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Title: Digitizing Southwest Florida’s Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project
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Title: Digitizing Southwest Florida’s Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: SWFLN
Publisher: SWFLN
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 2007
Copyright Date: 2007
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Bibliographic ID: UF00094077
Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Full Text





Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage


Building a Cooperative Digitization Project







September 2007


Southwest Florida Library Network
Florida Gulf Coast University
Center for Leadership and Innovation
12751 Westlinks Drive
Building III, Unit 7
Fort Myers, Florida 33913











Table of Contents

Purpose ................................................................................... ............................................................ 4

Introduction ..................................................................................... ............................... ...................... 5

A Cooperative Digitization Project..................................................................... ...................................... 8

Digitizing Southw est Florida's Heritage Digitization Process................................................... 8

Benefits of a Cooperative Project .............................................. ..................................................... 9

Digitization Selection Com m ittee ............................................................................... ......................... 10

Roles and Responsibilities....................................................................................... ........................... 10

Discovery.......................... ........................................................... .................. 10

The Evaluation Process ............................................................................................... ....................... 10

Nom nation ................................................................................... .................................................. 11

Prioritization .......................................................................................... ............................................ 11

Value ...................................................................................... .......................... ...... ....................... 11

Risk ............................................................... ................................................ ........................... 11

Use ................... ...................... .. ........... 12

Form al Selection .......................................................................................... ...................... .......... 13

Preparation / Copyright Perm missions .......................................................................... ...................... 14

Copyright Holders ......... .......................................................................................................... .... ... 14

Collections' Users................................................................................ ............................................... 14

Scanning ...................................................................................... .................................... .................. 15

Digitization Center ...................................................................................................... ....................... 15

Scanning Specifications........................................................... .................................. ......... 16

Capturing M meaningful M etadata .............................................. ........................................................ 17

Digital Preservation.............................................................................................. .................................. 18

Digital Preservation Strategy .................................................................................. .......................... 18

Safe Access to Prim ary Docum ents......................................................................... ........ .............. 18

Project Conclusion .............................................................................. ................................................... 20

Access........................................................................................... ............................... ............. ... 20

M anagem ent................................ ........................................................... ............ 20

Contact ....................................................................................... ............................. .......................... 21

Bibliography ..................................................................................... ............................. ................. 22



Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project 2










Referenced U RLs / N otes ................................................................................................ ....................... 23

A p p e n d ix ...................................................................................... .......................... ................. ...... ... 24

A p p e n d ix A .............................................................................................................................................. 2 4

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Discovery Letter 2006-2007................................ ........... .. 24

A p p e n d ix B .................................................................................... ............................... . ............... 2 5

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Nomination Form 2006-2007 ............................................ 25

A p p e n d ix C ..................................................................................... .............................. . ............... 2 6

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Evaluation Form 2006-07................. ......... ........... .. 26

A p pe nd ix D ......................................................................................... ............................. ... ........... 27

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Authorization Form 2006-07 ............................................. 27

A p pe nd ix E ..................................................................................... ....................................... ........ ..... 28

Screenshot of the UFDC's template-based dLOC Toolkit ............................. ..................... 28

A p p e n d ix F .................................................................................... ........................... ................... 2 9

Example of a METS record generated by the UFDC dLOC Toolkit.................................................. 29

A p p e n d ix G ....................................................................................... ............................ ................ 3 2

Screenshot (taken September 20, 2007) PALMM, Florida Heritage Collection .............................32

A p p e n d ix H ..................................................................................... .............................. . ............... 3 4

Screenshot (taken September 20, 2007) UFDC, Florida Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences
Collections ....... .......................................................................................................................34



























Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project 3










Purpose
The purpose of this document is to offer general guidance to libraries and organizations in the state of
Florida considering launching a cooperative digitization project. This document describes the
implementation and management of the Southwest Florida Library Network digitization project,
Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, as well as the benefits of participating in a state-wide
cooperative project environment with the Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Material
(PALMM) and the University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC).

The recommendations included in this document may not be appropriate or adequate for all digitization
projects, and are simply meant as a guide.

The Southwest Florida Library Network is available for consulting on digital projects. Please see the
contact section at the end of this document for more information.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Introduction
The Southwest Florida Library Network (SWFLN) is a member-governed consortium of multi-type
libraries (e.g. academic, public, school, media, special) and information specialists (e.g. librarians,
genealogists, historians, academics, archivists) in Southwest Florida serving the counties of Charlotte,
Collier, DeSoto, Glades, Hendry, Lee, as well as portions of Monroe. SWFLN membership is fee-based
and open to both individuals and institutions currently or previously engaged in library and information
service in Southwest Florida.

The Southwest Florida Library Network's stated goals are to:

Recruit all area library and information centers as active network members and encourage
access to resources.
Support development of SWFLN libraries as gateways to local and statewide information
resources.
Ensure that SWFLN programs supplement, not duplicate or compete with existing programs and
services.
Ensure that SWFLN members know that they have access to information and library materials
not available locally.
Exploit all available electronic means to deliver services appropriate for SWFLN members,
especially those which benefit small libraries.
Develop continuing education and training to extend, enhance, and encourage SWFLN library
and information personnel at all levels.
Develop SWFLN organizational structure to be as cost-effective and service-effective as possible.
Develop partnerships between SWFLN and other organizations to enhance access to
information sources and methods of fostering access to information.

