Title: Caribbean review of books
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094097/00003
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean review of books
Alternate Title: CRB
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
University of the West Indies Publishers' Association
Publisher: UWIPA
Place of Publication: Mona Kingston Jamaica
Mona, Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 1992
Copyright Date: 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Caribbean literature -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Imprints -- Book reviews -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Aug. 1991)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1994?
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 10 (Nov. 1993).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094097
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25144524
lccn - 92658675
issn - 1018-2926

Full Text

Number 3, February 1992
"The complete source for Caribbean book news"

ISSN 1018-2926

The Jamaican People 1880-1902,
Race, Class and Social Control,
by Patrick Bryan, London: Mac-
millan, Warwick University
Caribbean Studies, 1991, pp.
300. 0-333-55125-7

by Franklin W. Knight
t used to be said that the late
nineteenth century was a
relatively neglected period in
Caribbean historiography.
There was some reason for that.
Compared with the quantity and
quality of scholarly publications
dealing with the controversial
period of slavery and emancipa-
tion, or the growing attention to
the conflictive twentieth century,
the era between about 1860 and
1930 appeared to offer little, and
seemed to attract few re-
searchers. The local economies,
except in the cases of Cuba,
Puerto Rico and Guyana, had
waned. The focus of most
European empires had shifted to
Africa, India and Asia. From the
perspective of the European
metropolises (Spain excepted),
the Caribbean had very little to
command attention apart from
the periodical crises of local
government, administration and

commerce that warranted the
sending of commissions of en-
quiry. Visitors traveled
throughout the region pontificat-
ing on all sorts of matters but
mostly demonstrating their own
dismal ignorance, insensitivity
and alienation. Both colonial offi-
cials and visitors missed the
enormous vitality of local exist-
ence that is now being captured.
The period between the aboli-
tion of slavery and the labour
riots of the 1930s represented a
crucially important phase of
Caribbean experience. In the
past decade a steady number of
scholarly works have emerged il-
luminating emphatically the
dynamic development that did
not necessarily catch the repor-
torial eyes or jaundiced contem-
porary bureaucrats of harried
travelers. A few examples of
these new studies are: Luis
Perez, Cuba Between Empires;
Laird Bergad, Coffee and the
Growth ofAgrarian Capitalism in
Nineteenth Century Puerto Rico;
Fernando Pico, La guerra
despues de la guerra; Harry
Hoetink, The Dominlcan_People,,
Bridget Brereton, Race Relations
in Colonial Thnidad, 1870-1900;
and, Walter Rodney, A History of
the Guyanese Working People,

1881-1905. To this selected list
must now be added this splen-
did publication of Patrick Bryan,
The Jamaican People. Ground-
ing their work more in social his-
tory than on political and
institutional accounts, and
paying far more attention to
local archival sources than the
records deposited in London,
Madrid, and Washington, these
authors have produced studies
that excel in interest as well as
information. With these and
other publications it can no
longer be suggested that the
period between 1860 and 1930
suffers from any neglect.
The Jamaican People is
meticulously researched, marvel-
lously often hilariously -
written, and magnificently com-
prehensive. Bryan not only ex-
amines the export and local
economy and formal political
structure of the island but also
the changing notions of law and
order, religious practices espe-
cially among the folk; marriage
and family; childhood, youth
and education; the quality of
rural life; health and poor relief;
the idea of leisure; and race,
class and ethnicity. An impres-
sive final chapter discusses the
notion of law and order as the lit-
continued on page 30

Read Enoch Powell's review of Ethnicity and Nationalism in Post-Imperial Britain on page 8





momentous one for
UWIPA, (the University
of the West Indies Pub-
lishers Association) in that we
decided to begin publishing
Caribbean Review of Books, im-
plemented that decision and
went on to produce two issues.
We enter 1992 with the third
issue after having experienced
a great loss. Janet Ltu Terry, a
founder member of UWIPA has
left the Caribbean for Australia.
Janet was a key member of our
team, a leading contributor to
UWIPA's mission, not merely in
carrying out the Association's
work but in guiding and initiat-
ing activities; a member to
whom UWIPA's business was in-
distinguishable from her own,
so that she gave it time, con-
cern, thought and care to an ex-
tent that no other participating
member could match.
We would like to use this
page to record how much we
miss Janet's knowledge and ex-
perience, and the advice, and
guidance flowing from that

base. We also miss the leader-
ship, labour and friendship
which we took for granted while
she was with us. We want to
publicly acknowledge Janet's
contribution to UWIPA, indeed
to publishing activity in the

University of the West Indies,
and to CRB which exists largely
because of her. We would like to
record our appreciation of what
Janet was able to do before she
left Mona, and to assure her
that as her friends and col-
leagues we will do our very best
to carry on what she helped to
start, and to bring to fruition
the plans that she was so keen
to see implemented.
Janet often used to say, rue-
fully, that if you put your hand
in a bucket of water and then
removed it you would see no
evidence that your hand had
ever been there. Fortunately
UWIPA, bearing little

resemblance to water, carries
the indelible impression of
Janet's association with it. As a
very small token of our
gratitude, and a first instalment
of the expression of our ap-
preciation, we dedicate to her
this third issue of CRB, the
result of our mixed labours. We
wish Janet and Shaughan all
the best in their new life.

CRB Is published quarterly by the
UWIPA. in August, November.
February and May.

Samuel B. Bandara

Production Editor and Designer:
Annie Paul
Alan Moss (Barbados)
Edward Baugh (Jamalca)
Selwyn Ryan (Trinldad and Tobago)
Ermlna Osoba (Antigua)
Matthew William (The Bahamas)
Joslyn Nembhard (Belize)
Vernon Shaw (Domlnica)
Beverley Steele (Grenada)
Howard Fergus (Montserrat)
Constantine Richardson (St. Kitts &
Marilyn Flolssac (St. Lucia)
Adrian Fraser(St. Vincent)
Charles Wheatley (British Virgin Is-

University of the West Indies
Publishers' Association. 1991-
ISSN: 1018-2926

Annual Subscription:
Per issue:
Postbge and handling add:
US$6.00 per annum
US$1.50 per Issue
Caribbean currencies equivalent to
the above accepted.

Editorial mail to:
P.O. Box 139
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Subscriptions to:
P.O. Box 42
Mona, Kgn 7
Jamaica, W. Indies

Fax: 809-927-2409
Tel: 809-927-1201

Advertising rates available on re-


The West Indian Commission and its
Publications ---------------------- 9
West Indian Writing Abroad:
Naipaul and the New Generation ---- 16
Focus on Caribbean Journals -
Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica 6
Question and Answer with Caryl Phillips 17

The Jamaican People-------------- 1
Poland's Caribbean Tragedy ------- 3
The Traditional Marketing System
in Antigua --------------------- 5
Rastafari and Politics -------------- 7
Ethnicity and Nationalism in
Post-Imperial Britain -------------- 8
Storm Signals: Structural Adjustment and
Development Alternatives in the Caribbean 10
Tap Taps to Trinidad -------------- 11
Men at Risk ----------------------- 12
New Books ----------------------- 14


Poland's Caribbean Tragedy by
Jan Pachonski and Reuel K. Wil-
son. Boulder, Colorado. East
European Quarterly 1986. (East
European Monographs No. 199.)
xii, 378p., maps, illus. 0-88033-
093-7 US$35.00 Orders to:
Columbia University Press, 1368
Broadway, Irvington-on-Hudson,
NY 10533.

by L. Alan Eyre
T he 500th anniversary
celebrations for
European man's fateful
arrival in the Caribbean
are imminent, but what is
planned for the bicentennial of
the abolition of slavery in Saint-
Domingue (Haiti) on 29 August
1993? And, looking a little fur-
ther ahead, will the appointment
of Toussaint L'Ouverture as the
first black Governor-General of a
Caribbean territory nearly two
hundred years ago be honoured
in any manner appropriate to
such an occasion?
The literature on the
American, French, Russian and
Mexican revolution is immense.
But as Thomas Ott wrote as
recently as 1973, "the Haitian
revolution has remained in rela-
tive obscurity".2
Apart from chapters in
general histories, in the past
sixty years 23 book length
studies have been published
specifically on the Haitian
Revolution or its leading actors.
Of these, 12 are in English, 7 in
French, 2 in Spanish, and 2 in
Polish. Only 3 have been publish-
ed in the Caribbean, while the
remaining 20 are of fairly wide
provenance: New York (9), Paris

(4), Oxford, Quebec, Warsaw,
Knoxville, Madrid, Boston and
Boulder (1 each).
As we would expect with a
subject so emotive, interpreta-
tions vary widely, with hero-wor-
shippers and debunkers about
even in number. There is little
possibility now, at our distance
of time, that scholarly objectivity
can be assessed with any suc-
cess. The viewpoint of the author
is usually more significant in the
story than the material. An ex-
ample of the unresolvable is the
motivation for Toussaint's sur-
render and subsequent capture.
Almost every author has his or
her own version the book
presently being reviewed not ex-
The existing serious literature
on the Haitian Revolution may
be divided into three groups:
studies by French scholars;
those by Caribbean or black
scholars, including Haitians;
and publications by Americans.
A major interest of the French
has been military: as a contem-
porary army captain expressed
it, "France lost there one of the
finest armies she ever sent forth,
composed of picked veterans, the
conquerors of [Europe]".3 Why
the debacle? Had European sol-
diers at last met their match on
the battlefield in the Carib-
The concern of Caribbean
writers has been either ideologi-
cal (James)4 or racial
(Gouraige).5 Some of the
Americans, often pledging objec-
tivity as uninvolved observers,
have tried to be even-handed like
Ott, but others like Griffiths 6
are strongly biased towards the
black liberators.

All three groups have tended -,
to use the same basic material -
archives in France, in the USA,
and to a lesser degree because of
limited availability, within the
Caribbean itself.
This fascinating book, first
published five years ago but only
recently sent for review, is totally
different. Its senior author is a
Pole, and the hitherto untapped
wealth of documentary material
in Poland is the principal re-
search source.
In the 1790s Poland was a
conquered land. In 1794 the
patriotic uprising of Tadeusz
Kosciuszko was crushed. In
1797 the very name of the
country was erased from the
map of Europe.
In 1797 the Poles looked to
revolutionary France as the
champion of oppressed peoples,
and Polish units served with the
French army. At that time
slavery had been abolished in a
Saint-Domingue ruled by Tous-
saint L'Ouverture.
To the Poles' dismay the situa-
tion was very different by 1802.
Egged on by Josephine and the
planter lobby in France,
Napoleon vowed to re-conquer
Saint-Domingue and restore
slavery. To this end, the hapless
Poles were co-opted and as
Pachonski and Wilson state:
"some 5000 Polish soldiers be-
came involved in a 'no-win' fight
to the death from which only a
handful would ever return to see
European shores" (p. ix). This
book is basically their story and
an exciting, though tragic, one it
is, told with skill and compas-
The Poles fought, but their
hearts were not in it and the

1. On 29th August 1793 the Civil Commis-
saire Sonthonax proclaimed the decla-
ration of Freedom for slaves in the
Northern Province of Saint-Domingue.
Sonthanax was one of the three of-

ficers sent from France in 1792 to rule
over the three Provinces, the North,
South and the West
2. Thomas 0. Ott. The Haitian Revolution
1789-1804. Knoxville, Univ. ofTen-
nessee Press, 1973. p. 204.
3. The Times. London. 27th January 1804.

4. C.LR. James. Black Jacobins (1938).
5. Ghlslain Gouraige. author of '-
Independence d'Hafti deant la Fance
(1955) and other works.
6. Ann Griffiths. Black Patriot and Martyr
Toussatnt of Hatt. (1970).

continued on page 29

C~zrDA~x- 'vk'!,4w f B

I3GVeGfw oTff xBfaD


15 Idusty Cort, rentn, Nw Jesey.863

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If our self-discovering is to take
care of the fragments/facets, it
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The Colonial Legacy
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Amon Saba Seakana
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Fulcrums of Change
Origins of Racism in the
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Jan Carew
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Rasta and Resistance, From
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Horace Campbell
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Caribbean Folk Legends
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No. 3, February 1992


Essays on Caribbean Cinema

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The Traditional Marketing System
ofAntigua: An Economic Analysis
by Dianne L. Hope. Cave Hill,
Barbados, University of the West
Indies, Institute of Social and
Economic Research (Eastern
Caribbean), 1991. 44p. (Oc-
casional Paper No. 22) 976-619-
006-2, BDS$22, US$14

by Samuel B. Bandara
n her Foreword to this issue
of the Occasional Paper Series
the Director of the Institute of
Social and Economic Re-
search, (Eastern Caribbean),
points out the purpose of the
series. The series "derives from a
felt need to produce an informal
and more rapidly produced publi-
cation than the more formal tech-
nical Journal Social and Economic
Studies". It aims at providing an
outlet for members of the
academic community at Cave Hill
to disseminate the findings of
their research and also seeks to
attract contributions from staff
members of national civil services
and regional institutions. "A
secondary aim is to make avail-
able to the lay public material
which is not always readily avail-
This issue very successfully
fulfills some of these aims. It is
based on the research for and
findings of the author's M.Sc.
thesis presented to the University
of Guelph in December 1981.
Many post-graduate students
work on Caribbean subjects for
higher degrees at North American
Universities, and one of the more
important outcomes of such work
available to the general public in
tangible form is the written
record of the researches carried
out. Since most theses do not get
published they are not easy to
gain access to, and are beyond
the reach of many readers even
though they may contain relevant
and useful information. In addi-
tion, the existence of specific

works on specific subjects, is not
widely known outside of
academic circles. Thus theses
can be described as a valuable
resource, produced at consider-
able cost, but little used by
people who can benefit from it.
For these reasons ISER has
provided a useful service by
selecting and producing a version
of Dianne Hope's thesis as an oc-
casional paper thus disseminat-
ing the results of her research
into an important area of the
economy and life of Antigua. Un-
fortunately, however, the work
was done in 1980 and the situa-
tion reported on would have
changed much by now. Let us
therefore hope that this practice
of identifying, selecting and
producing editions of texts of
theses to enable wider dissemina-
tion of their findings will become
a more regular practice among
our academic publishing units.
Hope's text presents an inter-
esting study of the traditional
marketing system (TMS) consist-
ing of operations of "hucksters"
and farmers. The former buy
from others to sell and the latter
mostly sell their own produce
sometimes buying from other
sources to supplement what they
themselves grow. According to
Hope the other two participating
elements that together with the
TMS make up the food retail sys-
tem in Antigua are the super-
markets and the Central
Marketing Corporation (CMC)
formed to "stimulate, facilitate
and improve the production,
marketing and processing of
produce ... for the benefit of the
producer." Although there is very
little direct comment on the CMC
in this work the little that is said
speaks much. Hope indicates
that CMC has failed, and hints
that perhaps this failure is due to
some extent to its failure to in-
clude the TMS in the plans to im-
prove the production and
distribution systems.

