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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Errata
 Letter of transmittal
 Preface
 Main
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


FGS



Springs of Florida
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Springs of Florida
Series Title: Florida Geological Survey. Geological Bulletin
Physical Description: xii, 196 p. : illus., maps ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ferguson, George E, 1906-
Lingham, C. W.
Love, S. K.
Vernson, R. O.
United States Geological Survey
Publisher: s.n.
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1947
Copyright Date: 1947
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and index.
General Note: Folded map issued with this title is shelved in Map Library.
General Note: Errata slip tipped in.
Statement of Responsibility: by G. E. Ferguson and others. Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 001991720
oclc - 01297082
notis - AKG8762
lccn - gs 47000280
System ID: UF00094071:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Front Matter
        Page iii
    Frontispiece
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Errata
        Page xiii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Index
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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    Spine
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Full Text







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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
J. T. HURST, Supervisor

Florida Geological Survey
HERMAN GUNTER, Director




GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 31




SPRINGS OF FLORIDA




By
G. E. FERGUSON, C. W. LINGHAM,
S. K. LOVE, and R. 0. VERNON


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1947


UNIVa31i'Y OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES







































SCI ENCE
LIBRARY












CONTENTS


PAGE
Letter of Transmittal 1
Preface 3
I. Springs of Florida 5
A. Introduction 5
A glance at Florida's springs 5
The purpose and scope of this report 6
Cooperation and acknowledgements 7
B. The hydrology and geology of Florida springs - 9
Introduction 9
Structure 12
Hydrology 15
Formation of large solution features 19
Geology 21
C. The discharge of Florida springs 28
Why are spring flows measured? 28
What is a "second-foot?" 29
The measurement of spring flows 30
How the discharge of a spring varies 31
Comparison of discharge of Florida springs 31
Significant trends in discharge 37
D. Quality of Florida spring waters 38
Introduction 38
The minerals in solution 38
Color 38
Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) 39
Specific conductance 39
Silica (SiOs) 39
Iron (Fe) 40
Calcium (Ca) 40
Magnesium (Mg) 40
Sodium and potassium (Na and K) 40
Carbonate and bicarbonate (CO3 and HCOa) 41
Sulfate (SO4) -- 41
Chloride (CI) 41
Fluoride (F) 41
Nitrate (NO:3) 42
Dissolved solids 42
Hardness 42
Carbon dioxide (CO.) 43
Chemical characteristics 43
II. Description of individual springs 44
Explanation of descriptive data 44
Location 44
Description 44
Discharge 46
Quality of water 46
Utilization 46

VII













Alachua County -
Glen Springs near Gainesville -
Magnesia Spring near Hawthorn -
Poe Springs near High Springs -
Other Springs -
Bay County -
Blue Springs near Bennett -
Bradford County -
Heilbronn Spring near Starke -
Calhoun County -
Citrus County -
Chassahowitzka Springs near Homosassa Springs -
Homosassa Springs at Homosassa Springs
Other Springs -
Clay County -


Green Cove Spring at Green Cove Sprir
Wadesboro Spring at Orange Park -
Other Springs -
Columbia County -
Ichatucknee Springs near Hildreth
Dade County -
De Soto County -
fDixie County -
Duval County -
Escambia County -
Gadsden County -
Glen Julia Spring at Mount Pleasant -
Spring at Chattahoochee -
Gilchrist County -
Hart Spring near Wilcox -
g Rock Bluff Springs near Bell -
Other Springs -
Gulf County -
Hamilton County -
White Springs at White Springs
Other Springs -
Hardee County -
Hernando County -
Weekiwachee Spring near Brooksville -
Other Springs -
Hillsborough County -
Buckhorn Spring near Riverview
Eureka Springs near Tampa
Lithia Springs near Lithia - -
Palma Ceia Springs -
Purity Spring at Tampa -
Sulphur Springs at Sulphur Springs -
Other Springs -
Holmes County -
Ponce de Leon Springs at Ponce de Leon


igs


- 59
S 61
62
62
62
65
65
66
- 66
S 66
66
- 66
S 67
- 68
S 68
- 69
71
S 71
S 71
S 71
- 73
S- 73
74
S- 74
77
78
78
78
79
80
- 81
- 82
- 84
- 84
- 84


PAGE
46
46
48
49
51
51
51
52
52
54
54
54
56
59
59













Other Springs -
Jackson County -
Blue Springs -
Other Springs -
Jefferson County -
Wacissa Springs at Wacissa
Other Springs -
Lafayette County -
Troy Spring near Branford
Other Springs -
Lake County -
Alexander Springs near Astor -
Bugg Spring at Okahumpka -
Messant Spring near Sorrento -
Seminole Springs near Sorrento -
Spring (no name) at Echo Glen at Yalaha
Other Springs -
Leon County -
Natural Bridge Spring at Natural Bridge
Rhode Springs south of Tallahassee -
Other Springs -
Levy County -
Fanning Spring near Wilcox -
Manatee Spring near Chiefland -
Wekiva Springs near Gulf Hammock -
Other Springs -
Madison County -
Blue Spring near Madison -
Pettis Spring near Greenville
Other Springs -
Manatee County -
Marion County -
Juniper Springs near Ocala
Rainbow Springs near Dunnellon
Salt Springs at Lake Kerr - -
Silver Glen Springs near Astor -
Silver Springs near Ocala - -
Other Springs -
Nassau County -
Su-no-wa Spring near Verdie
Orange County -
Rock Springs near Apopka
Wekiwa Springs near Apopka
Other Springs -
Pasco County -
Crystal Springs near Zephyrhills
Seven Springs near Elfers - -
Spring (no name) at Hudson
Pinellas County -
Espiritu Santo Springs at Safety Harbor


PAGE
86
86
86
- 88
- 88
- 88
91
- 92
- 92
- 93
S 93
- 93
S 95
S 99
- 99
100
S 101
- 101
- 101
S 103
- 105
105
105
106
108
109
109
S 109
- 110
- 111
- 112
112
- 112
- 113
S 118
120
122
128
128
128
130
130
132
133
134
134
136
136
137
137













Health Spring (formerly Wall Springs) at Wall Springs -
Polk County -
Kissengen Springs near Bartow -
Putnam County -
Nashua Spring (formerly Crane Spring) near Satsuma -
Spring (no name) at Nashua (near Satsuma)
Other Springs -
Santa Rosa County -
Chumuckla or Mineral Springs near Bogia -
Other Springs -
Sarasota County -
Little Salt Spring near Murdock - -
Pinehurst Spring near Sarasota -
Warm Salt Spring near Murdock -
Seminole County -
Palm Springs near Longwood -
Sanlando Springs near Longwood -
Sheppard Spring near Longwood -
Other Springs -
Sumter County -
Fenney Springs near Coleman -
Panasoffkee River (formerly Branch Mill Springs group)
near Coleman -
Other Springs -
Suwannee County -
Charles Springs near Luraville - -
Falmouth Spring (formerly Newland's Spring)
at Falmouth -
Suwannee Springs near Live Oak -
Other Springs -
Taylor County -
Hampton Springs near Perry -
Waldo Springs near Perry -
Other Springs -
Union County -
Worthington Spring at Worthington -
Volusia County -
Blue Spring near Orange City -
Ponce de Leon Springs near DeLand -
Other Springs -
Wakulla County -
River Sink in River Sink Precinct south of Tallahassee -
Wakulla Spring near Crawfordville -
Other Springs -
Walton County -
Morrison Spring near Ponce de Leon -
Washington County -
Beckton Springs near Vernon -
Blue Springs near Redhead -
Cypress Spring at Vernon -


PAGE
138
140
140
143
143
144
144
145
145
145
145
145
147
148
149
149
150
152
154
154
154

154
155
155
155

156
158
160
160
160
161
162
162
162
163
163
165
168
168
168
169
174
174
174
176
176
177
177











PAGE
Other Springs 178
Summary tabulation of spring data by counties 179
Index 189


ILLUSTRATIONS


Frontispiece-Color views of Juniper, Ichatucknee and Rock Springs iv
Plate I Map showing the locations of selected springs of Florida
In pocket on back cover
Figure 1 Ancient history associated with Ponce de Leon Springs,
Volusia County-opposite Preface on page 2
2 "Slick" and boil of artesian submarine spring about
three miles east of Crescent Beach, Florida - 10
3 Structural map of Florida 12
4 Piezometric map of Florida 13
5 Generalized geologic cross-section through the peninsular
region of Florida 16
6 Map of the Suwannee River and its tributaries 18
7 Hydrograph showing discharge since 1931 of selected
large Florida springs - 34, 35
8 Poe Springs, Alachua County 50
9 Homosassa Springs, Citrus County 56
10 Fish in Homosassa Springs 57
11 A spring at the head of Crystal River, Citrus County 59
12. Large cypress trees at Rock Bluff Springs,
Gilchrist County 70
13 View of discharge vent at White Springs,
Hamilton County 71
14 Weekiwachee Spring, Hernando County 74
15 Troy Spring, Lafayette County 92
16 Alexander Springs, Lake County 94
17 Bugg Spring, Lake County 96
18 Hydrographic map of pool basin at Bugg Spring,
Lake County .- 97
19 Natural Bridge Spring, Leon County 102
20 Scene looking down the run from Rainbow Springs,
Marion County 115
21 Salt Springs, Marion County 118
22 Silver Glen Springs, Marion County 120
23 Aerial view of Silver Springs, Marion County 123
24 Graph showing the relation of rainfall at Ocala, flow at
Silver Springs, and ground water elevation at Sharpes
Ferry 126
25 Rock Springs, Orange County 130
26 Wekiwa Springs, Orange County 132
27 Crystal Springs, Pasco County 134
28 General view of Kissengen Springs, Polk County - 140











PAGE
29 Warm Salt Spring, Sarasota County 148
30 Palm Springs, Seminole County 150
31 Sanlando Springs, Seminole County 151
32 Suwannee Springs, Suwannee County 158
33 Ponce de Leon Springs, Volusia County 166
34 General view of Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County 170
35 Selected graphs showing daily stage fluctuations of
Wakulla Spring 172
36 Graph showing Wakulla Spring water surface fluctua-
tions in relation to rainfall at Tallahassee 173
37 Morrison Spring, Walton County 175
Table 1 Chart of the Tertiary and Quaternary formations in
Florida 24-25
2 Discharge of Weekiwachee Springs near Brooksville,
Hernando County 76
3 Discharge of Rainbow Springs, Marion County 116
4 Summary tabulation of spring data by counties 179-187












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


'. HURST, Supervisor
rd of Conservation



01 ior to transmit a report entitled "Springs of
paper was prepared by members of the Federal
sal Surveys from information obtained through
D cities and investigations and from the records
H 0 miless of both surveys.

0 a one of considerable economic importance and
: o0 sing interest to visitors and citizens alike. The
a long felt need to properly answer questions
H 0 2s and should allow these springs to be more
13 0-)
03 co bd.

SW. I 1 be published as Geological Bulletin No. 31
C Pg Lted that this report will be one of the most
ij irvey bulletins.


tj Very respectfully,

+ HERMAN GUNTER, Director
0
Florida Geological Survey










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE J. T. HURST, Supervisor
Florida State Board of Conservation

Sir:

I have the honor to transmit a report entitled "Springs of
Florida." This paper was prepared by members of the Federal
and State Geological Surveys from information obtained through
cooperative activities and investigations and from the records
contained in the files of both surveys.

The subject is one of considerable economic importance and
of more than passing interest to visitors and citizens alike. The
report should fill a long felt need to properly answer questions
on Florida springs and should allow these springs to be more
correctly evaluated.

This paper will be published as Geological Bulletin No. 31
and it is anticipated that this report will be one of the most
popular of the Survey bulletins.


Very respectfully,

HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee, Florida
May 20, 1947










































































FIGURE 1. Ancient history associated with Ponce De Leon Springs, Volusia County.


DATA==
ft,,%pn'nqs-
DISCOVERED IN IS12 By
DON JUANPONCE DELEON
IN QUEST FOR THE.FOUNTAIN ' YOUTH
FopcIFLY TAKEN 13Y THE SPANIARDS 157D
1763 IT IYAS CHIED TO ENGLAND TOGETHER
WITH ALL FL17RIDA IN PAYMENT
FOR THE ISLAND OF CUBA
RETAKEN 1783 BY THE INDIANS V f
832 GEN. ZAcNERY TAYLDR MADE HIS
LOW THE SPRING
ENCAMPMENT JUST BE
SDONAFTERALL GRANTS WERE PURCHASED BY
ONE MR. T;MMAS STARXE FDR FIFTY
NEGPD WDMEN-
THE SPRING FLOWS AT THE RATE OF
3DMILLION GALLONS PER DAY
TEMPERATURE REMAINS AT 72 DEGREES
THRDU13HOU7 THE- YEAR
DEPTH OF FEET
ANALYSIS
SULPHUR LIME
SODA LYTHIA











PREFACE


Since one of the primary functions of the State and Federal
Geological Surveys is to gather information on natural resources
and make it available to the public, this report on springs of
Florida was prepared as a cooperative project.

The springs of Florida are a perennial source of water that
contribute to most of our streams, so necessary for human ac-
tivity. Some are used as a source of supply for municipal water.
sanitariums have been constructed at a few, and many are a
source of supply for stock. The sportsman and woodsman are
interested in the springs as a breeding place for birds and fish,
and many resort hotels have been constructed at spring sites for
the sportsman and visitor.

Many interesting historical battles, settlements, and details
are closely associated with Florida springs, and this background
combined with the intrinsic beauty of the water and surround-
ings and with the facilities for recreation, exercise, and health
creates an attraction that appeals to all who have the opportunity
to visit or live in Florida.


G. E. FERGUSON, C. W. LINGHAM,
S. K. LOVE, and R. 0. VERNON / /


Tallahassee, Florida
May 20, 1947









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA


PART I

A. INTRODUCTION

By G. E. FERGUSON
District Engineer, Surface Water Division, U.S.G.S.

A Glance at Florida's Springs
Florida's springs hold the fascination of the millions who have
visited them. The tourist is delighted as he views through glass-
bottomed boats the beautiful and strange world beneath the
surface of the crystal clear waters of the spring pools. He is
equally pleased with the scenic channels through which the
waters issuing from the springs pass tranquilly toward the ocean.
The waters remain at uniformly cool temperatures throughout
the mild winters and long summers. Local residents have long
enjoyed the springs as highly satisfactory recreational centers
and swimming pools.
These springs, and especially the deep and readily navigable
waterways they form, have played an important part in the
development of the State. The channels were the highways of
the early settlers. The hulks of some of the early river boats can
still be seen clearly beneath the spring waters. Along the banks,
not far distant, the ruins of long-abandoned wharves and ware-
houses are visible.
The springs of Florida constitute one of the State's most im-
portant natural resources. As commercialized tourist attrac-
tions, they are the bases of business enterprises of considerable
magnitude. The waters of some of the springs are bottled and
sold for domestic consumption and the water supplies of several
Florida municipalities are piped from nearby spring pools. Sana-
toriums have been established at some of the more highly miner-
alized springs. Private and public agencies have provided hotels,
motor courts, cottages, dance pavilions, restaurants, boating,
swimming, and fishing facilities. At certain springs, the dis-
charged waters have been harnessed to provide electric power
in greatly varying amounts from commercial hydroelectric
plants with modern large turbines and generators to scenic water









6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

wheels turning small dynamos. The rivers throughout a large
part of Florida are beneficially affected by the comparatively
uniform amounts of spring water they receive and their navi-
gability is usually improved.
The major springs are noted for their outstandingly large
rates of discharge. The magnitude of these flows has created an
interest and popularity which has attracted tourist, local resi-
dent and scientist alike. The word "spring" is generally associ-
ated with a relatively small amount of water issuing from the
ground and trickling into a nearby stream. In Florida, however,
the larger springs issue from the ground as rivers, some of which
are large enough for commercial navigation. Either of Florida's
two largest springs has sufficient water to supply a city of over
3,000,000 population, and any one of 20 of the major springs
would serve a city of over 500,000 population.

The Purpose and Scope of this Report
This report on Florida's major springs contains both a story
of the springs and a collection of facts about them. For the
casual reader it provides a picture of the natural processes by
which the springs were formed, the sources of the spring waters
and the individual locations and descriptions of many of the
larger springs. For the student, it presents the general geography,
geology and hydrology of the springs, and the chemistry of the
spring waters, and by references directs him to other published
reports. Finally, for the practicing professional engineer, geolo-
gist, hydrologist, chemist and naturalist it contains a considerable
amount of factual data that have been systematically collected
on many of Florida's springs and are proving highly valuable in
the development of the State.
The report covers only a part of the many springs of Florida.
The program for the investigation of Florida's springs was for
many years directed toward the systematic measurement of dis-
charge of a few of the large springs in order to define their
characteristics and place among the water resources of the State.
More recently this program was expanded to include inspections
of many more of the larger springs during which discharge mea-
surements were made, samples taken for chemical analyses, and
physical descriptions of the spring pools prepared. The springs
were selected on the basis of rates of discharge and the degree of
utilization. It is realized that future development and increased









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


iatilization of certain springs not included herein may place them
among the major or important springs of Florida. In certain
areas where large springs are common, such as in Marion County
and along the spring-fed streams such as the Suwannee River and
its tributary Santa Fe River, many of the little known and rela-
tively inaccessible springs have not been included. Some of these
springs discharge directly into the river beds often through num-
erous small caverns or fissures. These conditions may make direct
measurement and study impracticable.
It is suggested that those who desire all available data on any
particular spring communicate with the Director of the Florida
Geological Survey in Tallahassee, or the District Engineer of
the United States Geological Survey in Ocala, Florida. This re-
port contains only the most pertinefit of the data collected as
space does not permit nor general usage require publication of
all field sketches, measurements, soundings and highly technical
interpretations and comparisons. Data collected subsequent to
the preparation of this report are also available as the spring in-
vestigational program is of a continuing nature. For instance,
as additional discharge measurements are made, they will, when
used with the earlier measurements, give a more reliable value
of average flow for any individual spring than shown in this
report. Maximum and minimum rates of discharge presented
may also be superseded in the light of later records. It is planned
to begin periodic discharge measurements on an additional group
of the larger springs and decrease the frequency of measure-
ments on those for which annual and seasonal flow rates are now
well defined.