In an attempt to provide broader access (one of the Southwest Florida Library Network's goals
mentioned above) to various collections of photographs, ephemera, documents and artifacts related to
Southwest Florida, SWFLN initiated the Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage Digitization project in
2002. This project, funded through a Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) grant administered by
the Florida Department of State, State Library and Archives of Florida ,
provides Web-based access to previously unavailable or difficult to access collections from regional
historical museums, societies and other area agencies.

SWFLN has successfully managed two State Library and Archives of Florida-sponsored digitization
projects; FY02-03 and FY06-07.

Fiscal Year 2002-2003 SWFLN partnered with the State University System's (SUS) cooperative digital
library initiative, the Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Material (PALMM)
, to digitize, upload, maintain and make available for research 2,111 images
from the following special collections:


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Big Cypress National Preserve, a US park located in Southwest Florida. Big Cypress, which boasts
a mixture of pines, hardwoods, prairies, mangrove forests, cypress stands and domes, is a
popular destination in the region. White-tailed deer, bear and Florida panther can be found in
the park along with the more tropical linguus tree snail, royal palm and cigar orchid. This
meeting place of temperate and tropical species is a hotbed of biological diversity.


Official Web site, www.nps.gov/bicy/


Koreshan State Historic Site, the former home of a unique group of late 19th century pioneers.
In 1961, the last four members of the Koreshan Unity group donated the land in Southwest
Florida to the state to become a park and historic site. Today the park preserves 11 of the
original buildings.


Official Web site, www.floridastateparks.org/koreshan/


Sanibel Island, an historic barrier island located on the Southwest Florida coast of Lee County.


Official Web site, Sanibel Historical Village and Museum, www.sanibelmuseum.org
Official Web site, Sanibel Public Library, www.sanlib.org

Fiscal Year 2006-2007- SWFLN partnered with the University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC)
to digitize, upload, maintain and make available for research 1,002
images from the following special collections:

Cape Coral Historical Society and Museum, a museum which was established by The Cape Coral
Historical Society to preserve the history of Cape Coral and Southwest Florida. Originally, the
building was the clubhouse at The Cape Coral Country Club. Then, in 1977, it was moved to Four
Freedoms Park on Tarpon Court and used as a multi-functional facility. Finally, in 1983, the
Historical Society moved the building to Cape Corals Cultural Park for the establishment of the
Museum.


Official Web site, www.capecoralhistoricalmuseum.org


The Clewiston Museum, a museum located on the southwest shore of Lake Okeechobee right in
the middle of South Florida. It was called Sand Point and was originally settled in 1915 by a
dozen Japanese farm families.


Official Web site, www.clewiston.org/museum.htm


The Schoolhouse Theater Collection of Sanibel Island, an historic theater and schoolhouse dating
back to 1894.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project











Official Web site, www.theschoolhousetheater.com


Through a cooperative effort the entire collection of 3,113 digitized images from Digitizing Southwest
Florida's Heritage will be available for research and viewing simultaneously at:

Florida Electronic Library's (FEL) Florida on Florida digital collection a digital collection of
Florida's history, culture and environment < http://www.flelibrary.org>
Publication of Archival, library and Museum Material
University of Florida Digital Collections

While there is an abundance of helpful literature and guidance available for organizations interested in
launching and managing digitization projects, SWFLN, at almost every step in the process, referred to
the general guidelines suggested by the Northeast Document Conservation Center's (NEDCC) Handbook
for Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation & Access to manage this digitization effort.

The NEDCC Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation & Access is freely
available at the NEDCC website as a fully-indexed PDF resource. The guide
was born from the annual School for Scanning Workshop Series in Boston. The manual sites, along with
the NEDCC Web presence, known best-practices, successful business processes and helpful work-flows-
plus, it includes abundant examples of (ready-to-use) forms, letters and documents.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project




A Cooperative Digitization Project


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage Digitization Process
The SWFLN cooperative digitization project process is outlined below, from discovery of materials to
delivery.


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Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project


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Benefits of a Cooperative Project
The desire to expose the maximum amount of users to your collections is the obvious reason for
cooperative project. But, as the Handbookfor Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation &
Access points out, there are additional reasons that benefit all institutions involved. Cooperation offers
opportunities to:

Share expertise across organizations
Save costs on conversion, from analog to digital
Increase opportunities for funding
Heighten visibility for the collections by linking with similar collections and to other institutions

Perhaps the biggest selling point for smaller institutions is the ability to share expertise. Several
institutions can work together to solve problems of converting paper and film-based collections to a
digital format and networking these collections, along with the attendant problems of cataloging and
creating metadata. (Sitts, 2000)

Cost must not be overlooked, either. Digitizing materials from regional museums, societies' special
collections, special archives and other organizations and building-out the digital collections are labor-
intensive and expensive. Numerous white papers, slide shows and articles have been written detailing
the high numbers from Ten Ways to Spend $100,000 on Digitization (Pence, 2003) to The Economics of
Digitizing Library and Other Cultural Materials. (Waters, 2003) In 2000, the US Congress appropriated
$100,000,000 for the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program
.