No. 3, February 1992
In spite of the fact that there
are several weaknesses in the
TMS that show up in this study it
is interesting to note that this
system, the "legacy of the Sunday
markets" of the days of slavery,
operating not on modern studied
methods of economics and
management,but rather on the
native capabilities of the tradition-
al participants, is strong (in
1980, dealing with 41-47% of all
goods marketed in the country),
operates at a level of fair return
to labour when compared with
other sectors and generally
provides a valuable service to
society, The findings of this study
and the identification of the weak-
nesses and the areas in which
the TMS needs support to in-
crease efficiency are significant
not merely for Antigua but for
most Caribbean countries where
traditional systems play parallel
Examining the economies of
scale the author raises important
questions about the possibilities
that exist for improving the value
of sales for farmers (Saturday
vendors) by expanding their
marketing by bringing their unit
costs down. Elsewhere some of
the problems they face in at-
tempting such expansion are ex-
amined. The problem of volume,
perhaps not unrelated to the dif-
ficulties of transport, and the
reluctance (or the inability) to in-
vest in innovations, is also seen
as a reason for the low level par-
ticipation of farmers in the Hotel-
Restaurant-Institution and
Supermarket (HRI&S) sector. One
of the ways in which small Carib-
bean economies can get better
returns from their tourism
product is through the
strengthening of that industry's
linkages with local agriculture
and this study points the way to
encourage such linkages. Hope
points out that the traditional
market vendors could have used
third party assistance to carry
out strategies to increase output
continued on page 28

cafbR'~' FR. <4 'Caribbean Review of Books (affabean Review of Books


Economic and Social Survey of
Jamaica. Prepared and publish-
ed by Planning Institute of
Jamaica, 39-41 Barbados Ave.,
Kingston 5, Jamaica. Fax (809)
926-4670. Subs: J$80.00, N.
America and the Caribbean
US$25.00, elsewhere US$30.00
(Air mail)

by Evadne McLean
availability of current
economic and social

A availability current
data on a country is
vital for formulating
and implementing public policy
as well as for the analysis of
risks and returns on invest-
ment by local and foreign
entrepreneurs. For Jamaica
this need is ably met by the an-
nual Economic and Social Sur-
vey Jamaica (ESSJ) now in its
34th year. Ingram in his bibliog-
raphy Jamaica (Oxford, Clio
Press, 1984. p.146) describes
ESSJ as providing "an evalua-
tion of economic performance in
Jamaica and a record of the
country's achievements in the
main areas of economic and so-
cial life during the year under
ESSJs predecessor,
Economic Survey of Jamaica
(ESJ), also an annual, was first
published in 1958 by the
Central Planning Unit which is
now the Planning Institute of
Jamaica (PIOJ). It focused on
the island's economic perfor-
mance with emphases on
macro-economics, sectoral per-
formance and manpower and in-
dustrial relations.
An observation by Norman
P. Girvan on the data limita-
tions he faced in his research
leading to the seminal work
Foreign Capital and Economic
Underdeivelopment in Jamaica
(1971) well illustrates problems
regarding absence of regularly

collected reliable information
before the ESJ came into being
to fill the gap. Girvan wrote:
"The major difficulty in carrying
out the investigation ... was the
lack of adequate and reliable
statistical information on capi-
tal inflows into the economy.
Regular estimates of annual
capital inflows were not in-
itiated by the Government until
ESSJ, succeeding ESJ in
1973, has made great strides
over the years by way of its con-
tent and appearance and has
now become an indispensable
reference tool on the country
for students, planners, interna-
tional institutions,donor agen-
cies and researchers.
Having begun as a slim
volume of nine chapters in 48
pages in 1958, ESJ, had grown
in size to 16 chapters in 249
pages by 1964. In that year ESJ
presented a thorough overview
and analysis of the performance
of each sector in the economy.
The distinctive yellow and green
cover made its debut in 1969
and the next year's issue came
out with newly designed chap-
ter headings and contents page.
Although the title was changed
to its present form (ESSJ) only
in 1974, reporting of social con-
ditions began in 1971 when the
new section Human Develop-
ment and Welfare containing 8
new chapters was added. This
and the other three sections,
Macroeconomy, Sectoral Per-
formance, and Manpower and
Industrial Relations, each has
its own introduction and sub-
divisions, and ESSJ with all of
these sections ran into 389
pages in 1975. Definitions of
certain economic terms to facili-
tate easier interpretation and a
better understanding of the
data presented, was included in

No. 3, February 1992

1978 was an important year
for ESSJ. Girvan, then Director
of the National Planning Agen-
cy, in a "Foreword" included in
the volume for the first time, an-
nounced some innovations:
"Chapters have been added on
Official Development Assis-
tance and on the Transfer of
Technology. Each chapter
reviews developments in the
sector concerned, against the
background of the
government's Five Year Develop-
ment Plan for 1978-1982 which
was published in 1978. In
general, we have tried to
tighten the format and presen-
tation of the material to high-
light interesting developments
and identify problem areas
which became evident during
the year." Up to then there was
no assessment of the perfor-
mance of the economy against
set goals and targets. In this
issue a special report section
was also introduced. Papers
published included "Local
government and the provision
of services in the Kingston
Metropolitan Region" by Omar
Davies, then Director of
Regional and Social Planning at
the Agency. The 1979 issue had
three papers including "The ef-
fects of the June flood rains in
Jamaica in 1979", and "Man-
power planning: training and
employment project".
In 1984 ESSJs presentation
was improved with several use-
ful additions. An international
standard serial number (ISSN),
Cataloguing in publication
(CIP), printing of copyright infor-
mation on each issue, and an
index were some of these addi-
tions. In 1986 a glossary of
economic terms and a list of
acronyms were added. Tables
and graphs which had been a
feature always now came to be
presented more attractively
using colour in some. Photo-
continued on page 28

Rastafari and Politics: Sixty
Years of Developing Cultural
Ideology. A Sociology of Develop-
ment Perspective, Black Interna-
tional Iyahbinghi Press. 1991
408 pp, 976-8028-11-4, J$440
from publisher, Frankfleld P.O.
Clarendon, Jamaica

The Marcus Garvey and Univer-
sal Negro Improvement Associa-
tion Papers Volume VII
November 1927-August 1940,
Berkley UCLA Press, 1991, 1055

by Rupert Lewis

written in tribute to the
centenary of Halle
Selassie's birth in
1992 by Everton McPherson
and represents ongoing re-
search towards a graduate
degree in Sociology. The
title "Rastafari and Politics:
Sixty Years of a Developing
Cultural Ideology. A Sociol-
ogy of Development Perspec-
tive" promises much and is
a subject that ought to have
been tackled in depth before
now. The author has done a
lot of research, has com- R
piled a substantial bibliog- Ki
raphy and as a participant is
very much a part of what he
seeks to describe. As an activist
he has been playing a role in the
international efforts to restore
the Ethiopian monarchy as well
as to protect the interests of
Jamaicans who have settled in
Ethiopia. The bulk of his discus-
sion focuses on the period since
the 1970s when Emperor Haile
Selassie was overthrown and
Ethiopia was ruled by Marxists.
The consequences of that period
have been disastrous not only
for Ethiopia but the entire horn
of Africa. The book touches on
the attitude of the Caribbean

Left to Rastafarians, using the
Grenadian Revolution as a point
of departure and defends the
idea of repatriation. It is not an
easy text to read and requires
much more work in organising
the material thematically and
sticking to a point without
digressing. The work should
have undergone rigorous
editorial work before being made
available to the public. I sincere-
ly hope that McPherson returns
t2 this work and does justice to
the years of research he has put
into this text. I would also sug-
gest that a serious oral study
project be developed on the Ras-
tafarian movement in Jamaica
under the auspices of the
African-Caribbean Institute of

obert Hill delights his audience at the launching o
The Garvey movement is a
point of departure in
looking at the politics of
the African diaspora in
the Western world as well as
Caribbean island nationalisms
or African-American
nationalism. It is this dualism
that gives Marcus Garvey and
the movement he led special sig-
nificance. There is a lot of
material on island-histories
which look at the independence
movements and trace their
origins to the 1930s labour move-
ment. Some scholars mention
the importance of the Garvey
movement in shaping the early

No. 3, February 1992
development of political parties
and trade unions but many
simply ignore the connection.
There is very little feel for the
African diaspora in the Americas
among too many of our his-
torians and social scientists. The
seven volumes of the Marcus Gar-
vey Papers edited by Professor
Robert Hill challenge us to put
the question of the African
diaspora back on the intellectual
The Garvey movement was
the most important social move-
ment of-people of African de-
scent in the early twentieth
century. It influenced the
nationalist movements in the
Caribbean and Africa which led
the struggles for independence
as well as the Civil Rights and
Black Power move-
ments in the United
States in the 1960s.
Volume VII covers
the period November
1927 to August
1940. It begins with
o 4 Garvey's deportation
From the United
-i '. States and charts
i r the decline of the
Sthe United States
was the heart of the
f his book in Garvey movement in
membership and
financial contribution and had a
greater freedom in the big
American cities than in the
colonies. Cutting Garvey off from
this mass support in the US has-
tened the demise of the move-
ment. There were other factors,
however, which contributed.
These included the economic
depression of the 1930s which
hit the American working clas-
ses very hard. Labour-oriented
movements came to the fore and
the Democratic Party in the
United States in particular be-
came more aware of the need for
social and economic reforms
through the New Deal

continued on page 23

-i: lv: iw o:S B C: Caribbean Review of Books C arbben Rvlew of Iook

fWfK(Yt (Dfl PBli


Ethnicity and Nationalism in Post-
Imperial Britain by Harry Goul-
bourne. Cambridge University
Press, 1991, 0-521-40084-8,

by J. Enoch Powell
Early in his book Mr Goul-
bourne delivers himself
of this statement:
"Regarding the attach-
ment of recent settlers to the
lands of their birth, it is perfectly
natural for men and women to
develop a new love for the new
land of settlement, without aban-
doning the first love for their
original homeland". I have
italicized the words "natural",
"love", and "land" which make
this statement remarkable and il-
luminate the difficulties with
which the author has chosen to
His occupation is that of
Senior Research Fellow in Ethnic
Relations at Warwick University;
but he knows that "it is now
necessary to appreciate the com-
bination of the multiple factors
of class, racism, culture, eth-
nicity, religion, territoriality and
so on as so many inputs in a
continuous debate in the negotia-
ion over how the post-imperial
British community is to be
fashioned". I do not enquire who
is "negotiating" with whom, or
what "negotiating" means in the
context; nor do I linger to ask
whether a community is, or can
be "fashioned". I only observe
that at the end of all his inves-
tigation, the emotional term
"love" and the appeal to "nature"
remain indispensable tools of
description; for if the nation is
not an artefact produced by "re-
arranging society and political
authority" in a particular way,
his enquiry itself is self-defeating.
"Perhaps only time will tell
whether the nation state is
drifting ultimately towards

No. 3, February 1992

dissolution and atrophy or is
being undermined as part of
a more dynamic process
towards larger associations".
That is a bell which tolls the
knell of "ethnic relations" as a
fruitful academic subject.
What it is that enables the
population of a "community" to
be governed as such often,
only to be governed is a mat-
ter immensely complicated and
obscure; its existence is not pre-
dictable but in practice ascer-
tainable only after the event.
Alas, his insight into "the many-
sided, versatile and complex na-
ture of nationalism" has upon
Mr Goulbourne only the effect of
"imposing a responsibility on all
disciplines within the social
sciences and humanities to
uphold certain notions of the
good and desirable society".
I will transcribe a passage
which illustrates poignantly the
predicament in which a "re-
searcher" in "ethnic relations" at-
tempting to respond to that
responsibility finds himself:
"Over several centuries a fair-
ly unified British community
did emerge within these is-
lands. What is not so easily
recognized is that the United
Kingdom today stands at a
junction from which it could
move to enrich further the
national culture and society
or to try to preserve itself as
a kind of quaint historical
museum. The variety of
peoples and cultures which
have come into contact with
this island either directly
through migration or indirect-
ly through conquest and
emigration from Britain
could become an enormous
resource for the country".
Now, it is perfectly practicable
to attempt to describe the way in
which "Jutes, Celts, Romans,
Anglo-Saxons, Danes and Nor-
mans have been absorbed and

all come to create a comparative-
ly uniform if complex national
entity". Such an attempt would
necessarily fall short of scientific
rigor, and remain no more than
a specimen of the historian's art.
What it cannot do is to leap the
gap into recognizing that "the
United Kingdom today stands at
a junction" for two reasons. In
the first place, that "recognition"
is the recognition of something
described by metaphor, in which
the nation is mythologically per-
sonified so as to behave like a
human individual, "trying to
preserve" or "moving" to enrich it-
self. The groves of academe, even
the workshop of the historian,
have been exchanged for the
vocabulary, the appeal of emo-
tion, the rhetoric and the ques-
tion-begging of a political
platform. The second reason is
that no logical process from
agreed premises can lead to any
such conclusion as that "the
United Kingdom stands today at
a junction". That is how we talk
or write in order to play upon
the emotions and prejudices of
our fellows and endeavor to bend
them into compliance with our
wishes or interests.
Nobody can have the slightest
notion of what, from the
standpoint of the future, will ap-
pear to have been the political ex-
perience of the United Kingdom
during the coming decades
when, among an infinite range of
other circumstances, the age
structure of the principal ethnic
minorities (as defined for census
purposes) will progressively raise
the numerical proportion which
those minorities bear to the total
population. Even after the event
it will not be possible to disen-
tangle that one circumstance
from all the rest and to identify
and assess any consequences
which it may have produced. All
the research in the world will
take us no nearer that
knowledge; we shall still be left,
driven by the forces of human
continued on page 10

No. 3, February 1992

The West Indian Commission and its

by Paulette Kerr
The West In-
dian Commis-
sion began its
under a mandate
resulting from a
paper submitted by
the Prime Minister of
Trinidad and Tobago,
Hon. A.N.R. Robin-
son, to the tenth Con-
ference of the
CARICOM Heads of
Government in July
1989. In this paper
entitled 'The West In-
dies Beyond 1992',
Mr. Robinson drew
particular attention
to the changes being
undertaken in the
Soviet Union, the for-
mation of a single
European Market in
1992, and the birth
of a Free Trade Area
between Canada and
the United States of
America. He also
pointed out that
without adequate
preparations to face
these changes "the
Caribbean could be
in danger of becom-
ing a backwater,
separated from the
main current of
human advance into
the twenty first cen-
tury". He therefore
proposed the West In-
dian Commission to
help the people of the
West Indies to
prepare for the twen-
ty-first century. The

Grand Anse Declara-
tion "Preparing the
people of the West In-
dies for the twenty-
first century" (July
1989) embodied the
proposal to establish
the Commission. It
has already issued a
Progress Report of its
activities in July
1991 produced
several other publica-
tions. The publica-
tions (listed below)
have already been
distributed widely in
the Caribbean and,
CRB understands
that the
Secretariat will con-
tinue to distribute
these free of charge.
The Final Report of
the Commission is
due to be published
in July 1992, and it
is expected that this
will be available for
sale when produced.
Following are a
list of the titles pub-
lished so far, and fur-
ther details about
them and their dis-
tribution can be ob-
tained from the
Secretariat at this ad-
P O Box 1335
Black Rock
St Michael
Tel: (809) 425-
5810/11/12 Fax
(809) 425-5473

1. Let all ideas con-
tend: a framework
for the participa-
tion of the West In-
dian people in the
work of the West
Indian Commis-
sion. 1990. 28p
2. Towards West
Indian SurvivaL by
William Demas.
1991. 976-608-
018-6 (Occasional
Paper no 1)
3. Reaching For
the Future A
Timely Trilogy:
Statements by the
Prime Ministers of
Jamaica and St.
Vincent and the
Grenadines. 1991.
31p. 976-80001-
94-1 (Occasional
Paper No. 2)
4. Towards a
Vision of the fu-
ture. Progress
report on the work
of the Independent
West Indian Com-
mission. 1991.
53p, 976-8000-98-4
5. To Be a Canoe.
Presentation by the
Chairman of the
West Indian Com-
mission to the
Tielfth Meeting of
the Conference of
Heads of Govern-
ment of the Carib-
bean. 1991,
(Occasional Paper
No 3)


w Available at OilNut Ltd.

