Title: Interim Report for the NHPRC Grant America's Swamp: the Historic Everglades
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094080/00001
 Material Information
Title: Interim Report for the NHPRC Grant America's Swamp: the Historic Everglades
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Nemmers, John and Laurie Taylor
Publisher: University of Florida Libraries
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: July 23, 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094080
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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America's Swamp: The Historical Everglades Project
Interim Report July 2009

Purposes and Goals of the Project
The University of Florida proposed a 3-year project to digitize using cost-effective methods approximately 99,690
pages in six archival collections that document the despoiling of the Everglades and the development of South
Florida in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The collections selected for this project document early plans for
draining the Everglades in the 1880s and 1890s, the dredging of canals and subsequent development of the
destroyed wetlands at the start of the 20th century, as well as early attempts by conservationists to preserve the
natural resources of the Everglades. All six collections are being digitized in their entirety, although a small
number of boxes will be excluded because they are not within the chronological scope of the project. The
collections date from 1854 to 1963, but the bulk of the materials included in this project date from 1877 to 1929.

Collection Extent Exclusions Pages
Napoleon B. Broward Papers, 1879-1818 10.75 In. ft. (14 boxes; 4 11,465
William Sherman Jennings Papers, 1877-1928 13.5 In. ft. (29 boxes; 16 32,575
May Mann Jennings Papers, 1889-1963 8 In. ft. (23 boxes) 2 boxes dated 22,500
Thomas E. Will Papers, 1893-1938 14 In. ft. (24 boxes) 2 boxes dated 29,800
Arthur E. Morgan Papers, 1912-1954 0.8 In. ft. (2 boxes) 2 files dated 1,850
James E. Ingraham Papers, 1854-1920 1 In. ft. (2 boxes) 1,500

Total pages: 99,690

Key Personnel:
John Nemmers, Principal Investigator. Descriptive and Technical Services Archivist, Department of
Special and Area Studies Collections, University of Florida Libraries. 352-273-2766.
johnemm@uflib.ufl.edu. He serves as project director and is responsible for overseeing folder level
reviews and conservation assessments prior to digitization, as well as compiling and submitting all project
Dr. Laurie Taylor, Co-Principal Investigator. Digital Projects Librarian, Digital Library Center,
University of Florida Libraries. 352-273-2900. lautayl@uflib.ufl.edu. She is responsible for
coordinating all aspects of the digitization process.

Plan of Work
All imaging is completed in the Digital Library Center (DLC), a unit of UF Libraries. For all digitized materials,
METS metadata is created. In addition to technical and structural data, descriptive metadata is imported and
repurposed from existing Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids. Each of the six collections is being
processed separately as discrete units so that no co-mingling of materials can occur. Each collection is processed
in its entirety by a specific unit before it moves into another processing area.

Time Schedule of Activities

All project activities scheduled to begin between January and July 2009 have occurred on schedule. These
activities are described in detail in the Workflow section below. One minor change was made to the schedule of
activities above. In the original proposal, the Broward, Will and May Mann Jennings collections were selected as
the first three collections to be digitized. However, based on increased researcher demand in 2008-09, the first
three collections imaged will be May Mann Jennings, William S. Jennings and Broward. This will not affect the
workflow or the completion of scheduled activities.


Selection, preparation & EAD data ingested
Conservation review into DLC Tracking database

Quality Control

Digital Package Deployment to
Final review web servers & digital archiving

Selection, preparation and conservation review
All pre-imaging activities began on schedule in January 2009, and have proceeded uninterrupted to date. Prior to
imaging, Special Collections staff (John Nemmers, Flo Turcotte, and Jim Cusick) conduct a folder level review

and complete a pre-imaging checklist (a sample is attached to this report). The staff physically examine each
archival container to identify potential special-needs materials such as fragile documents, photographs, etc. The
staff ensure that the physical arrangement of the folders in each box is identical to the arrangement described in
the EAD finding aid. Special Collections staff also include written notes and instructions for the DLC staff when
delivering materials for digitization. They use the checklist to "check out" each archival container prior to
imaging. Boxes are transported to the DLC from Special Collections after they have been checked out. Prior to
digitization, any items of particular concern are reviewed by members of the Preservation Department (John
Freund and Cathy Martyniak) and handling requirements are noted. For some of the fragile materials,
Preservation staff have flattened and placed the documents in polyester sleeves to protect them during and
following imaging.