SWFLN's partnership with the PALMM and the UFDC has been very successful. With the shared costs
and direct access to guidance from nationally-known experts from the partnering organizations, the
Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage project has reached an exceptionally large audience and has
enjoyed much publicity. Since the project's official launch in 2003, images from Digitizing Southwest
Florida Heritage have appeared in numerous print, web and television resources, including:

FORUM, the statewide magazine of the Florida Humanities Council (Fall 2007)
National Endowment for the Humanities' Humanities Magazine (September/October 2007)
Numerous Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) documentaries

The success of SWFLN digitization project, and its multiple partnerships state-wide, demonstrates the
value of operating in the collaborative environment.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Digitization Selection Committee


Roles and Responsibilities
To build and increase interest in a library-related digitization project and promote the development of a
regional library-centric digitization center in Southwest Florida, SWFLN established a digitization
selection committee comprised of local librarians, genealogists and historians. The committee, lead by
the digitization project manager, has many responsibilities towards the project. And, in the case of the
Southwest Florida Library Network's committee, each member serves a two-year term.

Briefly, the charge of the SWFLN digitization selection committee is to identify collections for potential
inclusion into the digitization project; and, evaluate, score, select (or de-select) and prioritize the
scanning order of collections. However, the committee also enjoys marketing responsibilities, as it is
largely the face of the project that is to say, the primary champions of the digital collections.

The digitization selections committee's selection process follows:

Discover and approach institutions and organizations for inclusion
Evaluation of submitted collections
Nomination of materials to be digitized
Evaluation of nominated materials
Formal selection and prioritization

Examples of the Southwest Florida Library Network's approach letters) and selection committee /
participants forms are available, see Appendices A, B and C. More general versions (non-specific) of
these forms are available in the NEDCC Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor
Preservation & Access.

Discovery
In the case of SWFLN, discovery letters, see Appendix A, were created, with guidance from the selection
committee, and sent to an agreed upon list of Southwest Florida historical and cultural agencies. The
letters included the project's abstract, history, outline and goals, as well as the benefits of participating
in a digitization project.

The Evaluation Process
Once an analog collection is submitted to the digitization selection committee, it is evaluated for
possible or likely inclusion into the project. The evaluation process reviews the materials carefully and
determines the following:

Do the materials fall within the organization's collection policy?
Has the organization received requests in the past to select the materials for digitization? Have
they been challenged?
Is the material unrestricted? In the public domain?
Are images of living people for which release forms are needed? Famous people?


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Are the images of sensitive material such as locations of sacred burial sites? Fossils?
Is the value of the item evidentiary? Is it authentic?
Will scanning capture the appearance of the item?
Are the materials well captioned and documented?
Are the materials being made available for the first time? Are they searchable?

Nomination
Committee members, using a digital project nomination form, identified collections, images or
documents within a collection, to include in the project. Similarly, a de-selection form was also made
available for use in the de-selecting of images and documents for scanning. De-selection is a necessary
step in the process, as is more than likely, a greater number of items will be submitted than are possible
to include in the project year's cycle. Please refer to the NEDCC Handbook for Digital Projects: A
Management Toolfor Preservation & Access for selection and de-selection forms.

Prioritization
The selection committee ranked the collections on value, risk and use. Following is the NEDCC
Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation & Access helpful advice regarding
the consideration of prioritization value, risk and use.

Value
Materials to be digitized must have one or more of the following values in relationship to the
organization's approved scope of collection statement.

Informational value refers to the material's topical content in relation to the organization's
scope of collection statement and mission.
Administrative value refers to the material's functional usefulness to the creating organization
on a regular basis, such as the need for architectural drawings for building renovations or vital
records for operation purposes.
Artifactual value, as used by archivists, is the same as intrinsic value and refers to original
materials that have value due to their nature.
Associational value refers to original materials that have a relationship to an eminent individual,
place, event, or group, such as letters created, owned, or signed by Thomas Edison or photos
taken by or of Civil War soldiers.
Evidential value refers to the documents' ability to serve as legal or historical proof of an
activity, event, or occupation.
Monetary value refers to the current market value of an item. This value may change.
(Sitts, 2000)

Risk
Risk comes in several forms: legal, social, and preservation. Since legal and social risk will be weeded out
during the selection process, this prioritization focuses on preservation.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










High Risk The highest risk materials are primarily chemically unstable, which results in their
self-destructing and damaging or contaminating nearby materials, as well as posing health
hazards to staff and researchers who use them. Classic examples of high-risk materials are
cellulose nitrate negatives and film and materials with biological or chemical contamination,
such as mold, insect, and vermin that pose risks of information loss and health hazards.
Examples of health and safety risks include materials contaminated with asbestos, Aspergillum
mold, and Hantavirus. Other high-risk materials may be self-destructing due to inherent fault
(such as iron gall ink, leather bindings with red rot, very acidic and brittle paper, and cellulose
acetate film) and those items that may be causing damage to nearby materials (such as
materials that have oozing tape).
Moderate Risk Moderate-risk materials are experiencing primarily mechanical or physical
damage due to their housing and handling and the characteristics of their material (e.g. folding
strength). Materials that are deteriorating and losing their informational content naturally or
gradually due to their component processes and materials are moderate risks. Some examples
include electronic and digital data carriers such as CD-ROMs and diskettes; most color slides,
negatives, and prints and cellulose-ester based materials (acetate, diacetate, and triacetate); all
flaking, retouched, friable, or hand-colored images; letterpress books, particularly those with
copy pencil inks; carbon copy correspondence; and some tracing paper drawings. Other factors
being equal, smaller format materials, such as microforms, should be given top priority as more
information is being lost. Also included in the moderate risk category, but of lesser priority, are
items with holes, cracks, broken or ripped off pieces, rips, tears, punctures, losses, or those that
are warped, folded, creased, wrinkled, cockled, buckled, scratched, abraded, stained, discolored,
or otherwise structurally damaged or changing appearance (e.g. color balance shift).
Low Risk Low-risk materials tend to be the more long-lived processes in undamaged condition
and adequate storage conditions. Examples include items with freckle-like stains called foxing;
dusty or dirty documents; and slightly faded blueprints and cyanotypes that are well housed in
neutral pH materials. Some additional low-risk items might include visual materials that are
separating from a mount or support and loose or friable media (such as easily smearable conte
crayon, pastel, graphite or charcoal) that are correctly housed. (Sitts, 2000)

Use
The third factor in determining a collection's priority for digitization is use.