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mLE~vwE &57 (A Moli

ment strategies which have been
imposed on the largest economies
in Caricom as the conditions for
loans. It points out quite clearly
and simply, in lay person's terms,
the fatal flaws in these strategies.
Namely, that they reinforce the
traditional dependence of the
region on foreign markets,

Storm Signals: Structural Adjust-
ment and Development Altema-
tives in the Caribbean, Kathy
McAfee, 1991, Zed Books Ltd.,
ISBN: Hb 0 86232 994 9, Pb 0
86232 995 7.

by Michael Witter

in understanding the
evolution of development
policy in the Caribbean
during the 1980s by documenting
the role of USAID and through it
that of the American government
in the region. The role of USAID
in three special cases Jamaica,
Dominica and Grenada is the
main focus of the book. This is
presented against a background
discussion of the treatment of the
region under the Caribbean Basin
Initiative (CBI), and provides valu-
able information on US aid to the
region, and the leverage it has
provided for US foreign policy in-
terests. Jamaica was to have
been the showpiece of the Reagan
administration, a reward for turn-
ing away from radical develop-
ment strategies in favour of a
free-market approach. In addi-
tion, it became a well-behaved
client and compliant surrogate in
the Caribbean, especially in the
invasion of Grenada. Dominica's
reward was for political support
in helping to sanction the US in-
vasion of Grenada. Grenada was
to be the other showpiece, after
the coup de grace on the revolu-
The analysis of USAID's role is
situated within a broader treat-
ment of the IMF stabilization and
the World Bank Structural Adjust-

promote increasingly unequal in-
come distribution, and with that,
poverty. They also strengthen the
stagnation tendencies in the
economies, and hence, the
region's vulnerability to a deepen-
ing debt trap.
This approach is contrasted
with strategies of self-reliance
which are emerging from the re-
search and praxis of the region's
developmental activists, especial-
ly in the NGO movement. The
author's inclination toward this
type of development strategy is
not concealed, and arguably, ex-
poses her to the charge of being
insufficiently critical of the
proposed alternatives, particular-
ly the political capacity to imple-
ment such strategies. This is all
the more germane in today's
changing international, political

and economic conditions, symbol-
ized most dramatically by the col-
lapse of the USSR, and the
indecent haste of the former
socialist countries in distancing
themselves from alternative
development strategies.
The book is well written, some-
times too anecdotal, and some-
times insufficiently sensitive to
the region's own predisposition to
be manipulated by external for-
ces. It exhibits an admirable re-
search effort, based on archival
research in the USA, a familiarity
with the critical literature in the
Caribbean, and interviews with
key persons, bringing the flavour
of concrete experiences to the in-
terpretation of the reality.
The book's focus on the ac-
tivities of USAID at once fills a
gap, and creates a new one by
not exploring the internal weak-
nesses of the region's economies
and the collaboration of its politi-
cal and economic leadership in
the emergence of a new form of
colonialism, mediated through
the multilateral lending organiza-
tions. A study of these issues
would be a necessary companion
to the present volume.
The book is also a breath of
fresh air from the US intellectual
community, which has produced
so many technicians and
apologists for the present course
of economic development on
which the region has embarked.
It is a good reminder of the dis-
tinction between the long-term
goodwill of the American public,
especially the conscious elements
within it, toward the Caribbean
people, and the short-term self-in-
terests of US foreign policy in the

Ethnicity, continued from page 8
nature, to offer to ourselves and
others an impressionistic inter-
pretation, no more scientific or ob-
jective than those which lurk
behind shall I say? the ex-
pressions "Celts" and "Anglo-

Saxons" in the sentence which I
began by examining.
It is not primarily the fault of
Mr. Goulboume himself but of the
nature of his situation and under-
taking if in the end the result

remains a political manifesto
rather than what the programme
of the series in which it appears
announces, a "work of empirical
research." I

No. 3, February 1992

Structural Adjustnmnt and Development
Alternatives in the Caribbean

5 )

No. 3, February 1992

Tap-Taps to Trinidad: A Journey
through the Caribbean. by Zenga
Longmore. London: Arrow Books,
1989. 256 p., 0-09-971420-5,
4.99. First published by Hodder
and Stoughton.

by L. Alan Eyre.
This is a little paper-back
travelogue. It is a young
brown woman's answer to
Michener's Caribbean. It
is in the genre of George Mikes'
Not by Sun Alone, spiced with
some mockery a la Louise Ben-
nett. But one wonders how
seriously to take or review a book
which can't make up its mind
how to spell its author's name -
Zenga Longmore on the cover,
and Zena Longmore on the title
page. One must presume such a
printer's faux pas was considered
a mere trifle by publisher and
author alike!
But one soon learns within -
Zenga it is, and the likeable per-
sonality of the traveller gradually
unfolds. Briefly, Zenga is British
by nationality, of mixed Rus-
sian/Nigerian parentage, sup-
posedly in her mid-twenties,
presumably unattached, inquisi-
tive, insightful, and adventurous,
and above all possessing what
she calls "the lifeblood of sanity",
that is, humour.
Provided you don't take Zenga
too seriously, this account of the
wanderings of a worldly-wise,
amorous and impressionable
young brown woman through
Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican
Republic, Guadeloupe, Dominica,
Martinique, St. Lucia and
Trinidad, is very readable if you
are a West Indian. I am sure that
it will make little sense to almost
anybody else.
For a non-West Indian writer,
Zenga's skill at reproducing the
various versions of Creole patois
is uncanny. All the nuances and
flavours are there from the

switched haspirate of Little
Mannie's mother in St. Thomas
(Jamaica) to Aunty Sweet's rich
and impolite Trinidadian. The
dialogue is by far the best part of
the book.
As with all good books, my
second reading was the more en-
joyable, and I laughed much
more. Zenga does mock us merci-
lessly, but she is nearly always
right, and when she does make
us look foolish, it is only because


Zenga Longmore
we deserve It. She gets the feel of
each island very subjectively,
of course and for an outsider
gets right into our soul too.
Of course, her tale is a carica-
ture, but it is a fairly believable
one. Exaggeration is the privilege
of the writer of humour. Some-
times Zenga overdoes it, but she
does it so disarmingly we can
readily forgive her. I recognize so
many of her characters personal-
ly, larger than life size, in my own
extended family, I realize what
good pen-portraits they are. I
wouldn't have believed the chap-
ter Kidnapped in the Blue moun-
tains, if it had not happened to
someone I know very well in the
very same area! As for the tale of
Haiti, believe it if you like, but in
fact Zenga's experience was not
too different from my own.
continued on page 29

Yes, we're still here!

Bolivar Bookshop

R.W. THOMPSON, Black Caribbean, Mc-
Donald & Co. London. 286pp. Illustrated
print jacket, $18.00.
W.E. ALLISON-BOOTH, Devils Island,
Putnam, London, 235pp, $28.00.
DOUGLAS HALL, A Brief History of the
West India Committee, Caribbean Univer-
sity Press, Barbados. 60pp, $10.00.
P. HENRY & C. STONE, The Newer
Caribbean, Institute for the Study of
Human Studies, Philadelphia. 339pp,
index, $24.00.
Slavery, Caribbean University Press, Bar-
bados. 506pp, bibliography, index, $44.00.
Development and Industrial Relations in
the British WJ., University of California,
USA. 204pp, bibliography, index, $24.00.
ANN SPACKMAN, Constitutional
Development of the West Indies 1922-
1968, Caribbean University Press, Bar-
bados. 490pp, appendix, index, $38.00.
GORDON K. LEWIS, The Growth of the
Modern WestIndies, MacGibbon & Kee,
London. 415pp, plus notes, index, $22.00.
Performance ofIndustrial Development
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Praeger Publishers, N.Y. 418pp, $28.00.
Nationhood and Caribbean Integration,
CCC Publishing House, Barbados. 74pp,
PAUL G. SINGH, Local Democracy in the
Commonwealth Caribbean, Longman
Caribbean, London. 128pp plus notes, bib-
liography, $15.00.
STITUTE, Labour Economics Part 1,
U.W.I. Jamaica. 95pp, Selected working
papers, $10.00.
CARL STONE, Work Attitudes Survey, A
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Men at Risk, by Errol Miller,
Jamaica: Jamaica Publishing
House Ltd, 1991, 290 pp.

by Veronica Salter

not about gender
relationships but
about power struggles
and possible choices that the
powerless can make. Who are the
men at risk? one interpreta-
tion is that men with power are
at risk from the ranks of power-
less males who challenge them
from below, or is it that the
males are
at risk
from the
who are
as making
inroads in
some oc-
as part of
the male
does not
this for
the reader but maybe the cover
symbolically gives us a clue as it
depicts a well- defined white
male (a powerful patriarch by
Miller's own definition)
manipulating an ill-defined non-
white figure.
Men at Risk contains like any
good meal, the substance in the
middle, with "case studies" to
whet the appetite and help the
digestion. The use of the term
"case-study" to describe the
author's carefully selected ex-
amples of his personal observa-
tions could be misconstrued as

there is no indication that these
examples resulted from the sys-
tematic observation of behaviour
over time so that generalizations
about the typicality of an
individual's behaviour can be
made. This is a basic require-
ment in social research that invol-
ves the use of case- studies.
Because of selective attention,
the examples chosen naturally
tell the reader more about the
operational stereotypes employed
by the author. However, they
also serve to make readers take
stock of their own prejudices, in-
deed some may share Miller's
view that a patriarch has the fol-

lowing unmistakable charac-
teristics: physical prowess, male-
ness and whiteness while others
may hold more catholic opinions
with regard to race, but still
maintain that a patriarch has
characteristics of maleness and
maturity. Images of African chief-
tains, Moses, Hollywoods' King of
Siam, all spring to mind as pos-
sible contenders.
Chapters 5-8 contain Miller's
most interesting ideas, that al-
though patriarchy is about the
sexual division of power, men are
at risk because essentially what
is taking place is a power strug-

gle. Chapter 6 discusses the im-
mediate and long term effects of
the shift in patriarchal authority
(power) from the family to the
public sphere, but still controlled
by a few males. The author
hypothesizes that males who did
not have power in society were
also undermined in their own
homes, thus leading to the use of
"naked power" (read abuse)
within their homes on a crude,
personal basis. In society, Miller
argues forcefully, that men who
wield power conceal their coer-
cion of the powerless by giving
the impression of greater
freedom (the granting of rights
denied, to
which the in-
dividual was
whereas be-
hind the
greater con-
trol is taking
place. Miller
uses chapter
7 to il-
lustrate this
closer to
home, citing
situation especially with regard
to upward mobility and the 'so-
called' liberation of women
(which really is not liberation of
but a mere relaxation of policy)
that allows women to enter the
non-traditional labour market at
lower salaries than men, and un-
wittingly causes powerless males
to be marginalized.
Men at Risk focuses the
reader's attention on other little
known strategies used by the
powerful to eliminate competi-
tion. Not only did powerful males
slaughter their opponents, they

No. 3, February 1992

BoDwbiw oDf (AoMoh

No. 3, February 1992

also resorted to castration. In this
way they could benefit from the
skills of their opponents at the
same time eliminating the pos-
sibility of kinship threats from
their powerful descendants. Some
of these men became so influen-
tial (but not threatening) that it
was not unknown for males to
voluntarily opt to become
eunuchs in order to achieve up-
ward mobility. These men were
no threat to the powerful, having
no heirs to inherit from them.
Parallels could be found in
modem society where men with
no previous access to power can
acquire it by choosing not to have
heirs as seen in the power (per-
ceived or real ) of celibate
religious leaders, or 'confirmed
bachelors' in the corporate and
political arenas. Such men are
seen as dedicating themselves to
their work. These individuals
often do not wield power but be-
cause of their talent, combined
with the primordial lack of threat,
walk with the privileged in the
corridors of power often posing
only a threat to the marginalised
male who discerns them as
'homosexual'. This entrenched
homophobia, so common in the
Caribbean could be regarded as a
consequence of the emasculated
state of powerless males. This
point raised by Miller lends itself
to more in-depth analysis of
power and gives particular
credence to the link between
power and kinship and the neces-
sity of patriarchy to ensure that
power is transferred only along
recognized lines of kinship (
likewise safeguarding the vir-
ginity of females until marriage
has far less to do with virtue than
the desire to ensure the trans-

ference of power to the rightful
Miller's relaxed style makes for
effortless reading and combined
with the use of case studies al-
lows the author to titillate with
sexual imagery and provocative
vernacular not usually found in
books written by academics. How-
ever what the text offers by way
of readability, it lacks in terms of
accountability. One serious omis-
sion is that the book lacks a bibli-
ography which poses problems
for the serious scholar. The refer-
ences cited in the text are for the
most part scant. Chapter 4 on
the Creation of Patriarchy allo-
cates less than two pages to no
less than nine theories of patriar-
chy, and although most of the
readers have heard of Freud, the
reader is left wondering if Mary
O'Brien is indeed the novelist
who wrote Country Girls and if
she is, why she is being given the
same prominence as authorities
on patriarchy such as Engels,
Freud, Levi-Strauss and Weber.
There are serious flaws in all the
other viewpoints presented by the
author, so it is with a sigh of
relief one accepts Miller's alterna-
tive a view of patriarchy which
appears to be a variant of that
propounded by Ortner, to whom
the author makes no reference -
the idea that because women give
life, it would be unthinkable of
them to destroy it even if it be-
comes necessary this task is
apportioned to men who over
time become powerful because of
their ability (and propensity) to
The final chapter makes a plea
for the abandonment of patriar-
chy as the basis for societal or-
ganisation as it is obsolete. The

author is quick to point out how-
ever that merely abandoning
patriarchy will do nothing to em-
power the marginalized members
of society. The position taken is
that marginalised males may pre-
dictably react with either violence
or escape into substance-abuse,
cultism and fanaticism. Women
might also react in a similar
fashion after the frustration of
having a ceiling placed on their
progress, or they may choose to
join ranks with the males to seize
power for themselves. As Miller
states 'either way, women would
hold most of the positions of
power with men as their
lieutenants'. He sees this as une-
quivocally good. To the sceptic it
might be more a case of 'swop-
ping black dog for monkey'. Al-
though not elucidated, the
author's argument seems to be
that each gender must experience
power before striving for "per-
sonarchy" an awkward term
used to describe the pleasant
state of being where the distribu-
tion of power is determined by
the qualities of the individual. A
noble ideal! Are those with the
power ready to relinquish it, and
at what cost, for the attainment
of Utopia?
This book will certainly
generate interest, relationships
between the sexes always does.
Hopefully interest will stimulate
others to venture into writing and
debate including some written
from the female perspective as I
believe that this opening up will
lead us further on the road to per-
sonarchy than any swing of the
pendulum which leads to the con-
trol of power by females. I

( i: : vi-:: o- ::::!!: Caribbean Review of Books Caibbean Re ow of ooks

0~-; Dri' :ii .

