His
wounds were meant for all of
us, he had suffered them for
all of us, but he had no right
to. It was Nasim's impotence
which was so maddening, the
shamefulness of it. I knew im-
mediately that Patel, Shaz
and I could never be his
friend again, because he had
allowed himself to be
humiliated. We would avoid
him in school because he
reminded us of our own weak-
ness, our own fear (p:14).
Nasim's exit does not erase
the experience of shame. The nar-
rator experiences it repeatedly.
Shame is one of his defining char-
acteristics. He is ashamed of his
own poverty, his abandonment
by his father, and of the seeming-
ly unstructured Guyanese creole
of his childhood. He is also
ashamed of Asians, who stand
out noticeably amongst the
English, with their turbans, saris
and distinctive accents, and of
Black West Indians. Shame adds
to the confusion regarding his
own memories of origins. In

No. 4, May 1992

Guyana he had been divorced
from any knowledge of India,
aware of its influence and
presence only through fleeting im-
pressions: a silver bracelet on his
grandmother's ankle, and the
story of his great-great
grandfather Juncha who came
over as an indentured labourer.
He recalls these memories which
serve to only highlight his
present confusion in London as
he struggles to escape from the
imprisoning conditions of shame,
fear,poverty and cultural uncer-
tainties. Education provides the
key for his escape from the
migrant-filled Balham neighbour-
hoods, but it does not provide
answers to the confusions of cul-
tural and racial identity, and as-
similation. At the end, the
narrator departs for the decorous
halls of Oxford University, hoping
that he will be able to find him-
self there, and give definition and
clarity to himself. He longs to es-
cape from this dirt and shame
called Balham, this coon condi-
tion" that keeps him in ignorance.
The "coon condition" is essen-
tially the condition of the "na-
tive:, the "nervous conditions" of
the colonised. In what is for me
the most thematically profound
section of the novel, the narrator
tells of his relationship with the
dramatically poignant character
of Joseph Countryman, an il-
literate visionary Rasta youth,
who "sees" through the social
and psychological constructs that
maintain the "coon" condition".
Joseph is an unlikely prophet:
his illiteracy excludes him from
participation in the mainstream,
he has a criminal past, and his
reasoning often take the form of
rambling, seemingly incoherent
discourse. But it is Joseph who
sees through the illusions, the
supreme fictions of neocolonial
relationships in the metropole.
Joseph, despite his illiteracy,
after having heard the text of
Joseph Conrad's Heart ofDark-

ness read aloud by the narrator,
brings a radical enlightening criti-
que to bear on Conrad's dark-
ness. Joseph dismisses the
narrator's learned remark that
the theme of suffering and
redemption lies at" the core of
the novel's concern" and posits
instead a rainbow reading, a
parable of colours that restates
the history of European expan-
sionism and the subordination of
so many peoples to the condition
of the native, the condition of the
coon by the monolithic entity of
Empire. Joseph's reading l-
lumines Conrad's darkness:
"....You been saying is a novel
'bout the fall of man, but is
really 'bout a dream. Beneath
the surface is the dream. The
white light of England and
the Thames is the white sun
over the Congo that can't mix
with the green of the bush
and the black skin of the
people. All the colours strug-
gling to curve against other
like rainbow, but instead the
white light want to blot out
the black and the green and
reduce the world to one blind-
ing colour" (p:98).
It is moments like these that
make The Intended worth read-
ing. Dabydeen's gift's are consid-
erable: he writes with a deft,
supple ease; he is capable of
vivid dramatic characterisation
and possesses an eye and ear for
detail, and expressive speech
respectively. His ability to pack a
wide range of speech registers
into a moderately sized narrative
is proof of his keen awareness of
language, and its potential for
evoking character, mood and set-
ting. Language in The Intended
spans a range of discourses from
the eloquent Creole profanity of
the narrator's great-uncle to the
South London argot of his school-
mates, his landlord's Pakistani-
inflected English, and Joseph's
visionary "roots" ramblings. Lan-
guage itself is thematised within
the work as the narrator's

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development occurs against the
background of his movement
away from Creole to what he per-
ceives as the pristine order of:
English language and literature.
Despite his talent Dabydeen's
novel is not entirely flawless.
There is a tendency to pack as
much as possible into the
episodes, a desire it seems, to be
as profound as possible, thus the
young narrator is often burdened
with an explanatory power that
surpasses his years, and his
relationship with his white
girlfriend Janet becomes pressed
into the Caliban-Miranda sym-
bolic framework.
The narrator's desire for Janet
becomes a desire for acceptance
by England, the mother country
and a desire as well for calmness,

order, and monumental, sharply
defined history. We are not even
allowed to figure this out. We are
told, as if the writer is so anxious
to make us understand his mean-
ing that he forgets that most of
the fun of reading lies in the figur-
ing out of our own meanings.
But Dabydeen need not worry.
The Intended is a well-written.
lucid novel that resonates with
multi-layered meanings. Its high-
points are epiphanic without the
stasis of Joyce's epiphanies; these
are dynamic fiery illuminations
like Joseph's committing suicide
by setting himself on fire. Black
coal burning; the coon condition
transformed into its opposite.
Joseph's death unsettles the nar-
rator, and it haunts us too with
the power of signification in-

scribed in the act. Dabydeen's
prose- elegiac, questioning, and
cogent evokes the dis-ease of
diasporic migrations and transfor-
mations. For us in the Caribbean,
still negotiating our way through
multiple identities, multilateral
loans, and multiple follies, the
relevance of The Intended is time-
ly not only because it speaks to
our condition, but also because it
is in many senses an elaboration
and extension of our condition
transplanted to the metropole;
the Empire writing back from the
centre and putting the fundamen-
tal experience of displacement at
the centre of things.

Norval Edwards is a lecturer in the English
Department, UWI, Mona.

continued from page 6

the Faculty of the parent institu-
tion on its way towards interna-
tional status sometimes at a
sacrifice on the part of the con-
tributors. The late Professor
Hardy is reported to have claimed
that he lost a good deal of credit
for his pioneering work on tropi-
cal soils by publishing the results
of his work in the early volumes
of Tropical Agriculture with a
limited circulation at the time. In
April 1974 the special issue of
the journal commemorating 50
years of research in soil science
at St. Augustine paid special
tribute to Professor Hardy for his
In 1954, in the first issue
published under the new ar-
rangement, the Editorial
referred to the journal as "the
only one in English which
professes to deal with agricul-
ture in the tropics, and of the
tropics only, as a whole" and
the Governing Body of ICTA
hoped that it would be able to
live up to that role more fully
under the new arrangement.
Under the new procedure the
editorial responsibility was

shared between the Principal of
ICTA who received contributions
from the Caribbean, and G.B.
Maxfleld of Oxford University who
received all the other contribu-
tions. Until 1960 when ICTA
merged with the University Col-
lege of the West Indies to become
the Faculty of Agriculture, an Ad-
visory Panel of eight prominent
scientists assisted in the editorial
work. In 1960 this Advisory panel
was replaced by a Faculty
Editorial Board of four members
and ten years later Consultant
Editors were appointed.
Between 1954-1960 a total of

Year Total Caribbean
Contributions Content
1986 60 6(10%)
1987 67 4(6%)
1988 85 7 (8%)
1989 79 2 (2.5%)
1990 81 7 (8.6%)

235 papers and 214 reviews of
books were published and the
papers were longer, averaging
nine pages. The international

No. 4, May 1992

spread of contributors also
widened with about 20 per cent
of the papers coming form the
Faculty in 1960, this proportion
decreasing further to around 14
per cent during the next two
decades. During this period the
journal became truly internation-
al. The figures for 1986-1990 indi-
cate this trend very clearly.
From time to time Tropical
Agriculture has come out in spe-
cial issues focusing attention on
special events and subject areas.
The second issue of Volume 51
(April 1974) celebrated 50 years
of research in soil science as St.
Augustine paying special atten-
tion to honouring Professor
Frederick Hardy. Vol. 59 No. 2
(April 1982) edited by Profes-
sor F. W. Cope was devoted to
research papers and the
workshop discussions from a
symposium on the manage-
ment of clay soils held at St.
S Another publication in this
field, Oil Palm News published
by the Tropical Products In-
stitute, (now the Tropical Develop-
ment and Research Institute of
continued on page 13

No. 4, May 1992

Caribbean Biology: an integrated
approach R. Soper & S. Tyrell
Smith with the collaboration of
W. K. King assisted by A. Maund.
2nd ed. London, Macmillan Carib-
bean, 1991. 0-333-55199-0

by Peter R. Bacon

well presented, informa-
tive and readable
textbook which covers a
great deal of ground very
thoroughly. The major part of the
book deals with general prin-
ciples and components of biology
as they would be taught at this
level anywhere in the World. As
such it is a textbook of Biology,
not Caribbean Biology. The text
is lightly peppered with examples
of Caribbean flora and fauna,
which are used to illustrate
general principles, but there is lit-
tle that specifically separates
Caribbean biology from African or
Asian biology.
The introductory chapter con-
tains very valuable background
to definitions, units,
methodologies and equipment.
Chapter 1 on Nutrition is
general, as it must be to impart
the basic ideas about food sub-
stances and nutrition. However,
the use of Kwashiorkor as an ex-
ample of a deficiency disease is
more appropriate to Africa; as is
the reference to Antelopes, hip-
popotamus and black rhino (p.
45). Although these are not un-
familiar animals, there are better
New World examples even
among Caribbean domestic
animals, such as the donkey -
and why use the leopard when a
cat will do just as well. The note
that "Some groups such as the
Buganda (Uganda) will not drink
milk" (p. 54) is a poor choice of a
food taboo for Caribbean children.
It is obvious that this
'Caribbean' version of the basic
text has been derived from one

produced for Africa; a few Carib-
bean names have been included
and it has been given a new
Caribbean jacket.
Chapter 2 on Transport is
well done, but some examples
need changing. The use of a
shrew and elephant to explain
surface area to volume ratio is
unfortunate, the former being un-
familiar to Caribbean children.
The discussion of hypertension
(p. 74) using examples from the
USA and Africa makes one
wonder why there is no suitable
data from our region. This chap-
ter contains the first reference to
anything Caribbean, some plants
- after 92 pages!
Chapters 3 and 4 have good
and suitable examples and excel-
lent supporting text. Chapter 5
on Respiration is well written and
Chapter 6 on Excretion,
makes the same mistakes as ear-
lier ones; on page 136 there is a
poor example of adaptation to
tropical climates using Kenyan
Sambaru. Why not use Carib In-
dians, who live in the islands and
on the adjacent mainland, or
even show a photo of a West
African who has more direct
regional linkage than Kenyan
East Africans. (It would be inter-
esting to apply the authors'
theory of short Eskimo/cold
Arctic and tall African/hot
tropics to the Caribbean Amerin-
dians who are short! The tropical
African Pygmy are also short.
Surely, the adaptation of the
Kenyan Sambaru is to a
grassland existence, not just to
the tropics.)
There are several other minor
points like this, that detract from
the overall value of this book; for
example Chapter 11 on
Skeletons; why the skeleton of an
elephant (p. 222) and a cane rat
(p. 231). What is the significance
of these two examples, other than
the African ancestry of this

Chapter 13 on soil is poor.
Page 266 describes different
types of African soils. Page 269
describes the Harmattan wind
blowing in West Africa and soil
erosion in the USA. Are there no
local examples of winds and
wind/soil erosion? Furthermore,
there is no mention whatsoever
of Caribbean soil types, even
though these have been well
studied and information is readi-
ly available.
Chapter 14 on Ecology leaves
a lot to be desired. This is where
one would expect to see the
Caribbean ecosystems treated
specifically, but page 276 uses
the European Golden Eagle to dis-
cuss animal distribution and
habitat; many local examples
could have been substituted
here. On page 293 Turtle Grass,
Thalassia testudinum, does not
occur on dunes above high tide,
it is always sub-tidal. Pages 305-
307 shows human life tables for
the UK, Ghana and Sweden when
such data are available for the
Caribbean. Page 310, under
other types of mining, discusses
iron ore which is not mined exten-
sively in the Insular Caribbean;
why not use Bauxite as an ex-
ample. Page 311 should give
more emphasis to reef fisheries,
as these are the major fishery in
the majority of islands. On Page
318, under aesthetic appreciation
of wildlife, the comment about an
oil platform in the North Sea is ir-
relevant. On Page 319, the com-
ment that "as they die" coral
skeletons give rise to reef rock is
misleading; they produce reef
rock "as they grow" and deposit
calcium carbonate. On Page 321,
it is incorrect to state that
mangroves are associated with
leeward sides of islands, as they
occur on all coasts (albeit in shel-
tered locations). White mangrove
is not zoned as distinctly as the
other species, therefore it is not
found (only) on the landward
side; it is not the only species