High use materials are those that are requested most frequently for reference purposes by staff
and/or outside researchers. If the digital project is geared toward a new audience, past use
statistics will not be of much assistance. Determinations will need to be based on predictions of
expected use. Talk to repositories experienced in working with the desired new audience, as
well as to members of the audience when trying to predict usage. Consider a small pilot project
to test audience response before committing to a major new initiative.


Generally, high-use materials have high value. On some occasions, materials of no perceivable
value may suddenly become popular because of a particular charm of expression for example,


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










a turn-of-phrase in a letter, a quirky angle in a snapshot, or linkage to a previously uncelebrated
event or activity. As scholarship changes, the values placed on materials also change. When high
use can be predicted and risk minimized, digitizing is a wise access solution.


Use factors will be scored depending on each institution's average usage statistics and the
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) recommendations. NARA's guidelines
suggest that more than ten uses a year of an item qualifies it as a high use item and five nine
uses may be classified as moderate use. (Sitts, 2000)

Formal Selection
Finally, all institutions were notified by letter of the selection committee's results. The project manager
then took staggered delivery of each collection for scanning, as not to have more than one institution's
selected materials on-hand at any time.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Preparation / Copyright Permissions


Copyright Holders
One of the early steps in preparing items for inclusion in the project and scanning is to verify that the
item has the appropriate copyright permissions (see Digitization Process). The selection committee,
project manager and special collection's manager establish whether or not the institution owns full title
to the collection, including copyright; whether there are there restrictions on how the collection may be
accessed or used; and how these legal issues have been or will be addressed. Since scanning images and
documents is, by its very nature, copying, digitization projects are naturally involved in copyright
management. An example of the form SWFLN uses to assure copyright compliance is available, see
Appendix D.

Collections' Users
A detailed and clear account of the users' limitations or boundaries of use of materials is made available
to all. SWFLN found the permission of use statement was an especially important document to share
with potential participants, as many of the museums do generate some sort of revenue from the
marketing and selling of images in their special collections.

The Publication of Archival, library and Museum Material's permission for use reads:

Users assume all liability for copyright infringement and are advised to contact the institution
holding the source materials for copyright information and permission to use the electronic
versions. Permission must be obtained for display, publication, commercial use, or any other use
of the digital materials in this collection except as allowed under Fair Use.

The institution holding the source material is noted in the full bibliographic information for the
document. Click "Search" on the Florida Heritage Project Homepage to get a WebLUIS search
form, and enter a search for the material you are interested in. When you find the desired item,
click on the underlined title, and full bibliographic information will display. You will find full
information about the source, including holding library and any copyright restrictions pertaining
to the original material and the digital images made from it.


The University of Florida's Digital Collections permission for use reads:

Users assume all liability for copyright infringement and are advised to contact the Holding
Location for copyright information and permission to use the electronic versions. Permission
must be obtained for display, publication, commercial use, or any other use of the digital
materials in these collections except as allowed under Fair Use.

The Holding Location is noted in the "Full Citation", available on the sidebar of any item image
display.
< http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/design/misc/permissions.htm>


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Scanning


Digitization Center
Scanning analog images, documents, ephemera and more, to convert them to digital formats, is a core
service of Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage project. The SWFLN digitization center is equipped
with material, hardware and software purchased with the FY02-03 grant fund. The digitization center
includes:

Auto Slide Feeder, Nikon SF-200S Auto Slide Feeder
Computers (PC), 2 Dell Workstations, Precision 340 running Pentium 4 processors
Flatbed Scanner, Microtek 6800 Scanner
Flatbed Scanner, Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL, 48-bit 3200 x 1600 (Oversized to 12" x 17")
Printer, HP Laserjet 2500L Color Printer
Sheet Scanner, Canon DR-2080C Color Document Scanner; Duplexing, 50 page Document
Feeder; 600 dpi
Slide Scanner, Nikon SuperCool Scan 4000 ED; 4000 dpi
Software, Adobe Photoshop and Microtek ScanMaker Wizard

The SWFLN digitization center is well equipped to scan and digitize photographic materials, archival
documents, ephemera and printed text on single sheets of paper each up to 12" x 17", as well as
slides. For optimal image capture in-house and to maintain high quality control levels, the project
manager periodically calibrates both the scanning devices and display monitors.

SWFLN currently sends oversized items for scanning to the Scanning and Preservation Center at the
University of Florida at Gainesville. One such item sent to the Scanning and Preservation Center at the
University of Florida at Gainesville was a large, panoramic image of an official opening of the Southern
Sugar Company's new mill in 1929. The fragile photograph, which measures 41 inches in length, was
successfully unrolled and scanned by the University of Florida professionals. The lossless TIFF image is
241 MB. The image is available for viewing at the UFDC at the following URL
.