I~~il JWIU ~

(If you wish to review any of these books write to the editor)

From the West Indies Law Indexing
Compiled at the Faculty of Law
Library, University of the West Indies,
Barbados. Published by Wm. W. Gaunt
& Sons Inc., Gaunt Building, 3011
Gulf Drive, Holmes Beach, Florida
34217-2199 USA
Antigua and Barbuda: Consolidated
Index of Statutes and Subsidiary Legis-
lation to 1st January 1991. 1991.viii,
Barbados: Consolidated Index of
Statutes and Subsidiary Legislation to
1st January 1991. 1991. 145p
Belize: Consolidated Index of Statutes
and Subsidiary Legislation to 1st
January 1991. 1991. viii, 92p
Bermuda: Consolidated Index of Public
Acts and Subsidiary Legislation to 1st
January 1991. 1991. xii, 132p
Commonwealth of Dominica: Con-
solidated Index of Statutes and Sub-
sidiary Legislation to 1st January
1991. 1991. vi, 94p
(available from Publisher or Faculty of
Law Library. University of the West
Indies, P.O.Box 64, Bridgetown, Bar-

African Studies Outside the United
States: Africa, Brazil, the Caribbean by
Milfred C. Fierce. Ithaca. N.Y. Africana
Studies Research Center. Cornell
University. 1991, 118p. (Issue No.7 in
the Center's Monograph Series) 1-
880470-00-4, US$ 5.00
Pages 55-67 deal with the Caribbean
institutions. University of Guyana,
University of the West Indies at St.
Augustine, Cave Hill and Mona and
University of the Virgin Islands, St
Thomas are surveyed
(Address: African Studies and Re-
search Center, Cornell University, 310
Triphammer Road, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850-
In this series which began with the
Caribbean title Oppression and Resis-
tance: The Black Condition in the Carib-
bean by Bill Riviere. Walter Rodney's
World War II in the Tanzanian Economy
appeared as No. 3. Its Monograph No.

4 Reading Black: Essays in the
Criticism of African, Caribbean and
Black American Literature edited by
Houston A. Baker, Jr. is in print (US $

Anthology of Afro-Caribbean Women's
Writing. London, Pandora Press, 1991,
928p. 0-04-440676-2 25.00

Around the Spanish Main: Tavels in
the Caribbean and the Guianas by
Hugh O'Shaughnessy. London, Cen-
tury, 1991. 183p. 0-7126-3807-5

The Bahamas in Slavery and Freedom
by Howard Johnson. Kingston, lan
Randle Publishers Ltd., and London,
James Currey, 1991. viii, 184p. 976-
8092-20-3 (lan Randle)/ 0-85255-
085-5 (James Currey) 35.00 US$
29.95 and special price for Jamaica
from lan Randle. (206 Old Hope Road,
Kingston 6, Jamaica Tel: (809) 927-
2085) (James Currey, 54b Thorn Hill
Square. Islington. London NI IBE)

The Barbados Garrison and its Build-
ings by Warren Alleyne and Jill Shep-
pard. London, Macmillan Caribbean,
1990. 80p. ill. 0-333-52991-X 3.50

The Book of Trinidad by Gerard Besson
and Bridget Brereton. Port of Spain,
Paria Publishing HouSe, 1991. 424p.
Black and white and colour ills. 976-
8054-36-0 (hb)
From the Epilogue: "This Book of
Trinidad has tried to portray, in words
and in pictures, the historical develo-
ment of the country from pre-Colum-
bian times to the end of the 19th
century. Excerpts from contemporary
authors who were eyewitnesses to the
events or social institutions which they
describe, and old photographs, prints,
maps and charts can often bring a past
era to life more vividly than the

historian's text, useful and necessary
though that always is"
(Paria Publishing Co. Ltd.. 66 Wood-
ford Street, NewTown, Port of Spain,
Trinidad and Tobago.)

Caribbean Connections: Classroom
Resources for Secondary Schools,
Jamaica edited by Catherine A. Sun-
shine and Deborah Menkart.
Washington D.C., EPICA and NECCA.
1991. 108p. ill. 1-878554-05-0, US$
EPICA (Ecumenical Program in
Central America and the Caribbean),
1470 Irving Street, N.W., Washington
D.C., 20010
NECCA (Network of Educators' Com-
mittees on Central America), P.O.Box
43509, Washington D.C., 20010
Other titles available in the series in-
clude Overview of Regional History,
Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, and Carib-
bean Life in North America

Caribbean Life and Culture: A Citizen
Reflects by Sir Fred Phillips. Kingston,
Heinemann Publishers (Caribbean)
Ltd., 1991. xii, 252p. 976-605-124-0
(175-179 Mountain View Avenue,
Kingston 6, Jamaica)

Caribbean Volcanoes: A Field Guide by
Haraldur Sigurdsson and Steven
Carey. (Geological Association of
Canada, Mineralogical Association of
Canada. Society of Economic
Geologists, Joint Annual Meeting,
Toronto 1991, Field Trip BI) 1991.
lO1p. US$ 20.00 (foreign sale price)
Published and distributed by: Geologi-
cal Assn. of Canada, Toronto '91 Or-
ganizing Committee, c/o Ontario
Geological Survey, Advance Office, 6th
Floor, 200 Brady Street, Mail Bag
3000. Sudbury, Ontario P3A 5W2

No. 3, February 1992

No. 3, February 1992

Cascadu Farming: A Manual for the
Culture of 'Hoplostemum Littorale' by
Indav Ramnarine. St.Augustine,
Trinidad and Tobago, Univ. of the West
Indies, Dept. of Zoology, 1989. iv. 34p.
(Occasional Paper No. 7)

The Chaining of a Continent: Export
Demand for Captives and the History of
Africa South of the Sahara, 1450-1870
by J.E. Inikori, Kingston, ISER, Mona,
1992. 976-40-0039-8, US$7.50

Christopher Codrington, 1668-1710 by
Vincent T. Harlow. London, C.Hurst,
New York, St. Martin's Press, 1990. x,
252p. ill. map. 1-85065-089-6, 18.50,
US$ 39.95
This is a reprint, with a new foreword,
of the Clarendon Press edition of 1928

Critical Perspectives on Jean Rhys
edited by Pierrette M. Frickey.
Washington D.C., Three Continents
Press, 1990. 235p. 0-89410-058-0 (hb)
US$25.00, 0-89410-059-9 (pb)
A selection of 18 critical essays on Jean
Rhys together with a bibliography (pp.
210-232) of works by and on Rhys
described in the list of contents as

Cuba: The Revolution in Peril by Janette
Habel. Preface by Franols Maspero.
Translated by Jon Barnes. London,
Verso, 1991. 0-86091-320-1 US$

The Curse of Columbus, published by
Race and Class, 0 85001 039 X,
4/$6.50. Order from Institute of Race
Relations, 2/6 Leeke Street, London

Devon House Families by Enid Shields.
Kingston, lan Randle Publishers, 1991,
viii, 136p.. 976-8100-02-8. US$10.95

Directory of Caribbeanists compiled
and edited by Sylvia Potter. San Juan,
Editorial Academica for Caribbean
Studies Association, 1989. 77p. 0-
9622522-2-1 US$ 7.50
List of 634 members of the Caribbean
Studies Association (1988) each entry
containing name, address, field of
study, institutional affiliation and spe-
cial interest in the Caribbean. In addi-

tion to the main alphabetical listing of
members the Directory includes
others: a list by country of residence,
a list of institutional subscribers to the
CSA Newsletter, a list by field or dis-
cipline, one of past presidents of CSA
and another of Annual Conferences
from 1975-1989. Available from: CSA,
Sylvia Potter, Editor, Directory. Inter-
american University of Puerto Rico,
Box 5100, San German. Puerto Rico
00927. (Address of publisher: Editorial
Academica, 1078 Calle 5, Villa
Nevarez, San Juan, Puerto Rico
00927). CRB understands from the
editor that a new edition of the Direc-
tory is now being prepared and will be
available towards the end of 1992. This
new edition is expected to contain in-
formation on around 900 members of
the CSA and will be helpful in keeping
- abreast with the movements of Carib-
beanists who seem to move around a

Don't Ever Wake a Snake, poems and
stories for children by Pamela Mor-
decal. Kingston, Sandberry Press,
1991. 20p. 976-8070-07-2, US$2.95.

Eau de Cafe: Roman by Raphael Con-
fiant. Paris, Grasset & Fasquelle, 1991.
332p. 2-246-43881-0

Explanatory Notes. Hydrological Maps
ofTrinidad and Tobago prepared by the
Water Resources Agency, Republic of
Trinidad and Tobago.(Sept. 1990).
(Port of Spain). Water and Sewerage
Authority. 1991. ii, 19p.+ 12 folded
sheets with illustrations.
The Copyright note on this book
records two hydrological maps (1)

Hydrological Map of Tinidad (1989)
prepared to match the base map, the

by Hans Kugler and printed in 1961.
(1989) prepared to match the base
map, Maxwell's Geological Map of
Tobago prepared by J.C.Maxwell in
1948. Hydrological Maps and notes in
this volume were completed by a Work
Team of the Water Resources Agency,
headed by National Co-ordinator, Mrs
Sherryl Gopeesingh.

Familiar Jamaican Birds by Anna Black
with illustrations by Margaret Hodges.
Kingston, Jamaica Information Ser-
vice, 1991. 31p.
Book dedicated to "the children of
Jamaica" containing short accounts on
14 species with black and white il-
lustrations of all the birds described.
(Jamaica Information Service address:
P.O. Box 2222, 58A Half-Way Tree
Road, Kingston 10, Jamaica.)

Flora of the Guianas, Series A. vol 8,
Poacceae (Gramineae) by E.J.
Juziewicz and others. Konigstein,
Koeltz Scientific Books. 1991. 727p ill.
continued on page 20

i.....n il.! i. o.i Caribbean Review of Books Clbbean ieew of Books

"...the Caribbean
writer oscillates in
and out of sunlight A
and shadows, exile
abroad and home-
lessness at home. At t
home he is what
C.L.R. James
described very aptly
as a 'twentieth cen-
tury man living in a
nineteenth century
economy' (1972), while
abroad he is a performer in a
circus of civilization."
Jan Carew, "Fulcrums of
I have to make a confession
that my initial intent was to
try to write a talk about
Naipaul, and Naipaul only. I
felt I ought to do this because I
am so often asked about Naipaul
in interviews, and in public
forums. I have reviewed his
work many times. I even
teach his work. But when-
ever I am asked about
Naipaul, I find myself taking
a deep breath almost an
apologetic breath and
then launching into a some-
times fulsome, always cir-
cular, appraisal of this man
and his work: an appraisal
which, if the truth be told,
manages to evade a direct
answer. When I realized that
I was going to be afforded
the opportunity to speak at
the three campuses of the
University of the West In-
dies, it seemed to me to be
an appropriate opportunity
to do something about my
enigmatic response to this most
internationally-praised of Carib-
bean writers. However, in the
process, I have ended up making
some observations about Carib-
bean writing in general which go
a little beyond Naipaul.
Naipaul's output, the sheer in-
sistence of his productivity, has

Jest Indian Writit

broad: Naipaul a

he New Generatio

by Caryl Phillips

always impressed me, particular-
ly in the context of a regional
writing which has occasionally
produced major talents who ap-
pear to have fallen prematurely
silent. Over twenty books in little
more than thirty years is an
astonishing output. Naipaul also
wrote, while still in his twenties,
what is arguably the finest West
Indian novel of the century, and
one of the great novels in the
English language: A Housefor

Mr Biswas. Every young writer
needs to have writers whom they
wish to emulate, writers whom
they can look up to, writers
whose very existence helps them
to understand that the journey
they are about to embark upon
might be something more than a
self-deceiving peasant's
pilgrimage. The young writer

No. 3, February 1992

does not have to neces-
0g sarily admire the work
S of the elder writer one
d might argue that the
junior writer does not
fn even have to have read
the work of the elder -
for the simple evidence
of their existence is
often enough. For
myself, Naipaul was
such an example. Fur-
thermore, this was a man who
possessed at least three impor-
tant-characteristics to his person
that I could see paralleled in my
own life. Firstly, he was born in
an English-speaking colony in
the Caribbean. Secondly, he
studied English literature at Ox-
ford. Thirdly, he was a writer in-
terested in both fiction and
non-fiction. However, as I have
developed as a writer, and begun
to put together the beginnings of
my career, I have come
to understand that
beyond these three coin-
cidences, our outlook on
most things, literary or
otherwise, differs quite
My admiration for
V.S. Naipaul's produc-
tivity, and the excellence
of Mr. Biswas, -has
steadily, over the years,
become tempered by a
disappointment with his
increasingly prejudiced
statements, both within,
but most disturbingly
outside of his fictional
work. I have also become
increasingly bored with
his tedious misanthropy.
It would, I think, be fair to assert
that one of the spurs to a writing
career is the acknowledgement
by the writer of their own sense
of bewilderment. Without this ac-
knowledgement, many writers
would never have lifted the pen,
and few would have persisted.
But, at some point, the writer
has to pass beyond bewilder-
continued on page 19

No. 3, February 1992


Caryl Phillips was born
in St Kitts in 1958. In
the same year he and
his parents migrated to
England and settled in
Leeds. Author of several
plays (for stage, radio
and television), film
scripts, a collection of es-
says, and four novels,
he is one of the best
known writers of his
generation writing in
With the help of the
British Council, he
recently visited the three
campuses of the Univer-
sity of the West Indies.
At Mona on Friday
November 22, 1991, he
read from his latest
novel, Cambridge.
Mervyn Morris has
edited for CRB the
transcript of the question
and answer period after
the reading.