( b'::;" es Rl vew of B aoks Caribbean Review of Books Radbbean review of Books

IBoWvfiw of TBoDWIs

with "fleshy waxy leaves" as this
is a characteristic of red
mangroves also. Page 323, under
the heading Conservation of
Rocky Shores and Sandy
Beaches, the comment that "this
applies particularly to coral reefs
such as the Great Barrier Reef in
Australia" is out of context (and
also a bad example in a region
noted for its Caribbean reefs, and
with Belize nearby which also
has a great barrier reef). One
wonders why the life history of
the Queen Conch is
described in such detail
(p. 323-4) and why this is
the only animal so
Chapter 15 begins
with the statement that
"The study of living or-
ganisms in their natural
surroundings or environ-
ment is called Natural
History" (p. 325), but
Chapter 14, stated that
"Ecology is the study of
plants and animals in
relation to their surround-
ings" (p. 272). This is like-
ly to confuse a student.
The introduction to Chap-
ter 15 talks of the study
of External Morphology,
but the word 'External' is
not needed, Morphology
is the study of the form of
organisms, which means
their external ap-
pearance. Surely also the
science of the classifica-
tion of organisms is
called Taxonomy.
Section 15.12 is misleading
in parts. It should be stated clear-
ly that the two scien-
tific/latinised names are for the
Genus and Species, not two
names for the species. Literally
'Homo sapiens' does not trans-
late 'wise man' but 'man wise'
and this should be explained
carefully to illustrate the way
that the generic and specific

names are used, i.e. "Homo' the
Genus and 'sapiens' the species
of Homo being discussed. This
may seem petty, but it is impor-
tant not to risk confusing stu-.
dents with statements that are
not strictly correct. This section
need to be re-ordered. It is incor-
rect to state (p. 326) that if a
specific name is derived from a
person it uses a capital first let-
ter like the genus e.g. the
seagrass Halodule wrightii is not
written Halodule Wrightii. Page

Chap.17 SIs ILas ANTILLES., is

0&,, ,

326 states that "Some members
of a species vary slightly, but suf-
ficient to make them separate
species. Such slightly differing or-
ganisms are called varieties" is in-
correct. If they are members of a
species, they cannot be separate
species the variation is only suf-
ficient to make them separate
Sections of Chapter 16 are
also misleading. Section 16.01
on Algae, by stating that "This

group includes a large number of
acellular organisms" suggests
that all members of this grouping
are acellular and thereby implies
that the more complex algae dis-
cussed in the next section are
also acellular. Furthermore,
having made this statement, it
goes on to describe the cellular
species Spirogyra. Section
16.10 on the Kingdom Plantae
suggesting that this includes
only Bryophyta and
Pteridophyta. This is com-
pounded in Chapter 17
where the term is not
used in connection with
the higher plants. Section
16.12 notes that the
Tracheophytes (should it
be Tracheophyta?) is the
correct name for the fern
group, but uses the old
term Pteridophyta when
classifying ferns in Sec-
tion 16.10. Section 16.20
places Amoeba with the
Invertebrata, but in Sec-
tion 15.13 it is placed in
the Proctotista. Such
taxonomic muddles are
likely to confuse.
Section 16.31 is incor-
rect to confine free living
flatworms to freshwater
habitats as they are
widespread in the sea.
Section 16.33 could con-
fuse students by stating
that the Phylum Mollusca
includes "all invertebrates
with a shell", as they will
know that crabs and
lobsters also have a shell. This is
not the correct designation of the
Phylum mollusca anyway, as
many molluscs are shell-less.
Pages 332-333 use a drawing of
an European lobster when a
Caribbean species would have
been equally appropriate. Sec-
tion 16.40. on page 335 needs
to resolve the classification of
Euglena as an algae or an

No. 4, May 1992

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No. 4, May 1992

animal by reference to Section
Chapter 18 on Vertebrates
uses some poor examples, in the
choice of Bufo regulars and the
agama lizard which are African
species, when the common Carib-
bean toad is Bufo marinus and
common lizard is Anolis. The
giant rat is presumably another
African species.
In conclusion, a good text has
not been made as useful for
Caribbean students as it might
have been with a little more care,
particularly in the choice of ex-

amples. There are also a few er-
rors and some ambiguous sec-
tions. Not only is the title
"Caribbean Biology" somewhat of
a misnomer, but it is not easy to
see why the authors added "An in-
tegrated approach". The integra-
tion is not obvious, unless they
think this means dealing with
plants and animals in the same
chapter (although that is what
Biology is, as distinct from
separate studies on Zoology and
Botany). There could have been
integration in several place, such
as the discussion of groups of or-

ganisms in both the taxonomy
and ecology sections, but the
chapters come across largely as
complete units. The test ques-
tions make little attempt to in-
tegrate information from different
sections to see if students have
perceived the linkages within
their subject. A good opportunity
has been missed in the test sec-
tion, as in general has the at-
tempt to produce a biology
specifically for Caribbean stu-
Peter R. Bacon is Senior Lecturer in the
Department of Zoology, UWI, Mona.

TROPICAL AGRICULTURE, continued from page 10

the British Overseas Develop-
ment Administration), was incor-
porated in Tropical Agriculture in
April 1985. Articles on oil palm,
together with an annual review of
the oil palm market are now pub-
lished in TropicalAgriculture.
Contributions to the journal
are refereed by international
specialists. TropicalAgriculture
now publishes only the results of
original research in its subject
area. It also carries book reviews
and advertisements. Because of
the international reputation it
now enjoys, each year 250-300
contributions are submitted for
publication from different parts of
the world as far away as South
Africa and Japan. To promote the
journal's use in Latin American

countries, abstracts of papers are
published in Spanish. The inter-
national role of the journal makes
the editorial task of the journal
more important and at the same
time more difficult.
Moves have been initiated to
bring the publication back into
the hands of the Faculty of
Agriculture in Trinidad and
Tobago with Dr. Frank A. Gumbs
appointed as Editor-in-Chief. It is
expected that the first issue of
1993 will be produced and pub-
lished in Trinidad, 1992 being
considered as the transition year,
when all the technical editing will
be from St. Augustine, with But-
terworths handling the produc-
tion and financial matters.

Tropical Agriculture is indexed
by several indexing and abstract-
ing services including Chemical
Abstracts, Biological Abstracts
and Environmental Periodicals Bib-
liography (EPB). Articles appear-
ing in it are available in reprint
quantities of 100 or more, and
the journal is also available in
microfilm from University
Microfilms International. Now in
its 68th year TropicalAgriculture
is one of the most prestigious
journals coming out of the Carib-
bean region.
Evadne McLean is an assistant librarian at
UWI, Mona. She acknowledges the use of the
text of a presentation by Dr. Frank A. Gumbs
to the Seminar on Scholarly Publishing in the
English-speaking Caribbean, Barbados, April
1988, in preparing this contribution.

EDUCATION, continued from page 5
be a valuable reference tool.
Many teachers, students, offi-
cials, policy makers, and consult-
ants will find it of invaluable
assistance. It is a book for practi-
cal use, not merely for academic

The publishers, ISER and
RISM, must be congratulated on
an outstanding production cited
by the Book Industry Association
of Jamaica (BIAJ) as the best
produced low-budget book for
1991. It can take its place with

pride among the growing number
of scholarly works on education
published in the region.
Amy Robertson is Documentalist in the
Faculty of Education, UWI Mona.

(;b5xtP.Rt: st L IIf CAMibban Revew of Books CCAtbeun IevIew of Books

by Annie Paul
n a country not renowned for
its love of reading what hap-
pens when book prices shoot
up by over a 100 per cent? Is
there anything local publishers
can do about spiralling prices?
What about printers and book-
sellers? Is there any planning in
the book industry? What is
government's role in all this?
What can you and I do? These
were some of the questions
raised at a panel discussion held
during the second National Book
Industry Association Bookfair on
November 24, 1991.

continued from page 5
professor of English (at the
University of Alaska), and he tells
us that reading the selections in
chronological order, as they are
arranged, provides "a self-guided
tour of the English language and
its literature since the Renais-
sance" (p. 16). This is a curious
argument. To get his 500 years,
Murray has to start with Colum-
bus, a man scarcely noted for
literary talent in English. Indeed
several of the early extracts are
necessarily translations from
Spanish or Portuguese. The
translations used come from dif-
ferent periods, however, so that
the "English" of Columbus in

Four members of the book in-
dustry gave their opinions on the
reasons for high book prices and
laid out for an interested but
small audience some of the dilem-
mas faced by the book industry
in Jamaica. The participants
were Steadman Fuller of
Kingston Bookshop, Shirley
Carby of Carlong Publishers, Ser-
rano McDonald of Montrose
Printers and S. Kumaraswamy of
Sangster's Bookstore.
Shirley Carby of Carlong Pub-
lishers explained the dilemma
succinctly. The print run of an
average book in the United
States is 50,000, in Jamaica it is
5,000 and in the rest of the

1492 (based on a translation of
1870) is vastly more modern
than that of say Joseph Acosta of
1588 (based on Purchas' transla-
tion of 1625). Acosta is the last
writer in Spanish to appear in
the volume, British authors
dominate the book between 1564
and 1873, after which they disap-
pear only to be replaced by North
Americans. This shifting focus
reflects the forces of cultural im-
perialism within the region. But
the "English-speaking" territories
bulk large in Murray's Carib-
bean, with not one extract
directed-specifically at the
Dominican Republic or Haiti

Caribbean 7,500. In Jamaica the
market for textbooks is par-
ticularly fragmented. Kumaras-
wamy gave the example of first
form mathematics for which
there are 16-20 different texts.
Carby said that the introduction
of the CXC exams meant further
specialization lowering print runs
further. Publishing textbooks for
subjects like agriculture which
are taken by less than 3,000 stu-
dents, ends up costing both pub-
lisher and students a lot of
money. Carby also made the
point that the Jamaican market
is self-indulgent, i.e. it demands
high quality, glossy, full-colour
textbooks and a variety of them,
continued on page 28
(surely a fine candidate for na-
ture writing). All these anomalies
mean that the collection fails to
work as a representative, Carib-
bean sample.
No selection is likely to please
everyone. The best we can say is
that Murray has opened a sig-
nificant area. It is up to others to
think about the implications for
understandings of the natural
landscape of the region (and the
proper definition of that natural
region) and for an appreciation of
the literature bor from such un-
Barry Higman is Professor of History at
UWI, Mona.

continued from page 7
modest reform-of the world
economy. He warns that failure
to address the problems of the
Third World, debt in particular,
will result in catastrophe for the
entire world.
South-South cooperation has
the potential to develop Third
World capabilities and resources
to reduce its dependence on the
West. Manley charges that Third
World countries must look to
their own "regional neighbor-

hood" for opportunities
equivalent to Europe '92 and
NAFTA, to combine its economic
planning and productive
rationalization. The agenda of the
1990s must differ from that of
the 1970s, he argues, by being
more concerned with the em-
powerment of the South, rather
than pleading with the North. If
South-South cooperation suc-
ceeds, the author contends that
the hostile international environ-

ment must be changed. Multi-
lateral institutions must be
reformed to provide structures
within which developed and
developing countries can seek to
negotiate to reconcile their inter-
ests. The book ends with a moral
claim that the world will either
sink into anarchy or develop a ra-
tional way to order its affairs.
Carlene Edie is Assistant Professor of Politi-
cal Science at the Uniersity of Massachusetts,
Amherst, USA.

