Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Radio garden talks: Nos. 1-40
 Index by topics

Title: Ornamental gardening in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094068/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental gardening in Florida radio series, 1933-1934
Alternate Title: Radio garden talks, 1933-1934
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs
Publication Date: 1934
Copyright Date: 1934
Subject: Tropical plants   ( lcsh )
Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by the University of Florida Agricultural College, Experiment Station and Extension Service ; in cooperation with the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Transcipts of talks given over WCOA, WDAE, WJAX, WQAM, AND WRUF radio stations between September 13, 1933 and June 13, 1934.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094068
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45062139

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Radio garden talks: Nos. 1-40
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    Index by topics
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Full Text





Radio Series 1933-1934
The University of Florida Agricultural College,
Experiment Station and Extension Service
In cooperation with the
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs
Given over WCOA, WDAE, WJAX, WQA M, and WRUF

Talk No.
1 Sept. 13 The Values of the Garden Mrs. A. G. Cummer, past
president, Florida Federation of Garden Clubs
2 Sept. 20 Minerals in Relation to Plants L. W. Gaddum, bio-
chemist, Experiment Station
3 Sept. 27 Soil Reactions in Relation to Gardening 0. C. Bryan,
professor of soils and agronomy, College of Agri-
4 Oct. 4 The Role of Beneficial Soil Micro-organisms in Garden-
ing R. M. Barnette, chemist, Experiment Station
5 Oct. 11 The Influence of Environment on FlOrida Garden Plants -
M, D. Cody, professor of botany and bacteriology,
College of Agriculture
6 Oct. 18 Preparing and Fertilizing Garden Soils W. A. Leukel,
agronomist, Experiment Station
7 Oct. 25 Gardening Literature Mrs. I. K. Cresap, librarian,
Experiment Station
8 Nov. 1 Plant Names, Whence Derived and What They Mean Erdman
West, oncologist, Experiment Station
9 Nov. S Annual Flowering Plants for the Winter and Spring Garden -
J. V. Watkins, assistant horticulturist, College of
10 Nov. 15 Garden Plants that Plant Themselves J. V. Watkins
11 Nov. 22 Planting and Maintaining the Garden G. H. Blackmon, hor-
ticulturist, Experiment Station
12 Nov. 29 Architectural Features of the Flower Garden Rudolph
Weaver, director, School of Architecture, University
of Florida and Architect for the State Board of Cornrol
13 Dec. 6 How to Plant Foundations Harold Mowry, assistant director,
administration, Experiment Station
14 Dec. 13 Choice Plants to Use in Foundation Plantings W. L. Floyd,
assistant dean and professor of horticulture, College
of Agriculture
15 Dec. 20 Growing Roses in Florida Mrs. S. F. Poole, president,
Florida State Rose Society
16 Dec. 27 Propagation of Florida Garden Plants John V. Watkins
17 Jan. 3 Har y Ornamentals for the Florida Garden Harold Mowry
18 Jan. 10 Deciduous Trees for the Florida Landscape G. H. Blac~nmor.
19 Jan. 17 Ornamental Florida Fruit Trees H. S. Wolfe, horticulturi-,
in charge, Subtropical Experiment Station
20 Jan. 24 Rose Varieties for Florida Gardens H. Harold Hume, assis-
tant director, research, Experiment Station
21 Jan. 31 Spraying for Flower Garden Insects A. N. Tissot, associ-
ate entomologist, Experiment Station
22 Feb. 7 Diseases of the Flower Garden Geo. F. Weber, plant pa.L-
ologist, Experiment Station
23 Feb. 14 Pruning Trees and Shrubs or Butchering Them Which? -
Chas. E. Abbott, associate professor of horticulture,
College of Agriculture

- 2-

Talk No.
24 Feb. 21 Flowering Trees in Florida A. F. Camp, head of Hor-
ticultural Department, Experiment Station
25 Feb. 28 The Development of Garden Plants P. H. Senn, assis-
tant professor of field crops and genetics, Col-
lege of Agriculture
26 Mar. 7 Bamboos, the Tree Grasses R. A. Young, associate hor-
ticulturist, Division of Foreign Plant Introduc-
tion, U. S. Department of Agriculture
27 Mar. 14 Whence Came Our Florida Garden Plants? M. R. Ensign,
associate horticulturist, Experiment Station
28 Mar. 21 Zephyranthes: Flowers of the West Wind H. Harold Hume
29 Mar. 28 Florida's Native Flowers Erdman West
30 Apr. 4 Annual Plants for the Summer Flower Garden W. L. Floyd
31 Apr. 11 Irises to Enhance the Beauty of Florida Gardens H. Harold
32 Apr. 18 Insect Friends of Garden Plants W. L. Thompson, assis-
tant entomologist, Experiment Station
33 Apr. 25 Hibiscus, Its Place in Florida Gardening W. M. Fifield,
assistant horticulturist, Subtropical Experiment Sta-
34 May 2 Preparation and Maintenance of Lawns W. E. Stokes, head
of ATronomy Department, Experiment Station
35 May 9 ~arvesting and Storing Bulbs R. D. Dickey, assistant
horticulturist, Experiment Station
36 May 16 The Lilies of a Day H. Harold Hume
37 May 23 Some New and Old Plants of Florida Gardens W. L, Floyd
38 May 30 Vine-Clad Walls, Trellises and Arbors, Harold Mowry
9 June 6 The Simple Things of Gardening H. Harold Hume
0 June 13 Natural Beauties of Florida Roadsides and Their Conserva-
tion H. Harold Hume

UN,-EA3e r c-LORIOA.

Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 1
Radio Series September 13, 1933


Mrs. A. G. Cumrrer
Past President, Florida Federation of Garden Clubs

I am most confident that I but echo the sentiments of hundreds of those
r'1-. are listening in when I express appreciation and gratitude to the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural Colleje of the University of
Florida for the opportunity again given iis to glean information through this
second series of Radio Garden Talks.

While I esteem greatly the compliment paid to me when I was asked to
rake these opening remarks, I speak as a mere enthusiastt -- one who is happy
over what she has learned and most hopeful as to what she will learn.