Q: Would you tell us
something about how
you got into developing
the earlier novels? What
were you hoping to
achieve? What pushed
A: What perhaps made
me want to write The
Final Passage and A
State of Independence, I
can't even remember, to
be honest. The original
impulse, I suppose, is
something about explor-
ing not necessarily
autobiographical details
of one's life but perhaps
exploring emotional con-
tours of one's life.


Both books are
about journeys that I
made. One journey, The
Final Passage, is a jour-
ney of migration to
England that I made un-

consciously and without
being consulted; and
the second is about a


journey back to the
Caribbean which I made
And both, I suppose,
have affected my life in
quite fundamental

ways. I can't think of
any particular image or
any particular obses-

sion with a character
which gnawed away at
Q: How did you manage
to cultivate the styles
of English that you use
in Cambridge?
A: A certain degree of re-
search. Once I'd
decided that I wanted to
try and write a novel
that was set in a histori-
cal period and I wanted
to write it in the first
person, the question
beyond the subject mat-
ter was obviously form.
And at first I thought
that the best thing to do
would be to go and look
and try to digest the
syntactical rhythms,
the grammar, the
vocabulary, of the early
nineteenth century by
reading early
nineteenth century
novels. And then I real-
ized that there was an
interloper between me
and the language,
which was those early
nineteenth century
So I then went into the
British Museum and
started to look very
closely at manuscripts,
documents, books of
the period and, quite
systematically -
through practice,
through repetition -
tried to somehow cap-
ture those things: the
rhythms, the
vocabulary, the gram-
mar of the period.

continued overleaf

i. i ..:v B.o.. Caribbean Review of Books Caue IRevlw of ooks


60 I w0^


McwflcDw of ZBo IE

Q: How long did this
take you, this par-
ticularly exercise?
A: A long time. Writers
are excellent at finding
excuses not to write.
and a great excuse not
to write is to say. "I'm re-
searching." I found
myself doing a lot of re-
search perhaps too
much research then I
had to put that to one
side. I did spend a mat-
ter of maybe two
months in the British
Museum. Then I had to
put all that to one side,
because I realized I was
becoming fascinated
with the research, or I
was convincing myself I
was fascinated with the
So I then had to try
and write it. I tried as I
was writing the first
draft to get some of that
rhythm, but I was more
concerned with covering
pieces of paper. And
then I went back again
to the research, once I
felt I had somehow
broken the back of the
novel, and then that
was a matter of months
again, trying to in-
tegrate the research
again into the body of
the text that was there.
Q: To what extent did
you read travelogues
of that period?
A: I read a lot of
travelogues of the
nineteenth century,
some of the late
eighteenth century -
not all to do with the
Caribbean, some to do
with the United States
of America. But there
are quite a few books

No. 3, February 1992

written during that
period by people who
went to the Caribbean,
some of which are
reasonably well known
- and I don't just mean
Lady Nugent: there are
plenty more. I read
them. But it was hard to
actually engage too sub-
jectively with them, be-
cause I had the problem
of trying to create my
own two characters,
with their own sets of
ideas, and I didn't want
to get too closely sym-
pathetic with any one
travel-writer, I wanted
to try and maintain
some degree of detach-
ment from them, so I
wasn't suffused with
their particular set of im-
Q: The language of the
African. Did you con-
sider trying to capture
for him a different style,
a different language,
from that which Emily
A: Yes, I did. It's a dif-
ferent type of English.
It's a more biblical type
of English, perhaps a
less poetic English he
uses. And again, there
were people in that
period Equiano is per-
haps the best known -
whose work is very dif-
ferent from what was
going on in English
people's narratives.
Emily was more con-
cerned with, I suppose,
a "literary" from of con-
struction. She was
"read" in literature,
whereas Cambridge had
learnt English by the
bible. So his was. hope-
fully, a kind of different

type of grammar, a dif-
ferent vocabulary.
Q: Most West Indian
writers go to England
as mature people, as
West Indians. You grew
up in England as
British, black British.
How do you think that
has affected your writ-
A: I can't even begin to
imagine what I would
have done if my parents
hadn't taken me to
England. The village
that I was born in, in St
Kitts, which a lot of my
family still live in... The
shop I was bomn in,
which my family still
run I've sat in that
shop many times, on
the stool by the bar,
talking to my great-
uncle. I was born right
above where I was sit-
ting. And I've looked out
into the street and I've
thought: what would
have happened to me if
they had decided that
they were not going to
go to England, that they
were going to stay here?
And the answer always
is: I've no idea. I can't
even begin to imagine
what might have hap-
pened to me.
Going to England ob-
viously shaped me in a
way which it would be
foolish and stupid to
deny. I mean, it
provided me with all
sorts of opportunities -
educational oppor-
tunities which I might
not have had if I'd
remained in the Carib-
bean. That's partly why
my parents wanted to
leave. How it's affected
me as a writer, I don't

really know. For me
there was never any nos-
talgia or remembered
Caribbean, it was a
Caribbean that I've had
to discover, and I think
being born in the Carib-
bean, and the quest to
return to the Caribbean,
the desire to be here,
has made me a writer. I
suspect if I'd been born
ill England, as my three
brothers were, I might
not have written.
The fact that I knew
there was a sense of
otherness about me per-
haps destabilized me
slightly? Which is a per-
fect beginning for a
Q: Are you a full-time
A: Yes, I write full-time.
When I left college, I
was unemployed, I
made myself un-
employed because I
wanted to write. I
wanted to write, and I
didn't want to place
myself in a position of
beginning by. having to
squeeze it round
another career.
So I decided I'd give
myself a year or so with
nothing to lose. If I don't
have anything, I don't
have anything to lose.
And in that year I was
lucky enough to get a
play accepted and to
begin to get commis-
sioned to write things
for TV. And so I have
written full-time since
I have taught in
India, in Sweden, in
America at the moment
- but I don't have to do
it, because I've always
managed to make my
continued on p. 26

No. 3, February 1992

Naipaul, continued from page 16
ment. I am not suggesting that the
writer should pass beyond be-
wilderment and provide answers.
Far from it. This is clearly not the
job of a writer. What is, however,
part of the job of the writer is to
look purposefully and with
courage for these answers. There
seems to me little point in embrac-
ing pessimism. For the literary
man there is more dignity in
silence. Writing is an act of com-
munication, which, while recogniz-
ing fracture, also celebrates
annulment. I fail to detect much
beyond the furrowed brow in the
later work of Naipaul, and I'm
afraid I find this tedious as I read
one volume of misanthropic
despair after another. I know a lit-
tle about the lives of the people
that he is writing about. I am of
the Caribbean. I am of Britain. I
have travelled in both India and
Africa. True, not all is joy and hap-
piness, but to imply, however obli-
quely, that the lives of these
people are doomed and enveloped
in a post-colonial nightmare that
they are either too stupid or too
unwilling to confront is to deliver
a philosophical judgement on the
human condition that I am neither
willing nor able to subscribe to.
I think I have to provide some
examples of what I mean by
prejudice. His tedious
misanthropy I will come to later.
The most controversial aspect of
V.S. Naipaul's career has been his
attitude, in both his fiction and
non-fiction, and indeed in his
public pronouncements, towards
the people of the Third or Develop-
ing World. In other words, his own
people. It would serve little pur-
pose, except to fill the space of
many hours and many pages, to
catalogue his guilt in this depart-
ment. However, it is only fair to
recall a few incidents and
episodes. A random glance
through his misdemeanors
provided the following:

From the Times (London) in
July 1961. He writes of Trinidad
as "a very small, unimportant is-
land, where no building was 150
years old, and where the weather
never varied".
From his travel book, The Mid-
dle Passage (1962;p.27). He
describes his return to the Carib-
bean on a Spanish immigrant ship
and compares it with the earlier
voyages of slave ships. "It would
go from St. Kitts to Grenada to
Trinidad and Barbados: one jour-
pey answering another: the climax
and futility of the West Indian ad-
venture...no civilization as in
Spanish America, no great revolu-
tion as in Haiti or the American
colonies. These were only planta-
tions, prosperity, decline, neglect:
the size of the islands called for
nothing else." In the same travel
book appears the much-quoted
line, "Nothing was created in the
British West Indies."
More recently, in Time
magazine, May 21, 1979, Naipaul
comments that "in countries
without institutions, law and an
honest sense of history...politics
usually means no more than iden-
tifying the enemy. And there are al-
ways new enemies to be got rid of."
Naipaul is a master at making
statements which contain some
semblance of truth, but which on
closer inspection contain whole
worlds of falsehood. In the first
quote, why is Trinidad "unimpor-
tant"? So what if there are no
buildings that are 150 years old.
The same can be said of Miami,
where the weather also varies very
little. In the second quote, I would
question the civility or civilization
of the Spanish Americas, par-
ticularly having spent part of this
year in the cradle of the Spanish
Americas, the Dominican
Republic. And does it matter that
there was no great revolution in
Grenada or St. Kitts along the
lines of Haiti? Does it matter that
in Britain there was no great

revolution along the lines of
France? And what of this "planta-
tions, prosperity, decline,
neglect."? Is this not true of the in-
dustrialized world in both the East
and West today? Would he then
say that the size of their countries
called for nothing else? Economic
despair seems to me to have little,
if anything to do with size. The
third quote, "Nothing was created
in the British West Indies," sug-
gests to me a period of disturbing
celibacy in the Caribbean. And the
final quote encourages the reader
to accept that the Caribbean has
no institutions, no law, and a
dishonest sense of history. Clear-
ly, it is an absurdity to suggest
that in the Caribbean there are no
institutions, no law. How well they
function is another thing, but this
is also true of much of the world,
developed or developing. Further-
more, an honest sense of history
is something that I would suggest
is lacking in most countries of the
world, certainly in most countries
of Western Europe, particularly in
Naipaul's beloved Britain. For
those of us in the Caribbean, an
honest sense of history is some-
thing that seems particularly ab-
sent in the policies emanating
from our powerful neighbor to the
north, the United States of
America. Given the often subser-
vient role which history has as-
signed to the people of the
Caribbean, it seems gratuitous, in-
deed almost perverse, to suggest
that we are the sole guilty party.
I said, quite candidly, that I
was disappointed by Naipaul's
prejudice. The more skeptical, or
generous, listener may feel that all
I have done is to catalogue his
opinions, extreme opinions per-
haps, but not so extreme as to con-
stitute prejudice. Lest there be
any doubt, let me quote from a
December 1, 1980 interview with
the New York Times. Nalpaul
begins by talking of his Asian
readers. He claims that they "do
continued on p. 24

Car iin. lvk of B o:Caribbean Review of Books Caebbvan ipvew of ooks

mflDwr fw aT3xf1

New Books, continued from page 15
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Foreign Relations of the U.S. 1958-
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Frankly Speaking by Sir Frank L Wal-
cott. (A Selection of extracts from the
column 'Union Speaks' published in
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Bridgetown, Barbados Workers'
Unlon,1991. 112p. 8.00, US$12.00,
This volume published by the Union on
its 50th anniversary (4th Oct. 91) is
illustrated with many photographs
and a brief biographical account of Sir
Frank Walcott who is the General
Secretary of the Union. Available from:
BWU, P.O.Box 172, Bridgetown, Bar-

History of Steelband Panorama 1963-
1990 of Trinidad and Tobago by
Gideon Maxine. (No place or publisher
given) (Trinidad, 1991) 72p

History of the UWI Credit Union. 1965
to 1990 Commissioned by the Univer-
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researched and scripted by Gemma
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1990. 78p

Identifying Crime Correlates in a
Developing Sot iety: A Study of Socio-
Economic and Soclo-Demographic Con-
tributions to Crime in Jamaica,
1950-1984 by Hyacinthe Ellis. New
York. Peter Lang, 1991. 297p. 0-8204-
1413-1 (American University Studies.
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vol.54 ISSN 0740-0489)

In My Neighbour's Garden: A Book of
Poems by St. Clair Jimmy Prince.
(Kingstown. St. Vincent), n.d. (1991)
(Author's address: c/o Government In-
formation Service. Kingstown, St. Vin-
cent and the Grenadines).

Jamaica's Heritage: An Untapped
Resource, A Preservation Proposal by
Tourism Action Plan Ltd., in Col-
laboration with the Jamaica National
Heritage Trust by Marcus Binney,
John Harris, and Kit Martin. Edited by
Marguerite Curtin. Kingston, The Mill
Press, 1991. 88p. ill. 976-8092-32-7.
............................ A.......

Journal d'un animal marin: Choix de
poemas 1956-1990 by Rene Depestre.
Paris, Editions Gallimard, 1990. 122p.

Joseph: A Rasta Raggae Fable by
Makeda Levi. Kingston,Jamaica Media
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Lettres creoles: Traces antillaises et
continentales de la literature 1655-
1975 by Patrick Chamoiseau and
Raphael Conflant. Paris, Hatier, 1991.
226p. 2-218-03727-0 (Hatier Littera-
ture, Collection Breves Litterature.
ISSN 1152-1279)

Local Herbs Used the Chinese Way
(Tonics), Book I by Richard Harris.
Woodbrook. Trinidad, The Traditional
Chinese Medical Centre, 1991, 33p. ill
The Traditional Chinese Medical
Centre, 10 Fitt Street, Woodbrook,
Trinidad and Tobago

Love and the Caribbean, Tales, Char-
acters and Scenes of the West Indies by
Alec Waugh. New York. Paragon
House. 1991. vi. 310p. 1-55778-351-9
$12.95 (pbk)
Paragon House Publishers, 90, Fifth
Avenue, New York. NY 10011
This is the paperback edition of this
selection of Alec Waugh's "island his-
tories,character portraits and roman-
tic stories from his many trips between
1926 (and) 1958 to Montserrat, Bar-
bados, Anguilla, Trinidad, St.Vincent,
Tortola, US Virgin Islands. Dominica,
Puerto Rico and Martinique" first pub-
lished in 1959

Medicare Hospital Mortality Informa-
tion, 1988: New Jersey, Puerto Rico
and Virgin Islands (HHS) Washington,
D.C.. USGPO. 1991. 450p. Sales No.

017-060-00420-7 US$22.00
i.................................n ....

La modernization del estado: El Ser-
vicio Civil en el Caribe. The Modern-
ization of the State: The Civil Service in
the Caribbean edited by Jorge Morales
Yordin. Santo Domingo, Editora Teller,
1990. 593p. (Ediclones de la Pontifica
Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra,
PUCMM. vol.149)
Contributions presented at the Semi-
nar on the Civil Service in the Carib-
bean held in Santo Domingo de
Guzman in October 1989. Texts in
Spanish and English. Contributions
on the Civil Service in seven Central
American and Caribbean countries are
included, the Caribbean ones being
Jamaica by Gladstone E. Mills, Puerto
Rico by Angel Medina Villalba,
Trinidad and Tobago by Roland G.
Baptiste and the Dominican Republic
by Raymundo Amaro Guzman and Vic-
tor Meliton Rodriguez
(Address: Editora Teller,Isabel la
Catolica 309, Santo Domingo,
Republican Dominicana.)