No. 4, May 1992

No. 4, May 1992

The Making of a Sugar Giant Tate
and Lyle 1859-1989 by Philippe
Chalmin. Chur (Suisse) and Lon-
don: Harwood Academic Publish-
ers. 1990. 782 pp, 3-7186-0435-3

by L. Alan Eyre
T his book is not easily
digested. With almost 40
chapters, over 200 major
sub-sections, not all
chronological, and scores of close-
ly typeset tables; it is heavy
going. But nevertheless, it tells
quite an epic story. It reveals
much about motivation within a

growing multinational corpora-
tion. It also offers answers to
many questions about the nature
of development in the advanced
countries, and the lack of it in
the Third World. This review will
ask a few of these questions and
indicate the lines along which
Chalmin's book seeks to answer

First, however, we must note
the three eras in the history of
Tate and Lyle, because they are
so fundamentally different.
1. 1859-1921. The era of Tate
cubes and Lyle's Golden
Syrup. Tate and Lyle are
separate companies. Both
prosper in the face of stiff com-
petition from European beet
2.1921-1980. The merged
Tate and Lyle becomes the
dominant British refining
company and a world giant in
the sugar industry. After-tax

profits grow from less than one
million pounds sterling annual-
ly in 1921 at merger to 40 mil-
lion in 1980. This represents a
growth slightly greater than
that of the British and world
economy as a whole, a very
modest growth in real terms ad-
justed for inflation.
3. 1980-present. The era of
high finance. Since 1980, the
name Tate and Lyle has been
purely an honorific. No Tate or
Lyle has been on its board. The
aim of the company has
dramatically changed. So has
its profitability from 40 mil-
lion pounds a year in 1980 to
nearly 250 million today, a
growth far ahead of inflation.
Tate and Lyle has been trans-
formed from a company
making sugar fairly profitab-
ly to an international con-
glomerate making money
very profitably. This transfor-
mation is now almost com-
plete. Tate and Lyle has turned
to financial wheeler-dealing,
with directors and some
thousands of shareholders look-
ing only for maximum financial
returns, irrespective of source.
As Chalmin puts it on page
716, near the end of the story:
The company [has] become a
totally different business
whose logic is more or less
typical of the agro-industrial
sector...The profitability of
Tate and Lyle ultimately hin-
ges on the decisions taken in
the corridors of power in Brus-
sels or Washington. It is only.
indirectly dependent on the
vagaries of the world market.
The corporation is still a world
class refiner, netting 40 million
pounds pre-tax profit a year,
equally spread between Britain,
Canada and the U.S.A. But this
is less than a sixth of the
company's total profits today!
This transformation of Tate
and Lyle has been in part due to
a shift in the world's perception
of the value of sugar as a sub-


stance. In 1949 Leonard Lyle
declared (page 422):
Sugar is the only food which
can be preserved indefinitely
without deterioration. It is the
purest product offered for sale
commercially today. The pos-
sibilities for its use in the non-
food sector are limitless.
Now, forty years later, there is
a pervasive view that sugar is un-
healthy and even a poison! Use of
sucrose has declined, and the
Lyle idea of a limitless future for
sugar has certainly dimmed.

Now to the questions:

What made possible the almost
uninterrupted growth of Tate
and Lyle over more than a cen-
(1) Keeping ahead of comt

technological innovation.

4r~l j~h t l Caribbean Review of Books Cadbbean Rlevlew Of 0oo0


In Times Like These by Zee
Edgell, Heinemann, 1991, 307

by Carolyn Cooper
Unlike Beka Lamb who
toys with the idea of be-
coming a politician
when she grows up,
Pavana Leslie, the self-effacing
central character of Zee Edgell's
second novel, finds herself
caught up in politics al-
most against her adult
will and her better judge-
ment. Manouevered into
assuming the director-
ship of the Women's Unit
in the Ministry of Com-
munity Development in
Belize, Pavana, newly
returned home, struggles
to stay afloat in a hostile
sea of contending politi-
cal factions. Edgell
satirizes the hidden agen-
das that determine the
fate of tokenist develop-
ment agencies like a
Women's Bureau. In ex-
change for aid-money
Government ministers
agree to establish
"development" units and then do
all in their power to undermine
them. Powerful women fight
among themselves for leadership
positions in order to secure
perks like travel to international
conferences all for the sake of
their less
Stoner Ben-
nett, a
militant throw-back from
Pavana's student days in Lon-
don, tries to set her straight: "On
the subject of the sisters,
Pavana, I hear you are about to
take a certain job to do with the
education of the sisters, which is

good, surprising to me as it is.
But you are on the wrong side at
the wrong time." To which she
somewhat naively replies: "The
unit is a government agency. It is
supposed to be of service to
everyone, particularly women,
and I will try to run it that way,
no matter which political party is
in power." Stoner's deflating
reply introduces the element of
romance that is a primary preoc-
cupation of the story: "You al-
ways did have good intentions,

Pavana, but that one is. as
romantic and unrealistic as any
I've heard, particularly now."
Stoner's "now" the "time" of
the novel's title is a period of
political disquiet in Belize which
echoes the dissonance of Edgell's
earlier novel, Beka Lamb. "Big"

questions of nationhood, political
autonomy and West Indian
regional federation for Belize are
juxtaposed with the small-scale
politics of frustrated sexual an-
tagonism and colour/class con-
flict between Pavana Leslie, a

reluctant activist, and Alex
Abrams, an aspiring politician,.
and the unclaimed father of her
Like Paule Marshall's
Daughters, In Times Like these
opens with the protagonist in an
abortion clinic, contemplating
the act with all its potential com-
plications. Marshall's Ursa
Beatrice Mackenzie who does un-
dergo the abortion, feels a sense
of absolute absurdity in the reas-
suring "beauty parlor" ambiance
S of the clinic: "All these calla
S lilies staring at you from the
walls with their petals
spread open like some poor
woman's exposed sex in the
centerfold of Hustler."
Pavana might have wel-
comed the illusion of
flowers, however perverse:
"There were no windows in
the room, no paintings on
the pale yellow walls. The at-
mosphere was sterile, like
the instruments laid out in
S a gleaming tray on a trolley
S beside the table."
The consolation that the
S youthful Pavana might have
found in a pious faith in
some divine benevolence is
satirized: "She envied Mary
who, on finding herself pregnant,
was able to call on the assis-
tance of the Angel Gabriel and
the Holy Spirit to help persuade
Joseph that marrying her, and
caring for the baby would be the
right thing to do." Alex, who bor-
rows money from
Stoner to pay for
the abortion that
Pavana refuses, is
less susceptible to
persuasion than
the sainted Joseph.
Ambitious to make his mark on
Belizean politics, Alex has little
time for Pavana's moral vacilla-
tion. He marries Helga, his much
more sensible German girl-
friend, who, in his own words,
would never have put herself or

No. 4, May 1992

No. 4, May 1992

Velma Pollard Winner of the Casa de las Americas Prize 1992

by Sheila Carter
V elma Pollard's novella,
Karl, has been awarded
the 1992 Casa de las
Americas Prize in
English. Casa de las Americas,
Havana, Cuba, awards prizes
each year to literary works fom
Latin America and the Carib-
bean. Writers from the English-
speaking Caribbean are invited
to participate every two years.
Velma Pollard read languages
at the University of the West In-
dies, then did post-graduate
studies at McGill and Columbia
Universities. Later, again at
Mona, where she is now Senior
Lecturer in Education, she
gained her Ph.D. in Language
Education. She has edited, Over
Our Way (1980) with Jean
D'Costa, as well as Nine West In-
dian Poets: An Anthologyfor the
CXC Examination (1980) and
Anansesem (1985). Crown Point
and other Poems, her first collec-
tion of poetry, was published in
1988, followed by a collection of
prose writing, Considering
Woman (1989). Another book of
poetry, Shame Trees Don't Grow
Here is at press. The quotations
from Karl used in this article are
taken from an extract which ap-
peared in Her True-True Name:
An Anthology of Women's Writing
in the Caribbean (1989), edited
by Pamela Mordecai and Betty
Velma Pollard's creative urge
manifested itself early. A poem
she wrote, "Cruel Death", while
she was at Woodside Elementary
School, won her a prize. A crea-
tive worker whose development
evidences the intimate reciprocity
between the artist's life and
work, she grew up in a literate
milieu: at home with a mother
who was a school teacher and a
father, a farmer who read widely
and was keenly interested in the

theatre; then, under Mr. E. G.
Roper, her school afforded an in-
tellectually stimulating atmos-
phere, conducive to the
nurturing of the creative mind.
Her sister, Erna Brodber, is the
well-known author of Jane and
Louisa Will Soon Come Home and
the prize-winning novel, MyaL So
from an early age, Pollard came
to love and appreciate literature.

She says: "For as long as I can
remember, I have loved to read,
and to read books that were well
Pollard admits to a socio-his-
torical purpose in her work. She
speaks of her compulsion to
write and to portray in her work
"those things in society which
need to be documented, such as
certain positive aspects of
Jamaican life which are passing
away and need to be preserved."
In Karl she documents facets of
Jamaican life, such as the time
in our country when "everybody
was friendly, everybody was help-
ful, everybody was around
everybody else ..." (p. 62). As is
characteristic of her writing,
there are scenes which evoke nos-

talgia, such as this one in a
school yard:
... every one of those almonds
will be gone; but little piles of
seeds will wait for recess bell;
and groups of three or four
will pile around each heap,
chiefly girls, for some reason:
and the stones will go down
in a kind of ritual thumping:
bup. bup, crack and the al-
mond shell will yield, and the
little white almost coconut
will be carefully extracted
and put to join its brethren
on the large almond leaf lying
on its back. Just before the
end-of-recess bell rings, the
sharing begins... (pp. 61-62)
The writer is impressed by the
commonality of the Caribbean ex-
perience which determines the
facility with which people in the
various islands are able to relate
to her character portrayals, as
they do to the grandmother in
her short story "Gran".
Pollard's style has a captivat-
ingly conversational quality, as
she draws on familiar Jamaican
experiences and situations, selec-
tively employing standard
English and Jamaican Creole. In
Karl we see how her skilful use of
the appropriate form of expres-
sion enables her to extend in-
They say Clifton was very
bright and had gone to Mico
to train as a teacher. I can't
remember now whether his
studies had sent him mad or
whether somebody had
worked obeah on him
through jealousy ... Aunti
would remember. All I know
is that all through my
childhood he walked down
the road counting the stones
at his feet and every now and
then throwing one behind
... If I leave this place and go
to Hopeville and sit upon a
stone and look at the harm-
less bushes covering the cave
they call Daddy Rock: or if I
try to sit in the cave in all
that cool stillness where they

C'.i-::w :-vi: ::'.' B. Caribbean Review of Books Cadbben IReview of Book

BfvfiflrWoy (off xBTDkT

say so many seeds were
spilled, you will hear that
Miss Elvy bright son study
till im tun fool an is same
ting dem did tell im madda
im should stop study long
time for too much book no
good. They will say that is
book make im siddung a
plait im finger an look eena
dih cave top like im lass
Or you will hear dat a smad-
dy dweem so far ajalous
dem jalous dih bwoy flh im

brain; dates why dem tell him
god mother since him
mother pass on, fih tek dem
advise and go see if dih man
a calabash tree can see flh
help him...
And everybody would be
right. For when you get what
you want and stop wanting
what you get; is fool you turn
fool. And the smaddy who do
you so is yourself. (p. 65)
As regards Pollard's response
to public reaction to her award,

she admits "I am impressed by
how the public has reacted to
my award. I did not know that
my getting a prize would touch
the consciousness of so many
people". "Touching the con-
sciousness of so many people"
is, indeed, exactly what Karl is
Sheila Carter is a lecturer in Spanish at UWI,

The Single European Market of
1992: Implications and Options
for Caribbean Agriculture. by
Dowlat Budhram and Lorenzo
Rock. Coronado, Costa Rica.
Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation in Agriculture (IICA),
1991. 116p. (ICA's Programme
Papers Series, No.26, September

ICA is to congratulated on
this publication for several
reasons, the most significant
of which is its relevance at
this time when the subject of its
focus is very much in our discus-
sions. It is also significant that
this monograph is from IICA
which is the "specialized agency
for Agriculture in the Inter-
American System", showing the
concern and attention IICA does
have for the Caribbean to which
13 of IICA's member countries
(Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados,
Dominica, the Dominican
Republic, Grenada, Guyana,
Haiti, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St.
Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines, Suriname and
Trinidad and Tobago) belong. The
series in which this title has ap-
peared as the 26th issue, the Pro-
gram Papers has been published
from 1987, and so far very few of
the titles included in it (three out
of the first 25 issues) have been
in English. Perhaps for this

reason the series is not well-
known in the English-speaking
Caribbean. This issue is in
English and as we would see in
the paragraphs that follow it is a
document that is well worth
being made widely known in the
English-speaking Caribbean. A
note on the press run of this title
states that 1,200 copies were
produced and it is obvious that
this edition will not be sufficient
to make it widely available in the
Caribbean as it should be. Per-
haps the CARICOM Secretariat or
the State Information Services of
the individual Caribbean states
(or even the West Indian Commis-
sion) should take the trouble to
look at this monograph carefully
and arrange with IICA to reprint
it (or bring out a new edition) for
wider availability in our region for
the facts and interpretation con-
tained in it to be communicated
to the wider public.
The book is presented in a logi-
cal sequence of seven chapters of
which the first is the Introduction
and the last the Summary and
Conclusions. The latter is a very
helpful summary divided into two
sections the first of which is a
two and a half page account en-
titled "Lessons for the Carib-
bean". In the examination of the
advent of the single market, the
authors make an attempt not
only to look at it as something
that happened in distant Europe,
but also with a view to gleaning

No. 4, May 1992

lessons from that experience; les-
sons that are likely to be of
benefit for the people and leaders
of the Caribbean who must make
up their minds and get on with a
parallel agenda of activities in
their region. The difficulties the
members of the European Com-
munity faced in the conflict of in-
terests between the national
positions and the Community
policies are pointed out and also
how necessary and important set-
tling these issues was for the
achievement of the common goals
of integration. They say very clear-
ly that "the first basic lesson to
be learned from the EEC ex-
perience is that of persistence
and political commitment of in-
dividual governments toward the
common goals of integration"
Although the main focus of
this study is the agriculture sec-
tor it points out the impact other
sectors have on this area and
proceeds to examine not only the
Common Agricultural Policy
(CAP) but also the Competition
Policy, Transport Policy, Fisheries
Policy and the general back-
ground and evolution of the
EEC's Economic and Monetary
Policy and the European
Monetary System.
The variety of information
provided in the discussion is
wide. There is statistical data on
the Caribbean indicating the rela-
tive positions of the several
continued on p. 30

TATE, continued from page 15
(2) Developing a highly visible,
popular product, keeping it at
an attractive price and produc-
ing in bulk with a very small
profit margin on unit sales
(Lyle's Golden Syrup and Tate's

* Why did Tate and Lyle invest in
the Caribbean, and later in
Because World War I shat-
tered Britain's dependence upon
Germany for sugar, suggest-
ing to Tate and Lyle that a
revival of sugar cane in the
old tropical colonies would
provide a more reliable
source of supply. Chalmin
points out that the directors
only very reluctantly ac-
cepted this policy, and that
it was Sir Robert Kirkwood
of the Lyle dynasty, a
colonialist of the old stamp,
who won them over. He had
a stubborn conviction that
the West Indies' proper im-
perial role was that of
provider of cane sugar for
the mother country.
Kirkwood felt that centrals
like those that had made so
many fortunes in Cuba
would do so in the British
West Indies.