Cooperation and Acknowledgements
The preparation of this report is a joint undertaking by the
Florida Geological Survey and the United States Geological Sur-
vey. The portions relating to hydrology and geology were pre-
pared by Dr. R. 0. Vernon, Associate State Geologist of the
former, and the balance by the latter in financial cooperation
as shown below.
Measurements and estimates of the flow of Florida's springs
have been made for many years by various individuals and agen-
cies. Systematic measurements of the discharge of a representa-
tive number of the major springs of the State were begun early
in 1931 and have continued to date, the work being accomplished









8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey during 1931-32 and since 1946, and
with the Florida State Road Department during 1933-45. In
1941, the Federal Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geo-
logical Survey began special hydraulic investigations of the more
prominent individual springs preparatory to this report and in
1945 the program of measurements was expanded and the chem-
ical analysis of spring waters was added.
Geologic data used in the report have come largely from the
files and publications of the Florida Geological Survey.
The work of the Federal Survey in preparing the report was
under the general supervision of Carl G. Paulsen, chief hydrau-
lic engineer of the Water Resources Branch; Joseph V. B. Wells,
chief of the division of surface waters; S. K. Love, chief of the
division of quality of waters; and G. E. Ferguson, district en-
gineer of the division of surface waters in Florida. Numerous
members of the Federal Survey rendered valuable assistance in
the collection, compilation and analysis of the data, notably
D. S. Wallace, district engineer for Florida during 1930-41, and
C. C. Yonker, who since 1941, has supervised the collection of
spring discharge data and their compilation and analysis.
The work of the Florida Geological Survey was accomplished
under the direction and guidance of Dr. Herman Gunter, State
Geologist, whose long interest in Florida's springs and foresight
in arranging for the collection of spring data has made the report
possible.
The authors are also indebted to the various spring owners and
operators for their continuing interest and cooperation in the
collection of the data on spring flows. Credit should be accorded
Messers Lewis J. Marchand, Ira Burtis, Dean B. Bogart, The
Tampa Tribune and officials of Crystal, Homosassa, Kissengen,
Poe, Sanlando, Silver, Wakulla, Warm Salt, and Weekiwachee
Springs for certain photographs which have been used in the
report.
Mr. H. H. Cooper, Jr., District Engineer for Florida, and
Mr. V. T. Stringfield, Senior Geologist, Washington, D. C., U. S.
Geological Survey, Ground Water Division, have been especially
helpful in reviewing the section on geology and hydrology of
spring areas. Dr. A. G. Unklesbay, formerly of the Ground
Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey, compiled some of the
early data used in this report.









* SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


B. THE HYDROLOGY and GEOLOGY of FLORIDA SPRINGS

By ROBERT 0. VERNON
Associate State Geologist, Florida Geological Survey

Introduction
A spring is a natural fountain or supply of water issuing at
the surface of the earth, and its flow may range from a wet
seep to a sizeable stream. The source is the water which falls or
condenses from the atmosphere and passes down into the pores
and interstices of the underlying rock through which the water
flows to the spring opening. Meinzer' has given an excellent
discussion of Florida springs and on the basis of discharge rates
classified springs into eight magnitudes. However, considering
only the movement of water through the formations, two gen-
eral types of springs occur in Florida. In one, water that has
fallen as rain percolates down through permeable formations
until it, reaches a relatively impervious bed, after which it flows
more or less parallel with this bed to a place on an intersecting
land surface where it issues as a spring. In the other type of
spring the rainwater enters directly into porous bedrock or
passes through surface formations and through more impervious
beds by means of sinks and caverns into bedrock. The water is
here confined in the aquifer under hydrostatic pressure. Springs
issue from this aquifer at some lower elevation where the bed-
rock lies near or is exposed at the land surface, whether this
elevation lies above or below sea level. Where the aquifer crops
out below sea level a fresh water submarine spring, such as that
offshore from Crescent Beach, may occur, see figure 2.
The openings through which the ground water flows in the
rock must be large, and sizeable caverns must extend from the
spring vent well back into the aquifer to enable such large
quantities of water to be delivered at the spring opening. The
aquifer, filled with water, acts as a large reservoir which equalizes
the discharge of water flowing through it over periods of heavy
rainfall and drought. The flow from most Florida springs is thus
perennial and relatively uniform. Because of the active circula-
tion of the large volume contained in these formations the water
is relatively soft and remarkably clear even during heavy rain-
Meinzer, 0. E., Large Springs in the United States, U.S.G.S. Water Supply Paper 557,
94 pp.









10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

fall, except where the spring is connected through caverns di-
rectly to a surface stream. Although spring water is relatively
soft, ground water is nevertheless stratified and in older and
deeper rocks heavily mineralized and saltier waters occur. This
heavily mineralized and salty water is generally encountered
under all of Florida in deep wells, but in the southern peninsular
area and at some places along the coasts salt water occurs relative-
ly near the ground surface. In general, where hydrostatic pres-
sure is low, see figure 4, salt water occurs at shallow depths.
Vigorous circulation of the ground water through rapid natural
flow or by heavy pumping of wells may flush salt water out of
the formation.
















FIGURE 2. "Slick" and "boil" of artesian submarine spring in the Atlantic
Ocean about three miles east of Crescent Beach, Florida. The slick is about
70 feet in diameter.

Several of the springs discussed in this report are salty. Salt
Springs in Marion County with a chloride content of 2,800 parts
per million, Little Salt Spring and Warm Salt Springs of Sarasota
County with 1,430 and 9,350 parts per million respectively are
notably salty. The salt contained in spring water results from
either the flushing of salt trapped in formations as they were
deposited or from salt water trapped in Pliocene and older beds
during the Pleistocene epoch when sea level stood at higher levels
than at present. It is generally believed that the pressure of
artesian water prevents the infiltration of sea water to shallow









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


depths along present shore lines, except where the artesian head
has been reduced by heavy use or drainage of water.
The rate of flow of water through the caverns in the aquifers
is regulated partially by hydraulic gradient, which in Florida
is controlled almost entirely by the altitudes of the spring vent
in relation to the height of the water table. This relation of
altitudes in turn, is governed by relief in topography and, al-
though Florida has low surface elevations, it does have a fair
relief. The altitude of the land surface ranges from sea level to
slightly less than 400 feet above sea level. The highest land is
in western and northern Florida near the Alabama and Georgia
lines and along a high erosional sand remnant known as "Trail
Ridge" and "The Central Highlands," which extends almost
down the center of the peninsula of Florida. These high areas
are underlain by Pleistocene clastic deposits, largely sand, and
much of the water that falls upon these deposits is absorbed and
is stored in the formations to maintain a high column of water
that merges with the water table near the land surface. How-
ever, in addition to the hydraulic gradient, the amount of flow
of water from each spring also depends on the permeability of
the formation, which in turn depends on the size and relation
of the openings in the formation delivering water into the spring
vent. The large connected caverns below the top of the zone
of saturation or water table permit a large discharge to springs.
Discharge of the springs varies also with atmospheric condi-
tions and changes in barometric pressure. Heavy rain may cause
some springs to become turbid with sediment and organic acids
which were washed into the spring by surface water locally and
temporarily emptying into the underground reservoir. This local
drainage from heavy rainfall may also cause large increases in
discharge, and prolonged periods of dry weather may cause de-
creases in discharge. However, the flow is perennial and none
of the springs reported on have ever gone dry. Large perennial
flows indicate a large storage capacity in the limestone aquifer,
the formation acting as a large reservoir from which the water
flows at a rate governed by the hydrostatic head. During wet
periods the amount and head of water in the formation are
greater than during dry periods. The water table is consequently
higher during wet weather and produces a high rate of flow and
large discharge. The water table and hydraulic pressure declines
during dry weather and the rates of flow and discharge decrease
accordingly.









12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

A large part of the water falling on Florida drains under-
ground, but where impervious beds lie at the ground surface the
surplus rain water, as it drains off, carves valleys emptying into
local drainage basins or the sea. Valleys are also formed by the
run off of spring water, and as the larger part of Florida surface
streams are spring fed many of the valleys owe their origin to
spring development.
Structure
Structure is not necessarily a factor in the control of artesian
water flow, except where this structure has established differ-


FIGURE 3. Structural map of Florida based on the top of Ocala limestone as penetrated
in wells.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


entials in head in controlling the location of areas of discharge
and recharge. As an illustration, Stringfield" has shown that in
Florida the water generally flows down dip in western and the


85 84' 83' 82
FIGURE 4. Piezometric map of Florida.


Stringfield, V. T., Artesian Water in the Florida Peninsula, U.S.G.S. Water Supply
Paper 773-C, 195 pp.









14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

southern peninsular Florida, but in the middle Peninsula the
water flows up dip from Polk County to Marion County. This
relationship of water flow to structure may be visualized by
comparing the structure map of figure 3 with the map of the
piezometric surface as shown in figure 4. A structure map rep-
resents a specific geologic horizon, whereas in Florida the piezo-
metric surface represents an artesian head that transgresses for-
mation boundaries and which exists in wells penetrating an aqui-
fer composed of several formations. Because the high contours
of the two maps do not coincide it is believed that in Florida
ground water flow is controlled largely by topographic relief
rather than structure, principal recharge areas being located on
topographic highs and discharge areas in topographic lows.
The high erosional remnant of Pleistocene deposits, largely
sand, extending down the middle of the peninsula is filled with
water which mingles freely with the underlying limestone beds
to maintain a high column of water. This column of water
crosses formation boundaries in that the water table feeds di-
rectly through outcrops and sink holes into ax section made up of
several beds of limestone, the fluids of which mingle through
cavities and caverns. The aquifer is thus greatly expanded
through these higher and younger beds in the vicinity of Polk
County and elsewhere along this ridge and thus the head forces
the water to move laterally from this area in all directions, even
up the "Ocala uplift," to points where erosion has exposed the
aquifer and its many caverns.
Figure 3, is a structural map, the contours of which connect
points of equal elevation on the top of the Ocala limestone, as
penetrated in wells. Since the Ocala has been extensively eroded
and younger beds have been deposited on this eroded surface,
the structure can be considered only as reflected and highs and
lows may have been higher or lower than represented by this
map. In general, the major axial crest of what has been termed
the "Ocala uplift" trends in a roughly northwest-southeast di-
rection along the west side and somewhat parallels the axis
of the peninsular portion of Florida. A minor synclinal flexure
parallels this uplift to the east in the vicinity of Jacksonville and
extends south to about Titusville.
The structure in western Florida is a gentle southerly slope
of about 25 feet per mile which is modified by two troughs cen-
tered in Gadsden and Jefferson counties and a nose centered in
Leon County.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


Shallow structures contribute directly to the control of flow of
artesian water and to the development of Florida's large springs
by the elevation of portions of Florida which were subsequently
eroded to develop considerable topographic relief. The deeply
buried structures associated with the Cretaceous deposits are not
considered to bear directly on the control of artesian flow except
where they have modified the younger structures.
Hydrology
Most general textbooks on geology, hydraulics and hydrology
discuss the conditions required for the occurrence of artesian
water. Unfortunately only the simple and ideal conditions are
usually considered so that conceptions of the conditions
necessary for artesian flow are established and can not be sus-
tained in the field. The ideal basin structure is present in
Florida but it as well as the equally ideal sloping and covering
impervious beds are not essential. In fact, in some areas in Florida
all these textbooks conditions are absent, and artesian water trav-
els up dip in a porous limestone aquifer covered by nothing more
impervious than unconsolidated sand or dense limestone matrix.
This is illustrated in figure 5.
In order to clarify the use of the term "artesian," in this chap-
ter, it is considered that any water confined or partly confined
in an aquifer under hydrostatic head is artesian regardless of the
physical character and structure of the rock or of the direction
of movement of the water. In general, all large springs in Florida
are artesian springs that are fed by underground streams running
through caverns. Falmouth Springs, a tributary to the Suwan-
nee River exposed by partial collapse of the cavern roofs, is simi-
lar to one of these streams although it probably is not artesian
except perhaps after heavy rains or when the Suwannee is in
flood stage. The water in the cavities of the limestone beds of
an aquifer in any selected area is so connected that for practical
purposes the vent of each spring may be considered the mouth
of an underground stream and the head of a surface stream.
Like surface streams, the mouth of the subsurface stream may be
made up of many distributaries so that some springs have several
vents from which the water issues. In Florida the flow of ar-
tesian water through the cavities and caverns of permeable
rock is largely controlled by the relationship which exists be-
tween the locations of areas of large discharge and large recharge.
This can be stated more simply as the distribution of hydrostatic

























L co0


Baker Countq


Marion Coun4q


Monroe Couni


M>Oo- Oh'- un o 11a Imeton- Gulf Hammock formationM -Ola llnestoi Ohiaeenr M'ow Pho.M Plel6^ooes
(A-n Park Ihoetont)

Eocene

FIGURE 5. Generalized and diagrammatic cross section through the peninsula of Florida, greatly foreshortened. Horizontal scale: 1" to
220 miles, vertical scale: as indicated.


Ve.',al eaq... hon t 1,o.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


head. A water gradient or slope exists between a discharge area
or low head and a recharge area or high head, down which the
ground-water flows. The limestone aquifers are covered in some
areas by less permeable beds so that water is retained and con-
ducted through cavities in the limestone under pressure of a
column of water much like water in a pipe.
Figure 4, is a graphic representation of the height above sea
level at which artesian ground-water stood in 1942 in tightly
cased wells which penetrated the principal water-bearing beds.
This imaginary surface is known as a piezometric surface, and
the one illustrated does not differ materially from that of the
present time. Principal recharge areas are located on Latitude
28 degrees, two places on Latitude 30 degrees and in Southern
Georgia, but recharge areas exist also wherever the land area is
higher than the piezometric surface, if there is no impervious
cover to prevent the water from entering the artesian aquifer.
In fact, because the aquifer is near the surface and sink holes
are usually well developed in discharge areas, ideal conditions for
recharge also exist in these areas, but this water is discharged
rather rapidly and locally from the artesian aquifer.
Principal discharge areas occur along coastal areas and along
the trough shown in figure 1, extending down the St. Johns River
Valley crossing the Peninsula between Latitudes 29 and 30 de-
grees and fanning out on the western coast of peninsular Florida.
Another trough in the piezometric surface running along Longi-
tude 83 degrees marks the course of the Suwannee River, the
bed of which is marked by an almost continuous line of springs.
This is proved by the increase in minimum discharge progres-
sively down the Suwannee River which is not accounted for by
measured inflow from known springs and streams tributary to
the Suwannee. The Suwannee River minimum flow above White
Springs is 4.8 second-feet whereas at Ellaville the minimum dis-
charge is 1,000 second-feet. The total discharge from tributary
springs and streams is less than 400 second-feet which leaves
about 595 second-feet that must be discharged from springs
into the river along its channel, see figure 6. Similar comparisons
can be made along other sections further down the stream, but
complete data are not available. In the discharge areas discussed
above are located the majority of our large springs, as shown in
figure 4.
It is considered that water enters an aquifer through sink
























4,, 01 OKEFENOKEE
4 Forgo -Mndisch. No flow
--to GEORGIA SWAMP

Min. disch 86cfs-



Elloville Suwonnee Sulphur ps
SuwonocoocheeSpr- *Eilomlie Spring hit e
I 'olmouth Spring pr ngs
Mindisch. 970cfs d i in.disch.4.8 s
fWood Spring S

LAKE CITY
Charles Springs S.n
Telford Springs ,

Morrison Spr. Ichlatucknee Sprs. st 6
Troy Sp Branford
1,61 cfs ran r oWh e rthingt
Sp ,Mio.disch Mnc
Min.disch ,71cfsts

Big Cypress oc Bluf pr a r s


GAINESVILLE
--Lumber Comp Spring 0
I Copper Spr. Otter Spring
Little Copper Spr FanningSprings

Manatee Spring



FIGURE 6

C SUWANNEE RIVER
A' *SHOWING

OA, LOCATION OF MAJOR

AND
MINIMUM RIVER DIS(
/0 AT GAGING STATIC
CIO


BASIN

SPRINGS


CHARGE
ONS


Scale Miles
0 20

FIGURE 6. Map of the Suwannee River and its tributaries, illustrating increase in discharge
down the River as a result of sub-channel springs.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


holes, through overlying pervious beds, or directly through cavi-
ties in the aquifer at its outcrop. Where openings in this aquifer
reach the ground surface at lower elevations water issues out
or rises in the opening to the height of the piezometric surface.
If this vent to the surface is a natural opening from which
water flows it is called a spring, if a pool is formed with no over-
flow it is called a lake or sink and if artificially made it is called
a well.

Formation of large solution features
The mechanics of the formation of the large caverns and cavi-
ties in these limestone beds are of some interest to the observer of
these large springs, since they control the flow of water.
It has been proved in laboratory practice and by observation
of bedded rock that limestone and dolomite are soluble in water,
and where these rocks are saturated the ground water, contain-
ing natural acids, acts as a slow solvent, moving through open
spaces, connecting crevices or cavities and increasing the
permeability of the rock by dissolving the carbonate rocks. In
this manner large caverns, fissures and cavities are slowly formed
and become a connective system of channels, through which
streams, partially or completely filling the cavity, may run.
The generally accepted theses covering the physical and chem-
ical aspects of the solution of limestone and of sink hole forma-
tion rarely include a conception of the effect of artesian water
upon soluble aquifers such as limestone. It has generally been
accepted that sinks and caverns are formed above the ground
water table as the result of the localized solution of limestone,
and that the effectiveness of water as a solvent decreased as the
water table was approached. However, in 1930 Davis' advanced
the thesis that caves are formed in rock saturated with water
and Bretz' presented evidence in 1942 to support Davis. Since
water in an artesian aquifer is under pressure any solution of
this aquifer must necessarily be carried on while the rock is
saturated.
Waters that contain free carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydro-
gen sulphide are capable of dissolving large amounts of lime-
Davis, W. M., Origin of limestone caverns, Geol. Soc. America Bull. vol. 41, No. 3,
pp. 475-628, September 30, 1930.
4 Bretz, J. Harlan, Vadose and phreatic features of limestone caverns: Jour. Geology,
vol. 50, No. 6, part 2, pp. 675-811, August-September, 1942.