Probably no word of six letters -- save only the words Mother and Fa-
ther -- can and do3s bring so much of help and satisfaction to mankind as
does the word gn-rden. It is a passport into foreign lands and -;iether or not
:.e speak their tongue, .-a kno that the French word "jardin," the Spanish
"jardin," the German '"grten," and the Italian "giardino" are, after all, but
ou.r "garden;" and understndi-.ing their pec liar language each flower brings to
us a smile of joyful recognition, wherever we may meet it.

Believing that possibly thee surest way to prove the underlying dominance
of the garden in the lives of the human race today would be to give a con-
densed history of Gardening Art from its very beginning, I intend to follow
that course of thought.

In Egyt, the very cradle of all hunan civilization, we find, resultant
from the peculiar character of the soil ... climate, an early and important
development of garden cultivation. Indeed, all horticulture arose from their
profit-making care of plants. The Egyptian demanded and obtained from his
garden edible fruits, medicinal herbs, timber and shade. He valued first his
trees, then his vine:'ards, vcctcles, flowers. ,'nals -nd -ster, all of whic'1
he enclosed within walls. Thus it -:.as he who definitely established a ma-
terial, commercial, spiritual and, esthetic value to the garden and from those
days down to the present that app'tis;.l has held. This information comes to
us authoritatively through the pai.it.L.'s found upon the walls of the tombs of
kings and men of wealth; very often e-?n the plans of their gardens were de-
picted there. From Egypt we learn, too, of the use anaikind made, long before
the days of Christ, of the fig, the olive, the sycarcore tree and the date
palm. We learn of the papyrus by means of which great funds of knowledge
have been handed down to us, and of the beautiful lotus flower which, com-
bined with the leaf of the acanthus, has served as one of the most dignified
and artistic types of formal decoration.

The Babylonians and Syrians invented the hanging gardens.

2 -

To the Medes and .'ersians we particularly owe our appreciation of trees.
As a matter of fact, whei the Grecks invtrded those countries they found mar-
velous parks, which were mentioned repeatedly in their literature. Zencphen
even used the term "Paradise" to describe a Persian garden, and Lysander was
enthusiastic not so mI:h over the beauty of these parks as over the clever-
ness of the minds that designed and ordered them. Groves were often planted
around tombs -- we know that years later the body of Our Savior was buried in
the private garden of Arimathea.

We who take the Garden of Eden as the beginning of all things find that
it is described as exactly like the oriental tree parks of Persia.

Jerusalem had its great gardens, which were located outside the city

Of course, all gardeners know that religion was closely connected with
gardening, and much has come do':rn to us from that source. This is especially
true as regards India, where they worshipped the trees. -c:. Buddha had a
different species of tree as his sacred symbol. The following description of
the location and plan of a Buddhist park would seem to comply absolutely with
the requirements of our parks of today: "Not too near the town, and not too
far away, well provided with entrances, easily req'eched by people who like to
come, not too noisy by day. perfectly qliet by night, removed from disturbance
and crowds, a place of retreat and lonely contemplation."

But we must hasten on in this brief summary of the garden's development.
The Greeks left beautiful villa gardens as an inheritance to the Romans; the
Bysantines brought oriental influence with its ornateness into general use;
the Italians introduced the baroque style anc definitely relegated fruit trees
and vegetables to the kitchen gardens. They, like their immediate predeces-
sors, the Bysantines, arranged the garden in terraces and demanded fine vis-
tas and views. Roof gardens, which we look upon as a recent experiment, were
thriving on the town roofs in the outskirts of old Rome. Truly, in the first
centuries of Imperial Rome the art of Sgadening had reached a degree of per-
fection that has never been surpassed. Water was abundant and the fountains
and cascades found in the gardens of Itliy formed an inspiration for the land-
scape architects of many nations.

Spain tells its story in the wonderful gardens of the Alhambra and the
Generalife: very extensive, very ornate, very full of sunshine, and with pot-
ted plants everywhere in evidence.

Then came the French influence in the time of the Renaissance. Perfe:-
tion of formal planting developed. Beautiful otuntains abounded. France :'.
lowed the gardening ideas of the Italipn artisans beyond the Alps and final.?y
commanded the lead. Germany and Russia vied with each other in aspiring tc
surpass the efforts of the Frenc', but neither of them ever succeeded, for
certainly not the attempt of Frederic the Great in the Gardens of Sans Souci,
nor that of Peter the Great at Peterhof, can compete with the perfection
wrought by Louis XIV at Versailles.

- 3

England it was in reality which gave to us the type of garden that we so
admire today. The broad expanse of la',rns, the massing of shrubbery and the
rock garden. Yet, though we have followed her example in so many lines, she
still delights in one feature, comparatively unknown to us -- I allude to the
topiary art.

America, it would seem, lost no time in humoring her innate love for the
garden, since, young as we are, we may boast of early gardens near Salem,
Massachusetts and Charleston, South Carolina, dating to the late 1600's.

But with this cursory outline, we rust .:.o. leave the past and think of
the present and the immediate futur.e. Let us speak of our own state, Florida,
and of what value a garden may be to her. Perhaps intuitively we first think
of the esthetic and inspirational value of. a garden. We should not do so, for,
important as that phase is, the material and commercial service far outbalance
it. Of course, the nearer we can live to Yother Earth the better for us phy-
sically and spiritually -- we all know that. We know, too, that nothing is
of much more benefit to a city than well kept gardens and parks. Their influ-
ence and exam-pl are farther reaching than we who plan them realize. So, if
ill health or other de'3rrent circ:-,tmstances prevent you fror participating in
various and sundry civic activities, do not for one moment feel that you are
not aiding your community to a 7m.rked degree when you give your own surround-
ings proper care and attention.

And now, another and a bra' ,er thought, -- namely, that we should try
much more painstakingly than we do to make use of gardens in connection with
each and every hotel in our state, whether it is located in the heart of the
city or in the suburbs. There is no section too crowded or too costly in the
Old World to influence the hotel owner, who caters to the best of the travel-
ling public, to abandon a garden in connection with his hotel. If one may
dine outside in the capitals of Europe, why not in lovely Florida?