* How important were the
West Indian subsidiaries Figu
(WISCO, Caroni, etc) to Tate
and Lyle?
Not very important. The four
chapters on Tate and Lyle's West
Indian ventures (chapters 17 to
20) are only a tenth of the book -
which is roughly equal to the
financial importance they have
had in the firm's history. This
book will help to put the
peripheral nature of our economy
and society into perspective.
What was vitally important to us

No. 4, May 1992

was never more 'than a temporary
flutter for Tate and Lyle, even at
its peak (Page 313). The postur-
ing of certain West Indian politi-
cal figures that we would greatly
benefit by taking over vast riches
controlled by a greedy exploiting
multi-national company was real-
ly the mouse that roared, there
were no vast riches. But there
were plenty of liabilities and
debts to repay. Tate and Lyle lost
heavily from many of its West In-
The Tate and Lyle group 1965
1 even used to woke up feeling rich"
an inv.elds e -n p del. o un m

dian investments. Caroni
(Trinidad) was modestly success-
ful; WISCO (Jamaica) and Belize

and Lyle left behind.
How significant was the West

Not very significant. In 1938
Britain was importing most of its
Tn idad} smodstysucess

Ta A Tyle let behid.

2 How significant was the West
Indian Imperial connection in

Britain was importing most of its

sugar from Cuba, the Dominican
Republic, Australia and Peru.
The British Caribbean including
British Guiana reached a total of
11 percent of British sugar im-
ports, that is all.

* What about the great sugar
debate in the 1960's?
It receives a passing mention,
with a few short quotes from the
main participants. To us it
seemed at the time an issue of
4n5 fundamental importance,
and some academic reputa-
tions were made (and lost)
during the battle of words,
but to Tate and Lyle it was
the merest ripple on the
face of the flowing waters.
There is a brief reference to
the impassioned plea of
Havelock Brewster and Or-
lando Patterson that
producing sugar was
anachronistic, poor
economics and "morally
repugnant". In long
retrospect, Sir Robert
Kirkwood, though he had
the worst of the argument
at the time, was the more
prophetic. His challenge to
the West Indian radicals to
come up with an alternative
product, as readily saleable
as sugar, that would pro-
vide the good life, first
world style, for a quarter of
a million people off a
thousand square kilometres
of land indefinitely has
gone unanswered and
unmet. The "New World"
socialists, the Ministry of
Mobilization, and the AMC have
all come and gone, and we are
left with only the IMF and the
World Bank to help us out of this

continued on page 30

COsbbeKw RPviw o:f SBck Cadbbean Review of Books Cadbbemn Rieview of BIook

(If you wish to review any of these books write to the editor)

As Nasty as They Wanna Be: The Un-
censored story of Luther Campbell of
the 2 Live Crew by Luther Campbell
and John R.Miller. Kingston, Kingston
Publishers, 1992. xil, 244p pp. ill. 976-
625-036-7. US$ 17.95 (J$ 249-95).
(Kingston Publishers Ltd.. 1A Norwood
Ave., Kingston 5, Jamaica.)

Between Two Worlds by Simone
Schwarz-Bart. Oxford, Heinemann,
1992. 212 pp. 0-435-98929-4 5.99
This is the English translation by Bar-
bara Bray (first published by Harper &
Row) now issued for the first time in
the Heinemann Caribbean Writers
Series. In recent months two other tit-
les have been added to this series, It So
Happen by Timothy Callender (stories)
(1991, 127 pp. 0-435-98926-X 4.95,
US$8.950) and In Times Like These by
Zee Edgell (novel) (1991, 307 pp. 0-
435-98927-8 5.99 US$9.95)
.... a .... G.800. 600 ...... ... .... ........ a
Bibliography of South American and
Antillean Petroglyphs.by C.N.
Dubelaar. Amsterdam, The Founda-
tion 'for Scientific Research in the
Caribbean Region, 1991. 134p.ill.
(Publication of the Foundation of Sc.
Res. in the Carib. Region, No.129/
Publication of the Arcaeological
Museum of Aruba, No.5)
Available from! The Foundation,
Plantage Middenlaan 45. 1018 DC,
Amsterdam. price DFL 35.
The Archaeological Museum of Aruba,
Zoutmanstraat 1, Orajestad, Aruba.

Bibliography of the Latin American
Studies 1980-1990. compiled by
Rumiko Yoshida and Shigeko Sasaki.
Tokyo, Institute of Developing
Economies. 1991. 378p.
Address: Inst. of Dev. Economies (Ajia
Kelzai Kenyusho), 42, Ichigaya-Hom-
mura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162,
Japan. Tel. 03-353-4231, Cable.
AJIKEN Tokyo, Telex. Ajiken J 32473
Includes a Section on the Caribbean

listing published work in 18 sub-sec-
tions each dealing with a separate
Caribbean Island and a general Carib-
bean sub-section. In addition sub-sec-
tions on French Guiana, Guyana and
Suriname under South America and
on Belize under Central Amerida are
included. An Author Index and a Title
Index are provide, and a summary of
contents by the 27 subject categories
used to group entries within
geographic areas is given under the
title "Hit List by Area and Class" as an

A Brief History of the Caribbean: From
Arawak and the Carib to the Present by
Jan Rogozinski. New York, Facts On
File, 1992. x, 324 pp. Ill. 0-8160-2451-
0 US$27.95
This is the newest history of the Carib-
bean to be published, and is a history
of the islands of the Caribbean, all of
the islands (excluding the mainland
territories of Belize and Guyana,
Suriname and French Guiana which
are often included in histories of the
Caribbean), grouped in the British,
Dutch and the French Caribbean ter-
ritories of colonial times. Rogozinski
presents his brief history in eighteen
chapters grouped into five parts of the
book entitled 1. The Caribbean under
Spanish rule, 2. Northern Europeans
come to stay. 3.The sugar empire, 4.
The abolition of slavery and the chal-
lenges of freedom, and, 5. Poverty and
progress in the Caribbean since 1914,
the final part bringing the history to
the present day to the 'Operation Ur-
gent Fury in Grenada, and Haiti after
the Duvaliers upto the ousting of Aris-
tide. Apart from the many illustrations
and over thirty table providing mainly
population figures the author also
gives a useful reading list for each part
of the book and maps showing the
region as a whole and the individual
(Facts on File, 460 Park Avenue South,
New York, NY 10016 and Collins
Street, Oxford OX4 1XJ)
M.... E.Misse.MMMlMM... 08a0.0 ..... nnM

The Caribbean in the Wider World,
1492-1992: A Regional Geography by
Bonham C. Richardson. Cambridge
University Press, 1992. xvi, 235p.
(Geography of the World Economy) 0-
521-35186-3 hdc. 0-521-35977-5

The Caribbean:'Making Our Own
Choices' by Neil MacDonald. Oxford,
Oxfam Publications. 1990. 64 pp. ill.
0-85598-086-9 pbk. 3.95
Oxfam Publications, P.O.Box 120, Ox-
ford OX2 7FA England.

Caribbean Perspectives, vol.1: The So-
cial Structure of a Region. New
Brunswick, NJ., Transaction, 1991.
224p. US$ 19.95, 14.95, 0-88738-
838-8 pbk.
vol.2: Environment and Labour in the
Caribbean. ed by Joseph Liskowski.
New Brunswick, Transaction, 1992.
128p. US$ 19.95 1-56000-584-Xpbk.

Caribbean Slave Society: A Student
Reader. ed. by Hilary McD. Beckles
and Verene A. Shepherd. London,
James Currey, 1992. 600pp? 0-
85255-084-7 (pbk) 15.95, 0-85255-
090-1 (cloth) 35.00 Include lan Randle
ed details.

Caribbean World: A Complete Geog-
raphy by Neil Sealey. Cambridge
University Press, 1992. 256p. pbk. 0-
Presented as a text for CXC and
BGCSE Examinations.

The Challenge of Rural Development A
Caribbean Response. Report of an In-
ternational Workshop on Integrated
Rural Development in the Caribbean,
8-12 Dec., 1985. St.Augustlne,
Trinidad and Tobago, CNIRD, 1991.
46p. US$10.00

No. 4, May 1992



.. ... .

No. 4, May 1992

For address of publisher see below
under Tinidad Profiles..
. ....................................

A Civics Handbook on Grenada.
Prepared for the Grenada Civic Aware-
ness Organisation by Cresswell R.
Julian. St.George's, GCAO., 1991.
x,91 pp. EC$ 25.00 (in the Caribbean),
US$ 10.00 (elsewhere)
The aim of this booklet is to introduce
the student of our primary and secon-
dary schools to some of the basic facts
about how the government of the State
of Grenada operates. When we speak
of the State of Grenada we include
Carriacou and Petite Martinique. (It)..
is also aimed at helping them to under-
stand their civic duties and respon-
sibilities as citizens of our country."
(from the Introduction)
Grenada Civic Awareness Organisa-
tion (GCAO). Knox House. Grand
Etang Road, St. George's, Grenada.

Columbus and the Golden World of the
Island Arawaks: The Story of the First
American and their Caribbean Environ-
ment by D.J.R.Walker. Kingston, Ian
Randle Publishers Ltd., 1992. 320p.
Ill. (hdc.) 976-8100-04-4 (lan Randle
Publishers, 206 Old Hope Road,
Kingston 6, Jamaica). First published
by The Book Guild Ltd., (25 High
Street, Lewes, Sussex)

Columbus: His Enterprise by Hans
Koning. London, Latin America
Bureau, 1991. 140p. 0-906156-60-2

Co-Management of the White Sea Ur-
chin Resources in St.Lucia by Allan
H.Smith and Randolph Waiters. (Paper
prepared for the IDRC Workshop on
Common Property Resources, Win-
nipeg. Canada, Sept., 1991). Chris-
tiansted, CANARI. 1991. 12 pp.
(CANARI Communication No.38) For
details and address of CANAI see
under Coral Reef Monitoring .

A Common Currency for the Caribbean:
A Study by Delisle Worrell. Black Rock,
West Indian Commission, 1992. 32pp.
976-8104-11-2, (Occasional Paper No.
4), (The West Indian Commission
Secretariat, Black Rock, St. Michael,

Coral Reef Monitoring for Management

of Marine Parks: Cases from the Insular
Caribbean by Allan H.Smith and Tom
van't Hof. (Paper prepared for the IDRC
Workshop on Common Property
Resources, Winnipeg, Canada, Sept.
1991). Christiansted, St.Croix, Carib-
bean Natural Resources Institute
(CANARI) 1991. 14 pp. (CANARI Com-
munication No.36.
Soufriere in St.Lucia, Bonaire, Saba
and the Regional problem are included
as cases.
Address of CANARI: 1104, Strand
Street, Suite 206, Christiansted, St.
Croix. US Virgin Islands 00820 or
Clarke Street, Vieur Fort, St.Lucia.