20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

stone', and water under pressure will dissolve and hold larger
amounts of these gases than free water. The heavy rainfall,
prolific decaying vegetation in Florida and the low evaporation
and agitation in these confined reservoirs cause the artesian
waters to be heavily charged with organic acids and acid forming
gases'. The solution of limestone aquifers in Florida is therefore
active and rapid, and the cumulative effect of this solution
probably runs the length of the aquifer as many cavities have
been encountered far from the recharge areas at great depths
in the drilling of artesian and oil test wells. In fact, the gentle
dip of the beds, the high purity and inherent porosity of the
carbonate rocks, the flat sand-covered divides between relatively
few surface streams, the dense vegetation and humid climate,
the relatively high relief and the active circulation of artesian
waters all combine to create in Florida the most favorable con-
ditions for the active solution of carbonate rock by water.
Because of greater porosity toward the surface the solution
*by artesian water under hydrostatic head would tend to expand
upward along joints and more soluble rock to an overlying im-
pervious bed. In areas where this bed is near the surface the
unsupported roof may collapse, but in areas where there is no
definite impervious bed the artesian water may dissolve the
limestone to a position near the surface where roof collapse fol-
lows, or the artesian solution cavities may merge with those
formed under water table conditions. Sinks with rims that lie
above the piezometric surface generally contribute surface and
rain water to the underlying aquifer.
If there were no open cavities in an artesian aquifer through
which the water could escape it eventually would become satu-
rated with soluble salts and become stagnated. However, the
porous nature of limestone aquifers in Florida provides many
outlets, as evidenced by the many artesian springs and clear-
water streams, and circulation is assured.
In the study of the caves of Florida that lie above and below
Carbon dioxide dissolved in water is carbonic acid, the most common natural solvent of
limestone, and free oxygen may combine with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphurous acid,
which in converting calcium carbonate to calcium bi-sulphide liberates carbonic acid.
o Dr. A. P. Black, consulting Chemical Engineer, Gainesville, Florida (personal com-
munication, November 11, 1942) analyzed the water from 26 selected wells that penetrated
the Ocala limestone reservoir in Baker, Duval, Clay and St. Johns counties, all well away from
recharge areas. The total CO2 content in these waters ranged between 3.0 and 25.0 parts
per million, and 17 waters analyzed 10.0 p.p.m. or more. The total HS content ranged
up to 2.5 parts per million and 19 of the waters analyzed 1.0 p.p.m. or more.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


the present ground water table it is well to remind the student
of geomorphology that the preponderance of evidence in Florida
indicates that sea level, and correspondingly the ground water
levels, occupied positions during the Pleistocene epoch consid-
erably higher and considerably lower than at present and has
occupied positions between these levels since the Pleistocene
epoch was initiated. But cavities have been penetrated at depths
up to 8,000 feet in oil test wells and circulation of mud in the
well has been lost at lower depths. Since the maximum change
of sea level is believed by most glacialogists to have been in the
nature of 300 feet below and above the present sea level, these
eustatic sea-level changes during Pleistocene time could have
had little effect on the formation of these deep cavities and ar-
tesian gas-charged waters logically can be assumed to have played
an important part in the formation of these cavities.
Geology
As indicated in the previous discussion, the springs of Florida
are intimately associated with carbonate rocks, which are the
aquifers, and, as would be expected, the larger number of springs
occur in the peninsular region where the rocks are predominant-
ly limestones and dolomites. In western Florida where the rocks
are predominantly sands and clays the springs are less frequent
and are as a rule smaller. The Ocala limestone is considered to
be the principal water-bearing bed, but is connected by cavities
and caverns to other limestones that differ in faunal content and
lithology. In some areas the Ocala limestone is the only artesian
aquifer. In other areas the Chipola, Hawthorn, Tampa, Suwan-
nee, Byram and Marianna formations are added to the under-
lying Ocala limestone to make a thick aquifer, see Table 1. In
general, the artesian aquifer can be considered to consist of the
complete limestone section older than the Pliocene beds. The
clay, dense marl and limestone beds of the Hawthorn formation
of Miocene age are the important impervious beds covering the
aquifer, but the clays and marls of other Miocene formations
and of the Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits may be locally im-
portant. In fact, the caverns of the limestone aquifers may pro-
vide such a proficient aqueduct that a non-cavernous part of
the aquifer may be sufficiently tight to provide the necessary
impervious cover.
Throughout the Pleistocene epoch Florida was covered inter-
mittently by sea water, and thick continental and marine de-









22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

posits of sand, gravel, shell marl and clay were deposited. These
porous and pervious deposits have accumulated as a mantle
over both the upland areas and in stream valleys, and they serve
as a large initial reservoir which decreases run-off and through
which rain water percolates without difficulty down to the
underlying bedrock.
The most abundant and widespread bedrocks in Florida are
limestone and dolomite. The beds generally are of consistently
high purity, but the younger limestones are high in phosphate
and sand and are generally more indurated and less pervious.
The geologic section of the bedrock in western Florida is largely
composed of clastic fragments of other rocks which were me-
chanically transported by streams and oceans and deposited in
Florida as sands, clays and gravel. The few beds of limestone in
the western Florida section were deposited as beach shell accumu-
lations and chemical precipitates in deeper water. The geologic
section of the Tertiary bedrock in peninsular Florida is com-
posed almost entirely of chemically precipitated limestone and
beach accumulated shells. The transition between the two sec-
tions occurs along the northwestern part of peninsular Florida.
The geologic formations present at the surface of Florida
probably are 1,300 to 1,500 feet thick and include rocks of the
Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene (?), Pleistocene and Re-
cent. The primary aquifers are the Gulf Hammock formation
(Avon Park limestone) and the Ocala limestone of Eocene age;
the Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age; the Tampa and Haw-
thorn formations of Miocene age.
The Gulf Hammock formation (Avon Park limestone) un-
derlies most of peninsular Florida and crops out in Citrus and
Levy counties. It is essentially dolomite and limestone and has
a maximum thickness of 700 feet. It is represented in the sub-
surface of western Florida by sands, clays and marls of probable
Lisbon age. The formation is locally important as a source of
water in Citrus and Levy counties on the western peninsular
coast and in Seminole, Volusia, Orange, Brevard and Osceola
counties where it lies relatively near the ground surface. From
well records the formation is known to be absent in parts of
Columbia, Hamilton and Suwannee counties. The water from
this formation is generally very mineralized and hard. The beds
older than the Gulf Hammock formation, while saturated with
water, are usually highly mineralized and contribute directly to



















TABLE I


TERTIARY & QUATERNARY ROCKS OF FLORIDA


APPROXIMATE
SYSTEM SERIES SECTION GROUP AND FORMATION AQUIFER OF SPRINGS

Western Peninsular Western Peninsular


I* -


ji026 NC~-
o~o~d~.. O 0






7N


I I I I I I I ,


OWI
0w


Terrace Deposits

.including the associated

marl and limestone beds


Several contemporaneous

beds of sand, marl and

limestone


Duplin marl


Shoal River
formation



Chipola
formation
Hawthorn
formation


Tompa formation


Suwonnee limestone

Byram limestone


Undifferentiated beds
of Wilcox age Oldsmar
Salt Mountain lmestone


Undifferentiated d
beds of Cedar Keys
Midway age limestone


BLUE*B AY CO.
OLEN
GLEN JULIA
HEIL BRONN
LITTLE SALT

nORRISON
SALT
SEMINOLE
WARM SALT


OREEN COVE
KISS E N EN
LITHIA
MAGNESIA
PETTIS
PINEMURST BECKTON
POSNC DE CYPRESS
LEON HOLMES
CO. ESPIRITU
SAN TO
ROCK EUREKA
WEKIWA HEALTH
WHITE NATURAL
BRIDGE
RHODE
RtVER SINK
SEVEN
SPRING AT
HUDSON
SULPHUR
WACISSA
.VAKULLA


CHUMUCKLA
SU-NO.WA
WADESOORO
BLUE*VOLUSIA CO.
BUCKHORN
NASHUA
PONCE DE LEON-VOLUSIA CO.
SANLAffDO
SHEPPARD
SILVER OLEN


CLUE.HAOIS.I1 CO.
CRYSTAL
FALMOUTH
HAMPTON BLUE-JACfSON CO.
SUWANNEE CHARLES
WALDO ALEXANDER
WEEKIWACHEE BUGG

ITZKA
FANNING
FENNEY
1 HART
HOMOSASSA
(ICHATUCKNEE
JUNIPER
MANATEE
PANASOFFKEE
POE
RAINBOW
ROCK BLUFF
SILVER
TROY
WEKWVA


LEGEND


Limestone Phosphatic sandy limestone Clay



Dolomite Silt, sand and gravel Marl


TABLE 1. Chart of the Tertiary and Quaternary formations of Florida, showing the approximate aquifer of selected springs.


z
W
LIJ

0
0
a-i
0-










W
z
W
0












LU

0
0

Lu
nJ
0




0


a:



LU


I I


I


7.


101 11 to


ITj--T-L Ocala limestone


Lisbon formation I Gulf Hammock
S
fo
(A.1cmation
Park Is)

Tollah Tallahassee Is.
I formation
Otto Luku. City* limestone


'









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY


the artesian water in springs and domestic water wells only
where the stratification equilibrium existing normally in the
underground waters is upset.
The Ocala limestone lies at or near the surface in the west
central part of the peninsula and in the middle and northern
part of western Florida. This is the principal artesian aquifer
and source of Florida's drinking water. The formation is a mas-
sive, chalky, porous limestone of high purity and is very variable
in thickness. It is known to be at least 300 feet thick in the
central peninsular Florida but it thins toward the north and is
known from well records to be absent in parts of Brevard, Lake,
Orange, and in Citrus and Levy counties where the Gulf Ham-
mock crops out.
The Marianna limestone has been mapped in only Holmes and
Jackson counties. There it has a maximum thickness of 30 feet
and is a soft, white, chalky limestone, locally indurated and
slightly glauconitic at the base. The Marianna limestone rests
directly on the Ocala limestone and is overlain by the Byram
limestone or, where it is not recognized, by the Suwannee lime-
stone. It is important only locally as an aquifer.
The Byram limestone has been recognized at the surface in
Jackson County in western Florida and along the Suwannee
River in peninsular Florida. The base of the Suwannee limestone
in Holmes and Washington counties, western Florida, show
faunal similarities to the Byram and may represent it in this
area. The Byram limestone is generally cream-colored, sandy,
soft, porous and granular. Locally it is indurated and contains
beds of argillaceous limestone. The Byram rests directly on the
Ocala limestone and is overlain by the Suwannee limestone in
peninsular Florida. In western Florida it rests on the Marianna
limestone and is overlain by the Suwannee limestone, except in
the area where it may be represented in the base of the Suwannee.
The limestone is from 10 to 40 feet thick and is not important
as an aquifer.
The Suwannee limestone overlies the Ocala limestone and
crops out in the northwestern and east central parts of the
peninsular and as an arcuate band extending across Holmes,
Washington and Jackson counties in western Florida. It is a
soft, porous, granular limestone of high purity and as an aquifer
approaches the Ocala limestone in importance. It has a maxi-
mum thickness of 450 feet but well records indicate that it is









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

absent in northern Jackson County and in the central and eastern
parts of the Peninsula.
The Tampa limestone overlies the Suwannee limestone and
crops out in the west-central and northwestern part of the Pen-
insula and in scattered areas in western Florida. In the eastern
part of western Florida and the northern part of peninsular
Florida where the Tampa is not present it may be represented
in the base of the Hawthorn formation which overlies the
Suwannee. In the Peninsula the Tampa formation is largely
limestone but in the northern part of the Peninsula and in parts
of western Florida the formation consists of siltstone, silt, clay
and phosphatic limestone. It ranges from 100 to 200 feet in
thickness.
The Hawthorn formation in the eastern part of western Flor-
ida and in peninsular Florida overlies the Tampa formation but
rests directly on older formations where the Tampa can not be
separated as a unit or where erosion has removed part of the
section. The Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and marls generally
overlie the formation but it lies not far below the surface in
most of Florida except in the outcrop areas of the older beds.
The Hawthorn may represent the complete Miocene section in
some areas of the northern Peninsula and western Florida, but
several divisions of the Miocene are recognized in other parts of
western and peninsular Florida, where the Hawthorn has not
been recognized, see Table 1. Thin bedded clay, fuller's earth,
dense marl, phosphatic limestone make up the formation which
may be up to 500 feet in thickness.

C. THE DISCHARGE of FLORIDA SPRINGS

By G. E. FERGUSON
District Engineer, Surface Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey

Why are spring flows measured?
Knowledge of the quantities of water discharged by the major
springs of Florida is necessary to the wise utilization and con-
servation of the water resources of the State. These springs fur-
nish many Florida streams their only substantial supplies of
water during dry periods. The successful use of these spring-fed
streams, whether for industry, navigation, agriculture or recre-









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-DISCHARGE


ation, is made possible largely through accurate records of the
amounts of water available.
The amounts of spring discharge reveal also the quantities of
water stored in the huge natural underground reservoirs with
which many parts of Florida are blessed. The water we see
emerging from springs is either the overflow or leakage from
these underground basins. A relatively large flow indicates a
large supply in the basin; and in general a small discharge re-
veals a small supply.
For these reasons the investigational work on Florida's springs
has been devoted largely to the periodic measurement of dis-
charge of the major springs. Other physical data can be collected
at any time but valuable knowledge of the trends and charac-
teristics of the discharge can be had only through the long
continuance of careful measurements.

What is a "second-foot"?
The discharge of a spring is the rate at which known unit
quantities of water emerge from underground channels through
the spring's natural outlet orifices into the surface channels.
In the measurement of the flow of water several different units
have been adopted. The hydraulic engineer most often uses the
term "cubic foot per second". A discharge (or flow) of one
cubic foot per second (also referred to as a "second-foot") is
equivalent to a stream one foot wide, one foot deep, and moving
at the average rate of one foot per second. If the stream is two
feet wide or if the water is moving at the average rate of two
feet per second, the discharge is then two cubic feet per second
(or two "second-feet"). The discharge of a spring is thus the
product of the area, in square feet, of the cross-section of the
outlet channel or orifice and the average velocity of the water,
in feet per second, at that section of the channel. Since a dis-
charge measurement is usually first calculated in "second-feet"
and since the "second-foot" is adopted for river measurements,
that unit is given prominence in this report. The reader may find
it helpful to consider a flow of one second-foot as that which
would (1) fill a one-acre area to a depth of about two feet in 24
hours or (2) satisfy the water requirements of an average type
American city of about 6,000 population or (3) fill a typical 35
by 20 foot swimming pool in about one hour.
The discharge of large springs is also frequently expressed in









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

"millions of gallons per day." One "million gallons per day" is
equal to 1.54+ second-feet. One second-foot equals 0.646 mil-
lion gallons per day (or 646,000 gallons per day).
For the smaller Florida springs the unit "gallons per minute"
is used and is perhaps the most satisfactory of the flow units for
the non-technical reader to visualize. One second-foot equals
448 gallons per minute.

The measurement of spring flows
Over many parts of the country spring flows are measured
simply by determining the length of time required for the dis-
charged water to fill a vessel of known capacity. This volumetric
method is only rarely applicable to the measurement of Florida
springs because the flows are ordinarily far too large. Moreover,
the spring orifices are usually well submerged and the rates of
flow are best determined by river measurement methods in some
straight and uniform reach of the run or channel downstream
from the spring pool.
These measurements' require the use of an instrument called
a "Current-meter" which measures the speed of the water in the
selected cross-section of channel. The depths of the water and
the area of the particular section are measured by sounding lines
and tapes.
The discharge values covered in this report are nearly all the
results of current-meter measurements. Many are accurate
within 5 percent or less and almost all within 10 percent except
for the measurements prior to about 1920. The accuracy of
these few earliest measurements is unknown but adequate
measuring equipment was not always available and rough esti-
mates of flow may, at times, have been necessary.
Clean and straight reaches of channel suitable for measure-
ments are sometimes found only at some distance downstream
from the springhead. Any appreciable inflow between the
spring pool and this measuring section has, when possible, been
measured and deducted. During storms or very wet periods
some surface water drainage may have been inadvertently in-
cluded since it often cannot be effectively segregated. Such
For complete description of the methods used in making current meter measurements
refer to U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper No. 888, Stream Gauging Procedure,
pp. 13-76, 1943.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-DISCHARGE


surface drainage, however, is usually small as compared to the
spring discharge. For this reason, the discharge, as measured at
the selected section of the channel downstream, is considered as
the discharge of the particular spring. Once a measuring section
has been carefully selected, it is usually used indefinitely. This
permits more effective comparisons between measurements.