We all know that C. W. Barron, the dean of financial editors, struck a
true key when he affirmed that ours was a "Luxury State;" everything that we
'. ve, from our climate and beachr-e to our choice oranges, celery and early
. e.-rries, are luxuries. We who live in the midst of these choice things
.:.:".. :'-alize their values, but we should, Our cli,.-.'.n, soil were here
when ,e;." -*'. Leon arrived. The ordinary market b -:*...~: i3 supplied; but the
eztraorLi ';ary basket is still not filled to overflowing. The time once was,
before methods of transportation and communication --ere so well perfected as
they now are, that almost each and every one of us had a kitchen garden. We
lived much less expensively then; those days ray be returning. If so, we re-
sidents of this "Luxury State" mar deem ourselves doubly fortunate. We should
appreciate, as Mr. Barren says, that "the way for Florida and particularly for
South Florida, is to coin her sunshine and her soil into food, fruits and
flowers for the great markets of the North," This is, of course, being done
increasingly from year to year. But we must do more -- we must educate our
customers to understand the enjoyment and the value of such things as the pa-
payas, the improved mangoes, the avocado pears and our choice pineapples.

Indeed, we must carry on more exhaustive experiments in endeavoring to

find new tropical fruits adaptable to our climatic conditions and new cross-
es (such as our youngberry), realizing that much lies before us. Though the
colossal genius of Thomas A, Edison my no longer serve us, some one may car-
ry on his experiments, and we shall produce rubber right here in Florida. It
does not seem impossible when we realize that such common plants as the olean-
der, goldenrod and flame vine have a rubber content.

Do you know that one narcissus farm in our state produced more bulbs
than any other such farm in the United States? Could we perchance commercial-
ize extensively our Gcrberas, nerines, watsonias and other plants?

Much truly is possible, when so prominent a botanist as the late Dr.
L. H. Pammell, of Io-a State College, made the assertion that Florida has
the most wonderful plant life of any state in the country,

And yet, however much I am persuaded of the healthful and commercial
values of a garden, the fact remains in mry mind that beyond the shadow of a
doubt there still does and always will hover about our personal garden spot
an inexpressible delight in its perfection, an indescribable charm in its
color harmony, an untold joy in the ability to share its beauty with others,
an indisputable privilege of w-eavin.:- our -71 personality into its every de-
tail, a never ending op.-rt.u.ity of .evir omur plant children with a kind-
ness like unto that besto-ved upv:o' our r-uan.a children, and lastly and predomi-
nantly a wonderf-.ul inspiration which i. :1.n to t:e Divine when we have need
of repose. Where, indeed. could ,"e if-nd mor ;-:-ac. -:ith the world, more
P.ourage to carry on, more hope for the outr..' '. t.'iorro-, than in that emo-
tion which comes into our ,oul as we ;c;it .o:.i aat t-,ili.ht in a bc-t.iful
garden, pondering over our pages of th TV.-t. ;ith 'their records of "..c'3s
and. failure, and endeavoring to for- -.*. -'r o-.tline for the pages of the fu-
ture, as -.e humbly say, "I shall 12 '."t .inm t<-es unto the hills, .rol:. ::ence
cometh mrz help."

H. i. EHme


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 2
Radio Series September 20, 1933

Dr. L. W. Gaddum, Biochemist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

We all know that if a plant (or an animal, too, for that matter)
is burned, there remains an ash which forms a very insignificant frac-
tion of the original weight of the plant, say about 1%. In this ash is
found, by chemical analysis, the so-called mineral constituents of the
plant. In the gases arising from the burning process are found the car-
bon, hydrogen, oxygen an nitrogen of which the organic portion of the
plant, such as sugars/ proteins, is composed. This carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen, together with the elements present in the ash, form
the building-stones of which the complex compounds of the plant are built.

Now, it is clear that during the process of growth, these building
stones must be supplied to the plant. The carbon is procured by the
plant from the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide; the oxygen is
available either in the atmosphere or in the water that the plant takes
in. The hydrogen also can be obtained from the water. Consequently,
these elements are usually available to the plant, while the supplying
of nitrogen, as everyone knows, forms one of our fertilizer problems.
The constituents of the ash, that is, the minerals, obviously must come
from the soil. It is to these minerals that we call attention.

Some 20 or 30 years ago, scientists listed as mineral constituents
of the soil necessary for plant growth the following chemical elements:
calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sulfur and iron. It is true
that small amounts of copper, nickel and other metals had been reported
as being normal constituents of plant ash, but no physiological signi-
ficance was attached to these. In fact, copper, manganese, arsenic,
boron, zinc and some others were considered toxic.

But science is never satisfied. Methods of chemical analysis were
continually being improved, enabling the analist to detect smaller quan-
tities of the mineral elements in the soil and in the plant ash. As a
result of this improvement in technique, it soon became apparent that the
previous classification into essential minerals and toxic minerals was

The inadequacy of the older classification hinged on two points,
(1) whether or not a given mineral exerted a toxic or a salutary effect
depended in many cases on the amounts of the mineral present, so that
even toxic elements might be beneficial in small amounts, and (2) the
effect of a given mineral was not the same for all plants so that it be-
came questionable whether one could write a list of essential elements
for all plants.


Although copper, manganese and zinc were previously listed as toxic
elements and were not included in the list of essential minerals, experi-
mental work at the Kentucky Experiment Station about 1925 and 1926 showed
that copper, manganese and zinc are essential in small amounts to the
growth of many farm crops. Moreover, about 1927 work at the Everglades
Branch of the Florida Experiment Station demonstrated the need of copper
in small quantities for the growth of some 50 or 60 different crops on
the peat soils of the Everglades.

That the effect of a given element is not the same on all plants is
evident from work at the Rothamsted Experiment Station, in England. There
it was shown that certain of the legume plants as broad beans, soy beans,
and some clovers will not grow to maturity in the absence of boron,
whereas some other plants as wheat, barley and rye grow readily to full
maturity without a trace of boron.