Crime and Control in Comparative
Perspectives. ed. by Hans-Gunther
Heiland, Louise I. Shelley and Hisao
Katah. Berlin, and NewYork. Aldine de
Guyter, 1991. 290 pp. hdc. 3-11-
012614-1 DM128.00.
In this volume containing invited re-
search papers on the development of
crime and punishment policies after
the second World War there is a study
of the Caribbean by H.Ellis entitled
"Crime and Punishment in the
English-Speaking Caribbean: A Com-
parative study of Jamaica, Trinidad
and Tobago, and Barbados, 1960-

Dating and Dietary Reconstruction by
Isotopic Analysis ofAmino Acids in Fos-
sil Bone Callogen with Special Refer-
ence to the Caribbean by G.J.Van
Klinken. Amsterdam, Foundation for
Scientific Research in the Caribbean

Region,1991. 113p. ill. (Publication
of the Foundation.. No.128)
Available from: Foundation ... Inst.
Tax. Zoology, Plantage Middenlaan
45, 1018 DC Amsterdam. price DFL
Thesis, University of Groningen,

The Doyen of Vere by William H.
Manning. Richmond Hill, Ontario,
LTL Enterprises, 1991. 134 pp. pbk.
A biography of Richard James
Mahoney Lewin of Vere, Jamaica.
Publisher's address: P.O.Box 32063,
Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada,
IAC 9S3.

The Emperor's Dan Dan by John
Agard. ill. by Alison Forsythe. Lon-
don. Hodder and Stoughton
Children's Books, 1992. 32p.
col.lls. 0-340-51825-1 7.99 (hdc)
Children's picture book.

Environmental Agenda for the 1990's:
A Synthesis of the Eastern Caribbean
Country Environmental Profile Series,
Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica,
Grenada, StKitts and Nevis, St. Lucia,
St. Vincent and the Grenadines. St.
Michael, Barbados, Caribbean Con-
servation Association and
Washington, D.C., Island Resources
Foundation, 1991. 71 pp.
The six Individual country environ-
mental profiles that form the basis of
the Environmental Agenda.. are as fol-
lows. They are all issued under the
same imprint.
Antigua and Barbuda: Country En-
vironmental Profile. 1991. xxvi, 212 pp.
Dominica: Country Environmental
Profile. 1991. xlx, 239 pp. ill.
Grenada: Country Environmental Sur-
vey. 1991. xvlli, 276 pp. ill.
St. Kitts Nevis: Country Environmental
Profile. 1991. xvili, 277 pp. ill.
St Lucia: Country Environmental
Profile. 1991. xx. 332 pp. ill.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines:
Country Environmental Survey. 1991.
xxviii, 222 pp. ill.

Europe 1992 and its impact on the
Caribbean Implications for Capital
and Labour Papers presented at a
Regional FES/CCL Conference at the
Barbados Workers' Union Labour Col-
lege, .. 1990. Belleville, Barbados,

('-:-:. w Ri.f :--i. Caribbean Review of Books Clbbean Review of Books

Bo3yfiw f (BfoDrs

Friedrich-Ebert-Stlftung, 1991. x, 75
pp. 976-8083-39-5
9 Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. 1st and
2nd Avenues, George Street, Belleville,
St.Michael, Barbados.

Foundations of a Movement: A Tribute
to John La Rose on the Occasion of the
SOth International Book Fair of Radical
Black and Third World Books, March
1991. London, John La Rose Tribute
Committee, 1991. 195 pp. 1-873201-
07-9. 7.95 (8.95 including postage
etc.) for sale from New Beacon Books.
See Katso, Calypso Music.. for address.
(John La Rose Tribute Committee, 108
Nelson Road, London N8 9RT,

Grass Roots of Guyana, (Part Two) by
Lewis Alyan. Georgetown. Betty Lewis,
1991. xiv, 92pp. Ill. (hdc) G$ 900.00
26 pen-portraits of Guyanese per-
sonalities. Part one of this work ap-
peared in 1985. Publishers address: 7,
Station Road and Vlissengen Road,
Newtown, Kitty, Georgetown. Guyana.

Illegal Truth by Ras Changa. (Poetry)
Philipsburg, St. Martin, House of
Nehesi Publishes. 1991. xvi, 93 pp. ill.
Address: House of Nehesi, P.O.Box
222, Philipsburg, St. Martin.

Intellectuals in the Twentieth Century
Caribbean, vol.1. Spectre of the New
Class: The Commonwealth Caribbean.
ed. by Alistair Hennessy. Macmillan,
204p. 12.95 0-333-53509-X
This is the latest volume issued in the
Warwick University Caribbean Studies
Series. A complementary volume
focussing on the Hispanic and Fran-
cophone is announced for December
1992 (see below). This first volume con-
sists of ten essays and a foreword by
Sir Shridath Ramphal. The essays are
by the editor ("Intellectuals: the general
and the particular"). Harry Goul-
bourne (on the institutional contribu-
tion of the University of the West
Indies), O.Nigel Bolland (on creoliza-
tion and creole societies). Rex Net-
tleford (on the aesthetics of Negritude),
Paul Sutton (on Eric Williams and Wal-
ter Rodney), Kent Worcester (on
C.L.R.James). Kenneth Surin
("C.L.R.James's materialistic aesthetic
of cricket"). Alrick Cambridge
("C.L.R.James : Freedom through his-
tory and dialectics"), Vincent P.
Franklin ("Caribbean intellectual in-

fluences on Afro-Americans in the
United States"), and the concluding
essay "The demise of the Intellectual?"
by the editor.

Jamaica: Debt and Poverty by
Claremont Kirton. Oxford, Oxfam Pub-
lications, 1992. 128p. ill. 0 85598 116
4 19.95 (hdc) 0 85598 117 2 4.95
For address see under The Carib-
beanw'Making Our Own Choices'.

Jamaica's Financial System: Its Histori-
cal Development. Prepared by Gall Lue
Lim. Kingston, Bank of Jamaica, 1991.
(6), 54p. 976-8044-03-9.
(Bank of Jamaica, Nethersole Place,
Kingston, Jamaica.)

Jews in Another Environment: Surinam
in the Second Half of the Eighteenth
Century. Leiden, E.J.Brill, 1991. xv,
350 pp. 90-04-09373-7 Dfl. 159.

Kaiso, Calypso Music by David Rudder
in conversation with John La Rose.
London, Port of Spain. New Beacon
Books, 1990. 33pp. 1-873201-00-1
pbk 2.95
Text of a conversation held at the
Calypsonlans in Person event on 8th
October 1987 at the National Sound
Address: New Beacon Books Ltd., 76
Stroud Green Road. London N4 3EN

Managing Financial Institutions in a

Changing Environment A Caribbean
Perspective. ed. by Stanley D. Reid.
Cave Hill, Barbados, Centre for
Management Development (Eastern
Caribbean), University of the West In-
dies, 1991. 1llp. 976-621-010-1.
Address: Centre... Univ. of the West
Indies. Cave Hill. P.O.Box 64,
Bridgetown. Barbados. Tel.(809) 424-
7331, Fax.(809) 425-1670. Proceed-
ings of a symposium on managing
financial institutions, Bridgetown,
Oct., 1990, organized by the Centre in
conjunction with Barbados Mutual
life Assurance Society and USAID.

Mothemation: Poems from 1984 to
1987 by Lasana M.Sekou. Philipsburg,
House of Nehesi Publishers, 1991.
for address see under Illegal Truth

On 'Amazonidi'. Pre-Columbian Skele-
tal Remains and Associated Archaeol-
ogy from Suriname by J.Tacoma and
others. Amsterdam. The Foundation
for Scientific Research in the Carib-
bean Region, 1991. 105p. ill. (Publica-
tion of the Foundation.. no. 127)
Available for DFL 45 from the same
address as given above for Dating and
Dietary Reconstruction.

Our Own Agenda. (Report) by the Latin
American and Caribbean Commission
on Development and Environment.
Washington. D.C. Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB), UNDP,
(1991). xiv, 93 pp.
A report designed to provide a multi-
faceted overview on environment and
development, "projecting a political as
well as a technical vision firmly
grounded on the region itself.. it is a
contribution by the region to a great
global debate on a unique set of
Environmental Protection Division,
IDB., 1300 New York Avenue, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20577. Fax: 202-

Oyster Culture in the Caribbean:
Proceedings of the Oyster Culture in the
Caribbean Workshop Sponsored by the
International Development Research
Centre, Ottawa, and arranged by the
Mollusc Culture Network, the Institute
of Social and Economic Research,
University of the West Indies, Jamaica,
and the Ministry of Agriculture,
Jamaica. Held in Kingston, Jamaica,

No. 4, May 1992

No. 4, May 1992

19-22 November 1990. ed. by Gary
F.Newkirk and Becky A.Fleld. Halifax,
Nova Scotia, Mollusc Culture Network.
Dalhousie Univ.. 1991. x, 244p. 0-
In addition to the 10 general and 8
country studies (of which 5 are from
the Caribbean, from Antigua/Bar-
buda, Dominica, Grenada, St.Lucia
and Trinidad and Tobago) this volume
contains a Bibliography of Literature
on Crassostera Rhizophorae -the
Mangrove Oyster- compiled by Becky
A. Field to which contributions were
made by several individual researchers
and the Institute of Marine Affairs of
Trinidad and Tobago. This bibliog-
raphy (on pp.217-240) is undoubtedly
the most up-to-date published guide to
the literature on the mangrove oyster
currently available.
(Mollusc Culture Network. Biology
Dept., Dalhousle University, Halifax,
Nova Scotia, B3H 4J I, Canada.)

Public Sector Expansion and Economic
Development: Sources and Consequen-
ces of Development Finance in Jamaica
1962-84 by Andreas Danielson. (Doc-
toral Dissertation) Lund. Univ. of
Lund. Dept. of Economics. 1991.
(Lund Economic Studies No.46) ISSN
0460-0029. Distributed by the Dept. of
Economics, Univ. of Lund. P.O.Box
7082, S-220 05 Lund. Sweden.

Quimbe: The Poetics of Sound by
Lasana M.Sekou. Philipsburg, St.Mar-
tin. House of Nehesi Publishers, 1991.
for address see under Illegal Truth.

The Single European Market of 1992:
Implications and Policy Options for
Caribbean Agriculture by Dowlat
Budhram and Lorenzo Rock.
Coronado, Costa Rica, Inter-American
Institute for Co-operation in Agricul-
ture (HCA), 1991. 116p. (IICA Prbgram
Papers Series, No.26 ISSN 1011-77-
Address: IICA, P.O.Box 55-2200,
Coronado. Costa Rica. Tel. 29-02-22,
Cable. IICA SANJOSE, Telex.2144 IICA
CR, Fax.(506) 29-47-41 & (506) 29-26-
59, Electronic Mail. EIES: 1332 IICA
N.s.a...... No....... U....u n........

Slave Society in the Dutch West Indies,
St.Thomas, St. John and StCroix by
Neville A.T.Hall, edited by B.W.Hig-
man. Mona, Jamaica, Cave Hill. Bar-
bados and St.Augustine, Trinidad and

Toabgo, University of the West Indies
Press, 1992. 287pp. (pbk) 976-41-
0029-5. J$350.00, US$16.00.
This is the first title from the new
University of the West Indies Press.
CRB wishes the new imprint all the
success and looks forward to seeing
this beginning develop into an exten-
sive and worthy list.

Teaching Inside Out: Reflections and
Records from a Trnidadian Educator
by Brader Adaleine Brathwaite. (no
details of publisher given .Printed by
Gloria V. Ferguson. 14, Cochrane
Street, Tunapuna, Trinidad and
Tobago). 242pp. 976-8001-76-3

Toward One Great Nation: 1st Ibero-
American SummitJuly 18-19, 1991,
Speech and Message by President
Fidel Castro. La Habana, Editora
Political, 1991. 50p. In addition to the
texts of the speech at the Opening
Session and the address to the Summit
Meeting this book also contains the
text of the Guadalajara Declaration.
Editora Politica. Belascoain No. 864,
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Transactions of the Second Geological
Conference of the Geological Society of
Trinidad and Tobago (Port of Spain,
April 3-8, 1990. ed. by K.A.Gillezean.
San Fernando, The Society, 1991. 285
Available for purchase from: KA. Gil-
lezean, (Treasurer, GSTI) c/o Geologi-
cal Services Lab. Trintic,
Point-a-Pierre, Trinidad and Tobago.

Tribute to a Changing Generation
(Poetry). ed. by Rosey Thomas Palmer.
Savannah-la-Mar, Westmoreland.
Say-Ink, 1991. 46 pp. 976-8092-28-9.
"First prepared as a recital of the work
of Westmoreland's Writers Co-opera-
tive and Literary Festival Guests in
(Editor's address: D.E.L.A. Children's
Workshop, Smithfield, Savanna-la-
Mar P.O., Westmoreland, Jamaica)
No ..e.. ossonan ....S...........a........