Digitization Actions
Once a collection is received by the DLC, the existing EAD finding aid data is imported into the Digital Library
Tracking Database (DLC Tracking) and repurposed from existing collection-, series-, and folder-level
descriptions for the collections. In a few instances, where individual items are described in the EAD finding aids,
item-level descriptions are available for use with the digital objects. Descriptive metadata elements in the existing
EAD finding aids that can be repurposed include: Collection Title, Collection Dates, Collection Originator, Series
Title, Series Date, Folder Title, Folder Date(s). For all digitized materials, national Metadata Encoding and
Transmission Standard (METS) metadata is created. The basic METS files are created and enhanced
automatically as an individual folder moves through the digitization chain.

Lourdes Santamaria-Wheeler, head of the imaging unit, trained and supervises the scanning technicians who are
completing scanning activities. All items are digitized to meet the requirements of the item's physical format.
Photographs are scanned at 600 dpi, 8 bit grayscale or 24 bit color. Individual pages are scanned on Copibook or
flatbed scanners at minimum of 300 dpi, 24 bit color. The production imaging unit performs initial image review
of all pages, adjusting the image quality as necessary, including adjustment of levels, skew, and contrast.
Advanced image manipulation is performed as needed and includes level adjustment and color replacement to
minimize the appearance of aging and foxing. Images are captured as uncompressed TIFF files (ITU6.0) at 100%
scale; the current de facto standard for electronic image archives. Both flatbed and CopiBook scanners are
calibrated regularly in order to maintain color fidelity and optimum image results. Following imaging, the boxes
are returned to the Special Collections Department.

Quality Control
After initial scanning and image enhancement, all aspects of image control and digital package creation are
controlled by the UFDC Toolkit, an integrated software package that controls derivative image formation, quality
control review at the package level, and deployment to the UFDC server. Jane Pen, head of the Quality Control
Unit, supervises a staff of quality control technicians. Her staff use Toolkit Pre-QC function which creates jpg,
jpg2, and jpg thumbnail images. A second program, the Quality Control tool, displays thumbnails of each image
in sequential order. These images are reviewed. Errors are noted and returned to the imaging unit for scan/rescan
of the pages. If there are no errors, the files go to the Metadata Control Unit. At this point, the initial METS file
contains basic structural and administrative metadata, as well as the descriptive metadata repurposed from the
EAD files.

Digital Package Markup & Deployment
Once quality control has been completed, the digital package moves to the Markup Unit. For this project, Matt
Mariner, the unit head, ensures that all package level metadata conforms to the national METS, our local
extension schemas, and to requirements for serving in UFDC and permanent preservation. Users can view the
METS file for any item loaded in UFDC by selecting METSMetadata under the Technical Data menu on the
navigation bar to the left of an item being viewed. With final package approval, the Metadata Control Unit uses
the GoUFD module of the DLC toolkit to initiate the FTPing of the package to the UFDC server for public access
and metadata harvesting, sends the package to the Florida Digital Archive for preservation archiving, and bums
the package to gold-based DVDs for local archival storage.

Accomplishments and Products
The results of the project have been satisfactory to date, and all goals have proven to be realistic and achievable.

Pre-Imaging Processing
As of July 2009 all of the May Mann Jennings boxes have been reviewed by Special Collections and Preservation
staff and all pre-imaging activities and worksheets have been completed. Of the 23 boxes in the collection, 18
boxes have been transferred to the DLC for imaging (15 have been imaged and returned; 3 are in process). All
photographs have been imaged, and some were shared with NHPRC staff for publicity purposes. Of the 27 boxes
in the William Sherman Jennings collection, 23 have been reviewed by Special Collections and Preservation staff
and all pre-imaging activities and worksheets have been completed. One unanticipated benefit has been the
identification and correction of two errors in the EAD finding aid for the May Mann Jennings Papers. Although
these errors were minor (e.g., one was a date error), the process ensures that all of the finding aids accurately
describe the collections.