According to Howard Besser, "Digitizing to the highest possible level of quality practical within the given
constraints and priorities is the best method of 'future-proofing' images to the furthest extent possible
against advances in imaging and delivery technology. Ideally, scanning parameters should be 'use-
neutral,' meaning that master files are created of sufficiently high quality to be used for all potential
future purposes." (Besser, 2003)

The lossless TIFF format was selected as the master file format for the SWFLN digitization project,
because TIFF, or Tagged Image File Format, has many desirable properties for preservation purposes.
'Tagged' refers to the internal structure of the format, which allows for arbitrary additions, such as
custom metadata fields, without affecting general compatibility. TIFF also supports several types of
image data compression, allowing an organization to select the most appropriate codec for their needs,
and many users of TIFF opt for a lossless compression scheme such as LZW to avoid any degradation of


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










image quality during compression. Archival users often choose to avoid any compression at all, an
option TIFF readily accommodates, to ensure that image data will be simple to decode." (Besser, 2003)

Following the general guidelines suggested by the Northeast Document Conservation Center's Handbook
for Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation & Access, where digital image quality is first
concern, SWFLN scanned each item at 600 dpi saving as lossless TIFFs. TIFF is the format for the
master image files that are archived and from which derivative image files are generated.

Derivative files are produced automatically from the master files by the provided University of Florida
Digital Collections software, the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) Toolkit. JPEG 2000 format is
selected for display, because the JEPG format "is most frequently used for access images requiring lossy
compression." (Western States Digital Standards Group, 2003) The dLOC Toolkit includes a local
Microsoft SQL personal edition database and a central tracking application, plus four secondary
applications 1) Metadata Template, 2) Pre-Quality Control Processor, 3) Quality Control Application
and 4) Go dLOC! FTP Client.

Scanning Specifications
The simple table (Fig. 1), below, displays SWFLN's standards at the creation of each digital item:

Master digital image Display image Thumbnails/ zoom-able images

Format TIFF a lossless JPEG 2000 a wavelet-based JPEG 2000 a wavelet-based
compression image compression standard image compression standard

Compression Lossless Medium / High Medium / High


Scanned All standard analog
Resolution materials 600 dpi
Color slides 2400 dpi
Bit-depth 24-bit color (8 per
channel RGB)

Fig. 1 Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage Scanning Specifications Table

Lossless compression is a process that reduces the storage space needed for an image file
without loss of data. If an image has undergone lossless compression, it will be identical to the
image before it was compressed.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Capturing Meaningful Metadata
Metadata has been likened to the writing on the back of a photograph; or more simply stated, metadata
is information about information or data about data. A more exact definition that is applicable for the
SWFLN digitization project is "metadata is structured information about any information resource of any
media type or format." (Caplan, 2003)

Most commonly, three categories of metadata are used to describe objects in a digital library or
collection. They are 1) descriptive, 2) structural and 3) administrative. Descriptive metadata, as the
name implies, describes the digital object and makes discovery / use possible. Administrative metadata
captures information used to manage the object or control access to it. And, finally, structural metadata
joins each object to the others to make up logical units. It is important to carefully consider all three
types of metadata when creating digital records.

Using the UFDC's template-based dLOC Toolkit, the project's metadata cataloger entered records into
the software program, describing each item based on the information supplied or derived from
interviews and / or discovery. The form driven Toolkit program associates the meaningful metadata
with the source digital images. With the upload to the UFDC servers, the Toolkit converts the data into
well-formed metadata schemes.

Both the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) and the Metadata Object Description
Schema (MODS) are used in the Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage project. The dLOC Toolkit
creates METS wrappers automatically; these wrappers hold the descriptive MODS. A screenshot of the
dLOC Toolkit is available, see Appendix E. An example of a METS record generated by the UFDC dLOC
Toolkit is available, see Appendix F.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Digital Preservation
Digital preservation is the thoughtful and careful management of digital information over time. Most
often the term digital preservation refers to preserving born-digital (content created or born digitally,
e.g. PC application created documents, slide presentations, spreadsheets, as well as digital images and
Web sites) records and documents. But, the term may also apply, as in the case of the Digitizing
Southwest Florida's Heritage project, to the preservation strategies applied to analog documents and
records converted to digital formats.

Digital Preservation Strategy
A strong, well constructed digital preservation strategy should be a part of digitization project plan.
SWFLN's general approach to digital preservation is built upon the best practices from the Northeast
Document Conservation Center , the Cornell University Library
and the Collaborative Digitization Program and the Bibliographical
Center for Research at Colorado .

In brief, the digitization project integrates four key points into its digital preservation strategy:
1) refreshing, 2) migration, 3) replication and 4) emulation. Definitions and examples of each key point
follow.

Refreshing is to copy digital information from one long-term storage medium to another of the
same type, with no change whatsoever in the bitstream (e.g. from a decaying 4mm DAT tape to
a new 4mm DAT tape, or from an older CD-RW to a new CD-RW). Refreshing is a necessary
component of any successful digital preservation program, but is not itself a complete program.
It potentially addresses both decay and obsolescence issues related to the storage media.

Migration is to copy data, or convert data, from one technology to another, whether hardware
or software, preserving the essential characteristics of the data. Migration theoretically goes
beyond addressing viability by including the conversion of data to avoid obsolescence not only
of the physical storage medium, but of the encoding and format of the data.

Replication is a term used to mean multiple things. Bitstream copying is a form of
replication...The intention is to enhance the longevity of digital documents while maintaining
their authenticity and integrity through copying and the use of multiple storage locations.