Trinidad Proiles: A Survey of39 Agen-
cies/Groups engaged in Rural & Com-
munity Development in Trinidad.
Prepared by the Caribbean Network for
Integrated Rural Development
(CNIRD). St. Augustine, CNIRD, 1991.
156p. 976-8104-04-X.
-...................,lUSCUCS UCEUn

Understanding Jamaican Patois: An In-
troduction to Afro-Jamaican Grammar
by L. Emilie Adams. Kingston,
Kingston Publishers,1991. 976-625-
035-9 J$ 149.95
For Address see above under As Nasty
as They Wanna Be ..
,,,,e...CUCCW .. ....................

Witchbroom: A Novel by Lawrence
Scott. London, Allison and Busby.
1992. 272 pp. hdc. 0-85031-818-1

Women Organizing for Change in
Caribbean Free Zones: Strategies and
Methods by Leith L.Dunn. The Hague,
Institute of Social Studies. 1991. 31
pp. (Working Papers Series, Sub-series
on Women's History and Development
No. 14)
In the Working Papers Series publish-
ed by the Institute of Social Studies
(ISS, address: ISS Publications Office,
P.O.Box 90773, 2509 LS, The Hague.
The Netherlands) other items of
relevance to the Caribbean have ap-
peared. These are:
Working Papers, General Series,
No.100 Towards an Understanding of
the Dynamics of the Parallel Market for
Foreign Exchange: The Case of
Suriname. (April 1991).
No.75 Partners in Development,
Foreign Technical Assistance: Percep-
tions and Practice in a Public Transpor-
tation Development Programme in
Trinidad and Tobago by Judith Ann
Walker. (February 1990).
No.68 The Case of Jah versus Middle
Class Society: Rastafari Exorcism of
the Idea ofRacism in Jamaica by Barry
Chevannes (December 1989).
Sub-series Women's History and
Development; themes and Issues,
No.2 Women and Garment Production
in Trinidad and Tobago, 1890-1960 by
Rhoda Reddock (October 1984), No.7
Colonial Policy Towards Women After
the 1938 Uprising: The Case of
Jamaica by Joan French. (March
a............ 6. 06-00. 08 ...........C

Announced for June 1992
The C.L.R. James Reader by
C.L.R.James, ed. by Anna Grimshaw.
Oxford, Blackwell Publishers. 506 pp.
ill. 0-631-18495-3 pbk 12.95. 0-631-
18179-2 hdc. 45.00.
Wa s .............. on .... CC u o..... .......

e,'2woIf 3 I.'k Cadbbean Review of Book COxlbbu MRgeview olj~ook

BoWEflww oIff B3oRTT

Announced for December
Intellectuals in the Twentieth Cen-

224p. 12.95 0-333-56939-3 Division of the Ministry ofAgriculture.
- "....................... Fishing. lands and Housing. vol. 2 no.
1 (September 1991) was the issue
New Journal seen. price EC$ 10.00 per copy.

tury Caribbean, vol.2. Unity in
Variety: The Hispanic and Fran- Dunbars Scientf
tophone Caribbean. Macmillan, Chemistry and

ca. Published by the
Food Technology



T e 500th anniversary of
the arrival of Columbus in
the Caribbean is being
marked by many publish-
ing houses with new books, some
recounting the voyages of Colum-
bus and some looking through
centuries of history to comment
on what the encounter between
the "Old" and "New" worlds that
began with Columbus has meant
especially to the inhabitants, old
and new of the Americas. Most of
these works are of interest and
relevance to the Caribbean and in
this selection CRB is making an
attempt to bring together a selec-
tion of these Columbus books for
the information of our readers:
Atlas of Columbus and the Great Dis-
coveries by Kenneth Nebenzahl. Rand
McNally, 1991. 168p. US$ 75.00

Blue Corn and Chocolate by Elisabeth
Rozin. London, Ebury Press (Random
House. 1992.304 pp. ill. 0-09-177010-
6 20.00
A celebration of native American foods
- corn, potatoes, chocolate, tomatoes,
turkey and others for the 500th an-
niversary of the visit of Columbus.

The Caribbean in the Wider World,
1492-1992: A Regional Geography by
Bonham C. Richardson. Cambridge
University Press, 1992. xvi, 235p. 0-
521-35186-3 hdc. 0-521-35977-5 pbk.
A textbook in the publisher's series
Geography of the World Economy
pointing out how the region's present
geography is tied to the past as
Europes first overseas colony, where
the natural landscapes were trans-
formed to produce tropical staples and
aborignal populations were replaced
by Africa slaves. The eight chapter

No. 4, May 1992

headings under which the text is or-
ganized are 1. The creation of the Carib-
bean, 2. A colonized environment, 3.
Plantations and their peoples to 1900,
4. The American century, 5. Economic
dependency, 6. Human migrations. 7.
Resistance and political independence,
8. Towards a geography of Caribbean
...iim....................... ni.... n

Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia. 2
vols. (900pp) ed by Silvio A. Bedini.
Houndmills. Basingstoke, Macmil-
lan,1992. 95.00 0 333 55899-5.
Simon and Schuster. 2 vols.(787p.)

(Christopher Columbus), Journal of the
First Voyage (Diario del primer viaje)
1492. edited and translated with an
introduction and notes by B.W.Ife.
Warminster, Aris and Phillips Ltd.,
1990. 0-85668-351-5.
This is the first time the text of the
Diario appears together in Spanish and
English. The text here is not really the
original version of the Logbook kept by
Columbus with the careful record of his

experiences for the information of his
patrons King Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella. The original logbook and a
copy made of it is known to have existed
but have been lost for a long time. The
text now available is what is preserved
in an extensive summary made by the
Dominican friar Bartolome de las Casas
who was collecting material for use in
a "History of the Indies" Of this text
(referred to as Las Casas' text) there is
an earlier printed version, the Spanish
edition by Oliver Dunn [in Terra Incog-
nitae 15 (1983) pp.173-231] transcrib-
ing the entries from October 10th to
December 6th. The new version edited
and translated by Ife presents the text
covering the entire voyage from August
3rd to March 15th, and in addition Ife
also makes a distinction in his text
between passages that are summaries
made by Las Casas and those that are
direct quotes (recorded by Las Casas)
from the Journal. (This note is based on
the review by Wim Klooster appearing
in Itinerario 15,2 (1991) p.121.)

Christopher Columbus: Master of the
Atlantic by David A.Thomas. London.
Andre Deutsch, 1991. 218p. 14.99.

Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Explora-
tion. ed by Jay A. Levenson. Yale Univ.
Press, 1991. 671p. US$59.95.
Catalogue for the Exhibition that
opened on Columbus Day, Oct 12, at
the National Gallery of Art in

Colombo Vero e Falso by liarla Luzzana
Caraci. (Milano, 1989).
An examination by a Genovese his-
torian of the legacy of Genova's most
illustrious citizen.
*MR ....m... MM... i-.MU.MM.... M ..a..am

Columbian Consequences, Vol 3: The
Spanish Borderlands in Pan-American
Perspective. Ed by David Hurst

No. 4, May 1992

Thomas. Smithsonian Institution,
1991. 592 p. US$45.00.
... ....a ......... . a..................

Columbus by Felipe Fernandez-Armes-
to. Oxford Univ. Pr., 1991. 246p. US$
22.95. 16.95
Historical biography of Columbus by
the general editor of The Times Atlas of
World Exploration, likely to become an
influential and possibly definitive
portrait of the man and explorer as
observed by Chris Searle in a review in
The Curse of Columbus noted below.

Columbus and the Age of Discovery by
Zvi Dor-Ner with William G. Scheller.
Morrow, 1991. 370p. US$ 40.

Columbus and the Golden World of the
Arawaks: The Story of the Island
Arawaks by D.J.R.Walker. Kingston,
lan Randle Publishers. 1992. 320p. ill.
976-8100-04-4. First published by The
Book Guild Ltd., (25 High Street.
Lewes, Sussex). (lan Randle Publish-
ers, 206 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6,
An account of the "new world" and the
"new world" Columbus encountered
500 years ago "based mainly on con-
temporary accounts of the first and
second Columbus voyages", and il-
lustrated also from contemporary and
early illustrations. The author provides
an extensive "General bibliography"
(pp. 317-320) and a list of the "Colum-
bus Literature" (pp.314-316), the latter
being the main sources -for his own
account in the book.

Columbus: For Gold. God and Glory by
John Dyson. Photographs by Peter
Christopher. Simon and Schuster,
1991. 228p. US$35. London. Hodder
and Stoughton, 19.95.
This is the book on which the
television show on the 1990 Atlantic
Crossing of the replica of Columbus's
ship Nina was based. The author
Dyson and the photographer Chris-
topher were both on board the Nina on
this crossing which was made on a
route based on the Log of Columbus's
1492 voyage. The route was mapped
from the log by Luis Miguel Coin Cuen-
ca, a maritime historian at the Univer-
sity of Cadiz. Coin captained the ship
on this journey and this text was writ-
ten with his expert help.
...... ......... ......... ..............

Columbus: His Enterprise by Hans
Koning. London, Latin America

Bureau, 1991. 140p. 0-906156-60-2
4.99 (5.75 including postage etc.)
Latin America Bureau, 1 Amwell
Street. London ECIR IUL Fax: 071-

Columbus: The Great Adventure by
Paolo Emilio Tavaiani. Orion/Crown,
237p. US$ 20.00
......., sse ....sa .. a s s.......

Computerization Project of the Archive
General de Indias, Saville, Spain: A
Report to the Commission on Preserva-
tion and Access by Hans Rutimann
and M.Stuart Lynn. Washington D.C,
The Commission on Preservation and
Access, 1992. 20pp. US$ 5.00.
Report on the massive project at the
Archivo General de Indias to scan and
produce an image database to provide
easier access, through a computer sys-
tem, to the collection of over 45 million
documents, and 7000 maps and
blueprints held at the Archive repre-
senting the record of Spain's four cen-
turies of power in the. Americas. The
present first phase of the project due
for completion this year is projected to
complete scanning and storing about
ten percent of the Archivo in prepara-
tion for the 1992 Seville World Fair and
the Columbus quincentenary. This
report provides details of the par-
ticipants and the work of the project.
and is available from the Commission
(publisher) at 1400. 16th Street NW..
Suite 740. Washington.D.C. 20036-
2217, (Fax:202-939-3407.

The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher
Columbus and the Columbian Legacy
by Kirkpatrick Sale. London. Hodder
and Stoughton, 1990. 384p. 17.95

Cristoforo Colombo, Genius of the Sea
by Paolo EmilioTaviani. (Rome). Mini-
sterio per I Beni Culturali e Ambientali,

Comitato Nazionale per le Celebrazioni
del V Centenario della scoperta dell'-
America, 1991. 94p
In this book the author who had also
written an earlier two volume work on
Columbus, I viaggi di Colombo, la
grande scoperta. Novara, De Agostini,
1984, gathers together the existing
evidence to show that Columbus was
born in Genoa, on his family and on the
connections of Columbus to Genoa.
Chapters 6 and 7 are entitled "Genoa:
The Roots of the Character and the
Faith of Columbus" and "Columbus's
Cultural Roots in Geneva". A select
bibliography citing works supporting
what Taviani seeks to establish as well
as the views of others -e.g. 'books ..
presenting fictitious legends about the
birthplace of Columbus" is given on

Europa 1492: Retrato de un Continente
Hace Quinientos Anos by Franco Car-
dini. (Madrid, 1989).
An examination of the broad political,
economic social and cultural context of
fifteenth century Europe that made the
"Age of Discovery" possible.
m. .mimi m .m mim m-mm m mmmm-

Faces of Latin America by Duncan
Green, London, Latin America Bureau.
1991. 200p. ill. 0-906156-59-9 8.99

Far from Paradise: An Introduction to
Caribbean Development by James Fer-
guson. London. Latin America Bureau,
1990. 64p.ill. 0-906156-54-8 4.99
Looking at Caribbean history of the five
hundred years since Columbus. and
comparing the modem day develop-
ment experiences of Jamaica. Trinidad
and Tobago. Grenada and Haiti.

1492: The Life and Times of Juan
Cabezon by Homero Aridjis. London,
Andre Deutsch. 1991. 368p. 14.99.
Historical novel by the Mexican author
Aridjis on the times of Columbus in
Europe and about the events sur-
rounding the expulsion of Jews from
Spain in 1492. Cabezon, the author's
protagonist lives through these times
and at the end joins Columbus as a
sailor on the Santa Maria
-..N -- o.-M ...................

The Golden Quest: The Four Voyages of
Christopher Columbus by Michael An-
thony. London. Macmillan. 1992
(scheduled for release in June). 208p.

Caribbean Review of Books Ca"bbm" Review of Boolm

BoEwvflEwr mfo lBf oDDits

Ill. 0 333-56868-0 6.95.