My Name is Not Angelica by Scott O'-
Dell. London, Viking Kestrell,
1991.144p., 0-670-83468-8 pb 5.99
Story narrated by a young slave about
black Africans taken from their
homeland to plantations in the West

Negotiating the Lome IV Convention by
Ramesh F. Ramsaran. St.Augustine,
Trinidad and Tobago, Univ. of the West
Indies, Institute of International Rela-
tions. 1990. 69p. (Occ. Paper 6) US$
Note on title page reads: "The author
was attached to the ACP Secretariat
during part of 1989. The views ex-
pressed in this study are his own and
should not be taken to be those of the
Secretariat or any other institutes to
which he is at present attached"

L'odeur du cafe: Recit by Dany Lafler-
riere, Montreal, VLB Editeur,
1991.200p. 2-89005-462-4.
(VLB Editeur. 100. rue Amherst,
bureau 102, Montreal, Quebec H2L
3K5 Tel: (514) 523-1182

Noel Norton's 20 Years of Trnidad Car-
nival. Port of Spain, Trinidad and
Tobago Insurance Ltd., 1990. 131p. ill
(colour plates) 976-8001-82-8
Noel Norton's photographs of Carnival

No. 3, February 1992

No. 3, February 1992

from 1970 to 1990 preceded by an
essay (pp.20-32) "The Development of
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago" by
Simon Lee.

Non-Governmental Women's Organiza-
tions and National Machinery for Im-
proving the Status of Women: A
Directory for the Caribbean Region.
Washington, D.C.,O.A.S., Inter-
American Commission for Women,
1990. 88p.

The Pandits in Trinidad: A Study of a
Hindu Institution by Ashram B.
Maharaj with a foreword by P.K.Misra.
Couva, Indian Review Press, 1991. 96p
Indian Review Press, P.O.Box 537,
Couva, Trinidad and Tobago

Passages: Roman by Emile Ollivier.
Montreal, L'Hexagone, 1991. 171p. 2-
(address: Editions de 1'Hexagone, 1000
rue Amherst, Montral Quebec H2L
3K5 Canada: Distribution- Diffusion
Dimedia Inc., 539 Boulevard Lebau,
Saint Laurent.Quebec H4N IS2.)

A Political History of Trinidad and
Tobago: 50 Years of the Ballot. Written
and researched by George John. Port
of Spain, Trinidad Express
Newspapers Ltd., 1991. 80p. ill. 976-
Inprint Caribbean Ltd., P.O.Box 1252,
Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Port of Spain Consensus of the Carib-
bean Economic Conference: Securing
Caribbean Development to the Year
2000 and Beyond, Port of Spain,
Trinidad and Tobago, 1st March 1991.
4p. issued by the Caribbean Com-
munity Secretariat.
(see item Report on Regional Consult-
ation for address of CARICOM

Rachel's Song by Miguel Barnet, tr by
W. Nick Hill. Cubstone. 1991. 0-
915306-87-5 US$ 9.95
Fictional story of a dancer of pre-
Revolution Cuba.

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago,
Medium Term Macro Planning
Framework 1989-1995. (prepared by
the National Planning Commission)

(Port of Spain, The Central Statistical
Office), 1990. xx. 328p. TF$ 22.00

Romantic Island Getaways: The Carib-
bean,Bermuda and the Bahamas by
Larry Fox and Barbara Radin-Fox.
NewYork, JohnWiley, 1991. xii, 234p.
0-471-52732-7 (pb) US$ 12.95

S.A.R.A. Polls. (by St. Augustine Re-
search Associates). Port of Spain, In-
print Caribbean Ltd., 1991. 54p

Salt-Water Tinnies: Afro Trinidadian
Immigrant Networks and Non-As-
similation in Los Angeles by Christine
Ho. New York, AMS Press. 1991. xvi.
237p. (hdc) 0-404-19483-4 US$42.50
This volume is No. 73 in the series
Immigrant Communities & Ethnic
Minorities in the United States and
Canada. Other titles in this series of
interest to CRB readers are No. 8 The
Puerto Rican Migrants of New York
City: A Study of Anomie by Manuel
Alers-Montalvo. No. 46 IQue Gordital:
A Study of Weight Among Women in a
Puerto-Rican Community by Emily
Bradley Massara, No. 54 Becoming
Black American: Haitians and
American Institutions in Evanston, Il-
linois by Tekle Mariam Woldemikael,
No. 70 Demele: "Making It". Migration
and Adaptation Among Haitian Boat
People in the United States by Rose-
Marie Cassagnol Chierici. and No. 75
Speaking with the Dead: Development
of Afro-Latin Religion Among Puerto-
Ricans in the United States. A Study

____________ _______I'
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(: ?:-...,:. :-.:: Caribbean Review of Books (~Dnbbem Revlw of Iooks

into the Interpenetration of Civiliza-
tions in the New World by Andres
Isidoro Perez y Mena
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Shallow-Water Hydroids of Ber-
muda: The Thecatae, Exclusive of
Plumularioidia by Dale R. Calder.
Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum,
1990. 140p. ill. 0-88854-354-9
(Royal Ontario Museum, Life Scien-
ces Contributions, 154, ISSN 0384-
RoyalOntario Museum, 100 Queens
Park. Toronto M5S 2C6)
No. 148 in this series was an earlier
volume on the same subject area
Shallow-Water Hydroids of Ber-
muda: The Athecatae by the same
author. 1988. 107p. ill.) 0 88854-
339-5 $24.50

Social and Occupational Stratification
in Contemporary Trinidad and Tobago.
edited by Selwyn Ryan. St. Augustine,
Trinidad, Univ. of the West Indies, In-
stitute of Social and Economic Re-
search. 1991. 474 p. 976-618-010-5.

Sources of Bahamian History by P.
Cash, S. Gordon and G. Saunders.
London, Macmillan, 1991. 440p. 0-
333-53746-7 5.95 (pbk)

Stella Seh ... by Barbara Gloudon.
Kingston, Institute of Jamaica, 1991.
208p., pbk 976-8017-13-9, (Heritage
Books, No. 2)

Storm Signals: Structural Adjustment
and Development Alternatives in the
Caribbean by Kathy McAfee. London,
Zed Books, 1991. xii, 259p. 0-86232-
994-9 (hb) $29.95 086232-995-7 (pb)
$11.95. See review this issue.

Strategy and Security in the Caribbean
edited by Ivelaw L. Griffith. Westport,
CT, Praeger. 1991.222p. US$45.00, 0-
Contributors: Ivelaw L. Griffith. Hum-
berto Garcia Muniz, Neville C. Dun-
can, Clifford E. Griffin. Dion E.
Phillips. Alma A. Young and Jannete
O. Domingo. The editor's doctoral
thesis entitled "The Quest for Security
in the Caribbean" (City University of
New York) became available through
University Microfilms in 1990 (order
continued overleaf

M 1 ldN`Y fl LBliD

No. 90-20761)

Sunday Morning Coming Down: The
Cannibals (novel) by Peter Ram-
keesoon. 2nd edition St. Anne's,
Trinidad, Scope-91, 1991. x,73p.
(Scope-91 Publishing Enterprises,
No.4, St.Ann's Road, St. Ann, Trinidad
and Tobago.)
Preface (pp.iii-x) gives an account of
the court case on pornographic char-
ges when the book was first published
in 1975. Reprints of newspaper ac-
counts of the case are included

Tap-Taps to Trinidad: A Caribbean
Journey by Zenga Longmore with
drawings by the author. London:
Arrow Books, 1990. 256p. 0-09-
971420-5 (pb) 4.99 Can.$ 7.95
First published by Hodder &
Stoughton. 1989, now this title ap-
pears in the Century Travellers series
published by Arrow Books. See review
this issue.

The Traditional Marketing System in
Antigua: An Economic Analysis by
Dianne L. Hope. Cave Hill, Barbados,
Univ. of the West Indies, Institute of
Social and Economic Research (East-
ern Caribbean) 1991. vi, 39p. (Occ.
Paper No.22) 976-619-006-2. See
review this issue.

Le Tumulte de mon sang by Stanley
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Quebec/Amerique, 1991. 175p. 2-
(Address Editions Quebec/Amerique,
425 Rue Saint-Jean-Baptiste,
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7Tventy-first Anniversary, 1970-1991:
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1991) 20p.
Unpriced publication issued in a small
edition but containing valuable his-
torical and statistical information on
the work and growth of operations of
the Bureau during the 21 years.

U.S.Markets for Caribbean Basin
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Imports, 1975-1987
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282p. Sales No. 003-024-07265-3
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U.S Trade with Puerto Rico and U.S.
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West Indian Folk Tales by Philip Sher-
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ford University Press, 1991. 2.95

Whispers from the Caribbean: I Going
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Wilfred Cartey. CAAS Publications,
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US$43.00 0-934934-36-3 (pbk) 25.95

Working Miracles: Women's Lives in
the English Speaking Caribbean by
Olive Senior. Cave Hill, Institute of
Social & Economic Research, Publish-
ed in association with James Currey,
London and Indiana University Press,
Bloomington, IN., 1991. xiv, 210p.ill.
0-85255-209-2 (James Currey Cloth)
30.00 0-85255-208-4 (pbk) 9.95.
This book is described as an attempt
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Announced for January
Black Women's Writing edited by Gina
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2 12.99 (pbk)
Critical essays on Black women's writ-
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Hindu Trinidad: Religion, Ethnicity
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Announced for March 1992
Letters on East Africa and the Slave
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Spring Cleaning by Jean 'Binta'
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Bahamas Handbook and
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JBI Quarterly: The Jamaican Bauxite
Alumina Sector. 2/91 (August 1991)

No. 3, February 1992

New quarterly publication (8p) from
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(P.O.Box 355, Kingston 6, Jamaica.
Tel:(809)927-2073-9: Fax. (809) 927-
1159). ISSN 1018-2160
Note on title page reads: "This report is
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figures are also given where available
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Annual subscription Jamaica J$ 200;
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Garvey, continued from page 7
programme. The Garvey move-
ment found itself in competition
with new nationalist movements
some of which had broken away
from the UNIA as well as the
labour and left-wing Communist
influenced organizations.
In his Jamaican activities
Garvey's statements and his or-
ganisations showed a definite
concern for the problems of the
working classes. This is seen in
the 1929 manifesto of the
Peoples Political Party.
The seven years Garvey spent
in Jamaica was a rough time for
him. Hill's documentation helps
us to understand the well-or-
ganised forces that spied on the
Garvey movement from the
Americans to the British and
how these networks functioned
in the Americas to keep Garvey
under control. We also see how
the emergent black middle class
attacked the Garvey movement
and helped to shift the focus of
nationalist thinking to parochial
concerns and away from that
sense of diaspora and African
liberation so crucial to Garvey's
He organised two internation-
al conventions in 1929 and
1934; published two newspapers
the Black Man and the New
Jamaican, organised the Peoples

Revue CARBET. No. 10 Decembre 1990.
"Cheminements et destins dans I'oever
d'Edouard Glissant" Comite de reduc-
tion: Alain Anselin et al. 213p. ISSN
0990-78-66. 90 F
(Address B.P.145, Fort de France
Cedex, Martinique.)
......................... ......

The Caribbean Law Review. Vol. 1, No.
1, (June 1991) Editor: Sharon Le Gall,
biannual. Cave Hill, Barbados, UWI,
Faculty of Law. ISSN 1018-3671
Subs: Caribbean The Bahamas,
Bermuda, British Virgin Islands,

Political Party but failed to get
elected to the colonial legislature,
was imprisoned for three months
for a plank in his manifesto
which criticised British judges,
was elected to the Kingston and
St Andrew Corporation, en-
couraged workers to form trade
unions and fought racism in the
land of his birth. He also started
a family in the early thirties and
by the middle of the decade reset-
tled in London. The correspon-
dence with his wife and children
after their return to the Carib-
bean are published for the first
time and provide a look at the
private person Garvey was and
the relations he had with his
children. He travelled through
the West Indies on his way back
to London in 1937 from a
regional UNIA Conference in
Toronto and organised the
Eighth UNIA Convention also in
Toronto in 1938. Always with a
pen and journal in which to
publish his reflections Garvey's
writings in the Black Man
magazine cover international
politics and chronicle his efforts
through the School of African
Philosophy to prepare another
generation of leaders. It also
documents his support for the
Caribbean labour movement in
the late 1930s.

Cayman Island and Turks and Caicos
Islands US$25 per issue, $45 per
year. Other Caribbean countries
BDS$40 per issue, $75 per year. Else-
where US$30 per issue and $55 per

COMLA Newsletter. No. 73 (Sept. 1991)
is a special issue on the
Americas/Caribbean with several con-
tributions on the Caribbean. 0378-
1070. Available from COMLA
Executive Secretary, P.O. Box 144,
Mona, Kgn 7, Jamaica, W.I.
........a.................. ............