Emulation combines software and hardware to reproduce in all essential characteristics the
performance of another computer of a different design, allowing programs or media designed
for a particular environment to operate in a different, usually newer environment. Emulation
requires the creation of emulators, programs that translate code and instructions from one
computing environment so it can be properly executed in another. (Cornell University Library,
2003)

Safe Access to Primary Documents
Improving current preservation and protection of these unique, original documents and photographs is
critical. A majority of the materials submitted to SWFLN for both project cycles showed signs of age-


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










related deterioration, making the items no longer suitable for daily handling by the public. The project
provides two tangible benefits to the participating institutions: 1) it creates a lossless digital record for
digital preservation and 2) it allows the public to view digitized versions of the historical materials
without further damaging the original source materials.

Not only has the Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage project help preserve what is currently available
to the public, but also, it has provided access to documents, ephemera, slides and photographs which
have never been publicly available, before.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Project Conclusion


Access
At the project year's conclusion, the entire collection of digitized records (FY02-03 and FY 06-07) from
Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage will be available for research and viewing simultaneously at:

The Publication of Archival, library and Museum Material, specifically housed under the Florida
Heritage Collection see a screen shot at Appendix G
The University of Florida Digital Collections, specifically housed under the Florida Arts,
Humanities and Social Sciences Collections see a screen shot at Appendix H

Eventually, through SWFLN's partners' Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (a
standardized protocol designed to harvest or collect the metadata descriptions of the records in an
archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives) efforts, images will be available
at the Florida Electronic Library's (FEL) Florida on Florida digital collection .

Management
Ongoing management of the collections which live on the PALMM and UFDC servers is a shared
responsibility. Locally, the digitization project manager, with staff:

Manages the local digital preservation initiative
Tests and monitors links for validity and accurate metadata
Maintains relationships with all stake holders
o Libraries and their patrons
o Consortium members
o Partnering institutions
o Special collections / archives managers from participating organizations
Monitors and reports on usage statistics
Fields question from users / accepts change-requests to metadata
Markets the digital collections to increase exposure, traffic and scholarly usage
Acts as centralized point-of-contact for outside resource request (e.g. source material request
for publication)
Leads the digitization selection committee

The Southwest Florida Library Network's partners, the Publication of Archival, library and Museum
Material and the University of Florida Digital Collections, have shared responsibilities to the digital
collections housed on their servers. This includes, but is not limited to:

Maintaining the digital library software solutions (e.g. PALMM's ExLibris DigiTool, UFDC's
Greenstone)
Digitally preserving master files remotely, as well as the derivative files produced by the dLOC
and PALMM solutions
Serving as technical leads, subject matter experts and points of contact


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Contact
The Southwest Florida Library Network is available for consulting on digital projects.

Please contact:

Christopher Jones
Digitization Director/ Continuing Education Coordinator
Southwest Florida Library Network
Florida Gulf Coast University
Center for Leadership and Innovation
12751 Westlinks Drive, Building III, Unit 7
Fort Myers, Florida 33913
(239) 225-4228 / fax (239) 225-4229
www.swfln.org / ciones@fgcu.edu

Currently, the Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage project's points of contact at the Publication of
Archival, Library and Museum Material and the University of Florida Digital Collections are:

Priscilla Caplan
PALMM Project Manager / Assistant Director for Digital Library Services
Florida Center for Library Automation
5830 NW 39th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32606
(352) 392-9020 / fax (352) 392-9185
http://palmm.fcla.edu / pcaplan@ufl.edu

Erich Kesse, Director, Digital Library Center
Lourdes Santamaria-Wheeler, Imaging Coordinator
Mark Sullivan, UFDC/dLOC Programmer
George A. Smathers Libraries
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611-7007
(352) 273-2900 / fax (352) 846-3702
http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc / dlc@uflib.ufl.edu


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Bibliography
Besser, Howard. Introduction to Imaging (Revised Edition). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
2003.

Caplan, Priscilla. Metadata Fundamentals for All Librarians. Chicago: American Library Association,
2003.

Cornell University Library. Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short Term Strategiesfor
Long Term Problems. New York: Cornell University Library, 2003.
URL: http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/eng index.html

Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) Toolkit Guide and Manual. Gainesville: University of Florida.
URL: http://www.dloc.com/ENtoolkit.html

Pence, Dan. Ten Ways to Spend $100,000 on Digitization. National Initiative for a Networked Cultural
Heritage (NINCH), 2003.
URL: http://www.ninch.org

Sitts, Maxine, ed. Handbookfor Digital Projects: A Management Toolfor Preservation & Access.
Andover, Massachusetts: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2000.
URL: http://www.nedcc.org

Waters, Donald. The Economics of Digitizing Library and Other Cultural Materials: Perspective from the
Mellon Foundation. National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH), 2003.
URL: http://www.ninch.org

Western States Digital Standards Group: Digital Imaging Working Group. Western States Digital Imaging
Best Practices Version 1.0. Colorado: CDP, 2003.
URL: http://www.cdpheritage.org/digital/scanning/documents/wsdibp vl.pdf


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Referenced URLs / Notes
Big Cypress National Preserve

Cape Coral Historical Society and Museum

Collaborative Digitization Program and the Bibliographical Center for Research at Colorado


Cornell University Library

ExLibris DigiTool

Florida Department of State, State Library and Archives of Florida

Florida Electronic Library (FEL)

Greenstone Digital Library

Koreshan State Historic Site

National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program


Northeast Document Conservation Center's (NEDCC)

Publication of Archival, library and Museum Material (PALMM)

Sanibel Historical Village and Museum

Sanibel Public Library

Southwest Florida Library Network

The Clewiston Museum

The Schoolhouse Theater

University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC)


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Appendix


Appendix A

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Discovery Letter 2006-2007


[DATE]

[INSTITUTION]

Dear [NAME],

The Southwest Florida Library Network (SWFLN) invites the [INSTITUTION] to participate in our Florida
Department of State, State Library and Archives of Florida funded project, Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage
2006-2007.