The Harp and the Shadow by Alejo
Carpentier. London, Andre Deutsch,
1992. 159p. 6.99.
This is the first English translation of
the well known Cuban writer's novel El
arpa y la sombra. The Spanish original
was published in 1978, and now we
have for the 500th anniversary the
English translation of this novel'which
starts and ends with an imagined
event taking place on the approach of
the 400th anniversary in the 1880's
with the story of Columbus gone over
by himself as part of the text.

Inventing America, 1492-1992.
February 1991 issue of the Report on
the Americas magazine published by
NACLA. New York. 40p. 2.50.
Two other issues of Report on the
Americas are on subjects related to the
Columbus 500th anniversary: July
1991 issue 500 years of the Ecology of
the Americas and December 1991 In-
digenous People of the Americas: 500
Years of Repression and Resistance.
Information available from: Latin
American Bureau (see under Colum-
bus: His Enterprise for address.)
....... a .............................
Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and
Modem, Historians by Jeffrey Burton
Russell. Praeger, 1991. 117p. $16.95.

Jews and the Encounter with the New
World 1492/1992. text by Judith
Laikin Elkin, design by Eleanor
H.Crown. Ann Arbor, Michigan, The
Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for
Jewish studies, 1992. unpaged.
This is a small (16 page) document
produced in connection with the Series
of Public Programs, in observance of
the Columbus Quincentenary and the
Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, at
the Ann Arbor Campus of the Univer-
sity of Michigan. The illustrated text
provides a useful background to the
historical significance of the events
being observed, some section headings
reading "Crypto-Judaism in the New
World", "Native Americans and Jews",
"Chronology of Spain, the Jews and the
New World". Each section is provided
with a brief reading list. Judith Lalkin
Elkin is Project Director for the Series
of Programmes. Address: The Jean and
Samuel Frankel Center. 206 Angel
Hall, The University of Michigan, Ann

Arbor, Michigan 48109.
...... a ................................
Kingdoms of Gold, Kingdoms of Jade:
The Americas before Columbus by
Brian M. Fagan. Thames and Hudson,
1991. 240p. US$ 24.95

The 'Libro de las Profecias' of Chris-
topher Columbus. ed by Delno C. Wesat
and August Kling. University of Florida
Press, 1991 274p. US$ 49.95, 0-8130-

Literature Hispanica, Reyes Catolicas
y Descubrimientos. ed by Manuel
Criado de Val.(Barcelona, 1989).
The collection of the Scholarly papers
presented at the International Con-
ference on the subject held in Bar-
celona in 1989.

The Lucayans by Sandra Riley, Paint-
ings by Alton Lowe. London, Macmil-
lan, 1991. 88p. 0 333 53933 8 pbk
7.95, 0 333 53967 2 hdc 10.95.
A novella of the life
of the native people
of Guanahani, (San
Salvador of Colum-
bus now Watling Is- URGE
land) the Lucayans
at the time of the ar- ALL
rival of Columbus.

The Mysterious His-
tory of Columbus: An
Exploration of the
Man, the Myth, the
Legacy by John
Noble Wilford.
Knopf, 318p. US$

The Curse of Colum-
bus. January-
March 1992 (vol.33,
no.3) issue of Race
& Class: A Journal
for Black and Third
World Liberation.
published by the In-
stitute of Race Rela-
tions (2-6 Leeke
Street, Kings Cross
Road, London
WC IX 9HS) vi. 105
pp. 0-85001-039-X
A collection of criti-
cal contributions
examining the

Columbus quincentenary against the
historical record of the time of Colum-
bus and since, this issue takes its title
form the book The Story ofAfrica (Lon-
don, Mitchell Beasley, 1984) by Basil
Davidson, himself a member of the
Editorial Working Committee of Race
& Class is a contributor to this issue
with his article "Columbus: The Bones
and Blood of Racism" focusing atten-
tion on the 'development' of 'a New
World' by the merciless use of chattel
slavery. He shows how the new slavery
differed from the old slavery known in
Europe and Africa before Columbus.
The old system involved much pain
and misery but none of it "was chattel
slavery, mass slavery, plantation
slavery: rather did it take the form of
what may perhaps be called 'wageless
labour' coerced, but in no way sub-
ject to any kind of 'market law'". Citing
Goitein (A Mediterranean Society.
1967) the type of slavery prevalent
before the opening up of the New world
is shown as "neither industrial nor
agricultural. With the exception of the
armies, which were largely composed


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of mercenaries who were legally slaves.
it was not collective but individual. It
was personal service in the widest
sense of the word, which, when the
master served was of high rank or
wealthy, carried with it great economic
advantages as well as social prestige ..
In and out of bondage, the slave was a
member of the family." The most im-
portant point to note in this older kind
of slavery in comparison to the new
type of the Americas, Davidson shows,
was the absence of the ideology that
slaves were slaves because they
belonged to an inherently inferior
humanity. These old world slaves both
in Europe and in Africa were neither
inherently inferior as human beings
nor easily expendable. After 1500 the
captives taken to the new colonies in
the West were considered to be lacking
in the capacity to know and use
freedom: as belonging to an inferior
sort-of humanity, primitives whom it
was a mercy to enslave, sinful, bestial
and therefore naturally servile. David-
son agrees with Saunders (A Social
History of Black Slaves and Freedmen
in Portugal 1441-1555 by A.C.de C.M.
Saunders, Cambridge, 1982) that it
was the "discovery of America" by
Columbus that made this change pos-
sible and necessary, and with the new
slavery made the trans-Atlantic
European empires a historical pos-
sibility. As shown in this contribution
the achievement of Columbus was the
cause of the birth of an "Instrumen-
talist racism" paving the way to slavery
and the history of modern imperialism.
Jan Carew, another member of the
Race & Class Editorial Working Com-
mittee examines the loss to the world
of the great learning and cultural
achievement of the Moors at the begin-
ning of the Columblan era when
thousands of books were burnt and
three million Moors and 300,000 Jews
were expelled from Spain. This article
focuses on the contribution of the
Moorish enlightenment to Europe
before the Reconquista (the wresting of
Spain from its Moorish conquerors)
and the direct and ripple effects of the
civilizing mission of the Moors. Jan
Carew's discussion is of special inter-
est for the light it sheds on a subject
that does not receive attention in the
standard histories of the era. As Carew
points out, it is Ironic that even today
"the Spanish in their homeland, and
the mestizo ruling elements in Latin
America, continue to make derisory
noises about the 'purity of their blood'
in order to banish unconscious
memories of ineradicable
Moorish/Jewish cultural and racial

African cultural and racial infusions"
(p. 15). [It may be mentioned here that
another contribution by Carew entitled
"Columbus and the Origins of Racism
in the Americas" was published in two
parts in the April and July 1988 issues
of Race & Class.]
In his contribution "Columbus and the
War on Indigenous Peoples" Michael
Stevenson explores the way in which
Europeans evolved ways of thinking
and a set of terms and categories to
justify their conquest and subordina-
tion of the native peoples they met in
the Americas. He examines how the
idea of the savage and a language of
total war constituting a way of thinking
enabling them to subdue, disinherit
and even exterminate those whom they
found in the lands which they desired

was evolved by the colonisers. Such a
way of thinking made it possible for
them to forsake any sense of mutuality
with the "others" who were now their
enemies and at the same time were
wild, cannibalistic, malevolent and
"able only to produce degenerative
backwardness." Within this newway of
thinking, which provided for the
colonisers a positive identity fusing
humanness, trade, private property,
and progressive development and a
negative one as regards these qualities
for the native, the Europeans could
now feel honourable in subduing and
disinheriting the original inhabitants
of the land they came to seek. It is this
same theme seen in a different way in
a more modem setting that Barbara
Ransby explores in her article "Colum-
bus and the making of historical

Chris Searle's review article "Unlearn-
ing Columbus" examines several
recent books different from each other
in their perspectives, the differences
ranging from Columbus: For Gold and
Glory from which Searle quotes After
Jesus Christ, no individual has made
a bigger impact upon Western world
than Christopher Columbus" to
Kirkpatrick Sale's The Conquest of
Paradise from which the observation
"The myths surrounding the Caribs
are almost entirely fabrications born in
the fable-hearted mind of Cristobal
Colon" is taken. In all Searle comments
on nine titles in a thought-provoking
This issue of Race and Class like many
of its predecessors is good reading on
a subject that is relevant, controversial
and important. Some may find its con-
tributors going too far, as I did reading
the contribution by Nancy Murray, but
even in such instances this kind of
writing prods one to think, to look for
the other side and look closely at
things that all the time one knew ex-
isted but never cared to look at with
attention. The Curse 'of Columbus is
well worth reading.

Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial
Commemoration. ed by Herman J Viola
and Carolyn Margolis. Smithsonian In-
stitution, 1991. 278p. US$ 39.95
(cloth). 24.95 (pbk.) This book was
produced to go with an exhibition of
the same name at the Smithsonian
Institution. It was written by 19
authors including historians,
anthropologists and scientists.

The Spanish World. ed by J.H.Elliott.
Abrams. 1991. 272p. US$65.00

The Voices of the Victims, 1492-1992.
ed. Leonardo Boff and Virgil Elizondo.
London. Concilium/SCM Press, 1990.
160p. 8.95

The Voyages of Columbus by Rex and
Thea Rienits. New York, Crescent
Books, 1989. 152 pp. ill. 0-517-69039-
X (first published Hamlyn, 1970)
This is a work from two Australian
authors, with many illustrations, con-
centrating on the four voyages. Intro-
duced with a two short chapters on
Pre-Columbian America (pp.6-1 1). and
The Age of Columbus (pp. 12-20) and a
chapter (pp.21-37) on the explorer -
A Man Obsessed it devotes a chapter
to each of the four voyages (pp.38-124)

O.:,' te :: .Iew p of',, Caribbean Review of Books Carbbwa Revlew of Books


CRB sells

books for

Y Uij

and concludes with a section on
the Aftermath.
..U ...s.. ................ .....
Why We Eat What We Eat: How the
Encounter between the New World
and the changed the Way Everyone
on the Planet Eats by Raymond
Sokolov. Summit, 1991. 254p.
US$ 21.50 0-671-66796-3
ee. c..... cc........ .............

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BOOKS, continued from page 14
all of which is very expensive. "We
need to adjust our tastes to fit our
pockets," she said, "and we need
to support the local book in-
Production costs are directly re-
lated to the exchange rate on the
one hand and economies of scale
on the other. Printers can suggest
more economical printing
methods but publishers may be
reluctant to adopt these, said Ser-
rano McDonald, precisely because
of the market demand for the
more upscale, glossy publications
which ultimately end up costing
"We can't worry about frills
when we can only afford a basic
pattern" Kumaraswamy said. Ac-

cording to him the solution may
be extreme but it exists. There
are 6 million people in the
English-speaking Caribbean of
whom about 1.2 million are in
the school system. It must be
possible therefore to achieve cer-
tain economies of scale by
developing a common exam, a
common school system and a
common textbook policy for the
Caribbean. So even though that
first form mathematics teacher
may only have 2 books to choose
from, the books would be
cheaper and perhaps affordable
to more students. Currently,
Kumaraswamy said, about 80
per cent of students go without
books. Carby pointed out that
narrowing the choice too much
could result in other problems as
political considerations might
come into play with different pub-
lishers jockeying and lobbying to
get their book selected.
But is lowering the prices of
textbooks enough? "This society
has an attitudinal problems
towards the buying of books",
said Brenda Skeffrey who
describes herself as a parent and
'sometime publisher'. Skeffrey
who publishes the Jamaica
Scholarship Pages and the
Jamaica Pink Pages said she has
often been confronted by stu-
dents who complain about the
$40 price tag of the Scholarship
Pages while dressed in the latest
style of clothes and shoes. Carby
pointed out that the attitudes of
the middle class and wealthy
towards books was frightening.
"You see well-appointed homes
but the library is always miss-
ing", she said. Fuller talked
about parents who would refuse
to buy schoolbooks through the
year and then spend $800 on
jherri curls and shoes for their
children's graduations. "It's time
people realized that books are
better value for money", he said.
This article was excerpted from a longer one
by the same author which appeared in the
Sunday Gleaner, December 29,1991

Order from: UWIPA, PO Box 42, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica W I
Tel: (809) 927-1201 or (809)927-1660-6 ext 2261-2, Fax: (809) 927-2409