In the 1930s fascist move-
ments gained ground in Europe
and these ultra-nationalist forces
had colonial ambitions. Italy's in-
vasion of Ethiopia in the mid-
1930s resulted in large-scale
protests in the Caribbean and
the United States. The Garvey
movement played its part in
stimulating this anti-colonial sen-
timent. One of the areas of con-
troversy between the Garvey
movement and the Rastafarian
movement concerns Garvey's
criticism of Emperor Haile Selas-
sie for his poor preparation of
Ethiopia's armed forces on the
eve of Mussolini's attack. Garvey
died in London in June 1940,
just two months short of his
53rd birthday.
Volume VII is a very welcome
addition to the collection of Gar-
vey Papers as it traces the years
that have been neglected in
scholarly research in the United
States on the Garvey movement.
The volume includes rare pic-
tures of Garvey and other UNIA
leaders. I recommend this
volume to Caribbean scholars
and readers who want to under-
stand the thinking and activities
of Garveyltes in the region in the
1930s and I encourage our
librarians to acquire it. I

~Cabb~n RlvkCiew of Boj s Caribbean Review of Books Caibbean Rvi4ew of Books

Napaul, continued from page 19
Naipaul, continued from page 19

not read...If they read at all, they
read for magic." Of the African,
he says, "I don't count the
African readership and I don't
think one should. Africa is a
land of bush, again, not a very
literary land." He goes on: "I
can't be interested in people who
don't like what I write, because if
you don't like what I write,
you're disliking me...I can't see a
Monkey you can use a capital
M, that's an affectionate word
for the generality reading my
work. No, my books aren't read
in Trinidad now drum-beating
is a higher activity, a more satis-
fying activity...I do not have the
tenderness more secure people
can have towards bush people
who live outside the bush or
who just go camping in the bush
on weekends...These people
[Trinidadians] live purely physi-
cal lives, which I find con-
temptible...It makes them
interesting only to chaps in
universities who want to do com-
passionate studies about brutes."
I've often wondered just what
it is that Naipaul sees when he
looks in the mirror in the morn-
ing. Perhaps his attitudes might
be more explicable if he had
grown into them over the years,
but it seems to me that even as
a 26-year old man, at the very in-
ception of his career, he was rid-
dled with shame. I quote from
the Times Literary Supplement,
August 1958: "Superflcially, be-
cause of the multitude of races,
Trinidad may seem complex, but
to anyone who knows it, it is a
simple, colonial, philistine
society." The African-American
poet and essayist, Audre Lorde,
defines her position as a writer
with admirable verve and clarity:
"Each of us is here now because
in one way or another we share
a commitment to language and
the power of language, and to
the reclaiming of the language
which has been made to work

against us." This seems to me to
be a reasonable summary of
what writers as diverse as
Achebe of Nigeria, Toni Morrison
of the United States, and Brath-
waite and Lamming of Barbados
have consistently attempted to
achieve in their work. This being
the case, Naipaul seems to me,
more often than not, to be writ-
ing in an oppositional tradition;
in the tradition of those who
would seek to bury us under the
full weight of their assumed cul-
tural superiority.
Naipaul first came to literary
attention in the late 1950s and
early 60s, part of a group of
writers from the Caribbean who
relocated themselves in England.
Alongside Naipaul were writers
such as George Lamming, Edgar
Mittleholzer, Sam Selvon,
Andrew Salkey and Jan Carew.
Naipaul, however, differed from
his colleagues in one key area:
his desire to fully integrate into
the English literary and social
world, and to escape from his
Caribbean past. England would
be the place to rescue him from
colonial oblivion. In a New
Zealand Radio interview in 1972,
he explained his feelings as fol-
lows: "Coming from a place like
Trinidad which I always felt ex-
isted on the edge of the world,
far away from everything else,
not only physically but also in
terms of culture, I felt I had to
try very hard to rejoin the world.
So I had this great drive to
Naipaul's early work, up until
Biswas, can be seen as an ex-
ploration of the society that
produced him a necessarily
critical exploration but an ex-
ploration in which one can
detect a sense of purpose. After
this work, what I have called
Naipaul's tedious misanthropy
emerges. Naipaul increasingly
equates the Western Experience
with the Universal Experience,

and his examination of the way
in which societies move from
colonialism to post-colonialism
is seen only in terms of mimicry
and barbarity. His is a dark
vision, particularly in Guerrillas
(1975) and ABend in the River
(1979), novels which to me seem
stubbornly determined not to
emerge with the complex issues
of what it was that created these
societies in the first place. To my
mind, these novels fail most com-
prehensibly because of Naipaul's
Eurocentric, almost Conradian
sense of history, and because he
refuses to provide any sense of
redemption, or just plain hope,
beyond the transitive, post-
colonial phase. We lurch from
doom to despair, which may
satisfy his readers in London or
New York and indeed some of
his more reactionary readers in
the Developing World but for
those of us who live in these
societies, subscription to such a
purposeless agenda is not only
self-defeating, it denies the
evidence of continued resistance
and struggle against tyrannies
that indeed are not always im-
posed from outside, but, often,
grow like cancer within the bel-
lies of our societies. Yes, we are
sometimes our own enemies, but
we do have a long history of
eventually recognizing this, and
then attempting to do something
about it.
With these novels, Guerrillas
and A Bend in the River, Naipaul
left his Caribbean contem-
poraries far behind in terms of
the critical praise which was
heaped upon him. He achieved
his self-expressed aim of making
it clear that he was not one of
"these commonwealth writers
who specialize in stories of local
color." With Naipaul, the wall of
self-regard that writers can start
to build between themselves and
the rest of the world began to
grow ever taller as one book

No. 3, February 1992

No. 3, February 1992

begat the next. The most recent
years of Naipaul's non-fiction has
always been characterized by a
sometimes almost-pathological
drive for self-definition, which in
itself seems to me to be a
hallmark of the work of most
writers, and this is no bad thing.
However, in the last decade,
Naipaul's desire to continually ex-
plain and re-explain his colonial
predicament, to continually dwell
on his initial "lamentable condi-
tion," has so often been merely
the prelude to his turning guns,
with ever-increasing contempt,
on those poor souls who continue
to inhabit the state that he, by
forever dissecting it, has
presumably released himself
In 1987, Nalpaul published an
autobiographical novel entitled,
appropriately enough, The Enig-
ma ofArrival The place he had
arrived in was a small Wiltshire
village. He had finally been ac-
cepted as an English writer, who
had written an English book, for
an English readership. Melvyn
Bragg, when introducing him on
the South Bank Show, the most
influential arts programme in
Britain, described him as "one of
our most distinguished
novelists." Shortly after the publi-
cation of this novel, Naipaul was
knighted. How far Naipaul has
come since those early days with
Lamming, Carew, Selvon and
their like in the foggy London of
the 1950s. The wound that
Naipaul perceived the Caribbean,
and before this India, to have in-
flicted upon him, had now been,
to some extent, healed by a
generous Britain. Neither Lam-
ming, Carew, or Selvon remained
in England. Naipaul's persistence
appeared to have paid dividend.
His career and their's seem to
have taken totally different turns.
In terms of providing examples
for a young writer like myself, it
was often difficult to know which
way to look. Towards the writers

who had less distinguished
profiles, but who wrote and
spoke with a sense of regional at-
tachment; or to the famous
writer, uncritically accepted by
the West, who seemed to be more
than just ashamed of his origins,
at times he seemed to despise
them. Perhaps the only sensible
answer to this question was to
embrace the best of both worlds.
As I have already stated, I have al-
ways admired the sheer insis-
tence of Naipaul's productivity.
But I have never learned to
cherish him as I do a Louise Ben-
nett, C.L.R. James, or a Derek
Perhaps because of some of
the similarities between Naipaul
and myself, people have always
been very quick to try and define
me. These superficial similarities
probably account for the barrage
of questions that I usually have
to field on the subject of Naipaul.
However, the question that I am
most often asked is whether I
consider myself to be a British
writer, a black writer, a black
British writer, a West Indian
writer, a Caribbean writer, a
black Caribbean writer, and so
on and so on. And my usual
response is to firstly point out
that labels are for librarians; to
assert that there is little I can do
to contract into or out of these
various headings, but if pushed I
generally say that I would like to
think that I might, in some small
way, be contributing to the
development of a relatively youth-
ful Caribbean literature, rather
than being merely an exotic ad-
junct to English literature. I then
go on and point out that the
people that I consider to be my
contemporaries, the poets Linton
Kwesi Johnson, Fred D'Agular,
David Dabydeen, the novelist
Joan Riley, to name but a hand-
ful, were all educated outside of,
live outside of, and are being pub-
lished outside of the Caribbean.
However, what I have recently

noticed is that there is an increas-
ing desire on the part of these
writers' 'temporary homes' (in
this case, Britain,) to accept
these writers as a vital and
central part of their own litera-
tures, and concurrently an under-
standable desire on the part of
these writers to concern themsel-
ves at least as vigorously with the
subject-matter of these host
countries, sometimes to the ex-
clusion of'the Caribbean which
produced the initial impulse.
This is best illustrated if we
look at the work of the man who
is probably the best young poet
working in Britain, Fred D'-
Aguiar. Fred was born in
England, but he spent his early
years in Guyana. He came back
to England as a twelve-year old.
Educated at school in London,
and then at the University, he
has taught at Cambridge Univer-
sity, and now teaches at New-
castle and Durham University, in
the north of England. His first col-
lection, Mama Dot (1985), was
named for his Guyanese
grandmother who raised him.
Airy Hall (1989) is named after
the small village in which he
grew up in Guyana. Both
volumes are infused with images
of the Caribbean, of a warm
memory of a place which has
made him the poet he is today. A
new collection from Fred D'-
Agular will be published next
year. It will be called British
Citizen, and its concern will be
Britain, British history. Fred has
not gone as far as David
Dabydeen, who recently declared
that he never wants to return to
Guyana, but he has stated that
he has "written through" his
Caribbean phase and emerged in
England. I would not be nearly so
concerned by this development if
those writers who were fortunate
enough to have grown up and
been educated in an exclusively
Caribbean context (unlike Joan
Riley, Linton Kwesi Johnson,
continued on page 27

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INTERVIEW continued from page
money writing. Some-
times you have to get
practical, you know,
and I sometimes sit
down and think: Well, I
would like to work on a
novel at the moment
but I don't have any
money so I might have
to do a TV play or some-
thing. So in a sense you
could say my other job
is also a form of writing.
Which is why I have
been, perhaps, into so
many other avenues of
writing, beyond prose
and theatre which are
my first two loves. I've
been into radio and
documentary work and
films and what have
you, largely as a way of
subsidizing the other
material. Teaching of-
fers some form of relief
from that for a while,
but the teaching is not
something that I want
to use as a means of
subsidizing writing.
Q: You think you could
live in the West Indies?
A: I live in St Kitts. In
1988 I built a house
there. So I tryl
I'm not there all the
time. I mean, but I
couldn't live there
twelve months of the
year. I just couldn't. It's
too small. And there are
certain things that I
miss about Britain. I
miss the football, I miss
the pubs, I miss friends,

CRB sells
books for


I miss you know. I'd
be crazy to deny it.
St Kitts has no traffic
lights. But it offers me
other things. I think it's
the reason why I write.
And it enables me to
grow, in all sorts of
ways, in the same way
as Britain has enabled
me to develop in some
Q: How much did your
parents tell you about
the Caribbean?
A: Nothing. Nothing.
And you-know, I've
talked to other people of
my generation who were
born in the Caribbean
and came to England as
small kids, and a lot of
them say the same
thing: that they weren't
really told very much.
I've never really ques-
tioned either of my
parents about this.
They didn't talk to me
very much about the
Caribbean. I can't
remember them saying
a damn thing, to be
And I think it's be-
cause they were very
concerned that their
children didn't have to
go through the same
anxieties about belong-
ing to two places that
they were beginning to
feel. I think they didn't
talk about it to protect
us. They were very keen
that they might go back


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No. 3, February 1992

one day, but they
couldn't see any way in
which their children
might want to go back,
because their children
didn't really have any-
thing that they could
remember, to go back
to. So I think they
probably felt that to en-
gender a desire in us
that might never be ful-
filled might be to create
more confusion and dif-
ficulties for us. And I
think they probably al-
ready saw that we were
going to have enough
difficulties and con-
fusion being accepted
as full members of
British society.
When I went back to
St Kitts first, I went

back with my mother,
and when the plane was
circling St Kitts to land,
a short journey from An-
tigua, she looked at me
and began to speak at
about two hundred
miles an hour. And this
stream of words, this
torrent of words, just
flew out of her mouth.
And then she got very
emotionally upset, and I
think it's because it was
too late to begin to tell
me what I was about to
meet. She hadn't told
me anything, and she
tried in the space of
about four minutes, as
we fastened our seat
belts, to cover twenty
years, and it was just
too late.

No. 3, February 1992

Fred D'Aguiar, David Dabydeen,
and myself), felt able to remain
here and write. But so many ap-
pear to be leaving, or to have al-
ready left. Jamaica Kincaid,
Grace Nichols, Olive Senior, and
now, and perhaps most disturb-
ingly, Edward Kamau Brath-
waite, who more so than any
other writer seemed to embody a
hope that Caribbean writers
might work profitably in the
bosom of their own societies. It is
almost as though the flight to
London of the 50s and 60s is
being repeated, but this time
Toronto or New York appear to be
the most popular destinations. I
suspect that the sheer practical
consideration of money might
play a large part in this flight,
but I cannot help suspecting that
there is something else at work
here. A disaffection, perhaps, on
the part of Caribbean writers
with a society that they feel does
not value them.
It is at this juncture that I
find myself thinking once more
about V.S. Naipaul, a man who,
as I've tried to illustrate, felt
strongly, even at the inception of
his career, that there was little, if
any, point in trying to develop a
literary engagement with Carib-
bean society. Clearly this has
resulted in some of his more acer-
bic comments, but as writers con-
tinue to leave, one has to
consider whether Naipaul was
not right when, in a 1971 inter-
view with the New York Times
Book Review, he restated his
position in the following words:
"...an artist needs to be
nourished, needs an audience
and a response. A writer must be
supported by the knowledge that
he comes from a society with
which he is in dialogue."
What happens to writers who
imagine themselves to be in a

situation in which they are not in
dialogue is that they go and look
for societies where they can find
nourishment. Thirty years ago,
Naipaul fought against the grain
to become a part of a society that
he felt he could be in dialogue
with, even if this placed him in
direct opposition to his own
origins. In a recent essay, the
critic Arnold Rampersad has sug-
gested that Naipaul has now real-
ized the price of his desire to be
in dialogue with England.
Rampersad states that, for
Naipaul, "an art of the West In-
dian place has become impos-
sible." Caribbean writers, critics,
readers might stop and think for
a moment about what it is, post-
Naipaul, that encourages this
new generation of writers to leave
the Caribbean. Naipaul's own
post-Biswas art of nihilistic
despair was clearly born out of a
deep sense of frustration, and dis-
appointment with the Caribbean.
When he speaks of a lack of
nourishment he deserves to be
listened to, for we cannot afford
to have those of the Caribbean -
and under this heading I include
Naipaul working against the
Caribbean. And beyond Naipaul,
we most certainly cannot afford
to stand by and watch another
generation of writers nurtured in
this society leave. It seems to me
unrealistic to expect those of
West Indian origin schooled in
England, Canada, or the United
State to replenish Caribbean
literature. Most, not all, but most
will inevitably be appropriated by
the larger literatures of their host
communities. Such appropria-
tion, dare I say integration, is al-
ready in evidence in other areas
of British life. One need look no
further than the make-up of the
England football team, or the
track and field team, or even the

cricket team, to see the truth of
this. People of West Indian origin
are a necessary component to the
future health of British society in
all fields of activity, and the same
is true in Canada and the United
States. The simple truth is that
the future of Caribbean writing
lies right here in the Caribbean.
Nearly forty years after Naipaul
left, it is both distressing and
worrying to note that, as with
other areas of Caribbean life, the
talents, specifically the literary
talents, of those that we nurture
and develop continue to be co-
opted by others. There are so few
examples to the contrary (Loma
Goodison and Erna Brodber in
Jamaica, Earl Lovelace in
Trinidad) that I often wonder
what signals are being given out
to the younger generation of
Caribbean people who wish to
write. Young people should not
be told, however obliquely, that
in order to write about where
they are from, and what they see
in front of their eyes, they would
be best served to take themselves
abroad. I am aware that Carib-
bean society has priorities other
than books, such as bread, and
basic hospital and educational
facilities, but to deny the power
of the written word and its neces-
sity to the health of a
community's sense of self seems
to me to be an act of great folly.
The Caribbean needs writers, at
least as much as she needs
tourists. But she needs them
here, for the people of the Carib-
bean deserve the opportunity of
reading about themselves
without having to peer through
the often distorting, sometimes
Naipaulean, prism of New York,
Toronto, or London.