Because of this inadequacy of the older concept, it became neces-
sary to revise our notions of plant nutrition. In the preparation of
plant diets, we must consider not only the traditional nitrogen-phospho-
rus-potash requirements, but also a balanced ration of essential miner-

The most commonly occurring essential minerals are, of course, phos-
phorous, potash, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and iron. Available phos-
phorous stimulates root growth and consequently assists.in ready develop-
ment of small seedlings, while potash is essential for proper stem and
leaf growth. Calcium is important in the transportation of starch with-
in the plant, while e magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll, the green
pigment necessary for the manufacture of the plant's organic foods. Sul-
fur is a constituent of plant proteins and the presence of iron is ne-
cessary for the formation of chlorophyll.

The less commonly occurring minerals such as copper, manganese,
boron and zinc, because of the extremely small quantities involved, pre-
sent problems of a peculiar nature. In the first place, there arises
the question: for what are we going to use the plant? From some plants,
fruit is wanted, as in citrus; from other plants we hope to secure seed,
as in corn; in other plants foliage is sought, as in some ornamental
plants. It is, of course, desirable to prepare for a particular plant
a diet which will attain the result desired from that plant. Thus, a
beautifully foliated orange tree would be ornamental, but if the fruit
were made insipid to the point of being unsaleable, the tree could not
pay for its board. Past experience with the use of minerals shows clear-
ly that great'caution must be exercised in the feeding of minerals to

And yet it is our job to find the particular mineral diet which
will correct abnormalities as they appear in our plants. The accumulat-
ed mass of experimental data on the role of minerals in plant nutrition
suggests strongly that the minerals might have specific physiologic fune-
tions in the plant. Thus in central New York, lettuce which should yield


solid "heads" produced long leaves known as "rabbit ears;" the addition
of copper in minute amounts corrected this trouble. In Florida, absence
or deficiency of copper results in yellowing of foliage (called chlorosis)
This abnormality may be corrected by the addition of a small amount of
copper to the soil. As suggested by Thatcher, President of Massachusetts
State College, we may soon recognize in plant nutrition certain factors
designated by "anti-chlorosis" (or anti-yellowing) factor,/the "flower-
ing factor."

A second major problem in the study of mineral nutrition of plants
lies in the possible cumulative effect of minerals added to the soil.
The continued application from year to year of such minerals as copper,
manganese and zinc might result in such alteration of the nature of the
soil as finally to destroy the fertility we seek. Or, on the other
hand, by repeating small doses of copper or zinc on perennial plants,
the mineral may accumulate in the plant to its detriment unless the
plant can eliminate the mineral by defoliation, dropping of fruit, or
some other means.

Attention is called to these two problems simply as a caution a-
gainst a too ready use of mineral supplements to the soil, in particular
the less commonly occurring minerals. The fact that addition of copper
to the peat soils of the Everglades produces favorable response in a
large number of crops is no criterion that the same dosage of copper on
soils of different nature will react favorably to the growth of plants
in general. The fundamental data pertaining to the effect of the mi-
nerals on the physiologic mechanism of the plant and on the character
of the soil have not as yet been obtained.

Thce Y!or.ic-V ,ri:ltural Experiment Station is now devoting con-
siderable attention to this problem of mineral nutrition of plants. The
physiologic effects of certain minerals on both horticultural and field
crops, the effect of the mineral supplements on the soil, the relation
of mineral supplements to animal husbandry problems, such as "salt-sick,"
and the development of a field practice in the use of mineral supple-
ments are some of the problems engaging the attention of various depart-
ments of the station. From this coordinated attack on the problem there
most certainly will emerge a better understanding of our Florida soils
and a practicable technique for correcting some of our soil deficiencies.

Meanwhile, we need not worry unduly about any possible deficiency
of the loss common minerals in our ornamental gardens. The amounts of
these less common minerals needed are so small that in many cases these
amounts are supplied automatically in the muck, clay or fertilizer that
may be used.

In the case of those minerals which are needed in appreciable a-
mounts, such as calcium, potash and phosphorus, the effect on the plant
is largely dependent upon the soil reaction.

To briefly smankarize, there are two general classes of minerals,
those that are commonly known and are needed in appreciable amounts
and those that are needed in minute amounts. These less common ones,
such as copper, manganese, zinc and others, are quite vital to plant
growth. They are frequently supplied automatically in the soil, muck,
fertilizer, etc. Where there is an actual deficiency of some of them,
study of the special problem is necessary since these minerals react so
differently on different soils and with different plants.



Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 3
Radio Series September 27, 1933

Dr. 0. C. Bryan, Professor of Soils
and Agronomy, University of Florida
College of Agriculture

Soil reaction is one of the most deep seated factors affecting the
growth of plants in general, and especially is this true for garden
plants. For a gardener to ignore this factor may mean failure before
he begins.

The term reaction simply means a soil condition which indicates
that the soil is acid, neutral, or alkaline. It is measured in terms
of pH values which gives the amount of active acid or alkali present.
A neutral soil has a pH value of 7.0 while an acid soil has a pH value
of less than 7.0 and an alkaline soil has a value of more than 7.0. In-
creasing the pH value above 7.0 means a direct increase in alkalinity.
But the reverse is true with acids. A decrease in pH value from 7 to 1
means an increase in the amount of active acid present. Since the pH
value is a logarithmic expression of the concentration of active acid,
the value of pH5 is ten times as acid as a pH of 6.0 and pHj is ten times
as acid as pH Other things being equal the greater the acidity of the
soil the grea er the loss of calcium, and other bases through leaching

In h-:.id climates the soil processes tend toward an acid reaction,
due to excessive leaching of bases. While in an arid or semi-arid cli-
mate the soil processes tend toward an alkaline reaction because of no
leaching of bases. Intermediate climatic conditions make for a neutral
soil. Of course, the degree of weathering, or soil processes, and the
nature of the material from which the soil was derived, affect the amount
of acid or alkali present.

The reaction of the soil may influence the plant in several ways:
(1) by direct corrosive effect on the roots hindering normal root de-
velopment, (2) by depleting the soil of lime and other basic nutrients,
(3) by dissolving poisonous substances, such as aluminum, in the soil
and thus poisoning the plants, (4) by retarding the growth and develop-
ment of beneficial soil organisms, and (5) by precipitating plant nutri-
ents like iron and manganese. Any one of these factors may seriously
hinder the growth of plants, and thus cause a poor garden or even a
failure. To get the most from a garden one should adjust the reaction
of the soil to suit the optimum needs of the plants.