No. 4, May 1992 28

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No. 4, May 1992

ROMANCE, continued from page 16
him in the predicament of an urn-
planned pregnancy.
There is an undercurrent of
melodramatic romance in the
plotting of the novel that oc-
casionally overwhelms its surface
social realism. Helga, killed off in
a car crash in Belize, is written
out of the text, thus opening up
the possibility of a reconciliation
between Alex and Pavana, on ap-
parently more equal terms than
the concubinage he had earlier
proposed. In a grand gesture of
semi-independence Pavana
refuses Alex's rather late offer of
marriage when he eventually
comes to discover his paternity of
her children as a result of a
strange blackmail plot engineered
by Stoner. In a most bizarre inci-
dent, Alex, who turns out to be
Stoner's half-brother, is acciden-
tally shot to death in the penul-
tinate chapter of the novel as he
literally comes between contend-
ing forces.
In Times Like These is a
woman's story not just because
its heroine and its author are
female, but moreso because the
issues it explores are clearly
feminist, and its generic antece-
dents seem to lie in the tradition
of the feminized domestic novel of
displaced desire: Prince charming
coming to a very bad end because
he fails to recognize the hidden
virtue of Sleeping Beauty who

manages to live to tell the sad
tale of rejection. Pavana, victim of
her non-spontaneous pregnancy
- Alex did have a digit in it is
the classic virtuous damsel in dis-
tress, the good West Indian girl
who falls by the wayside because
of her innocence. Good girls get
pregnant; bad girls get abortions.
Through Alex, an unlikely
mouthpiece, Edgell appears to
subvert the novel's inclination to
romance. Alex dismissively forces
Pavana to confront an Image of
herself that she would rather not
see: "You are a typical Creole,
Pavana, in spite of that interna-
tional veneer. You want life
cushy, cozy, well-ordered, like an
English storybook." Indeed, It is
Julain,Pavana's mentor from her
development days in East Africa
who completes the fiction. A
somewhat jaded knight in tar-
nished armour, himself recover-
ing from a hopeless marriage,
Julian promises to come to Belize
to try to help Pavana sort out her
life. Dora, Julian's ex-wife, made
alcoholic by the inebriation of life
with the development set,
stumbles on a satirical poem that
encapsulates all her anxieties:
"Excuse me, friends, I must
catch my jet
I'm off to join the develop-
ment set:
My bags are packed, and I've
had all my shots,
I have traveller's cheques and

pills for the trots.
The development set is bright
and noble,
Our thoughts are deep and
our vision global:
Although we move with the
better classes.
Our thoughts are always with
the masses..."
In Times Like These ends on a
less irreverent and rather more
sanctimonious note: "returning to
the ministry, to Belmopan, would
be that much more difficult now.
But she would do it and, as Gall
had urged, continue trying to do
her best, win, lose or draw. She
understood very clearly, as Alex
obviously had done, that some-
times in the heart of defeat is hid-
den eternal victory." The
missionary endeavour of the
development set, encoded in a
possible pun on the lower-case
"ministry," provides doubtful
solace for Pavana, given the com-
plexity of the political intrigues
elaborated throughout the story,
one senses a mysticizing impulse
to closure that is somewhat sen-
timental. Edgell's biting critique
of the dissembling politics of
developmentalist patriarchy in
Belize is somewhat constrained
by a romanticizing missionary
zeal to help the masses win,
lose or draw.
As is to be expected, In Times
Like These is a much more ac-
complished novel than Beka

continued overleaf
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ona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, West Indies

IBoYlDWi (Df! LBoDt

TATE, continued from page 19

* During its heyday as a
capitalist sugar giant, how
rapacious was Tate and Lyle?
A jibe at Tate and Lyle, this
time from Wilmot Perkins, is
cited on page 374:
If the price of raw sugar is
high. Tate and Lyle Jamaica
gains and-Tate and Lyle is in
deficit and vice-versa. We
could say that whatever hap-
pens, Tate and Lyle will come
out winning
Chalmin presents data to
refute this, denying several times
in the book that Tate and Lyle

ever used transfer pricing or even
fully maximized the advantages
of vertical integration. If the
various tables in the book are to
be accepted and there seems no
reasonable grounds for not doing
so thenan after-tax profit, in-
cluding assignment to reserves,
of 1.9 percent of gross income
was normal for the firm during
its sugar days, that is, during the
first two eras referred to earlier.
What West Indian entrepreneur
would be satisfied with that?
In essence, this history book
confirms that for two centuries
sugar has been big business, but
one in which changing technol-
ogy and the environment rather

than politics and capitalistic
finance have played the crucial
role. The real problem has been
the dependence, almost addiction
one might say, of thousands of
poor people upon an industry
which has only seen one real
boom in its history, and which
has hovered around the margin
of profitability for many decades.
The question has not gone away,
it still haunts us: in producing
sugar our best option for land,
capital and above all people? Or
is it merely our fate? If not, what
alternative really exists?
L. Alan Eyre, formerly a lecturer in Geog-
raphy at UWI, Mona is now with the Dis-
covery Bay Marine Laboratory.

ROMANCE, continued from page 29
Lamb. There are recurring tinguishes it from the first. Zee Carolyq Cooper is a senior lecturer in the
themes female sexuality and Edgell is in much firmer control English Department at UWI, Mona and
the restrictions it can impose: of her narrative voice. In Times Deputy Co-ordinator of the Women and
Development Studies Group, also at UWI,
political upheaval in Belize. It is Like These is an intriguing novel Mona.
the strength of the writing in the that holds the reader's full atten-
second novel that so clearly dis- tion.

IICA, continued from page 18
countries and the sectors con- For readers who want to look to diversify the agricultural base
tributing to their gross domestic further, a select bibliography is and economies in general
product, agricultural products, provided, towards goods and services,
theie volume and value during At the end of what can be which market research has firm-
recent years, exports and imports called a brief but exhaustive dis- ly indicated to have significant
between the Caribbean and the cussion of problems and economic and export potential."
EEC. Measures already in place prospects, a set of recommenda- When one has gone through the
and having a bearing on the tions including list of eleven text in which the discussion in-
trade between the EEC and the specific provisions that "govern- forms and points to these con-
APC countries such as the ments must necessarily provide" clusions they do not appear to be
protocols for sugar, banana, rum to achieve the two complemen- in the same class as the empty
are discussed and texts are tary lines of action recommended rhetoric that we are all used to
presented in appendices. The for the Caribbean are given. The hearing when the subject comes
scheme operated to provide lines of action recommended are up as it often does for popular
stability for commodity trade, "(i) to lobby for continued protec- pronouncements. It is this for
STABEX is discussed, identifying tion of traditional exports in the this reason that this book should
the changes brought about short and medium term while find its way to the hands of
under Lome IV. doing everything possible to in- many Caribbean readers who
crease production efficiency; (ii) can benefit from it.

S. Vasciannie, 35-1908 River Dr. South, Jer-
WANTED! A 12-month Residence in the sey City, NJ 07310. USA.
West Indies by R.R. Madden. Good price

No. 4, May 1992 30

New from ECI!

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point (A Novel) by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, University of the
Virgin Islands, St. Croix, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-07-9, 308 pp, Soft $12.95 + $1.75 S&H
Sonny Jim of Sandy Point is a novel about growing up in Sandy Point, St. Kitts, West Indies, in the 1950's and 1960's. The novel is a first in
terms of social, cultural and political perspectives about growing up under conditions that are easy to laugh at and difficult to forget.
Sonny Jim walked on the hot-pitch road to his real mother's house. He was about to start a new life with his real mother, his queen...He
jumped high to avoid the remains that were left behind the beach...The mongoose was on fire. The mongoose dashed through the cane field,
setting the cane field on fire...There was no way of saying if the light in mountain was a jumble or a sukinaw. Sonny Jim was not going to wait
to hear the end of the story.
...She told him that she was making out. That was a big problem for him..for her..for her mother. Should he stay in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands?
Or should he go back home and marry her?
In Sandy Point he would catch ground doves, fly grasshoppers and catch lizards...Saturday was the big day for cutting wood for baking.
Brimstone Hill has not been the same since. And when he stumbled his big toe and put that big toe in the washiecong, heaven helped you if
you were near the smell.

SONNY JIM OF SANDY POINT, a novel for all ages, will make you laugh and make you cry. You will laugh at the times but you will not
forget the times.

CARIBBEAN VISIONS edited by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-06-
0, 266 PP, HARD $25.95 + $1.75 S&H
You are invited to join the ranks of those who had the opportunity to hear ten Presidents outline their visions for and to the Caribbean people
. Netherlands Antilles to St. Kitts in the OECS, from Jamaica in the north to Barbados in the
Association key in on critical issues which faced and will face the people of the Caribbean

le please read:
West Indies. Wendell Bell
Vaughan Lewis
CRB No. 4, May 1992 wth Ransford Palmer
t Anthony Maingot
trategies ior progress in rosr-maependenc SBJH
Human Values and Human Resources Faut Andic
Economies of the State and the People Compton Bourne
Challenges of Leadership Alma Young
Zone of Peace: Possibility or Utopia? Andres Serbin
CSA's Visions of Development Eddie Greene
Can you afford not to read this book? This book is important to those who make the Caribbean their home at home and abroad. The book is
also important to those who want to know more about the thinking of Caribbeanists and Caribbeaners as they chart their visions of and for the
Caribbean people over time and space.
The contributors are distinguished academics, scholars and practising decision/policy makers in the traditional Caribbean, the wider Caribbean
and in North America.
The Caribbean Studies Association, CSA, is the premier organization that studies the Caribbean. CSA is also a family. These ten addresses
are ideas from our family to your family.
The Editor: S. B. Jones-Hendrickson (SBJH) is a Professor of Economics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Campus, USVI. He is a
founding member of the Caribbean Studies Association. He held positions as the first Secretary-Treasurer, Council Member, Vice-President
and President.
Please order from:
P.O. Box 1338 bookstore
Frederiksted, St. Croix
Virgin Islands 00841

be-N<. Ri.v' rw Boi:-o Caribbean Review of Books CAlbbn Revew of Boas

New from ECI!

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point (A Novel) by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, University of the
Virgin Islands, St. Croix, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-07-9, 308 pp, Soft $12.95 + $1.75 S&H
Sonny Jim of Sandy Point is a novel about growing up in Sandy Point, St. Kitts, West Indies, in the 1950's and 1960's. The novel is a first in
terms of social, cultural and political perspectives about growing up under conditions that are easy to laugh at and difficult to forget.
Sonny Jim walked on the hot-pitch road to his real mother's house. He was about to start a new life with his real mother, his queen...He
jumped high to avoid the remains that were left behind the beach...The mongoose was on fire. The mongoose dashed through the cane field,
setting the cane field on fire...There was no way of saying if the light in mountain was a jumble or a sukinaw. Sonny Jim was not going to wait
to hear the end of the story.
...She told him that she was making out. That was a big problem for him..for her..for her mother. Should he stay in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands?
Or should he go back home and marry her?
In Sandy Point he would catch ground doves, fly grasshoppers and catch lizards...Saturday was the big day for cutting wood for baking.
Brimstone Hill has not been the same since. And when he stumbled his big toe and put that big toe in the washiecong, heaven helped you if
you were near the smell.

SONNY JIM OF SANDY POINT, a novel for all ages, will make you laugh and make you cry. You will laugh at the times but you will not
forget the times.

CARIBBEAN VISIONS edited by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-06-
0, 266 PP, HARD $25.95 + $1.75 S&H
You are invited to join the ranks of those who had the opportunity to hear ten Presidents outline their visions for and to the Caribbean people
over the period 1979 to 1989. From Curacao in the Netherlands Antilles to St. Kitts in the OECS, from Jamaica in the north to Barbados in the
south, these ten Presidents of the Caribbean Studies Association key in on critical issues which faced and will face the people of the Caribbean
at home and abroad.
You will be informed about:
Equality and Social Justice Wendell Bell
United States Dominance Vaughan Lewis
Labour Surplus and the Engine of Growth Ransford Palmer
Modern-Conservative Societies Anthony Maingot
Strategies for Progress in Post-Independenc SBJH
Human Values and Human Resources Faut Andic
Economies of the State and the People Compton Bourne
Challenges of Leadership Alma Young
Zone of Peace: Possibility or Utopia? Andres Serbin
CSA's Visions of Development Eddie Greene
Can you afford not to read this book? This book is important to those who make the Caribbean their home at home and abroad. The book is
also important to those who want to know more about the thinking of Caribbeanists and Caribbeaners as they chart their visions of and for the
Caribbean people over time and space.
The contributors are distinguished academics, scholars and practising decision/policy makers in the traditional Caribbean, the wider Caribbean
and in North America.
The Caribbean Studies Association, CSA, is the premier organization that studies the Caribbean. CSA is also a family. These ten addresses
are ideas from our family to your family.
The Editor: S. B. Jones-Hendrickson (SBJH) is a Professor of Economics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Campus, USVI. He is a
founding member of the Caribbean Studies Association. He held positions as the first Secretary-Treasurer, Council Member, Vice-President
and President.
Please order from:
P.O. Box 1338 bookstore
Frederiksted, St. Croix
Virgin Islands 00841

S. -w :of B'I. C~Caribbean Review of Books Caibbean Revew of Boots

irongston IPaubllhers Limnroted

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