As you may know, SWFLN successfully managed the pilot project, Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, in
2002-2003. The purpose of Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage 2002-2003 was to provide access to local
history information -collections of Southwest Florida photographs, documents and artifacts -to the public. The
result was over 2,000 images digitized, indexed and uploaded to the Publication of Archival, Library & Museum
Materials' (PALMM) Florida Heritage Collection , an online searchable database of
images and documents.

The PALMM's Florida Heritage Collection now contains images digitized through this LSTA grant by SWFLN
including the Big Cypress National Preserve, the Koreshan State Historical Site and the Sanibel Island History
Collection.

The Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage 2006-2007 project will continue the work begun in 2002-2003 by
providing web-based access to approximately 1,000 additional photographs, documents and artifacts from the
participating historical agencies, libraries and organizations. The project will work to select, scan, index and finally
upload the images to a scalable and searchable database centrally located at PALM M and the University of Florida
Digital Collections .

The SWFLN Board of Directors appointed Digitization Selection Committee will assess and review materials. The
Selection Committee will provide input and direction for nomination, further evaluation and prioritization of
possible collections.

If the [INSTITUTION] is interested in having its collection assessed for possible inclusion in the Digitizing
Southwest Florida's Heritage 2006-2007 project, please complete the brief application form, enclosed, and return to
the Southwest Florida Library Network using the self-addressed stamped envelope before October 1, 2006. You
may also complete the form on the web, at .

Please feel free to call or email with any questions.

Sincerely,



[PROJECT MANAGER]


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Appendix B

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Nomination Form 2006-2007


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Nomination Form 2006-2007

Nomination Form

1. Materials Being Nominated for Digitization -Detailed description (Please indicate, if applicable, collection
number, series, number, box number, folder number, item control number or equivalent and the creator; caption of
the item or a bibliographic citation to the fullest extent possible.)



2. Reason for Nomination (Describe why the materials are important, who might want to use them in a digital form,
and what usages are likely if they are digitized.)



3. Potential Assistance Sources (Please indicate if you have any special knowledge or skills that might be shared
with SWFLN Selection Committee for Digitizing Southwest Florida s Heritage during the selection process. For
example, can you provide caption information, historical background, or are you aware of potential funding sources
or digital projects that are covering similar materials to those you are nominating?)



4. Restrictions (Indicate if you are aware of any reason why the specified materials should not be digitized, such as
legal, ethical, or cultural sensitivities. Please be as specific as possible citing a source, such as a law or culture group
and a contact name if necessary.)



5. Name:

6. Position/Title:


7. Your Organization's Address:

8. Telephone:

9. Fax:

10. E-Mail:

9. Web URL:


Note: The selection committee will make all final decisions on what will or will not be included in the digital
project. If you have any special information you would like to share with the committee, please write it below.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Appendix C

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Evaluation Form 2006-07


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Evaluation Form 2006-07


Evaluation of


1. Do the materials fall within the organizations collection policy?


2. Has the organization received requests in the past to select the materials for digitization?


3. Have they been challenged?


4. Is the material unrestricted? In the public domain?


5. Are images of living people for which we'll need release forms? Famous people?


6. Are the images of sensitive material such as locations of sacred burial sites? Fossils?


7. Is the value of the item evidentiary? Is it authentic?


8. Will scanning capture the appearance of the item?


9. Are the materials well captioned and documented?


10. Are the materials being made available for the first time? Searchable?


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project










Appendix D

Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Authorization Form 2006-07


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage, Authorization Form 2006-07



A UTHORIZA TION


As the author, copyright owner, or licensee with the authority to grant such permission, I hereby authorize the
Southwest Florida Library Network (SWFLN) to digitize






for non-profit, educational purposes.

This process would make the entire work available in perpetuity to anyone with access to the World Wide Web or
its successors. The digitization process may also involve using search software and optical character recognition
software to provide enhanced access to the contents of the document.


Signature


Printed Signature


Organization


Date


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project














Appendix E


Screenshot of the UFDC's template-based dLOC Toolkit


File Actions Archives Options Help

dLOC Tracking Main Form

1- -IMG
5~WOOOOOO7 7 h -en nscoo room ^IMA
SW00000048 Man standing in boxing ring IMAGE
5WO0000049 Three men in a dormitory room IMAGE
SW00000O50 Girl and boy standing among sugar cane IMAGE
SW00000O51 Clarence Betting COO of SU Sugar holds a giant sweet potato IMAGE
SW00000052 Choir singing onstage IMAGE
SW00000053 Dancer and guitarist on stage IMAGE
5SW00000054 Hospital ward patients IMAGE
SWOOOOO055 Large living room with fireplace IMAGE
SWOO000056 Program for the formal opening of the Clewiston sugar mill in 1929 IMAGE
5W00000057 AA purebred registered Charollais Yearling IMAGE
5W00000058 Children chewing on sugar cane IMAGE
5W00000059 Two men walking down the sidewalk IMAGE
5W00000060 Feeding workers in the field IMAGE
SW0000061 Former President Herbert Hoover arriving at the north entrance of th IMAGE
SW00000062 Girls in the sugar cane IMAGE
5WOO000003 P___ orpoise Pool at Cape Coral Gardens, Cape Coral Florida IMAGE
SWOOOO0004 U5 Sugar Corporation President Harry Vaughn Sr. IMAGE
SWOOOO0005 Girls' Obstacle Race Easter Division Field Day MAGE
S5WOO00006 Four boys raising an American Flag MAGE


;W00000007


'icnic line with African Americans


[MAGE


777F_- ___ _


dLOC
Pre-QC QC
Processor Application Go dLOC!