How the discharge of a spring varies
As the visitor views one of the Florida springs he is usually
impressed by the apparent stability of the flow. Yet systematic
observations and measurements reveal spring flow as ever chang-
ing. As the rainfall, filtering downward through the sand and
rock fills the contributing underground basins, greater quanti-
ties of this water are discharged by the spring. Conversely, as
the ground-water table lowers, the spring flow decreases. This
responsiveness to rainfall gives the discharge of Florida springs
particular characteristics which are illustrated in figure 7. On
this plate are plotted in cubic feet per second the discharge of
several of the largest Florida springs.
Perhaps the most noticeable characteristic of discharge is its
seasonal variations. The Florida peninsula often receives about
one-half of its annual rainfall in the summer months. This
usually results in well-replenished ground-water basins and con-
sequently greater spring flows by early fall. Discharge then
slowly recedes, broken only by occasional individual heavy rain-
fall, until the next summer wet season.
Response to storm rainfall is often pronounced and rapid.
For instance, the discharge of both Silver Springs and Rainbow
Springs increased greatly following the outstanding storms dur-
ing September 1933 and October 1941. Conversely, the ex-
tremely low discharges of these springs occurred during the
extreme drought conditions of 1932.
A third characteristic is evidenced by the degree to which a
spring varies above and below its average value. For example,
this range in fluctuation is seen to be somewhat greater for Silver
Springs as compared to that for Rainbow Springs.

Comparison of discharge of Florida springs
The size of a spring is often evaluated on the basis of its dis-
charge. The average discharge seems to be the best value for










32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

this purpose. The minimum discharge might also be considered
since this represents the quantity of water that is available at all
times. The comparison of peak or maximum flows, however, is
to be avoided, because during or following the storm periods in
which these maximum flows occur, storm surface waters and
subsurface ground waters flow into the channel above the meas-
uring section and may be included in the measured spring dis-
charge. For this reason the maximum storm discharge as shown
on figure 7 may not always represent true spring discharge to
the same degree of accuracy as the other measurements.
A single or relatively few discharge measurements of a spring
do not always accurately indicate its average flow. If such meas-
urements were made during or following a drought the measured
discharge was probably somewhat less than normal. If the spring
was measured following heavy rainfall and substantial recharge
to the underground basin, the value obtained was likely greater
than normal. The hydrographs of discharge shown on figure 7
show clearly the times and amounts of fluctuations for the
springs indicated. The times and rates of changes in discharge of
other springs in the general area would be expected to have
similar patterns of variations. The greater number of discharge
measurements, made during all seasons of the year, the better
defined is the average spring discharge.
The table below shows the number of springs of first magni-
tude, or springs with a probable average flow of 100 second-feet
(64.6 m.g.d.) or more, in the various regions of large springs
in the United States. The information has been extracted from
a table in the volume entitled "The Large Springs of Missouri"
by H. C. Beckman and N. A. Hinchey, published by the Mis-
souri Geological Survey and Water Resources in 1944. The
number of springs shown for Florida has been revised by the
writers on the basis of more recent information.














1400


DISCHARGE OF SILVER SPRINGS RUN PLOTTED FROM
MONTHLY MEAN DISCHARGE DETERMINATIONS, OTHER
SPRINGS SHOWN PLOTTED FROM INDIVIDUAL DIS-
CHARGE MEASUREMENTS.


FIG. 7 GRAPHS COMPARING FLOWS OF SPRINGS OF FLORIDA HAVING LONGER RECORDS DURING THE PERIOD 1931-46.


1200






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SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-DISCHARGE


NUMBER OF SPRINGS OF FIRST MAGNITUDE
IN THE
UNITED STATES
(Average flow of 100 second-feet or more)
REGION NUMBER OF SPRINGS
Florida - - - - - - -- 17
Snake River Basin in Idaho - - - - 15
Ozark region of Missouri (including Mammoth Spring
just south of Missouri-Arkansas State line) - 12
Deschutes River Basin, Oregon - - - - 8
Sacramento River Basin, California - - - 7
Willamette and Umpqua River Basin, Oregon - - 5
Balcones fault belt in Texas - - - - 4
Montana - - - - - - - 3
Klamath River Basin, Oregon - - - - 2
Northern Alabama and adjacent areas - - - 1
Interior basins of Oregon - - - - - 1
Total in the United States - - - - 75

Based on this tabulation, Florida has the greatest number of
first magnitude springs in the United States. It also has approxi-
mately 49 springs of second magnitude, or springs having an
average flow of 10 to 100 second-feet.
The primary vents of both Silver and Rainbow Springs are
believed to have larger average flows than any limestone spring
in the United States and possibly in the world. Certainly the
total average flows down Silver Springs Run and Rainbow River,
808 and 699 second-feet respectively, will rank these springs
among the largest in the world.

Significant trends in discharge
Spring flow reflects conditions of water supply in the under-
ground basins and changes in spring flow over a.considerable
number of years usually reveals significant changes in water
supplies from these basins. A study of figure 7 shows only one
spring with a significant change in flow. Kissengen Spring in
Polk County has, since periodic measurements were begun dur-
ing 1932, shown a gradual reduction in flow. This is consistent
with reports that ground water supplies are decreasing in this
area in which there are heavy demands for water for irrigation.









38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

D. QUALITY of FLORIDA SPRING WATERS

By S. K. LOVE
Chief, Quality of Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey

Introduction
All natural waters contain dissolved minerals. The minerals
are derived from soil, rocks, and vegetative matter with which
the water comes in contact. The quantity of dissolved minerals
in a water depend primarily on the type of soil or rock material
through which the water has passed and the length of time that
contact is maintained.
In general, ground water contains more dissolved minerals
than surface streams. This is largely the result of a longer con-
tact period between ground water and the surrounding rocks
and soils. Since spring water is usually considered to be ground
water, spring water should be expected to contain more dissolved
minerals than surface waters. This is generally true, although
some springs yield water containing less minerals than nearby
surface streams.
Chemical analyses were made on samples collected between
April and July 1946 from 38 springs described in this report.
Analyses of 18 of these springs were made in 1923 and 1924 and
are published in the Federal Survey's Water-Supply Paper
596-G, "Chemical Character of Water of Florida." Analyses
are also given in Water-Supply Paper 596-G for 5 springs in-
cluded in this report but from which samples were not collected
in 1946. In order that all of the available analytical data may
be presented, analyses given in Water-Supply Paper 596-G are
repeated in this report.

The minerals in solution
The characteristics and dissolved mineral constituents of
spring waters discussed in the following paragraphs include
those found in quantities sufficient to have practical effect on
the value of the waters for ordinary use.
Color.-The term "color" refers to the appearance of water
free from suspended solids. 'Natural color in water is caused
almost entirely by organic matter extracted from leaves, roots,
and other substances in the ground. A color less than 20, based









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-QUALITY


on a graduated scale of standard colored-glass disks, usually
passes unnoticed. Some swamp waters have natural color of
200 or more. Surface waters usually are more highly colored
than ground waters. In passing through rock materials color in
water is partly or completely removed. Florida springs ordi-
narily are not highly colored.
Exceptionally clear water free from color due to organic
matter appears blue when viewed through a depth of several
feet. This natural blue color of clear water is caused largely by
a scattering of sunlight by the water molecules. Since most of
the scattering occurs in the short wave lengths of light which
are located toward the blue end of the visible spectrum, the re-
sult is that the water appears to be blue. Thus, the deeper the
water is penetrated by sunlight the more scattering that will
take place and hence the bluer the water will appear. Because
many springs in Florida are exceptionally clear and relatively
deep, it is natural that they should have a blue color.
Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH).-The intensity of acidity or
alkalinity of a water, as indicated by the hydrogen-ion concen-
tration, is of importance with reference to corrosive properties
of water, and to proper treatment for coagulation at water-
treatment plants. The symbol pH is commonly used to indicate
the hydrogen-ion concentration. For practical purposes, the
pH scale may be used with reference to acidity and alkalinity,
as a temperature scale is used with reference to heat conditions.
A neutral water has a pH of 7.0. The pH of most natural waters
varies between 6.0 and 8.0. Some alkaline waters have pH values
greater than 8.0 and waters containing free mineral acid have
values less than 4.5.
Specific conductance.-The specific conductance of a water is
a measure of its ability to conduct a current of electricity. It
varies with the concentration and the degree of ionization of the
different minerals in solution. For spring and ground waters
that have fairly uniform composition, the specific conductance
bears a fairly definite relation to the total concentration of
dissolved minerals.
Silica (Si02).-Silica is dissolved from practically all rocks. A
few natural waters contain less than 3 parts per million of silica
and some contain more than 50 parts, but most of them contain
from 10 to 30 parts per million. Silica affects the usefulness of









40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

a water because it contributes to the formation of boiler scale.
Otherwise silica is of little practical importance.
Iron (Fe).-Iron is dissolved from many rock materials. On
exposure to air water that contains more than 1 part per million
of iron soon becomes turbid with the insoluble compound pro-
duced by oxidation; surface waters therefore rarely contain as
much as 1 part per million of dissolved iron. Ground waters and
certain spring waters, however, frequently contain several parts
per million of dissolved iron until they are brought in contact
with air.
Calcium (Ca).-Calcium is dissolved from practically all rocks,
but particularly from limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. Cal-
cium and magnesium make water hard and are the active agents
in forming boiler scale. Most waters from granite contain less
than 10 parts per million of calcium; many waters from lime-
stone contain from 30 to 70 parts; and waters that leach de-
posits of gypsum may contain more than 100. Since limestone,
which is essentially calcium carbonate, is widely distributed
throughout Florida and is the principal rock material in which
large springs are found, relatively high concentrations of cal-
cium are found in most Florida spring waters.
Magnesium (Mg).-Magnesium is dissolved from many rocks
but particularly from dolomite. Its effects are similar to those of
calcium, but waters that contain much magnesium and chloride
are likely to be corrosive, especially in steam boilers. The mag-
nesium in soft waters may amount to only 1 or 2 parts per mil-
lion, but water in areas that contain large quantities of dolomite
may contain 20 to 50 parts per million of magnesium. Except
in coastal areas where the ground water is contaminated with
sea water and in those areas where saline residues from earlier
invasions of the sea still remain, the concentration of magnesium
in Florida ground and spring waters is usually relatively low.
Sodium and potassium (Na and K).-Sodium and potassium are
dissolved from practically all rocks, but they make up only a
small part of the dissolved mineral matter in most waters in
humid regions. Natural waters that contain only 3 or 4 parts
per million of the two together are likely to carry about equal
quantities of sodium and potassium. As the total quantity of
these constituents increases the proportion of sodium becomes
greater. Moderate quantities of these constituents have little









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-QUALITY


effect, but waters that carry more than 50 or 100 parts per mil-
lion of the two may require careful operation of steam boilers
to prevent foaming. Waters that contain large quantities of
sodium salts injure crops and some waters contain so much
sodium that they are unfit for nearly all uses. With few excep-
tions the amount of sodium in Florida spring waters is relatively
small. Where there is a large amount of chloride present, such as
Salt Springs in Marion County and other saline springs, the
amount of sodium present will usually be approximately equiva-
lent to the chloride.
Carbonate and bicarbonate (C03 and HCO3).-Carbonate and
bicarbonate occur in waters largely through the action of carbon
dioxide, which enables the water to dissolve carbonates of cal-
cium and magnesium. Carbonate is not present in appreciable
quantities in many natural waters. The bicarbonate in waters
that come from relatively insoluble rocks may amount to less,
than 10 parts per million; many waters from limestone contain
from 200 to 400 parts per million. The solution of limestone
rock by natural waters in the presence of carbon dioxide is
probably the largest single factor responsible for the existence
of large springs in Florida.
Sulfate (S04).-Sulfate is dissolved in large quantities from
gypsum and from deposits of sodium sulfate.. It is also formed
by the oxidation of sulfides of iron and is therefore present in
considerable quantities in waters from mines and from many
beds of shale. Sulfate in waters that contain much calcium and
magnesium causes the formation of hard scale in steam boilers
and may increase the cost of softening the water.
Chloride (CI).-Chloride is dissolved in small quantities from
rock materials in most parts of the country. The chloride in
waters has little effect on their use unless it is present in excessive
quantities, as in brines. Although most springs in Florida con-
tain relatively small amounts of chloride, a few spring waters
range from moderately to strongly saline. Presumably, the
source of the salty water is saline residues remaining from earlier
invasions of the sea.
Fluoride (F).-Fluoride has been reported as present in rocks
to about the same extent as chloride. However, the quantity
present in natural waters is usually much less than that of chlo-
ride. Fluoride in water is known to be associated with the dental









42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

effect known as mottled enamel, if the water is used for drinking
by young children during calcification or formation of the
teeth. This condition becomes more noticeable as the quantity
of fluoride in water increases above 1 part per million. It is re-
ported that the incidence of dental caries (decay of teeth) is
decreased or prevented by quantities of fluoride that are not
sufficient to cause permanent disfigurement from mottled
enamel. Those springs for which analyses are given in this report
contain less fluoride than is normally considered necessary to
cause mottled enamel.
Nitrate (NO3).-Nitrate in water is considered a final oxida-
tion product of nitrogenous material, and may indicate previous
contamination by sewage or other organic matter. The quan-
tities of nitrate usually present have no effect on the value of
water for ordinary uses.
Dissolved solids.-The quantity" reported as dissolved solids
(the residue on evaporation) consists mainly of the dissolved
mineral constituents in the water. It may also contain some
organic matter and water crystallization. Waters with less than
500 parts per million of dissolved solids are usually satisfactory
for domestic and most industrial uses. Waters with more than
1,000 parts per million of dissolved solids are likely to be unsuit-
able for most domestic and industrial uses.
Hardness.-Hardness is the characteristic of water that re-
ceives most attention with reference to industrial and domestic
use. It is usually recognized by the increased quantity of soap
required to produce lather and by the deposits of insoluble salts
formed when a water is heated or evaporated. Hardness is caused
almost entirely by calcium and magnesium.
Hardness is usually expressed as the quantity of calcium car-
bonate (CaCOa) equivalent to the calcium and magnesium
present. Water that has less than 60 parts per million of hardness
is usually rated as soft and its treatment for removal of hardness
is seldom justified. Hardness between 61 and 120 parts per mil-
lion does not seriously interfere with the use of water for many
purposes, but its removal by softening processes may be profit-
able for laundries and other industries. Water with hardness
between 121 and 180 parts per million may have to be treated
for many industrial purposes but is usually satisfactory for
domestic use. Considerable savings in soap consumption can be









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA--QUALITY


effected by softening water in this range of hardness. Water
with hardness beyond 180 parts per million can profitably be
softened for most purposes although that with hardness of 200
to 300 parts per million is extensively used for domestic purposes.
Carbon dioxide (CO2).-Carbon dioxide is one of the gases in
the atmosphere. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid,
H2CO3. It is this acid which reacts with rocks in the ground to
form bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium, and other metals.
Carbon dioxide in dissolved form is present in most natural
waters, especially those in which the pH is less than 7. Ground
waters usually contain more dissolved carbon dioxide than sur-
face waters. Decaying organic matter in the ground gives off
carbon dioxide which is dissolved in the surrounding ground
water, a large part of which is retained in solution, unless the
carbonic acid thus formed reacts with surrounding rock material
or unless the water is exposed to the atmosphere.

Chemical characteristics
Most of the spring waters described in this report, for which
chemical analyses are available, are not remarkable as to their
content of ordinary mineral constituents. Many of them have
about the same composition as water used for public supplies of
several of the larger cities and towns in Florida. While most
spring waters are characteristicly calcium carbonate waters, a
few of the springs, however, do contain rather large amounts of
dissolved minerals, composed mainly of sodium chloride (com-
mon salt). There are indications that the high concentrations
result either from the admixture of ground water and sea water,
or from ground water passing through saline residues remaining
from ancient invasions of the sea.
For those springs for which analyses were made in 1923-24
and again in 1946, it will be observed that the concentration of
dissolved minerals in most of them was about the same at both
times. For a few springs, however, the concentration was some-
what different in 1946 from what it was in 1923-24.
The lowest concentration of dissolved mineral solids deter-
mined in the analyses made in 1946 was 15 parts per million for
Glen Julia Springs in Gadsden County, and the highest concen-
tration determined was 5,850 parts per million for Salt Springs
in Marion County.









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

PART II
DESCRIPTIONS of INDIVIDUAL SPRINGS
By C. W. LINGHAM
Assistant Engineer
AND OTHERS
of the Surface Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey
Explanation of descriptive data
A uniform system of headings is used to include information
relating to location, description, discharge, quality of water,
and utilization for each spring. This grouping of compiled data
makes the report suitable as a reference. The manner of pre-
sentation of data under each heading is as follows:
Location.-Practically all of the springs described in this re-
port can be reached by automobile, hence directions are given
to enable one to reach the springs by highway and road. The
distances in miles and tenths of a mile which can be read from
an automobile odometer are given from post offices or highway
junctions to the springs. Land-line locations for the springs have
been used when satisfactory driving directions are difficult. The
State highway numbers shown are those of the new system
recently adopted and shown on the official State Highway Map
of Florida for 1946.
Plate 1, a map of the State of Florida, will be found in the
pocket inside of the back cover of this report. The locations of
selected springs, investigated during the preparation of this re-
port, are shown on this map. It contains also a list of these
springs, by counties, with the reference number assisting in its
location on the map.
Description.-Under this heading are given the setting and
topographic background, drainage pattern, pool characteristics,
turbidity, water level and temperature data, and the general
characteristics of the spring applicable to its natural state.
The depths of various parts of the spring pools and cavities
were determined by soundings usually made with a 15-pound
bronze weight on a light aeroplane-type steel cable and are
ordinarily accurate to the nearest tenth of a foot. The date of
soundings are given for certain springs because of fluctuating
water levels in the pool.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-DESCRIPTION EXPLANATION


The temperatures of the water were measured with Fahren-
heit mercury column type thermometers that were accurate to
the nearest one-half degree or less. The rates of discharge of the
Florida springs are sufficiently great that temperatures taken
near the pool surface accurately indicate the temperatures of
the water as it emerges from the submerged cavities.
The temperatures of the waters of a spring usually vary but
little with the season. These temperatures vary from 68 F to
71F for the more northerly springs to about 75F to 86F for
those near the southern edge of the spring area.
Definitions of various terms used in the description of the
springs are as follows:
Bank:
Left bank: The bank on the left when facing downstream.
Right bank: The bank on the right when facing down-
stream.
Boil: An agitated surface disturbance of a spring pool caused
by the velocity of spring outflow and suggestive of the boiling
of water.
Slick: A smooth surface on the water due to stilling of wave
action by spring outflow.
Cavern: An enlarged cavity.
Cavity: A place hollowed out in the rock, generally by solu-
tion.
Crevice: A crack or split in the rock, a fissure.
Chimney: A vertical tubular opening in the rock.
Pool: A small and rather deep body of (usually) fresh water.
Head or springhead: The point of origin of the spring, a
fountain or source.
Run: A small freely-flowing watercourse.
Sink: A depression in the ground, commonly funnel-shaped,
formed by solution and erosion of carbonate rock by surface
and ground water.
Spring: A point of emergence of ground water at the land
surface, an issue of water from the earth.,
Turbidity: The extent to which the clearness of a liquid is
obscured due to the suspended sediment.