C~: i:.. i .a ii..:w : coi. Caribbean Review of Books aribe Revlew of Books

flwDwvDW of BolfTsl

ESSJ, continued from page 6
graphs came to be used to il-
lustrate activities in the various
As a historical source of
economic policies and strategies
of successive governments ESSJ
is invaluable. Until 1970 all the
legislation passed to enhance per-
formance in each sector was
recorded in it. The chapter on Of-
ficial Assistance is a useful
source for information on the
type of assistance received from
donor bodies.
A great deal of effort and or-
ganization on the part of the
editorial team in the Research,
Publication and Documentation
Division of the Planning Institute
of Jamaica is needed to bring
together such a wealth of Infor-
mation. Chapters are written by
professionals demographers,
sociologists and economists on
the staff of the Institute. Sources
for data include government mini-
stries, the Statistical Institute of
Jamaica, the Urban Development
Corporation and the Bank of
In the early 1980s, finding it
necessary for the government, as
Traditional marketing, continued from page 5
and to enhance consumer
buying, assistance that does not
appear to have been sought by
them. "On the other hand," she
writes "the presence of the Minis-
try of Agriculture, which could
have provided some of the sup-
port services, was also lack-
Against the background of her
study the author makes a final

part of a programme of economic
structural adjustment, to have
more timely data for monitoring
economic and social planning,
the annual ESSJwas replaced in
1981 with two half-yearly issues.
This change, however, was
reversed the next year. Now a
special effort is made to bring out
the annual issue with the least
possible delay.
Users familiar with the com-
plete series of this annual may
regret that some useful features
which used to appear in past
years have been discontinued.
The record of legislation passed
for the various sectors, and the
special reports (both referred to
above) are examples. Another
such useful feature now absent
is the chapter on overseas
developments which provided
useful information on Jamaica's
relationships within the Common-
wealth, the Organization of
American States and the Carib-
bean region and how these had
an impact on the economic and
social development of the Island.
Obviously such a publication
also means significant costs to

observation that the time has
now come to begin working with
a system that has survived for
decades, continues to be an im-
portant part of local food dis-
tribution systems, and possesses
a few (but not enough) innovative
This is a useful book for an
understanding of a very impor-
tant sector in Caribbean

the publisher, to offset which a
cost recovery programme was in-
troduced in 1976 when free dis-
tribution of copies was
discontinued. At present an edi-
tion of 1,500 copies is produced
and marketed locally and over-
seas. Approximately 1,000 copies
are sold and the remainder of the
edition is used as gifts and for ex-
To celebrate the 30th year of
the ESSJand to mark the out-
standing record of disseminating
socio-economic information to
the public the Planning Institute
of Jamaica organized a series of
commemorative events under the
theme "Over Thirty Years of Plan-
ning" in 1988. ESSJholds pride
of place among Jamaican govern-
ment publications and is the
most popular and well known
among the Institute's publica-
tions. The other publications of
the Institute include the Quarter-
ly Economic Report and govern-
ment development plans.
including the Five Year Develop-
ment Plan 1990-1995 1

economies, and as most of the
farmer-sellers participating in
the TMS are women it will be of
relevance in that area too. The
volume is neatly and attractively
produced although the printers
devil seems to have been at work
op pages 26 and 29.


YES, I would like a subscription to CRB,
Nam e ............................................ ...............

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MaiStIsnun to:

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MonaKigynf 7^^^^^^
Jamaica, We^xst Indies ^

No. 3, February 1992



Tap-Taps, continued from page 11
To some extent I can forgive,
in a travel book, Zenga's full-
blooded emotionalism, but her
savage treatment of Martinique
is too overdrawn. It really isn't
so bad I
As a brown Brit from Brixton,
she is clearly much more at
home amid vivid tropical vegeta-
tion than in the bleak streets of
South London. I am happy to
know that visitors still think of
our islands as possessing "a per-
fect, natural beauty" (p.252),
and some of her glowing descrip-

No. 3, February 1992

tions of that beauty are quite
lyrical, even poetic. I hope that if
our politicians, hoteliers and
other assorted bigwigs read this
book, they will unite in preserv-
ing that beauty from impending
But, as with Michener and
every other 'outside' writer,
Zenga's final word about us'is
that by far the biggest thrill in
any visit to the Caribbean is to
share our "joy and robust zest
for living".

"Oh, Jamaica, land of
religious, careworn people.
As I sped through Kingston's
ruinous streetsfor the last
time, I had a strong convic-
tion that something must be
done fast, but what? Some-
body has to do something to
make Jamaicans love
Jamaica, island of the
world's most exquisite
scenery". How true, how
true! .

Poland, continued from page 3
Haitians knew this. They knew
that they were in their land
under duress and respected
them even as they reluctantly
fought them. The Poles in turn,
with few exceptions, were not
callously racist as were many, if
not most, of the French, soldiers
and civilians alike. In particular,
the Poles were horrified and
revolted by the disgusting
brutalities and licentiousness of
the unspeakable Governor
The reader who loves war
stories will vicariously enjoy the
battles of Quesnille, Kay Ravine
and Camp de Passage. But there
is a very grim side to the geog-
raphy of this book. Flying by
BWIA from Jamaica to the east-
ern Caribbean, in clear weather
one can look down directly on
these sites in the Massif de la
Hotte where the Poles ex-
perienced their brief episodes of
heroism. On almost every page
in chapters 8 to 13 and 16 to 21
reference is made to the dense
forests which then clothed
much of Haiti. The Poles often

got lost in the rainforest. Typical
of many instances, at the battle
of Quesnille, Zymirski and his
men "marched for several hours
throughout the forest" to
surprise the 'rebel' base, only to
find it was indefensible because
the forests provided cover for
their 'enemy' (P 184). Nowhere
near these sites today is there
so much as a vestige of forest:
the land is a desert. It has been
a very hollow victory for the
In that terrible war, the
French lost 58,000 men, includ-
ing 40 generals. The Haitians
lost 80,000. Proportionately, the
Poles fared worst of all: out of
5280 legionnaires, 4000 died,
many of them from yellow fever.
For Jamaicans, the dreadful
treatment meted out to Polish
prisoners on arrival in Kingston
by Governor Nugent and the
British is an intriguing and
hitherto unpublicized part of
this tragic story though it is
not for the squeamish.
Four hundred Poles stayed
on to become Haitian citizens.

Some of them were even in the
elite bodyguard, certainly of Des-
salines, and possibly of Emperor
Henri Christophe. Most became,
like Jamaica's Seaford Town Ger-
mans, poor peasants. At the end
of the book the authors attempt
to trace those Haitians, mostly
in the hills, who have Polish an-
cestry. Interestingly, the most
'Polish' of the villages, Cazales,
(not Cazale as in the book), was
the scene of a bloody massacre
in 1959 by the Duvaliers' tonton
macoutes. Love of liberty had
seemingly survived.
No library in the Caribbean
should be without this book,
since it adds a whole new un-
familiar dimension to what we
in the region had thought was a
very familiar story. The authors
attest that the story they tell
has'never been told before in
English, and since most Carib-
bean readers will never be able
to read Polish, we owe an impor-
tant debt to the late Professor
Pachonski and Reuel Wilson.

Gender in Caribbean

Development now available. Order from

....t n |Rei w o. B "i Cabbean Review of Books ib Review of oomks


continued from page 1
mus test of the changing and
changed Jamaican reality: a
political and intellectually declin-
ing white superstructure proudly
defended by black constabulary.
Indeed, as the whites or-
ganized and articulated new
strategies to perpetuate their
challenged hegemony, the rest-
less masses of Jamaica made
their task increasingly difficult.
"White superordination and
black subordination." Bryan ar-
gues, "rested both on force and
on consensus. As important as
the forces of coercion might have
been for the maintenance of
order, however, the internalisa-
tion of beliefs in white supremacy
and white leadership was per-
haps in the long run more impor-
tant than the British Navy, or the
Jamaican Constabulary, in
facilitating social control (page
279)." The aims of education and
political change whether
directed from London or from
Kingston was not to create a
society based on absolute
equality but rather establish a so-
cial equilibrium "in which the
traditional social distance could
be maintained between white
and black, hope of improvement
generated, class oppression jus-
tified, works of charity performed
and moral equality coexist with
class, race and cultural ine-
qualities and differences (page
By considering Jamaican
society to be a corporate con-

struct in which blacks and
whites constituted symbiotic sec-
tors reciprocally catalyzing each
other, Bryan produces an in-
delible picture that is as complex
as it is creatively dynamic. Both
black and white sectors con-
tinually made the type of prag-
matic concessions to each other
that negated the assumption of
two clearly distinct Jamaicas -
Euro-Jamaica and Afro-Jamaica
- and both constituencies
shared (to varying degrees of
course) a common language and
a common set of cultural sym-
bols. Whites insisted on their
moral imperative to rule the "sub-
ject peoples", as the blacks were
commonly called and blacks
used white standards of conduct
as their index for elevating them-
selves from this pejorative subor-
dination. What Bryan does with
commendable excellence is ex-
plore the subtle ways in which
the emerging black intelligentsia
discovered the keys that allowed
them to undermine the basic as-
sumptions of social equilibrium
held by the colonial office and
the white local minority. Those
keys were education for the mas-
ses and direct political participa-
tion. It took a long time to
produce results with those keys,
but they eventually succeeded.
The Jamaican People is writ-
ten with enviable empathy and
wit. Some of it derives from the
local sources, profusely
punctuated with the type of

colour and humour that surely
escaped the contemporary elites.
Consider the example on page 69
of a quintessential confrontation
of the two Jamaicas:
A prisoner was taken before
Justice Judge Little, charged
with the theft of a pig.
Judge: What did you do with
the pig?
Prisoner: John Cro' tek 'im
Judge: Call up Mr John Crowl
But the author's individual
sense of humour also delightfully
pervades the book, as on page
192: "The inequalities of
Jamaican society made possible
the existence at the top of the
society of a minority whose way
of life, it was thought, added tone
to the society. But a little leaven
does not always leaven the whole
Eventually what makes The
Jamaican People an absolutely
outstanding book is not simply
its "thick description" of
Jamaican society but the extraor-
dinary capacity to locate that
society in the broader physical
space of the Atlantic community
and the wider intellectual world
of the later nineteenth century.
This sophisticated approach ex-
tends the appeal far beyond the
island and the region, (or this
study can be rewardingly read as
a classic case study in the evolu-
tion of the American creole

No. 3, February 1992

CLASSIFIED! UWIPA has the following rare and out-of- Echo. Orlando Wong (poetry), 1977
print books for sale! Call or write for more Essays on Power and Change in Jamaica.
, ell, announce any- information. Dr. Carl Stone & Dr. Aggrey Brown (eds.),
Buy, sel, ace any- Challenges in the New Caribbean 1977
thing you like in this No. 1: W.L Nationhood and Caribbean In- FOCUS 1963. Edna Manley (ed.)
tegrration, No.2: Change and Renewal in
space for as little as the Caribbean by William G. Demas, 1974, Grenada: The Sovereignty of a People (2).
US$.SO/word 1975 H. Aubrey Fraser. (W.L Law Journal)
Contradictory Omens: Cultural Diversity & History ofAlliouagana: A Short History of
Integration in the Caribbean. Edward Brath- Montserrat. Howard A. Fergus, 1975
waite (Monograph 1, Savacou), 1974

31 No. 3, February 1992

New from ECI!

Sonny Jim of Sandy Point (A Novel) by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, University of the
Virgin Islands, St. Croix, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-07-9, 308 pp, Soft $12.95 + $1.75 S&H
Sonny Jim of Sandy Point is a novel about growing up in Sandy Point, St. Kitts, West Indies, in the 1950's and 1960's. The novel is a first in
terms of social, cultural and political perspectives about growing up under conditions that are easy to laugh at and difficult to forget.
Sonny Jim walked on the hot-pitch road to his real mother's house. He was about to start a new life with his real mother, his queen...He
jumped high to avoid the remains that were left behind the beach...The mongoose was on fire. The mongoose dashed through the cane field,
setting the cane field on fire...There was no way of saying if the light in mountain was a jumble or a sukinaw. Sonny Jim was not going to wait
to hear the end of the story.
...She told him that she was making out. That was a big problem for him..for her..for her mother. Should he stay.in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands?
Or should he go back home and marry her?
In Sandy Point he would catch ground doves, fly grasshoppers and catch lizards...Saturday was the big day for cutting wood for baking.
Brimstone Hill has not been the same since. And when he stumbled his big toe and put that big toe in the washiecong, heaven helped you if
you were near the smell.

SONNY JIM OF SANDY POINT, a novel for all ages, will make you laugh and make you cry. You will laugh at the times but you will not
forget the times.

CARIBBEAN VISIONS edited by S.B Jones-Hendrickson, 1991, ISBN 0-932831-06-
0, 266 PP, HARD $25.95 + $1.75 S&H
You are invited to join the ranks of those who had the opportunity to hear ten Presidents outline their visions for and to the Caribbean people
over the period 1979 to 1989. From Curacao in the Netherlands Antilles to St. Kitts in the OECS, from Jamaica in the north to Barbados in the
south, these ten Presidents of the Caribbean Studies Association key in on critical issues which faced and will face the people of the Caribbean
at home and abroad.
You will be informed about:
Equality and Social Justice Wendell Bell
United States Dominance Vaughan Lewis
Labour Surplus and the Engine of Growth Ransford Palmer
Modem-Conservative Societies Anthony Maingot
Strategies for Progress in Post-Independenc SBJH
Human Values and Human Resources Faut Andic
Economies of the State and the People Compton Bourne
Challenges of Leadership Alma Young
Zone of Peace: Possibility or Utopia? Andres Serbin
CSA's Visions of Development Eddie Greene
Can you afford not to read this book? This book is important to those who make the Caribbean their home at home and abroad. The book is
also important to those who want to know more about the thinking of Caribbeanists and Caribbeaners as they chart their visions of and for the
Caribbean people over time and space.
The contributors are distinguished academics, scholars and practising decision/policy makers in the traditional Caribbean, the wider Caribbean
and in North America.
The Caribbean Studies Association, CSA, is the premier organization that studies the Caribbean. CSA is also a family. These ten addresses
are ideas from our family to your family.
The Editor: S. B. Jones-Hendrickson (SBJH) is a Professor of Economics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix Campus, USVI. He is a
founding member of the Caribbean Studies Association. He held positions as the first Secretary-Treasurer, Council Member, Vice-President
and President.
Pleaseorderfrom: EASTERN CARIBBEAN INSTITUTE or from your local

P.O. Box 1338 bookstore
Frederiksted, St. Croix
Virgin Islands 00841

ti:l:xan of ..<.... Caribbean Review of Books Caibben Review ofiooX

DBGwieDw (Dff BoMo)lD

Kn aston PubIIshers L3mixted

A Contact us for these and
other books at:
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