1 Pending


C:\DLOC


I Eoit


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project


Search by:

S- I I

and I j' I I
Search I I Clear


Total hits count = 62
















Appendix F



Example of a METS record generated by the UFDC dLOC Toolkit









UFDC Metadata Template


MLWWP lchael








1926 humcane damage to drug store and restaurant building along Avenda del Rio



1920s


Englsh


Funded by a LSTA grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services IMLS


Hurncanes



Flonda -- Glades County -- Clewiston




1 black and white photograph



Clewiston Museum
SWFLN

A rights reserved by the source institution




S



SWFLN
CLEW


Continued


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project















METS Record (continued)


false
479thmjpg

swfln gf
CLEW gf



SW00000484
00001

Clewiston Museum

Clewiston Museum



Southwest Florda Library Network
Southwest Flonda Library Network

IMAGE






































Continued
Continued


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project















METS Record (continued)


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project




-






-




/MIETS:mets>












Appendix G


Screenshot (taken September 20, 2007) PALMM, Florida Heritage Collection


l*.TWW W 0a i .lan 2!


mnnrs. --


ABOUT THE
COLLECTION

PATH FINDERS:
* Big Cypiess National
Freserve
Flionda Axchitecture
and Landscape
Design
KYoreshanState
Histone SILe
S urbel Island Histor
Collecton

TECHNICAL ASPECTS
FLORIDA HISTORY
OUTLINE
FLORIDATHEME
FLORIDA COUNTIES
HELP USING THIS SITE
TUTORIAL
RELATED SITES
COPYRIGHT
INFORMATION
CONTACTS
CONTACT US
FEED BACK

CREDITS


I Seari


I Autto List


The Florida Heritage Collection is an ongoing cooperative project of the State
University System (SUS) of Florida to digitize and provide online access to materials
broadly representing Florida's history, culture, arts, literature, sciences and social
sciences. Thematic areas in this growing collection include Native American and
minority populations, exploration and development, tourism, the natural environment,
and regional interests.

Materials are taken from archives, special collections, and libraries of the ten state
universities which make up the SUS. These materials represent only a small part of the
wealth of historical and archival treasures held by the SUS libraries. Users should note
the source of materials they use on this site and should contact the holding libraries or
archives directly for more information.


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project


S US Digital Library, PALMM I SUS Home I FCLA Home
Continued


.. N .








PALMM screenshot, detail (image, property of the Koreshan State Historic Site)


Visual COLLECTIONS 17
view: full-iage description [other-views Return to search results I << previous item I next item >>
[rail "car"] -(SV0002259)
o n [* i-f f- n.To oomin" ot, dck n
size 0 E Li 0 r -U h. d.ick on image 8o


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project












Appendix H


Screenshot (taken September 20, 2007) UFDC, Florida Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences
Collections





Library Catalog


WW~ 'Ii k.4C. (i 2 ti


Search Collection: I
Home I Advanced Search I Help

Browse: All Items I New Items I Collections


I G


Select Collections


Florida Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences Collections is an umbrella for wide-ranging collections, documenting the arts,
humanities, and social science in Florida. Collections grouped here currently include African American Collections, itself an
umbrella for the Records of the Cunningham Funeral Home and, soon, the Visionaires a women's social group. The addition of
collections in Florida History and Heritage Collections, the University of Florida's contributions in-part to the PALMM Florida
Heritage Collection, is planned These collections document Florida's history as a colonial territory of Spain, France and the United
Kingdom, and as a territory and state of both the Confederate States of America and the United States of America. In addition to
general Florida history collections, collections of particular note will include the journal, Florida Anthropologist, the Special
Archives Publications of the Florida National Guard, and the papers of Great Floridians.


Specialized collections within this digital group are:






r .
IIr J u4



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Ail rights reserved
Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
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Continued


Digitizing Southwest Florida's Heritage: Building a Cooperative Digitization Project


I st --- -. , mfs


* I L' IVEFSi "l .,f
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UFDC screenshot, detail (postcard, property of the Clewiston Museum)


Grg-I e i Sml thers L ib i Univrity of I-- i Digital -I -' ti- n.


Library Catalog

SEARCH

Search This Collection
Search All Collections
Last Search Results
VIEWS
Full Citation
lPage Image
Zoomable Image
HELP

Provide Feedback
Using This Site
Contact Us




'-j:r" ; "j'=










TECHNICAL DATA

METS Metadata
Greenstone Metadata


Title: The Inn Clewiston (Postcard)

Go to: Front


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@2004- 2005 University of Florida seorge A. Smathers Libraries
All right reserved
Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
I a it unrlart A ril 1Q i ~7 m.


SI Nl r I %l E F 51 T l f
SI FLORIDA
Th n Ffr iater ifol Th, caoe 'N t-


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