Project Homepage
An Everglades homepage has been developed as part of the University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC) and
is available at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/UFDC/?c=swamp. The homepage currently includes a sample of
photographs and documents from the six collections, as well as project documentation and acknowledgement of
NHPRC funding. The project homepage includes a page with a brief summary of performance objectives and
links to the grant proposal for more information (available at:

Preservation Supplies
Grant funds were used to purchase 3230 polyester sleeves (11x14") to protect fragile documents during and
following digitization.

The existing EAD finding aid data for the May Mann Jennings collection has been imported into the DLC
Tracking database and METS technical metadata is being created as pages are digitized. To date 12,250 pages
have been scanned, processed for imaging quality control, loaded, and online. (12% of total 99,690 pages)

Statistics are automatically updated as materials load and are available online:
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?m=htg (use the right-most column for pages loaded this fiscal year which began

Subcollections were established for:
Broward: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?c=swamp&s=broward
May Mann Jennings: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?c=swamp&s=jmmann
William Sherman Jennings: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?c=swamp&s=jennws
All subcollection landing pages have been prepared and coded into the UFDC system and are activated as
materials for the collections load

Everglades Digital Library
To increase discovery of and access to the six Everglades collections, UF plans to contribute digital objects and
metadata to the Everglades Digital Library (http://everglades.fiu.edu/). The EDL is a project of the Everglades
Information Network, a collaborative effort of the Florida International University Libraries, the Florida Center
for Library Automation, the Everglades National Park, and numerous other agencies and research organizations.
The project team contacted the EDL project team to begin development of cross-searching and integration with
the EDL. After several discussions, the two teams realized that planned enhancements to the existing EDL
infrastructure could best be facilitated by merging with the UFDC infrastructure. The UF project team has begun
migrating content into the UFDC infrastructure to enable cross-searching using the single data infrastructure with

EDL while also enabling new functionality for EDL as a whole. UFDC's robust infrastructure and separation of
data, search, and interface allow this work to be done on the data storage and search system, and so it does not
disrupt any services or change any known access points and landing pages. This allows for integration and
enhancement of functionality while also ensuring stability and optimal user ease.

As part of the project, UF widely publicizes information about the project. All documentation, including
workflow and technical specifications, is added to the project homepage. Project staff also are disseminating
information about methodology and outcomes in journal and newsletter articles and via conference presentations.
To date, the following publicity and marketing activities have occurred:
Chapter One newsletter article (Spring 2009)
The Florida Archivist, the Society of Florida Archivists Newsletter article (Spring 2009)
"University of Florida Awarded NHRPC Grant to Digitize Everglades Collections" (forthcoming article
in the next issue of the Society of American Archivists Description Section newsletter, Descriptive Notes)
"May Mann Jennings, Club Women and the Preservation of Royal Palm State Park." Paper presented at
the American Society for Environmental History annual conference, February 2009, by John Nemmers.
This presentation featured photographs scanned from the Jennings Papers, as well as handouts with
information about the project and links to the project homepage.
Social networks in use to disseminate information and to drive link traffic to the project as part of the
optimization of search engine rankings include loading photos to Flickr
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/ufdc/sets/72157613280219404/) and blogging
Creation of a postcard promoting America's Swamp that is distributed to visitors to UF's Digital Library
Center and Special Collections.
Additional articles are planned for late 2009 and early 2010, once a larger number of page images are available

Sample Pre-Imaging Checklist

Collection: May Man Jennings
Box: 1



Date Approved by Preservation:

Date Checked out to DLC:

Date Returned by DLC:

Photos/Other Pre s

Correspondence. 1889-1900

Correspondence. 1901 January-

Correspondence. 1901 August-

Correspondence. 1902 January-

Correspondence. 1902 June-

Correspondence (Invitations). 1901-

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