46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Discharge. -Under the heading of discharge the measurement
of spring flows are given in second-feet or cubic feet per second
and the equivalent flow in million gallons per day, or in some
cases where flows are relatively small the unit "gallons per min-
ute" has been used. The date and discharges are listed in chrono-
logical order. When measurements at a spring are numerous the
average only of all of the measurements is given together with
the dates and values of the maximum and minimum flows during
the period of record. For a few of the springs having more com-
prehensive coverage annual mean flows and monthly mean flows
have been computed.
In interpreting data from the springs one should be mindful
that at many locations cross sections with excessive aquatic vege-
tation, fallen trees, and rocky stream-beds make flow measure-
ments difficult. Also many springs are located along the banks
of the larger rivers and because of backwater are subject to
reduction of flow if not actual reversal in flow at higher stages
of the rivers.
Quality of water.-The source and significance of the mineral
constituents are described earlier in this report. A short general
statement relating to the chemical composition of the water of
the individual spring precedes the tabulated results of analyses.
Utilization. -This section describes present and past uses of
the spring. As one visits various springs in the state he is im-
pressed by the varying stages of development and use. For ex-
ample in Hillsborough County Lithia Springs is in its undevel-
oped natural state, Sulphur Springs and Purity Springs are highly
developed for their specific purposes, while Palma Ceia Spring
shows evidence of the abandonment of much early development
work doubtless done in the "boom" days of the 1920's.
At the end of the individual spring descriptions for each
county are brief references to certain other and usually smaller
springs which are known but have not yet been included as a
part of the spring investigational program. The list is not
complete.
ALACHUA COUNTY
GLEN SPRINGS near GAINESVILLE
Location.-About two miles northwest of Gainesville.
Reached by driving 1.5 miles north of Gainesville on U.S. High-











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-GLEN SPRINGS


way 441, turning west on a paved road and driving 0.5 mile to
the springs.
Description.-The springs are in a wooded ravine at the edge
of the plateau northwest of the city and their outflow is tribu-
tary to Hogtown Creek which is in the St. Johns River basin.
The springs form an irregular-shaped pool about 20 feet long
which is enclosed by concrete walls. The water, which is very
clear, emerges from several small submerged horizontal caverns
and flows into two adjoining swimming pools. The temperature,
taken one foot below the surface of the water in the springhead
on April 16, 1946, was 72F.
Discharge.-A flow of 0.32 second-foot (0.21 m.g.d.) was
measured on December 10, 1941; and 0.33 c.f.s. (0.21 m.g.d.)
on April 16, 1946.
Quality of water.-The water in Glen Springs as represented
by the following analysis is intermediate between soft and hard.
The dissolved constituents consist primarily of calcium, mag-
nesium, and bicarbonate, which is typical of many springs in
Florida.
ANALYSIS


Date of collection


April 16, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (Si02) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) - -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO0 - --
Carbon Dioxide (C02)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl0 at 25C.) -


10
.04 -
15 .75
6.7 .55
3.2 .14
.6 .02
74 1.21
2.6 .05
3.4 .10
.4 .02
1.8 .03
76 -

65
12
0
7.0 -









48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Utilization.-The springs are used for swimming. Great care
was taken to keep side hill drainage out of the swimming pools.
Convenient bathhouses and a dance floor are available. The
two swimming pools built end to end are approximately 30 x
100 feet and 30 x 150 feet, respectively, and are chlorinated.


MAGNESIA SPRING near HAWTHORN

Location.-About 4 miles west of Hawthorn. Reached by
turning west from State Highway 200 at drugstore in Haw-
thorn and driving 3.7 miles on graded road, then turning south
at gate marked "Magnesia Spring" on sand road and driving
0.4 mile to the spring. It can also be reached from Grove Park
on State Highway 20.
Description.-The spring lies at the base of the sandy pine
wooded hills on the east side of the Lochloosa Creek valley. It
is tributary to Lochloosa Creek, which flows into Lochloosa
Lake, and is in the St. Johns River basin. The spring forms a
semicircular pool being enclosed by a concrete wall whose
diameter is about 40 feet. The discharging water comes from
an artesian flow through sand in the bottom of the pool. The
pool has been sounded with an iron pipe to a depth of 30 feet
from the water surface to a sand bottom and is said to have been
pushed to a depth of 30 feet more through the soft sand. The
temperature of the water, taken one foot below the surface of
the water near the flume outlet on April 16, 1946, was 75 F.
The water is piped to a swimming pool which can also be by-
passed.
Discharge.-A slight change in flow is reported during the
wet and dry seasons. The by-pass pipe outflow only, measured
on December 10, 1941, was 1.8 second-feet (1.2 m.g.d.). Total
discharge measured below the point where the swimming pool
outflow and by-pass pipe outflow join was 0.65 c.f.s. (0.42
m.g.d.) and the flow into the swimming pool was 0.46 c.f.s.
(0.30 m.g.d.) on April 16, 1946.
Quality of water.-Analysis of a sample of water collected
from Magnesia Spring shows that it is hard and typical of many
Florida springs. It contains moderate concentrations of calcium,
magnesium, and bicarbonate.










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-MAGNESIA SPRING


ANALYSIS
Date of collection April 16, 1946

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO2) - 28 -
Iron (Fe) - - .02 -
Calcium (Ca) 40 2.00
Magnesium (Mg) 13 1.07
Sodium (Na) - 5.6 .24
Potassium (K) - .8 .02
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 181 2.97
Sulfate (SO4) - 4.9 .10
Chloride (Cl) - 8.2 .23
Fluoride (F) - .3 .02
Nitrate (NO3) - .1 .00
Dissolved Solids - 184 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 154 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 9 -
Color - - 5 -
pH - - -- 7.5 -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10 at 25C.) 31.5 -

Utilization.-The water is bottled and sold. A distilling plant
is on the grounds and some of the water is distilled and sold for
use in automobile batteries. Bathhouses and tables and chairs
under shelter are available for picnics. The swimming pool is
about 30 x 150 feet and varies from 3 to 9 feet in depth.


POE SPRINGS near HIGH SPRINGS

Location.-About 3 miles west of High Springs. Drive 0.6
mile south on U.S. Highway 41 from the U.S. Highway 441
junction in High Springs, turn west on a graded road and drive
2.5 miles to the "Poe Springs" sign, then turn north and drive
0.6 mile to the springs.

Description.- (See figure 8). These springs are on the wooded
south bank of the Santa Fe River. The springs form a circular
pool about 75 feet in diameter with most of the flow emerging










50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

from a horizontal cavern covered at the cavern mouth by 16.6
feet of water. The pool was reported to be 36 feet in depth some
20 years ago. The springs have gradually filled up with sand and
debris. The pool is enclosed on the south and west side by a board
and sheet-metal wall. The water is quite clear and flows 200 feet
north before entering the Santa Fe River. The temperature of
the water was 73 F on July 22, 1946.


FIGURE 8. Headpool of Poe Springs, looking down the run emptying into the
Sante Fe River.

Discharge.-The average flow determined from the five dis-
charge measurements listed below is 70.4 second-feet (45
m.g.d.).

DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
Feb. 19, 1917 - 86.5 56
Jan. 31, 1929 - 75.1 48
Mar. 14, 1932 - 31.2 20
Dec. 13, 1941 - 84.0 54
July 22, 1946 - 75.3 49

Quality of water.-The following analyses of water from Poe
Springs show that it is hard and that the dissolved mineral mat-
ter consists almost entirely of calcium and bicarbonate. The
two analyses made 22 years apart are practically identical.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-POE SPRINGS


Date of collection:


A N A L Y'S I S
Oct. 31, 1924


July 22, 1946


PARTS PER EQU
MILLION PER


Silica (SiO2) -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4) - -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific conductance
(Kxl05 at 25'C.) -


8.7
.05
64
4.7

5.7
201
10
7.0


204

179


IVALENTS PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION MILLION PER MILLION
-- 7.8 --
.07 -
3.19 65 3.24
.39 6.4 .53
4.4 .19
.25 0.9 .02
3.29 204 3.34
.21 17 .35
.20 6.8 .19
.1 .01
.5 .01
210 -

188 -
16 -
5 -
7.3 -

-- 36.8 -


Utilization.-They are used as a swimming pool and picnic
grounds. A bathhouse is available. A dance floor covered with
a roof has recently been erected on the grounds.

OTHER SPRINGS

Other springs reported in Alachua County are: Blue Springs,
Boulware Spring (2 miles southeast of Gainesville), Ford Spring
(0.5 mile southeast of Melrose), Hornsby Springs (1 mile east
of High Springs), Iron Spring (at Hawthorn), July Spring,
Lilly Spring, Sulphur Spring (at Hawthorn), and two small
springs near High Springs.

BAY COUNTY

BLUE SPRINGS near BENNETT

Location.-This group of three springs is located in or near
Sec. 4, R. 13 W., T. 1 S., 2 to 3 miles north of Bennett. To reach









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

springs, drive east from bridge on State Road 388 over Econfina
Creek and turn north on first graded road that intersects State
Road 388. Follow this road 2.5 miles and turn left on sand road,
which winds through woods to reach Econfina Creek, into which
the springs flow. The springs are approximately 0.5 mile down-
stream from this point and may be reached by boat.
Description.-Because they have no individual names the
springs will be designated herein as Nos. 1, 2, and 3. No. 1 is on
the left bank and Nos. 2 and 3 are on the right bank (No. 3 is
the most upstream spring). All are located within several hun-
dred feet of each other and discharge through short channels
into Econfina Creek.
Spring No. 1: The pool is circular in shape with a diameter of
about 20 feet with a cavity in the center about 6 feet deep.
Another cavity 100 feet below the head is 12.5 feet deep. The
run is from 1 to 3 feet deep, 40 feet wide, and 800 feet long. It
winds through a swamp and is choked in places with fallen tree
trunks. The water temperature on May 22, 1942, was 71 F.
Spring No. 2: The discharge comes out of a submerged cavity
in a vertical limestone bank. This bank is about 25 feet above
the water surface. The run is about 100 feet long, 10 feet wide at
the head and 50 feet wide at the mouth. The bottom slopes
sharply from 1 to 4 feet and then drops off to 8 feet at the head.
Soundings indicate a maximum depth of 10.5 feet and 50 feet
below the top of the bank. All were made on May 22, 1942, on
which day the water temperature was 71 F.
Spring No. 3: The run is choked with tall grass and fallen trees
and is not navigable. The bottom of the run is carpeted with
sub-aquatic growth in places where there is no tall grass.
Discharge.-Spring No. 1: 20.2 second-feet (13 m.g.d.) on
November 14, 1941, and 4.7 c.f.s. (3 m.g.d.) on May 22, 1942.
Spring No. 3: 44.5 second-feet (29 m.g.d.) on November
14,. 1941.
Utilization.-They are totally undeveloped.

BRADFORD COUNTY
HEILBRONN SPRING near STARKE
Location.-About 6 miles northwest from Starke. Reached
by driving northwest from Starke on State Road 16 for 5.6











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HEILBRONN SPRING


miles, then turning south on graded road and driving 0.1 mile
to the spring.
Description.-The spring is on the swampy, wooded south
bank of Water Oak Creek, one of the headwater tributaries of
the Suwannee River. The surrounding flat lands have been
cleared for farming except for occasional stands of mostly pine
timber. The spring is enclosed by a circular concrete wall about
10 feet in diameter. A 3-inch outlet pipe is on the south side
about 2.5 feet from the top of the wall. Three other outlet pipes
are plugged. Maximum depth was 16 feet from the water sur-
face on May 8, 1946, and the water temperature was 70F.
Discharge.-The flow of this spring is as follows:
100 gallons per minute (0.22 c.f.s.) in 1903, WSP 102, p. 267.
250 gallons per minute (0.56 c.f.s.) in 1913, WSP 319, p. 272.
36 gallons per minute (0.08 c.f.s.) as measured with pygmy
current meter on May 8, 1946.
Quality of water.-Heilbronn Spring water is hard as shown
by the following analysis made in 1924. The dissolved mineral
matter consists largely of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate.
No sample was collected for analysis in 1946.

ANALYSIS


Date of collection:


November 7, 1924


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca) -
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOa)
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NOa) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10 at 25'C.) -


23
.03 -
38 1.90
19 1.56
8.7 .38
206 3.38
2.5 .05
14 .39


197

173









54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Utilization.-Local residents use the water for drinking, and
the water is also bottled and sold.

CALHOUN COUNTY

Abes Spring, located in Calhoun County in T. 1 S., R. 9 W.,
is listed here for the record.

CITRUS COUNTY

CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRINGS near HOMOSASSA SPRINGS
Location.-About 7.7 miles by highway from the town of
Homosassa Springs. Reached by driving 6.0 miles south from
the town of Homosassa Springs on U.S. Highway 19, then turn-
ing west on graded road at sign reading "Chassahowitzka" and
driving 1.7 miles to the springs.
Description.-These springs are situated topographically
much the same as Homosassa Springs and form the head of the
broad shallow tidal Chassahowitzka River which meanders
through the thick jungle lowlands to finally reach the Gulf of
Mexico. Higher rolling lands lie to the east, and to the south-
east is found the Devil's Punch Bowl, one of the larger sinks in
the state. The headspring forms a rather circular pool about
150 feet in diameter with most of the water emerging from a
sand-filled crevice about 25 feet long and 1.5 feet wide at the
bottom of the steeply sloping southwest side, covered by a
maximum depth of 23.9 feet of water on July 25, 1946. A mea-
surement on October 9, 1930, shows a depth of 35 feet. The
temperature of the water was 75 F on July 25, 1946, and 74F
on February 14, 1933. About 500 feet downstream, more springs
originate some 300 feet from the right bank of the river. The
run from these springs is known as Crab Creek. The water from
these springs emerges with a noticeable surface disturbance from
two horizontal caverns or crevices and three chimney-shaped
holes in the limestone. The deepest of the chimney-shaped holes
was 16.7 feet. The water is quite clear.
Discharge.-All of the following measurements were made
approximately 300 feet below the point where Crab Creek flows
into the river. Their average is 81.4 second-feet (53 m.g.d.).











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRINGS


DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
Oct. 9, 1930 - 101 65
Mar. 15, 1932 - 98.1 63
Feb. 14, 1933 - 66.6 43
Nov. 8, 1935 - 54.6 35
July 25, 1946 - 86.9 56

Quality of water.-The water represented by the following
analysis is hard and in most other respects typical of many Flor-
ida springs. The dissolved mineral matter consists largely of
calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate, but contains somewhat
larger amounts of sodium and chloride than some springs in the
State.
ANALYSIS

Date of collection July 25, 1946

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO2) - 8.6 -
Iron (Fe) - - .04 -
Calcium (Ca) 49 2.45
Magnesium (Mg) 13 1.07
Sodium (Na) - 29 1.26
Potassium (K) - 1.5 .04
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 178 2.92
Sulfate (SO4) - 13 .27
Chloride (Cl) - 53 1.49
Fluoride (F) - .1 .01
Nitrate (NO3) - .3 .00
Dissolved Solids - 261 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 176 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 9 -
Color - - 8 -
pH - - -- 7.5 -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl0 at 25C.) 47.0 -


Utilization.-The river is used as a small boat harbor by com-
mercial fishermen. Water for domestic use is pumped from the
headspring by some local residents. Boats are available for fish-









56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

ermen. Many different species of fish are noticeable in the run
and numerous blue crabs were seen in Crab Creek. There is a
hotel for fishermen on the north side of the springs.

HOMOSASSA SPRINGS at HOMOSASSA SPRINGS

Location.-One mile west of the town of Homosassa Springs.
Reached by turning west from U.S. Highway 19 at the town of
Homosassa Springs and driving 0.6 mile, then turning south and
driving 0.4 mile to the springs.
Description.-These springs and numerous others in the area
form the headwaters of the Homosassa River which finds its
way to the Gulf of Mexico through the flat, thick, jungle coastal
lowlands of this section of the west coast of Florida. The head
of the main spring, see figures 9 and 10, called Nature's Fish
Bowl, forms a circular pool about 80 feet in diameter with
spring flow issuing from a number of vertical holes and fissures
in the limerock. The maximum depth measured in a crevice
was 43.8 feet on April 3, 1946. Soundings were made at 20 to
25 points to insure that the maximum depth was reached. Aver-
age depth of the bottom was about 30 feet. The pool attracts
many and various species of fish. The temperature of the water
one foot below the surface of Nature's Fish Bowl on April 3,
1946, was 75'F.


FIGURE 9. View of the headpool of Homosassa Springs, showing platforms from
which the underwater scenery can be seen.







































FIGURE 10. Fish in Homasassa Springs, showing sheepshead, mangrove snappers, catfish, bream and others.











58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Discharge.-

DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
Mar. 7, 1936 Maximum 222 143
Feb. 14, 1933 Minimum 141 91
Mean 185 120

The mean flow was computed from 8 measurements made
during the period March 15, 1932 to April 3, 1946.
Quality of water.-Homosassa Springs water is mineralized
and decidedly hard. The dissolved mineral matter contains a
large proportion of sodium chloride (common salt) which may
have had its origin in the Gulf of Mexico or in saline residues
remaining from ancient invasions of the sea.