As previously indicated, humid soils are generally acid. That
means that most of Florida soils are acid in reaction. This is a very
important consideration for gardeners in Florida. Fortunately, however,
most cultivated plants including our highly prized garden specimens,


prefer an acid soil. Moreover, a large portion of the wild flowering
plants so common in Florida not only tolerate but prefer acid soils for
best production.

It is not only interesting but a significant character of such
plants as azalea, hydrangea, strawberry andlily, to grow most success-
fully on rather acid soils. This is true of the rose -- the princess
of garden plants. These facts are well known by the successful gar-
dener. The time old custom of adding leaf mold and pl ity of moisture
to flowering and garden plants induces an acid condition in the soil
-- oftentimes a necessary factor for success.

It should not be inferred, however, that all garden plants pre-
fer a distinctly acid soil. Just the reverse is true with some plants.
Such plants as abelia, celery, geranium, poppies and others grow best
in a neutral to slightly alkaline soil. These differences in responses
are inherent characteristics of the plants and can rarely be changed
by man. Without taking these plant characteristics into consideration
the best of gardeners can not make a success. Oftentimes the most se-
rious problem confronting the gardener is his persistence in trying to
grow plants on soils with unfavorable reaction, and at the same time
having suitable corrective materials that he could use.

The cost of controlling soil reaction is relatively small. In
fact, too small to interfere with the success of the gardener. After
all, the primary objective of the gardener is to so adjust all his soil
conditions that healthy and beautiful plants may be grown. To do this,
it is essential that the plant be adapted to the reaction of his soil,
or otherwise he mrast adjust the soil reaction to suit the needs of the
plant. This is of first degree importance, particularly for garden

By the use of physiologically acid fertilizers such as sulfate
of ammonia, urea, armonium phosphate, and leaf mold the grower can keep
the soil sufficiently ecid for the acid-loving plants, -- azaleas,
strawberries, and others. Sometimes it may be necessary to use even
sulfur or aluminum sulfate to secure the desired reaction. Aluminum~ m
sulphate will increase the acidity of the soil immediately following
application, but sulfur requires several weeks before it brings about
a more acid condition. The aluminum sulfate should be applied at the
rate of 1/4 to 1 pound per square yard (depending on the soil) and wa-
tered in. The sulfur should be mixed with the soil at rate of 2 to 4
ounces per square yard and the soil moistened. It is very essential
to avoid the use of hardwood ashes, lime and alkaline materials in
growing acid-loving plants. While on the other hand, to grow cabbage,
celery, dahlia and other lime-loving plants successfully it becomes ne-
cessary to avoid the use of much physiologically acid fertilizers. With
such plants lire, hardwood ashes and alkaline forming fertilizers are
essential, and necessary for success on most Florida soils. With sandy
soils low in organic matter 1/4 to 1/2 pound of ground lime per square
yard will be sufficient. For soils having abundant organic matter
these amounts may be doubled. Although hardwood ashes are not as con-
centrated as ground lime, they are more active in bringing about a
change in the reaction of the soil.

- 3 -

Although a number of garden plants grow best on distinctly acid
soils, this does not mean that such plants grow without calcium and
other basic nutrients. In fact, many such acid-loving plants require
a high content of calcium for normal development. This means that for
such plants the grower will need to add calcium in some neutral or acid
form. One of the most practical ways of adding calcium under such con-
dition is in the form of Superphosphate at the rate of 1/2 pound per
square yard, worked into the soil. With many plants bone meal is a
very desirable calcium carrier. Bone meal is not only safe to use but
it improves the quality of the soil, thus making a more desirable plant.

It should be emphasized that only quality plants make a desirable
garden. This means that a successful gardener will need to carefully
consider those fundamental factors that influence the internal make-up
of the plant. To influence the plant for quality, the grower will not
only see that plenty of available plant food and moisture are present,
but that the reaction of his soil is properly adjusted for the plants

It is just as essential that these adjustments be made for garden
plants, as proper food and environment are essential to animals. The
Roman gardener referred to raking a soil "fat" for plants to feed upon.

In discussing the relation of soil reaction to gardening, the ques-
tion of soil texture should not be overlooked. While it is true that
sandy soils respond quickly to treatment, they may rapidly change in re-
action following an application of certain fertilizers, and oftentimes
produce injury to the plants. This means that where a grower desires to
correct the reaction of his soil with soluble fertilizer materials he
will need to be more careful about the amounts to apply on sands than on
loams or clay soils. Soluble fertilizers, such as sulfate of ammonia,
will burn tender plants if placed in contact Tith the roots or leaves.
Therefore, the gardener should be careful about the method and rate of
application of such fertilizers. They should be applied broadcast around
the plants at the rate of 1 to 2 ounces per square yard. Hardwood ashes
or lime applied to sandy soils often will cause chlorosis. To correct
this,aluminum sulfate is a practical material to use.

One of the best ways of avoiding rapid changes in soil reaction from
fertilizer treatment, is to add abundant amounts of organic matter such
as compost, leaf :old, or some other available form of organic matter.
For small areas, the gardener may deem it desirable to add some clay
material to the sands for the purpose of adding a more stable body to
the soil. Where plenty of organic matter and clay is present, the reac-
tion of the soil will be more constant and thus make it possible to grow
a healthy plant and consequently a better plant.

The gardener who has a variety of plants and soils can well afford
to study his soil reaction problem for individual plants. In many in-
stances it will be good business to secure a small soil test kit for
measuring the reaction of his field and garden soils. These kits are
simple and can be secured at a small cost. Some of the companies hand-
ling them will supply the gardener with a list of plants together with

their optimum soil reaction. This, as a rule, is very valuable to the
amateur gardener. Although the average layman might not successfully
use the soil tester, the careful gardener can secure satisfactory re-
sults with a littlepractice. Unless the gardener does give his soil
reaction problem careful attention, his chances for success will be
small, especially for certain plants. Proper attention and care at
the right time and in the right place will male a successful garden
where others fail.


co.F.... Ornamental Gardening in Florida Tall: o. 4
Rdlio Series October 4, 1933


R. I1. Barnette, Chemist
FlorJida Agricultural Experiment Station

The founa tion of successful gardening rests on the establishment
and maintenance of a fertile soil. In the building and tending of a
fertile soil, the skillful gardener is really gardening underground.
He is cultivating and nurturing an extensive garden of minute plants.
If properly pampered this garden of grotesquely shaped, chaotically ar-
ranged, evrn changing dicroplants will go a long way towards insuring a
vigorous and healthy garden of higher plants. These microscopic plants
are the beneficial soil microflora. The fertility of the soil depends
on the growth and the activity of these microorganisms to a large ex-
tent. They are the life of the soil.

The numbers an.d kinds of the beneficial soil micro-organisms vary
under different co .dit.ons. In general the more fertile a soil becomes,
the greater the nu~iber of beneficial microorganisms it contains. An
adequately cultiv.,.ted, well-drained soil, rhich has been abundantly sup-
plied with decomposing organic matter :end liberally treated with the es-
sential fertilizer constituents ande animal rmanures, usoully contains an
ample nurnder of beneficial microorganisms. Soil acidity and unfavorable
moisture conditions are detrinents to the beneficial soil microflora.
The numbers and kinds of these beneficial :icroplants are as v;; 'ed and
interesting as those of the higher plants. They have beeo -ut:-,ctcd to
study an. classification as have the higher plants.

The botanist classifies the higher plants "' l"' on t' basis of
their physical growth characteristics. His is'- -.s rel:-iZvel;.- simple
when compared with that of the bactoriol;, ; -;no i .n.'"t study the micro-
organisms under the microscope and. u', .--" and "*- n1'- 1o bring out their
size, shape and composition. T'.. ,,;-o criolo-'.t !'";, differentiated three
general groups of beneficial o-Il "icroorp~n'i'A*-; they are the soil bac-
teria, the soil fungi or .-old" and the ,;,il actinorjyctes. Each of these
general groups of : u.ropl'.u1at has .. presentatives which are as in-
teresting t- Lhie o-.';riologx ; :* ..re the numerous species of the higher
pl.nt ; ':..c Fj int lover.

'-.e bacteria are cosidL.ored to be one-celled plac.t :---ich heve three
jeoneral forms; rod-sha>oil., spherical rnd spiral. T-.- multiply by simple
division; that is, a Cs':.le cell splits into t.'To liivid:.-l single cells.
I.ost bacteria varx- ..n length from about 1/?;,0O0 t. 1/5,000 o an Inch.
; l t c?. o non .:''r e 'h a. le..," "' /uO0 n i.'.'. .w ", teir
n:u:bers r ". 4jvi t'.; are r'.lerou.;, .... i: i f .- t..,ir .:.:P. .. e :1::es.
iehy "wr r:rm a 'r-'.,-:ious rumaunt Ja work in- the ndar' processes which they
o.rry out i: the soil. They are goneralnl coui::ldred the most) i ortant
,ed.r'tcial component of the soil microflora.

The fungus or :mold is a Tra.lti-colled body. The numerous cells form
thread-like growths emong which there is division of the work they do.
Some vegetative mold threads orve for the absorption of nutrients while
others produce fruiting bodies. or spores. The molds propagate themselves
chiefly by means of spores. The fungi are active in breaking down the
woody tissues of plant mr.terir.ls in the soil. They are second in impor-
tance among the soil microorgraisms.

The actinomycetes are the third most important group of the soil
miicroflore. They resenible the higher developed fungi in that they mrke
a true breaching thread-like growth -- but they resemble the bacteria in
that the material of their bodies show many of the properties' of the bac-
terial bodies. Apparently they belong neither to :.: *nolds nor to the
bacteria. The actinomycetes nay produce vor' beautiful 'ra., j'llow,
brown, blue, green, red or other pl,.; onts when ,.ro-." on artificial me-
dia. Cultures of -.ctinomycetes ofto:r. _-iv: i-; odor similar to the
"earthy" odor of the soil and -.'..,a: ; oubt they are responsible for
this odor Ir the *oli. They -re es-ccially active in the decomposition
of de-l jl.r.t parts adi.ed to the soil.

T'.iVo three J:'oLps of i:droorgpnisx.s p.nd. others as well bring about
a number o" beneficial trr.- sformati ons of soil. NmteriAls. They are es-
n -ci 11, active in traonori:.n the dead r.nin'.l and plant parts to forms
which may be assimilpted b- the growing p1:nt. There are threecssential-
ly beneficial trr.nsforji.tions: (1) the transformation of nitrogen compounds
(2) the transfornn.tion of carbon conrpounds (3) the transforrmtion of ::i-
neral substances. The processes ta.:inr; plrce in these tr--nfor.r.tions
are continuous and. roreossive in a fertile soil serv' to help main-
tain a :favorel.l <.o:ndition for plrnt grc-th.

The trrnsformnt.t o:t nitro, ,.-:j coTo-o'ons by beneficial soil mi-
croorganisms includes on '"e ou : 'a:id t.. i--,tion of elomcntpl nitrogen
from the air and its elaboration ino coplex y. at prot1i;; s and on the
other hand the conversion of cormp -: -'.t nad .ninml proteins into
simpler nitrogen cc.pouncC's w-:ich r?.- be utilized bn- the growing plant.
The fixation of nitrogen from the Pir is accomplished by the bacteria
growing on the nodules of the lcuz.minous plants and by a group of free-
noving bacteria called the a '.otob.cters". Lc.u-iinous plants grown as
ornpaTent..ls "nd for cut flowers thus hclp to maintain a f.nrtile garden
spot by increasing the sup-t;l of "vril-.ble nitrogen. Among the moro
recently introd'oead plants, the ornamcntOl species of crotalaria are ver;
efficicntg 'tir cot nitrogen "-nd 0t the same tine add cheerful colors
to tho flowQr bed. It is usuo.ly not nccess-.r to inoculate t'. crota-
ln.ria so.d when they a.r: pl-nted as the org nism necessary for their
inocul-tion is widely distributed in Florida scils. In this connection,
recently H-rold Mowry of the Floric'. Agriculture). p Exp': .mnt St tion has
definitol.y Drovod t:r t the s vcr-1 speci., o' t.i: Austr".l;.n ii;o when
proporlyinocul-tod with some soil or., Ian will deR 1cy n.oules on the
roots and show a aistincly incroa.od nitro..i. co tont over uninoculated
traes. The v? oK tI. A'stralion pine as a hodge, setting or windbrera:
evirientl, do not d :plote t:. nitr:o oen suDT1y of the soil but rather
rnkes v:.11.il.' -,, greater .''.. o' ii tAroCcn through the fixation proces-