ANALYSIS

Date of collection April 3, 1946

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO2) - 9.0 -
Iron (Fe) - - .12 -
Calcium (Ca) - 50 2.50
Magnesium (Mg) 45 3.70
Sodium (Na) - 308 13.39
Potassium (K) - 9.6 .25
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 136 2.23
Sulfate (SO4) - 87 1.81
Chloride (Cl) - 570 16.08
Fluoride (F) - .0 .00
Nitrate (NO3) - .9 .01
Dissolved Solids - 1200 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 310 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) -
Color - - 0 -
pH - - -- 7.4 -
Specific Conductance
(Kx105 at 25C.) 224

Utilization.-A main attraction is the feeding of the fishes
from the bridge around the main springhead, and there is a









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HOMOSASSA SPRINGS


"nature trail" for sightseeing. A brick pavilion houses the coffee
shop, office, and entrance to the nature trail. Rowboats are
available for fishing in Homosassa River.

OTHER SPRINGS

Other springs in Citrus County are Cedar Hill Spring, Hunter
Spring and other springs at the head of Crystal River, see figure
11.


FIGURE 11. One of the springs forming the head of Crystal River, Citrus County.
Water hyacinths in bloom are visible in the foreground. After Cooke, 1939.

CLAY COUNTY

GREEN COVE SPRING at GREEN COVE SPRINGS
Location.-In Green Cove Springs opposite the Qui-Si-Sana
Hotel on U.S. Highway 17.
Description.-The spring is in the heart of the city of Green
Cove Springs in a park amid oak and palm trees on the west
bank of the St. Johns River whose water's edge is about 250 feet
to the east. The spring forms a circular pool, being enclosed
by a concrete wall 16 feet in diameter. The water appears to
discharge from one horizontal cavern, at whose mouth was
measured a maximum depth of 27.7 feet on April 18, 1946.
The water has an odor of hydrogen sulfide and flows into a











60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

swimming pool, which can be bypassed if necessary. On April
18, 1946, the water temperature was 77F and 70F on February
16, 1924.

Discharge.-The flow on February 12, 1929 was 5.4 cubic
feet per second (3.5 m.g.d.), and on April 18, 1946 it was 4.42
cubic feet per second (2.9 m.g.d.).

Quality of water.-The water from Green Cove Spring, as
represented by the two analyses below, is moderately hard. The
dissolved matter consists largely of calcium and magnesium bi-
carbonates with an appreciable amount of sulfate. The analyses
are almost identical, which shows that the composition of the
water was the same in 1946 as it was in 1924.


ANALYSIS


Date of collection


February 16, 1924


April 18, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca) -
Magnesium (Mg) -
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOs)
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - --
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Color - -
pH - --- -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl0 at25C.) -


15
.03
28
16
2.4
1.8
100
49
5.7


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
13 -
.06 -
28 1.40
15 1.23
4.6 .20
1.2 .03
102 1.67
51 1.06
6.1 .17


132
8
0
7.3


Utilization.-The spring is used for swimming and drinking.
A bathhouse and swimming pool are available.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WADESBORO SPRING


WADESBORO SPRING at ORANGE PARK

Location.-Reached by driving 0.9 mile southwest from Or-
ange Park on the Doctors Inlet highway to the Atlantic Coast
Line railroad crossing. The spring is 300 feet southeast of the
railroad crossing.
Description.-The spring is at the head of a ravine which
opens upon Doctors Lake about 0.3 mile to the southeast. The
spring run is tributary to Doctors Lake which is a branch of the
St. Johns River. The springhead is in a pool enclosed by a square
concrete wall about 20 x 20 feet. Almost all of the water
emerges from two horizontal caverns and white sand boils from
each. The average depth is 3.5 feet.
Discharge.-1.40 cubic feet per second (0.90 m.g.d.) was
the total outflow measured on April 18, 1946.
Quality of water.-The hardness of Wadesboro Spring is less
than the average for Florida springs, although it would not
ordinarily be classed as a soft water. The dissolved mineral mat-
ter consists primarily of calcium and bicarbonate.

ANALYSIS


Date of collection


February 16, 1924


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOs)
Sulfate (S04) -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs - -
Carbon Dioxide (C02)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10" at 250C.) -


6.3 -

33 1.65
1.7 .14
5.0 .22
.7 .02
104 1.70
3.6 .08
11 .31


110









62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Utilization.-None. It is reported that the water was once
bottled for sale. The improvements were in an abandoned con-
dition on April 18, 1946.

OTHER SPRINGS

Magnolia Springs in Clay County are located just north of the
city of Green Cove Springs. The area to the north was occupied
in earlier years by a famous resort hotel, later a military academy,
which was destroyed by fire. The springs had no flow in 1947,
but are reported to flow whenever a nearby flowing well is
turned off. Pecks Mineral Spring, 6 miles east of Starke, is a
source of drinking water.


COLUMBIA COUNTY

ICHATUCKNEE SPRINGS near HILDRETH

Location.-The point at which the total outflow of this group
of springs is measured is at the State Highway 20 crossing of
Ichatucknee River 1 mile east of Hildreth. The group of seven
or more springs which contribute to the flow of the river are
located on both thickly wooded banks and their runs issue be-
tween the highway and the head spring a little ofer 3 miles to
the northeast.
Description.- (See the frontispiece.) The Ichatucknee River
system is similar to that of the Wakulla River. A large part of
its flow undoubtedly originates in two surface streams, Alligator
Lake outlet whose head is Alligator Lake at Lake City and
whose terminus is a sink 0.7 mile east of Bass, and Rose Creek
roughly parallel to the first stream and 2 to 2.5 miles to the
south. The elevation of the headlands of the Rose Creek basin
is 160 to 170 feet above mean sea level and the creek terminates
in a sinkhole at Columbia City. Here it becomes a subterranean
stream and a study of the contour map of the area indicates it
finds its way into the Ichatucknee River.
The Ichatucknee headspring forms a somewhat circular pool
about 100 feet in diameter with the water emerging from a
horizontal cavern beneath the north bank where the maximum









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-ICHATUCKNEE SPRINGS


depth to the cave floor was 13.6 feet on May 17, 1946. The
entrance to the cavern is approximately 35 feet wide, north to
south, and 60 feet long, east to west. The temperature of the
water on this same day was 72F. The measured outflow of the
headspring on February 18, 1917 was 44.4 cubic feet per second
(20 m.g.d.).
On the east bank of the river, 0.3 mile downstream from the
headspring, is another spring of about the same pool size. The
cavity of the spring is unique, however, in that its shape re-
sembles that of a huge jug. The maximum depth to the cavity
floor was 36.8 feet on May 17, 1946, and the water temperature
was 71 F. There was a cross-current in the lower part of the
cavity flowing to the northwest and toward the headspring.
On May 17, 1946 a measurement of the flow of the headspring
and the jug-shaped spring runs, a short distance below the point
where they merge, indicated a rate of flow of 126 cubic feet per
second (81 m.g.d.). About two-thirds of this flow issues from
the jug-shaped spring.
About 0.6 mile downstream from the headspring on the left
bank the run from Spring No. 3 (the springs are numbered
herein to facilitate description) enters the river. The flow from
this spring as measured on May 17, 1946 was found to be 49.4
c.f.s. (32 m.g.d.). The headwaters of this spring made up of
a group of eight small springs are separated from those of Spring
No. 4 by only a low divide of broken rock. Spring No. 5 is
located downstream from Springs Nos. 3 and 4 but on the oppo-
site bank about 100 feet east of the river. Its springhead forms
a circular pool about 60 feet in diameter with the flow emerging
from horizontal caverns. The deepest of the two was 14.0
feet and the depth to the rock ledge surrounding this cavern was
6.0 feet. The temperature of the water of this pool was 72F
on May 17, 1946. Just a short distance below Spring No. 5 the
river broadens considerably with widths up to 200 feet and
shallow depths. These shallow depths promote the luxuriant
growth of many varieties of aquatic vegetation. Near the lower
end of this broad section of the river, which extends for about
0.7 mile, a small spring on the left bank (Spring No. 6) joins
the river. The river a short distance below this point narrows
to a width of about 100 feet.
Mill Spring is situated on the same side of the river about
0.3 mile south of Spring No. 6. Water power from this spring








64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

was once used to operate a grist mill of which no trace now re-
mains except the earthworks which formed the raceway for
the waterwheel. The discharge of this spring, measured 125 feet
below the head on May 17, 1946, was 21.8 cubic feet per second
(14 m.g.d.). The run was navigable for a canoe up to the point
the measurement was made but the rocky stream bed prohibits
further navigation to the springhead.
Discharge.-Flow measurements of Ichatucknee River as
representative of the collective flow of the entire group of Icha-
tucknee Springs have been made at approximately monthly
intervals since January, 1931. Four earlier flow measurements
have been made as listed below:

DATE FLOW IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
December 23, 1898 - 403
February 19, 1917 - 342
January 30, 1929 - 467
August 20, 1930 - - 416

A graph of the measurements made since January, 1931 appears
in figure 7. The maximum discharge measured was 467 second-
feet (302 m.g.d.) on January 30, 1929. The minimum discharge
measured was 243 c.f.s. (157 m.g.d.) on August 20, 1935. The
average flow of 168 measurements made from February 19,
1917 to April 16, 1946 is 335 c.f.s. (216 m.g.d.), thereby indi-
cating that the flow of the Ichatucknee Springs group ranks
third in order of magnitude of average flow for springs in Florida.
Quality of rwater.-Water in Ichatucknee Springs is hard as
indicated by the following analysis. The dissolved mineral mat-;
ter consists almost entirely of calcium and bicarbonate, which
is typical of many Florida springs.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-ICHATUCKNEE SPRINGS


Date of collection


ANALYSIS
May 17, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca) -
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO) -
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) - -
Fluoride (F) -
Nitrate (NOa) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO. - --
Carbon Dioxide (CO)
Color -- - -
pH - -- -
Specific Conductance
(Kx105 at 25C.) -


9.1 -
.03 -


58
6.6
3.1
0.3
200
8.4
3.6
.1
1.0
188

172
6
0
7.7

32.9


2.89
.54
.13
.01
3.28
.17
.10
.01
.02


Utilization.-The springs area is undeveloped. The head-
spring is used for swimming and picnicking by local residents
and for watering stock. Fishing, hunting, and boating are other
locally popular means of recreation. Botanists, zoologists, geolo-
gists and hydrologists find much of interest in the area. As men-
otioned in a previous paragraph Mill Creek spring once furnished
water power for a grist mill. The entire area could be developed
-into a fine state park.

DADE COUNTY

Springs in Dade County, such as Mangrove Spring at Coco-
nut Grove, Miami Springs, and various bayside springs which
were reported to flow in earlier years, no longer flow owing to
lowered water tables in the area. Mangrove Spring which sup-
plied water for the United States fleet off Havana in 1898, was
reported to flow at a rate of 100 gallons per minute in 1903.

DE SOTO COUNTY

A spring at Owens in De Soto County is located in Sec. 16,
T. 38 S., R. 24 E., and yields sulphur water.









66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

DIXIE COUNTY
Fletcher Springs in Dixie County are reported to be about 13
miles downstream from Branford on the right bank of the
Suwannee River. Some data on Big Cypress Spring (2 miles
below Rock Bluff ferry), Copper Spring and Little Copper
Spring (near Oldtown) are given in Table 4.

DUVAL COUNTY
St. Nicolas Spring in South Jacksonville, Duval County, has
a tiny flow, and may be the only flowing spring remaining in
the county, the others having ceased to flow because of de-
creased water levels.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY
Bay Springs, Bluff Springs and Jackson's Springs are located
in Escambia County.

GADSDEN COUNTY
GLEN JULIA SPRINGS at MOUNT PLEASANT
Location.-One mile southwest of Mount Pleasant. The
springs are reached by turning west off U.S. Highway 90 on a
graded road at Howell's Service Station in Mount Pleasant and
driving 0.3 mile, turning south at the railroad for 0.2 mile, then
turning west for 0.2 mile, turning south at school and driving
0.1 mile, turning west at the "Glen Julia Park" sign and driving
0.4 mile to a cattle guard, then turning north to the springs.
Description.-These 8 or 9 small springs emerge from fissures
in the rock along the bottom of a large ravine about 50 feet deep
and are tributary to a small stream that flows northwesterly.
They are spread out over a distance of 200 feet downstream from
the head of the first spring in the ravine, and are tributary to
South Mosquito Creek which empties into the Apalachicola
River. The temperature of the water was 69 F on May 16, 1946.
Discharge.-The flow was 0.78 second-foot (0.50 m.g.d.) as
measured by pygmy current meter May 16, 1946.
Quality of water.-The water represented by the following
analysis is exceptionally soft and in this respect is unlike most
of the springs in Florida. It contains almost no dissolved mineral
matter. Very soft water is frequently corrosive to plumbing.










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-GLEN JULIA SPRINGS


ANALYSIS
Date of collection May 16, 1946

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO2) - 4.6 -
Iron (Fe) - - .08 -
Calcium (Ca) .5 .02
Magnesium (Mg) .4 .03
Sodium (Na) - 1.9 .08
Potassium (K) - .5 .01
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 3.0 .05
Sulfate (So4) - .2 .00
Chloride (Cl) - 3.1 .09
Fluoride (F) - .1 .00
Nitrate (NO3) - .7 .01
Dissolved Solids - 15 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 2.9 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 14 -
Color - - 10 -
pH - - -- 5.7 -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10~at25C.) 1.66 -

Utilization.-The springs are used as a park and owned by the
county. Tables and benches under a covered pavilion are avail-
able for picnics. The paths around the bottom of the ravine
are scenic.
SPRING at CHATTAHOOCHEE

Location.-The spring is in the NWI4 of Sec. 33, T. 4 N.,
R. 6 W., and is in the town of Chattahoochee.
Description.-It issues in a small rivulet from the side of a
steep head.
Discharge.-The flow was estimated at 13 gallons per minute
on April 1, 1924, and 16 gallons per minute was measured
volumetrically on May 6, 1946.
Quality of water.-Water in this spring is exceptionally soft
and contains only a very small amount of dissolved mineral
matter. Water having this composition is not typical of Florida
springs.










68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

ANALYSIS
Date of collection: April 1, 1924

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO) - 4.0 -
Iron (Fe) - - .07 -
Calcium (Ca) 4.2 .21
Magnesium (Mg) 1.3 .11
Sodium (Na) - 1.5 .07
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOa) 2.4 .04
Sulfate (SO4) - 1.7 .04
Chloride (Cl) - 3.8 .11
Nitrate (NO) - 14 .23
Dissolved Solids - 34 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 16 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO,) - -
Color - - -
pH ----- --
Specific Conductance
(Kx10 at 25C.) -

Utilization.-It was once used to furnish water for a swim-
ming pool, but these improvements were in an abandoned con-
dition in July, 1946.


GILCHRIST COUNTY

HART SPRING near WILCOX

Location.-Reached by turning left off State Highway 26 on
sand graded road at Wilcox post office and driving 4.2 miles,
then turning west and driving 2.0 miles to the spring.
Description.-This is another of the many springs near the
banks of the Suwannee River, and it forms a rather irregular cir-
cular pool about 100 feet in diameter with water emerging some-
what horizontally from two limerock cavities, one circular and
the other V-shaped. Maximum depth to the floor of the latter was
32 feet on July 24, 1946. On this day the water was very clear
and its temperature was 73 F. The run is about 500 feet long,










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-HART SPRING


varies from 30 to 75 feet in width, and flows north, curves to the
southwest and empties into the Suwannee River.
Discharge.-The flow was measured at 62.1 second-feet (40
m.g.d.) on May 12, 1932; and 58.6 c.f.s. (38 m.g.d.) on July
24, 1946.
Quality of water.-This is a typically hard water such as
found in many of the Florida springs. The dissolved mineral
matter consists primarily of calcium and bicarbonate.

ANALYSIS
Date of collection July 24, 1946

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (Si02) - 5.2 -
Iron (Fe) - - .05 -
Calcium (Ca) 67 3.34
Magnesium (Mg) 4.8 .39
Sodium (Na) - 2.0 .09
Potassium (K) - 0.6 .02
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 208 3.41
Sulfate (SO4) - 12 .25
Chloride (Cl) - 3.8 .11
Fluoride (F) - .0 .00
Nitrate (NOa) - 2.3 .04
Dissolved Solids - 200 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 186 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO._) 17 -
Color - - 5 -
pH--- --- - 7.3 -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10" at25'C.) 35.5 -

Utilization.-The spring is in its natural state and is used as a
swimming pool and picnic grounds by local residents. It is also
used by fishermen as a place to launch small boats for access to
the Suwannee River.

ROCK BLUFF SPRINGS near BELL

Location.-On the left bank of the Suwannee River about









70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

500 feet above Rock Bluff Ferry, 5 miles northwest of Bell, and
approximately 9 miles south of the point the Santa Fe River
flows into the Suwannee River.
Description.-The springs are intact in their natural sur-
roundings, and the banks of the run are lined with immense cy-
press trees, see figure 12, some measuring 10 to 15 feet in diameter
at their base. The springs are a rich blue color. The main spring
cavity is ellipsoidal in shape, having a length of approximately 30
feet by a width of 6 feet and a maximum sounded depth of 30.2
















FIGURE 12. Scene showing large cypress trees at Rock Bluff Springs near Bell,
Florida. Recent high water marks are visible.

feet on December 8, 1942. The east wall appeared to be cavernous
near the bottom. The cavity formation is of limestone with
almost straight vertical walls. The run is approximately 0.2
mile long and flows west into the Suwannee River, the outflow
of the main spring being joined by that of two smaller springs
about 100 feet below the main springhead. One of the two
smaller springs measured 10 feet in depth in a pool of about
12 feet in diameter.
Discharge.-A flow of 42.1 second-feet (27 m.g.d.) was
measured on December 8, 1942, and this was comprised of 21
m.g.d. from the main spring and 6 m.g.d. from the two smaller
springs.
Utilization.-The springs are used by local residents for swim-









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WHITE SPRINGS


ming, although there are no bathhouse facilities. "Gigging",
or spearing of fish at night is a favorite sport of some local people
as the spring pool is a rendezvous for many types of fish.

OTHER SPRINGS

Bell Spring, located on the left bank of the Suwannee River
about 0.8 mile upstream from Fanning Spring, Lumber Camp
Springs, one mile south of Wannee, and Otter Spring, two miles
north of Oldtown, are also in Gilchrist County.

GULF COUNTY
Small springs are located in Gulf County at Dalkeith, in
Sec. 23, T. 5 S., R. 9 W.

HAMILTON COUNTY

WHITE SPRINGS at WHITE SPRINGS

Location.-In the town of White Springs. The "White
Springs" sign is plainly visible from U.S. Highway 41.
Description.-(See figure 13.) The springs form an oblong
pool 50 x 90 feet, being enclosed by a concrete swimming-pool


FIGURE 13. View of discharge vent at White Springs, which is located inside the
building shown to the right of the picture.









72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

wall located on the north bank of Suwannee River. The water
emerges seemingly from two horizontal caverns and one, which
is tapped by a pipe to a hand-lift pump for drinking water, is
reported by the manager to have three steps of ledges forming
a cavern under the north side of the pool. The depth of the
third step is about 39 feet. The entire pool is enclosed by a
four-story, open type patio with porches. The water has a
distinct sulphur odor and its temperature was 72 F on September
3, 1923 and 70F on May 6, 1946. The springs empty immedi-
ately into Suwannee River through a weir regulated by wooden
stop gates on the south side of the pool. The gates are used to
prevent river water from flooding the pool at medium and high
river stages.
Discharge.-The average flow computed from the seven dis-
charge measurements listed below is 55.2 second-feet (36
m.g.d.).

DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
February 13, 1907 - 72 46
May 8, 1927 - 67.2 43
May 17, 1927 - 58.5 38
Nov. 4, 1931 - 36.2 23
Mar. 17, 1932 - 46.4 30
Apr. 2, 1932 - 43.1 28
May 7, 1946 - 62.7 40

Quality of water.-The water in White Springs is hard and in
most respects is typical of many springs in Florida. The dis-
solved mineral matter consists essentially of calcium and mag-
nesium bicarbonates. The two analyses made 23 years apart are
very similar. The color of this water, as shown by the 1946
analysis, is the highest found in spring waters analyzed for this
report, but is much lower than found in many surface waters.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WHITE SPRINGS


Date of collection


ANALYSIS
September 3, 1923

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


May 6, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOs)
Sulfate (SO4) - -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) -
Nitrate (NOj) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO- - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl0`at25C.) -


17
.21
43
13
5.6

171
19
7.7


2.15
1.07
.24

2.80
.40
.22


17
.16
45
11
6.5
.8
167
16
8.5
.5


- 1.3
-- 196


2.25
.90
.28
.02
2.74
.33
.24
..03
.02


158 -
- 17 -
- 75 -
- 7.2 -

- 31.7 -


Utilization.-A hotel and health resort, which has been oper-
ated in conjunction with the springs for many years, uses the
springs for bathing, swimming, and drinking. The four-story,
open patio-type building around the pool houses dressing rooms
for bathers. Water is piped from the main boil for drinking
purposes.

OTHER SPRINGS


Another spring in Hamilton County is Wesson's Iron Springs,
although its exact location has not been determined.


HARDEE COUNTY


Zolfo, formerly called Aquavita Springs, and Fort Green
Springs are situated in Hardee County. These springs are lo-
cated in or near towns bearing the same name.










74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

HERNANDO COUNTY

WEEKIWACHEE SPRING near BROOKSVILLE
Location.-This spring is about 12 miles southwest of Brooks-
ville on U.S. Highway 19 at its junction with State Highway 50.
It can be reached by following State Highway 5 0 west and south
from Brooksville.
Description.- (See figure 14.) Weekiwachee Spring is the head
of the Weekiwachee River which flows into the Gulf of Mexico,


- -~-~- -
.~,-

4


~
,~!


FIGURE 14. Weekiwachee Spring, looking down the run from the headpool.

some 10 miles to the west. The pool water level is at an approxi-
mate elevation of 50 feet above mean sea level. Higher flat,
sandy, scrub lands on the east rise to elevations of 100 feet above
mean sea level, and one knoll towards Brooksville reaches an ele-
vation of 160 feet. The springhead pool is circular and about
150 feet in diameter with the spring flow leaving the spring pool
on the northwest side in a channel about 100 feet in width. The
bottom of the pool slopes from the edge of the water to a 12 foot
depth at the edge of the cavity at which point it drops abruptly










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WEEKIWACHEE SPRING


to 50 feet in depth. Soundings on March 3, 1947 indicate an
average cavity depth of 50 feet. The submerged cavity is ap-
proximately 50 feet in diameter and the water emerges with
sufficient force to produce a turbulent "boil" which rises ap-
proximately a tenth of a foot above the surrounding water level
in the pool. The spring water is very clear.
Temperatures of the water have been observed as listed below:

DATE WATER TEMPERATURE
F
March 18, 1931 - - 77
August 7, 1931 - - 74
October 7, 1931 - - 74
February 12, 1932 - - 74
March 12, 1932 - - 74
February 14, 1933 - - 74
October 4, 1933 - - 72
January 11, 1936 - - 74
April 18, 1936 - - 74
September 9, 1944 - - 74
July 5, 1946 - - 75

Discharge.-A graphical picture of the time-discharge rela-
tion plotted from the flow measurements that have been made
at Weekiwachee Spring since February 6, 1931 is presented in
figure 7. A tabulation of its discharge in million gallons per day
giving average monthly discharge, annual means, and monthly
and annual percentages of the mean flow for the period of record
is shown in Table 2. Measurements of the spring flow made prior
to 1931 are as follows:

DATE FLOW IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
February 23, 1917 - 145
February 4, 1929 - - 163
August 21, 1930 - - 178

The maximum flow measured is 231 second-feet (149 m.g.d.)
on May 6, 1931. The minimum flow measured is 106 c.f.s. (68
m.g.d.) on February 14, 1933. The mean monthly flow com-
puted graphically from discharge measurements made about
monthly near the spring outlet from January 1931 to Decem-
ber 1946 is 158 c.f.s. (102 m.g.d.).












TABLE 2. Discharge, in million gallons per day, of WEEKIWACHEE SPRING near BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA
CALENDAR YEAR
ANNUAL
ANNUAL RUNOFF
YEAR JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. MEAN 0 OF MEAN
1931 108 108 120 146 143 125 101 94 94 88 87 86 108 104.9
1932 77 82 78 80 73 77 73 71 73 74 82 76 76.3 74.1
1933 75 71 77 81 79 74 87 98 103 104 101 102 87.7 85.1
1934 106 108 95 92 93 96 101 106 111 116 122 127 106 102.9
1935 125 97 104 108 98 103 95 113 133 143 135 121 115 111.7

1936 120 125 133 124 117 112 109 109 104 110 109 99 114 110.7
1937 95 94 98 101 98 93 97 104 111 106 106 107 101 98.1
1938 108 100 96 96 93 85 92 109 107 112 '111 109 102 99.0
1939 107 109 104 98 92 102 112 111 116 119 115 110 108 104.9
1940 105 111 116 104 98 94 100 102 105 105 105 98 104 101.0

1941 96 94 93 98 101 100 114 125 118 115 111 112 106 102.9
1942 108 103 106 103 99 99 99 103 106 100 98 95 102 99.0
1943 93 88 86 89 83 87 97 104 106 107 108 109 96.4 93.6
1944 109 108 105 102 98 97 97 98 100 100 101 99 101 98.1
1945 97 93 89 84 82 95 110 126 129 123 117 112 105 101.9

1946 112 112 111 108 107 112 116 116 113 111 109 108 111 107.8
1931-46
Mean 103 100 101 101 97.1 96.9 100 106 108 108 107 104 103 100.0
% of
Annual 100.0 97.1 98.1 98.1 94.3 94.1 97.1 102.9 104.9 104.9 103.9 101.0 100.0
Minimum discharge measured, 68 m.g.d. Feb. 14, 1933.
Minimum average monthly discharge, 71 m.g.d. August 1932 and February 1933.
NOTE: Monthly values are averages computed graphically from discharge measurements made about monthly at outlet of pool. Records collected in cooperation
with Florida Geological Survey and Florida State Road Department.











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WEEKIWACHEE SPRING


Quality of water.-This is a typically hard calcium bicarbon-
ate water and similar to many other limestone springs in Florida.
The two analyses made 13 years apart are very similar.

ANALYSIS


Date of collection


October 4, 1933


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS


Silica (SiO2) -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO:;)
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO.- - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO.,)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(KxIO' at 25C.) -


MILLION PER MILLION
14
.14 -
49 2.45
7.8 .64
i 3.7 .16

178 2.92
7.5 .16
4.7 .13


PARTS PER
MILLION
8.9
.05
48
5.8
4.0
.7
168
6.4
4.8
.1


EQUIVALENTS
PER MILLION


2.40
.48
.17
.02
2.75
.13
.14
.01
.00


- 144
- 5


Utilization.-The spring and river have served as a recrea-
tional area for swimming, boating, fishing and hunting for many
years.
It was purchased by the City of St. Petersburg for possible use
as a reserve water supply for that city; however a newspaper
article in July, 1946 reported that the city negotiated a 30-year
lease of the spring to a syndicate of businessmen and sportsmen
who intend to make extensive improvements to develop the
spring as a playground and resort center.

OTHER SPRINGS
Other springs in Hernando County are Bobhill Spring about
1.5 miles southeast of Aripeka, and Sulphur or Mud Spring, 2
miles northeast of Bayport at the head of Mud River.


July 5, 1946









78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

BUCKHORN SPRING near RIVERVIEW

Location.-2.8 miles northeast of Riverview. Reached by
driving 2 miles north from Riverview on U.S. Highway 41,
turning east at junction with a paved road and driving 2.2 miles
east, then turning south on a graded road and driving 0.2 mile
to the spring.
Description.-The spring lies in the wooded Buckhorn Creek
valley 0.4 mile upstream from the point the creek enters the
Alafia River. The springhead forms a circular pool about 30
feet in diameter with spring flow emerging from a horizontal
cavern and flowing immediately into Buckhorn Creek. The
temperature of the water was 76'F on May 1, 1946. There are
several other small springs reported in the vicinity.
Discharge.-The flow was 11.0 second-feet (7.1 m.g.d.) as
measured by current meter on May 1, 1946.
Quality of water.-No samples taken.
Utilization.-The spring is a private swimming and picnick-
ing area.
EUREKA SPRINGS near TAMPA

Location.-About 3 miles east of Tampa. Reached by driving
about 3 miles east from Tampa on U.S. Highway 92, turning
north at "Eureka Springs" sign opposite a service station and
driving 0.7 mile to the springs.
Description.-These springs are situated in the rather flat
headwaters area of the Six Mile Creek basin. The springs consist of
4 or 5 small springs, the discharge channels of which join to form
one small run. The temperature of the water was 74F on May 1,
1946. The water is very clear and small particles of shells can
be seen boiling up in each separate spring.
Discharge.-A flow of 3.9 second-feet (2.5 m.g.d.) was meas-
ured by pygmy current meter on May 1, 1946.
Quality of water.-No samples were collected.
Utilization.-The springs are operated as a private park open
to the public. Tropical fish are raised in pools on the well de-









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-LITHIA SPRINGS


veloped grounds, on which a swamp area was drained, an artifi-
cial lake made and an undershot water wheel 6-feet in diameter
placed in the springs run to add a picturesque touch.


LITHIA SPRINGS near LITHIA

Location.-About three miles west of Lithia. Reached by
driving southeast from the Alafia River bridge for 0.6 mile on
the paved road between Bloomingdale and Lithia, turning south-
west on graded road and driving 1.4 miles to the springs.
Description.-The springs are near the south bank of the Ala-
fia River in an area of sandy wooded hills amid a setting of much
natural beauty. The springs form a circular pool about 75 feet
in diameter with the water emerging from one large and one
small horizontal cavern. These caverns are under a rock ledge
on the west side of the springhead. The maximum depth sound-
ed by wading to the edge of the ledge was 16.5 feet on April 30,
1946. The run is U-shaped and flows for about 400 yards be-
fore entering the Alafia River. The temperature of the water
was 70'F on July 19, 1923 and 76F on April 30, 1946.
Discharge.-Five discharge measurements of the flow of these
springs have been made and are listed below. The average flow
is 50.2 second-feet (32 m.g.d.).

DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
January 8, 1934 - 48.8 32
April 9, 1935 - 47.4 31
November 18, 1941 51.5 33
April 13, 1943 - 39.2 25
April 30, 1946 - 64.2 41

Quality of water.-The water analyzed from Lithia Springs
is hard and moderately mineralized. The dissolved mineral mat-
ter contains a large proportion of calcium and magnesium bi-
carbonates, and also moderate amounts of other constituents
normally found in ground waters. The two analyses made 23
years apart are very similar, showing that the spring water had
essentially the same composition on the two dates on which it
was sampled.










80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


Date of collection


ANALYSIS
July 19, 1923


April 30, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (Si02) - 19 15 -
Iron (Fe) - - .15 .04 -
Calcium (Ca) - 65 3.24 62 3.09
Magnesium (Mg) 14 1.15 10 .82
Sodium (Na) - 14 .61 14 .61
Potassium (K) - .9 .02
Bicarbonate (HCOa) 135 2.21 129 2.11
Sulfate (SO4) - 93 1.94 86 1.79
Chloride (Cl) - 23 .65 21 .59
Fluoride (F) - .3 .02
Nitrate (NO3) - .76 .01 .7 .01
Dissolved Solids - 331 285 -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs - - 220 196 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 6 -
Color - -- 5 -
pH - - -- 7.5 -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl05 at 25 C.) 46.9 -

U'tilization.-The springs are not developed but have good
possibilities if the access road were paved and if precautions
were taken against the flood hazard, the frequency of which
could be determined from the nearby river gaging station. They
are used for swimming and picnicking by local residents.


PALMA CEIA SPRINGS

Analysis of a water sample collected from Palma Ceia Springs
on Bayshore Boulevard at Barcelona Street, Tampa in 1923 indi-
cates that it is a hard water containing moderately large concen-
tration of calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride. The
sodium chloride (common salt) may have its origin in saline
residues remaining from ancient invasions of the sea, or in sea
water remaining in the formation from the time it was deposit-
ed, or both. No sample was collected for analysis in 1946 but a
flow determination of 42 gallons per minute was made on May










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-PURITY SPRING


1, 1946. The temperature of the water was 70'F on August 26,
1923.
ANALYSIS
Date of collection: August 26, 1923

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (Si02) - 17
Iron (Fe) - - .19 -
Calcium (Ca) 109 5.44
Magnesium (Mg) 15 1.23
Sodium (Na) - 100 4.35
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 249 4.08
Sulfate (SO4) - 29 .60
Chloride (Cl) - 231 6.52
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) - .6 .01
Dissolved Solids - 692 -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs - - 334 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 70
Color - - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kxl00 at 25C.) -


PURITY SPRING at TAMPA

Location.-Near Sulphur Springs. Reached by turning west
off Florida Ave. (U.S. Highway 541) onto first graded road
north of the Hillsborough River crossing and driving 0.1 mile
to the spring.

Description.-The spring is on the north bank of the Hills-
borough River about 150 feet north of the river's edge and near
the base of the sandy hills to the north. The water level is not
many feet above that of the tidal river level. The spring is an
irregularly shaped pool about 20 x 30 feet, enclosed by a con-
crete wall with almost all of the flow emerging from one hori-
zontal cavern. It is completely covered by a springhouse. A
6-inch diameter steel pump intake pipe is at the entrance to










82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

the cavern, and an 8-inch diameter pipe enters near the bottom
on the south side of the pool. These pipes are connected to pumps
of 350 and 500 gallons-per-minute rated capacity. The water
level varies due to the amount of water being pumped from the
spring. The temperature of the water was 70'F on July 20, 1923.
Discharge.-The small pump is used almost continuously but
withdrawal at the combined capacities of both pumps is said to
be rare.
Quality of water.-This is typical spring water of moderate
hardness and similar to many other spring waters in Florida.
The dissolved constituents consist largely of calcium and bicar-
bonate.


Date of collection


ANALYSIS
July 20, 1923


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca) -
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4) - -
Chloride (Cl) -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCOa - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(KxlO5 at 25 C.) -


8.9 -
.07 -
45 2.25
3.4 .28
6.0 .26
142 2.33
3.6 .07
11 .31

.26 .00
157 -


Utilization.-For public supply. It is piped to about 4,000
customers in the Sulphur Springs area by the Purity Springs
Water Co. They are also the principal water bottling company
in Tampa.