The "azotobacters" or free-moving nitrogen-fixing organism are able
to tra.p the nitrogen from the air without t the presence of P. host plant.
They are found in a -ide variety of -oils. Their relative value as
nitrogen gatherers is not as ;:et filly ev-lu-ted,

The complex nit:.-ogen conrpounds of Olr-.nts ane.d -nimals, the proteins,
must be converted into simpler :iitro n co,-pou-.ils such as ammonium
3,lbh1'tc, :"lc:l:. potassium, r.:gnesiu;' ..i sodi"r. nitra-tes before they
cn be utilized by the growing. plant. Th. "*-- i.i-.il icroflora are
responsible for the change of the nitrogen of hes con.pl.-x proteins into
a form available to the gro'-..ng pl.nt. The nicroorgar.is!: us.m the pro-
teins as a food sup-ly and '..rnvcert the excess nitrogen into si:.eler forms.
First the nitrogen is con-. rt.-d into iamm onia by one group of organisias,
then another group takes th,: --nonia, and converts it into nitrites and
still a third group takeo t.he nitrites and chrt:is them into the readily
available nitrates, Thu:-: processes in the soil a;- continuous and pro-
gressive. They aro dec'-ident upon an available suply:l: of proteins in
the soil and they -pre-sent one. of the most important transormitions
which the soil 'icroflora b"..n.c about.

ThE- ::'.roorg'-.l.ij,. are also r.:r-onsible for the transformation of car-
bon compounds in the soil. The c. 'bon compounds include not only the
proteins but also such nitrogen-.:'re'. w.terials as sugars and celluloses
(wood fiber) in the tissues of pl.,t a:d. animal bodies. These latter
compounds are attacked by some group of the microflora as a. source of
food. They are broken down into compo'- u: which may be used in building
up the bodies of the microorganisms. In this process there ar-e waste
materi ls, water and carbonic acic., formed from the plant and animal
i-..t.ri; ls. The carbonic acid is fo .-ed by :l-e combination of carbon
dioxide ; and water and this acid att .--:s the ooil minerals and brings
arny d,sirable nutrients into solution, thus rpaking them ave.ilr..l. to
thL plant,

Non-l.,gur:ainou straws -and other plant m.r. terials which are lo-v in
nitrogen cont;.nt -..ould not be added directly to a garden soil in ;'reat
quantities. The ni.:,r'ogen content of these mpterials is so low that in
the process of rotti them in the soil, the r..'croorganisij. ist c'll on
the supply of -.vail ole nitv-ogen compounds in t1-. soil for the necessary
nitrogen to build up '.heir bodies and propagate tm m :lve;. Thus they
compete with plants .growing in the soil for th., nitro ".n co-pounds. INon-
leguminous -traws an.: like materials should be cormpost,'d or used as a
mulch. In ;h coimpo ;.Lng process, the celluloses, sugars -.n: other pl-nt
compounds a. e broken : p and there results a m-i-teri.l which h.s a higher
percentage of Proteini due to the protein for-med in the bodies of the
dead and livin,- microorg.'.nisms. This coilmpostcd. m.terial will still decay
in the soil rnd due to its high .percento-e of prote. i, nitrogen compounds
available to -,he growing pl.nt will be formed.

The transfor-.v tion of minerals in the soil is .n csenitial activity
of the beneficial soil microorg-.nisms. The minerals o." the soil parti-
cles are nmade available to the growing pli t by the p.-oduction of acids
in the processes ncntioned above. In addition, plant "id animal tissues
conta.i_ minerals which r.re set free by the decomposition. processes, The
microbial bodies themselves contain nitrogen, carbon n: minerals, When
the organisms die, other microorganisms decompose their bodies usi~D a
part of the r-eteri;.ls as a source of energy, but at the same time setti.L

free a part of them for the gro-.-n,. plant. There are many other trans-
formations which are brought ab-~yt ay the beneficial soil microorganisms
but those mentioned above are i:.o.; the most important.

Thus these minute plants die.: the materials of the soil and manhe
available to the growing pl:-.; t' te .-- essential elements necessa-' for
its growth and wellbeing. T?.s d..loiu, 'process is continuous a"'
progressive in a fertile soil .' 'I. "'-u'.~ s theu pl.-::t P. t:'- :. ;-d
balanced dit with few surfi." :.' foodstuf:.F ru-; fecT starvation -.riods.
The dige 'ion processes ,'rrri-:. ut by the microfiora oif i; sil are
thus o.-:r.tial for the oot -:.f-ective utilization of the fert'lic'er ima-
teri-'i by the plant. 7 .e--. :.ure vigorous, healthy plant,: ,ith 'i
abundance. ::f .Th.3. p--. ist -..' ,ers. These r:> .,sse- p-o i/pnc'.e p ut upon
th.'. ii'e in the s0Ji. Thi I.:Lfe in the soil is a-pendent '-pon the numerous
beneficial icropl.:ants. Is ,t then sinsnul.r that t4.u marx of a good gar-
.t:.r is found in 1:->. :..ili'.; to succ oAully garJ, .i underground


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk '0o. 5
Radio Series October 11, 1933


?y Mi.D. Couy, Professor of Botany and Bacteriology,
University of Florida.

Along i-ith the minerals and the role th,,y flay in plant production, as well
as on the types of soils and ho"v they may 'o. prepared and fertilized to best
advantage in our gardens, we ::.ot consider the influence of environment on
garden plants.

The factors that comprise an environment aive water, temperature, air, light,
soil, plant food, animals and other plants. A.y change in the normal position
of a plant requires time for readjustment to its new environment. Failurp to
rr:ai: this proper readjustmcnt results in ..noriormal growth or death of t.i plant.