SULPHUR SPRINGS at SULPHUR SPRINGS
Location.-The springs are clearly visible to motorists and lie
about 100 feet west of U.S. Highway 41 and 100 feet north of










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-SULPHUR SPRINGS


the Hillsboro River at Sulphur Springs, 7 miles north of down-
town Tampa.
Description.-Situated in the heart of the Sulphur Springs
business district, these springs are responsible for much of the
urban growth surrounding it. The springs' pool is enclosed by a
circular concrete retaining wall about 50 feet in diameter which
forms the swimming pool. On May 9, 1930 a maximum depth
of 30.3 feet was measured in the main boil in a crevice which
was about 5 feet deeper than the cavity floor. The water level
of the pool is regulated by two control toboggan flumes with
fixed crest elevations placed on each side of the large moveable
steel stop-gate at the pool outlet. When the pool level is lowered
to permit cleaning portions of the pool bottom, water levels of
wells in the vicinity and of the sink at Waters Avenue and 10th
street are also lowered. The north side of the discharge channel
below the control is used as a bathing beach, and the channel
flows west and south for about 500 feet to the point where it
joins the Hillsboro River.
Water temperatures of the spring pool have been observed
as shown on the dates listed below:
WATER WATER
DATE TEMPERATURE DATE TEMPERATURE
F F
July, 1923 - 70 April 7; 1932 - 75
April 6, 1931 - 78 June 8, 1932 - 77
June 24, 1931 - 73 August 4, 1932 - 77
August 8, 1931 - 75 February 15, 1933 76
February 12, 1932 75 May 2, 1946 - 76
March 10, 1932 - 74

Discharge.-The maximum and minimum flows are as fol-
lows:
DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
Aug. 3, 1945 maximum 163 105
Feb. 12, 1934 minimum 12.9 8.3
The average flow determined from 49 discharge measurements
made during the period February 24, 1917 to November 8, 1946
is 52.6 c.f.s. (34 m.g.d.).
Quality of wa.ter.-The composition of this spring water ap-
pears to change from time to time as indicated from the two
analyses given below and also by the results of a few partial











84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

analyses not listed. It is a hard water containing a relatively
large amount of sodium chloride (common salt).


Date of collection


ANALYSIS
July 1923

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


November 8, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION


Silica (Si02) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOa)
Sulfate (SO4) -
Chloride (Cl) - -
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NOa) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO.)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(KxlO0 at25C.) -


15

63
15
110
103
77
209


619


.21 -
3.14
1.23
4.78

1.69
1.60
5.90


Utilization.-The springs have been a recreational area for
many years and are developed principally as a park and as a
swimming and bathing resort with bathhouse facilities. During
the period that the Tampa electric street railways were in opera-
tion the springs were the terminus of their northmost line.

OTHER SPRINGS

Messer Spring located 3 miles northeast of Riverview, and
two springs with no names near Buckhorn Spring are located
in Hillsborough County and some data on each are given in
Table 4.
HOLMES COUNTY

PONCE DE LEON SPRINGS at PONCE DE LEON

Location.-One mile southeast of the town of Ponce de Leon.
Description.-The head of the springs is surrounded by a tim-
ber retaining wall. This pool has a rock and sand bottom which
is kept clean by the operator of the springs. A horizontal cavity


3.19
.99
3.74
.09
2.13
1.25
4.62
.00
.02


6.6
.02
64
12
( 86
( 3.4
130
60
164
.1
1.5
487

209
7
10
7.5










SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-PONCE DE LEON SPRINGS


is located in the approximate center of the pool and soundings
of May 20, 1942 indicate a maximum pool depth of 16 feet.
The roof of the cavity is 7 feet below the water surface. The
temperature of the water was 68 F on May 20, 1942 and on
December 9, 1946. The operators of the springs state that they
check the temperature several times during each year and find
it to be always about 68 F. A second cavity is located near the
north side of the pool just above the run, and causes the bottom
of the pool to slope from one foot at the shore to 10 feet at the
edge of the cavity. The water emerges from a circular chimney
6 to 8 feet in diameter, the bottom of which is 18 or 19 feet
below the water surface. There is a third cavity a short distance
down the run but observations indicate that it is not active as
a spring or sink. The run is approximately 350 feet long, and
flows into Sandy Creek, a tributary of the Choctawhatchee
River.
Discharge.-The flow was 20.7 second-feet (13 m.g.d.) on
May 20, 1942 and 18.1 c.f.s. (12 m.g.d.) on December 9, 1946.
Quality of water.-Water in Ponce de Leon Springs is mod-
erately hard. The dissolved solids consist primarily of calcium
and bicarbonate. No sample was collected for analysis in 1946.
ANALYSIS
Date of collection February 21, 1927
PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION
Silica (SiO2) - 8.8
Iron (Fe) - - .27 -
Calcium (Ca) 30 1.50
Magnesium (Mg) 9.2 .76
Sodium (Na) - 1.9 .08
Potassium (K) - .4 .01
Bicarbonate (HCOs) 123 2.01
Sulfate (SO4) - 3.8 .08
Chloride (Cl) - 2.6 .07
Fluoride (F) - -
Nitrate (NO3) - .25 .00
Dissolved Solids - 113 -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs - - 113 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) -
Color - - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(Kx10 at 25C.) -









86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Utilization.-Facilities include a privately operated swimming
pool, bathhouses, showers, and locker rooms which are open to
the public.
OTHER SPRINGS
Other springs in Holmes County are Blue Springs, Turner
Spring, two springs at Miller Cross Roads, and a sulphur spring
at Prosperity.
JACKSON COUNTY

BLUE SPRINGS near MARIANNA

Location.-At the head of an elongated power reservoir about
5 miles northeast of Marianna. Reached by driving east from
Marianna for about 1 mile on U.S. Highway 90, then north for
about 1 mile on State Highway 71, then northeast on the un-
paved Dellwood road for 4 miles to the head of the reservoir and
springs.
Description.-The springs rise in the hilly red clay farmlands
and woodlands northeast of Marianna. A wooded high bluff
forms the northwest bank of the reservoir below the springhead
and shifts to the opposite bank about 0.5 mile downstream. The
water's edge of the reservoir is lined with cypress trees which
spread out over the lower land areas. The springs are tributary
to the Chipola River and are in the Apalachicola River basin.
The head of the springs is a circular pool about 200 feet in
diameter with all or almost all of the water emerging from a
nearly horizontal cavern having a maximum pool depth of 17.1
feet at its entrance on May 20, 1942. The maximum velocity of
the water emerging from the cavern on this date was 1.73 feet
per second, and the temperature of the water at the entrance to
the cavern was 70F on May 20, 1942 and on May 15, 1946.
The general depth of the pool away from the cavern varies from
3 to 7 feet. Another spring issues from the right bank about 300
feet below the headpool.
About 0.2 mile downstream from the head of the springs at a
diving platform on the right, 20 feet offshore, and opposite a
military reservation warning sign on the left side of the run, is
located a funnel-shaped sinkhole with an oval opening with
diameters of about 15 and 20 feet. The maximum depth meas-
ured in this chimney was 23.0 feet on May 15, 1946. The bottom











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-BLUE SPRINGS


was irregular, having 0.1 to 0.2 foot of sludge between hard
spots of rock. The sinkhole is also known as Spring No. 3 but
there was no visible outflow. There are believed to be six other
smaller springs in the vicinity, all in the reservoir. Sinkholes
also are said to be present beneath the lake of the reservoir.

Discharge.-Measured flows are as follows:

DATE CUBIC FEET PER SECOND MILLION GALLONS PER DAY
U.S. BELOW U.S. BELOW
HIGHWAY 90 HEAD HIGHWAY 90 HEAD
August 2, 1927 - 185 120
January 24, 1929 - 134 87
January 24, 1929 - 100 65
September 24, 1930 200 129
December 14, 1932 152 98
April 11, 1934 - 109 70
December 22, 1934 56.4 36
October 14, 1941 - 86.4 56
May 20, 1942 - 265 171
April 11, 1946 - 277 179
November 15, 1946 178 115
December 16, 1946 166 107
January 30, 1947 - 178 115
Averages - - 158 163 102 105

Quality of water.-This spring water is moderately hard. The
dissolved mineral matter consists largely of calcium and bicar-
bonate. The two analyses made on samples collected 22 years
apart are very similar, indicating that the composition of the
water is probably fairly constant.

ANALYSIS


Date of collection


April 2, 1924


May 15, 1946


PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS PARTS PER
MILLION PER MILLION MILLION


EQUIVALENTS
PER MILLION


Silica (SiO2) - 12 5.6 -
Iron (Fe) - - .09 .04 -
Calcium (Ca) - 43 2.15 38 1.90
Magnesium (Mg) 1.0 .08 2.1 .17
Sodium (Na) 2.3 .10 ( 1.7 .07
Potassium (K) .4 .01
Bicarbonate (HCOa) 126 2.07 118 1.93
Sulfate (SO04) 2.4 .05 .9 .02
Chloride (Cl) 2.0 .06 2.5 .07










88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MILLION PER MILLION MILLION PER MILLION
Fluoride (F) - .0 .00
Nitrate (NOs) - 1.6 .03 5.7 .09
Dissolved Solids - 125 115 -
Total Hardness as
CaCO3 - - 112 103 -
Carbon Dioxide (CO0) 6 -
Color - - 8 -
pH - - -- 7.5 -
Specific Conductance
(KxlO'5at25C.) 20.5 -

Utilization.-The springhead is used extensively for swim-
ming, and is equipped with dressing rooms and a diving board.
The U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
Service, removes quantities of young bass from the head of the
spring each year for fisheries at Marianna.
Water from the reservoir is used in hydro-electric power pro-
duction for the manufacture of ice.

OTHER SPRINGS

Some of the other springs in Jackson County are Blue Hole
Spring and Sugar Mill Spring at the Florida Caverns State Park,
Hayes Spring west of Greenwood, Waddells Spring, and a num-
ber of springs along Dry Creek. There are many small springs
in Jackson County in addition to these.

JEFFERSON COUNTY

WACISSA SPRINGS at WACISSA

Location.-The group of springs known as Wacissa Springs
are located 1 mile south of the town of Wacissa.
Description.-These springs comprise the headwaters of Wa-
cissa River and are located within 0.8 mile of the head of the
Wacissa River.
Wacissa Springs are composed of the following springs: Big
Spring, Garner Springs, Blue Spring, Buzzard Log Springs, Min-
now Spring, Cassidy Spring, two apparently unnamed springs









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WACISSA SPRINGS


herein designated as No. 1 and No. 2, Thomas Spring, and Log
Springs.
Big Spring, sometimes known as Big Blue Spring, consists of a
circular pool approximately 90 feet in diameter, having a cavity
about 70 feet in diameter whose side walls drop almost verti-
cally to a depth of about 40 feet. The cavity is in limestone
which appears to be cavernous on both the east and west sides.
Soundings indicate a maximum depth of 45 feet. The bottom of
the pool is covered with a layer of silt approximately one foot in
depth. The average depth of the pool away from the cavity
varies from 2 to 5 feet. The spring flow discharges into two
runs, one flowing southwest and the other flowing northwest,
both entering the Wacissa River within 0.2 mile of each other.
The runs are full of eel grass and measurements of the discharge
are made very difficult. The run flowing northwest is approxi-
mately 0.2 mile in length and 80 feet in width, the dimensions of
the other were not determined.
Garner Springs consists of two headpools. In the smaller a
limestone cavity, 8 feet in diameter, has a maximum depth of
6.3 feet. It was impracticable to get to the larger of the spring-
heads because its outlet channel was obstructed by fallen trees.
This spring run is approximately 800 feet long and 50 feet in
width and is full of eel grass and other aquatic growth.
Blue Spring consists of a circular pool with a limestone cavity
about 40 feet in diameter, which has a maximum depth of 19.0
feet. The spring run is about 900 feet long and approximately
50 feet in width. The run is full of eel grass and aquatic vege-
tation and the surface has a scum of "duck seed".
Buzzard Log Springs consists of four springheads, two being
at the confluence of the run with the Wacissa River and the
other two at the head of the run which is approximately 0.2 mile
in length. The maximum depth of the two spring cavities at the
mouth of the run was 8.1 feet and the flow emerges from lime-
stone in one and apparently from a sand boil in the other. It was
impracticable to get to the head of the run due to the stream
being obstructed by logs. The run is covered with "duck seed"
and is full of aquatic growth.
Minnow Spring consists of a circular pool with a limestone cav-
ity about 15 feet in diameter in the bottom at a maximum depth
of 8.1 feet. The water in the boil of the spring is filled with sand









90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

particles flushed out of the cave. The run is approximately 100
feet in length and flows in an easterly direction.
Cassidy Spring consists of a pool with a limestone cavity at the
bottom, 8 feet in diameter and in a maximum of 28.0 feet of
water. The run is approximately 70 feet long and discharges into
the Wacissa River.
Spring No. 1 consists of a cavity in a limestone outcrop within
the Wacissa River. The maximum depth of the pool cavity was
24.7 feet.
Spring No. 2 discharges from a circular cavity in a limestone
outcrop beneath a maximum of 18.9 feet of water in the Wacissa
River.
Thomas Spring discharges from a limestone cavity approxi-
mately 8 feet in diameter under the Wacissa River at a maximum
depth of 28.2 feet.
Log Springs discharge from two cavities within a limestone
pool 40 feet in length by 15 feet in width. The maximum depths
to the floors of the cavities are 28.2 feet and 24.0 feet, respec-
tively.
Sand spring boils are visible at many points along the stretch
of the river from Teate's fish camp to the head of the Wacissa
River. There are believed to be additional springs upstream from
Thomas Spring, downstream from mouth of Big Spring Run
and also in Little River. These were not investigated.
Discharge.-The following measurements of discharges were
made on July 16, 1942:
Big Spring-The total discharge was found to be 69.4 second-
feet (45 m.g.d.), which was comprised of a discharge of 22.7
c.f.s. (15 m.g.d.) in the southwest run, and 46.7 c.f.s. (30
m.g.d.) in the northwest run.
Garner Spring-17 c.f.s. (11 m.g.d.) measured 200 feet below
the head of the smaller spring.
Blue Spring-9.43 c.f.s. (6 m.g.d.) measured 300 feet below
the head of the spring.
Minnow Spring-5 c.f.s. (3 m.g.d.), estimated.
Big Spring, Garner Springs, Blue Spring, Buzzard Log Springs,
Minnow Spring, Cassidy Spring and Log Springs discharge into











SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-WACISSA SPRINGS


the Wacissa River. Thomas Spring, Spring No. 1 and Spring
No. 2 are within the Wacissa River channel and therefore their
flow would be difficult to measure.
Quality of water.-The water in Big Spring is hard and con-
tains moderate concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate. It
is typical of many spring waters in Florida.

ANALYSIS


Date of collection


Silica (SiO2) - -
Iron (Fe) - -
Calcium (Ca) -
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na) - -
Potassium (K) -
Bicarbonate (HCOa)
Sulfate (SO4) - -
Chloride (Cl) - -
Fluoride (F) -
Nitrate (NOa) -
Dissolved Solids -
Total Hardness as
CaCOs - -
Carbon Dioxide (CO.)
Color - -
pH - - -
Specific Conductance
(KxlO5at25'C.) -


July 23, 1946
PARTS PER EQUIVALENTS
MITTLLITON PER MITT.TTON


12
.08 -
52 2.59
8.6 .71
3.1 .13
.8 .02
191 3.13
6.7 .14
5.1 .14
.1 .01
.3 .00
181 -

165
12
2
7.4 -

32.0 -


Utilization.-The springs are intact in their natural surround-
ings. A group of men at one time were said to have been inter-
ested in developing the springs as an attraction for tourists but
the plan never materialized. The river in the vicinity of Springs
No. 1 and No. 2 is used for swimming. The runs of the various
springs are frequented by fishermen, owing to the abundance of
fish.
OTHER SPRINGS

Walker Spring, also in Jefferson County, is 8 miles southeast
of Lamont.









92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

LAFAYETTE COUNTY

TROY SPRING near BRANFORD
Location.-About six miles northwest of Branford on the
southwest side of the Suwannee River. The spring can be reached
by driving northwest on State Highway 20 from Branford for
a distance of 4.8 miles to a filling station, then turning right and
driving 1.2 miles on a sand road to another sand road going to
the right; thence 0.6 mile to the head of the spring.
Description.-(See figure 15.) The head of the spring is an
ellipsoidal cavity approximately 70 feet by 50 feet, existing in
a pool about 100 feet in diameter, that has been carved out of
the comparatively flat wooded southwest river bank. The side
walls of the cavity drop almost vertically downward to an
average depth of about 50 feet and a maximum depth on July
17, 1942, of 68.5 feet measured very close to the north side of
the cavity. The cavity appears to have tributary horizontal
caverns on the north and west sides. The water in the pool was
so clear that a few submerged logs lying on the bottom were
clearly seen. The general depth of the pool away from the cav-
ity varies from 2 to 8 feet. The spring run enters the Suwannee
River about 200 feet below the head of the spring after flowing
in an almost easterly direction. The spring run has an average
width of about 100 feet, and its bed is lined almost entirely with


FIGURE 15. Headpool and run of Troy Spring, Lafayette County.









SPRINGS OF FLORIDA-TROY SPRING


limestone, having long deep transverse cracks and a few longi-
tudinal openings.
A short distance below the main head of the spring there is
another pool and cavity on the right which has a maximum depth
of 15.0 feet.
Discharge.-The flow was 55.2 second-feet (36 m.g.d.) on
May 15, 1927 and 149 c.f.s. (96 m.g.d.) on July 17, 1942.
Mr. William Milford of Branford stated that he had been
told by the "old timers" in the vicinity that on a few occasions
when the stage of the Suwannee River was exceedingly low the
run from Troy Spring was dry and no visible flow from the
spring could be detected.
Utilization.-The spring is as nature has made it. It is used
extensively for swimming by people in the nearby vicinity, but
no facilities for dressing are provided.
Historical note.-The submerged hull of an old steamboat, its
bow pointing towards the head of the spring, is clearly visible
at a point near where the spring joins the Suwannee River. Mr.
William Milford of Branford stated that the steamboat was an
old gun boat of the Confederate Army during the war between
the States. The story is told that the Union Army had trapped
the gun boat on the Suwannee River. In order that the boat
would not fall into the hands of the Union forces, the captain
ran it into the run and scuttled it there.

OTHER SPRINGS
Two other springs are reported in Lafayette County. These
are Morrison Spring ten miles northwest of Branford and Stein-
hatchee Spring, reported to be near the head of the Steinhatchee
River near Cooks Hammock.

LAKE COUNTY

ALEXANDER SPRINGS near ASTOR
Location.-About 6 miles southwest of Astor Park. Reached
by driving southwest from Astor Park for 6 miles on State High-
way 445, turning northwest off the highway upon a sand road
and following it about 0.1 mile to the springhead.