The importance of -'at-r- has already been brought out in considering its role
in rnineral transportation in the soil, as well as other functions p Fformed by it.
It is very vital to the plant in keei-ing the tender parts from collapsing, to
Elpply the needed minerals and to provide a proper medium for flashing the cells
of impurities. For example, an az.iua to thrive must have an abundance of water,
yet good drainage is equally essential.

The response of plants tr -'.:ter is such as to group tl.r-m under three distinct
di-.isions: (1) those which demand an abundance of water, s-ch as submerged
aq.;itics and swamp plants; (2) those that require a mwi.erate though constant
su pply of water, such as most of "uar annual Srd a an an a&ricultural plants, and
(3) those wl:ich-do best on very l-ttle -;Lcr: such as occir on a very dry soil,
aa cacti, liatris, sunflowers and gl"lllar.ia. The water requirements of a plant
should be studied and then carefully appliep for best development.

Plants often suffer in the garden fxo.i too much water rather than from too
little.' A water-soaked soil 'is low in o-xgen, and it tends to become sour from
decomposition that goe' on.. The-fir-' condition can be corrected through
drainage, and the second by a judicious use of lime. A wet soil is also cooler,
v-hich retards germination and gro.wt!.. Too frequent watering tends to shallow
r:.oting, and when watering is del-yed or stopped the roots may be unable to go
do'n deeper into the soil, and insufficient moisture rises to meet the increased
de:-.ands; consequently, the pl.xts wilt and soon die. The rose is a good example,
Theo soil becomes packed from. frequent watering and is low in oxygen content.
Other dangers from too wet a soil are scalding of the lower stems and mildewing
of the leaves. Damping. off, one of the most destructive pests of seedlings,
is encouraged by -:et soil a.d poor aeriation.


Frequently one has noticed how plants droop ond their leaves wilt or curl
when exposed to dry winds or severe h3at, but hot. they recover gradually when
these conditions subside. This wilting is a means of checking the evaporation
of water (transpiration) from within the plant. Toward dusk the plant recovers
its former rigidity because less water is lost than is absorbed. Calp.dium,
hydrangea and many other broad, thin-leafed plants illustrate this condition.

We are quite familiar with the value of starting bulbs in the dark for
proper root development and while the leaves are almost colorless this is
corrected shortly after bringing them into the light. Yet -.hen thi b ls are
allowed to start in the light thl roots a:r poorly former and the leaves are
short and slender. The flower stall are alsc =hurt.

Nasturtium, sunflower, gaillardia, s.elia and many other plants fare best
in full s-.lnight for at least the grcter part of the lay than in the shade.
Arbor-vitae, junipers, roses, spag panr: and ma:ny of our conifers require much
light for their best develo-ment; however, many of them will grow in moderate

Often we become discouraged with our lawns because the grass does not
spread well under the trees and shrubbery. The lack of sufficient light may be
the cause of such failure. Ber:- da grass requir-R co-siderable light for bust
development. St. Augustine grass can adj.ust itself to moderate light. Other
factors, such as lack of sufficient moisture for thu grass roots, since the
other vegetation absorbs it faster, or the toxic effect produced by root
excretions of other plants may also co.:-tribute to the failure of the grass in
such areas.

We have observed how certain plants struggle for light. Plants -keot
before a w-indow and allowed to receive light only from one direction will lean in
this direction,and unless their position is changed will become "one-sided".
Plants in a crowded seed-bed, or saplings crowded in a grov~ are spiidling
largely because of their struggle for light. Grap, Vi-ginic creeper, clematis,
chunbergia and a number of vii:s climb over n; sort of a support for light, ac.
in some instances will shut off practically .". li;ht from the plants upon which
they are clinging. A very good example of this is the effect the Florida or
.panigh L:oss has upon our trees. This plar.t is not a parasite, as some believe,
but the air, light and moisture it cuts off reduces the vigor of the tree.

Light is very vitalto all green plants because it enables the chlorophyll,
or green coloring matter, to make plant food. Yet sometimes the'light is too
strong so the plants have to ch-.ge the position. of their leaves, or modify
their leaf-form to correct the light. Young, tender leaves and stems are
frequently of a reddish tint. This pi:e!i.t tends to shield the chlorophyll frcm
the destructive effect of the li ht. Often hairs occur upon the surfaces of
leaves and stems, to reduce not only light but also transpiration. These hairs
reflect much light, thereby, reducing the direct influence of the rays.


The durr:-.ion of li.-t affects tL;- 'looming and fruiting of many plants.
Plants ,ha"e br.jn groutredi as long-day, shl.: t-day and plants indifferent to length
of day, acco ,ig. -; the number of hours c- .aylightt required for proper
fruiting. Lettuce, cabbage, beans, tomatoes, melone, iris, sunflowers, zinnia,
nasturti-m and verbena reouire from 13 to 16 hours of lir.!"- for blooming, and are
regarded as long-day plants, while asters, chr,;sa.th..-u, cosmos, certain bidens,
liatris and poinsettia require less than 10 hours of light to flower. These are
short-day plants. By darkening the. s-. t-day plants for a portion of a mid-
sum-mer's day they have been induced to b'oom. The converse is true for the long--
day plants.

With a decrcaz: in tem~.erature to a certa.ir. :inimnum, growth in size is
retarded, at lo-.r teimpratres ths e~p : cases to make its food, and with still
lower temperatures E S ~c.;:.: csez .-:. death ensues. Thus, ter.pere.ture is not
only necessary for life _roc6es *':.t7lso f .r;ij;.s the energy for then.

A plant thriving in a w,.rm place and moved to a cool one becomes inactive
until it has adjusted itself to its new home. Possibly it can never do this.
The reverse is true. Some plants are so fixed in their habits that much time is
required to overcome them. This is wall brought out by the deciduous habit of
many of our northern plants on being brought southward. Every year the shedding
of the leaves occurs at about the same. ti.e as in the original home, yet after
a time, shedding of foliage starts a little later in accordance with the period
in which the plant is in. Southern plants carried northward are readily caught
by early frosts and are frequently unprepared for tlhe northern winters because of
tha slowness in ripenin': of their wood. Frequently, we in Gainesville hae light
touches of winter before Christmas which tempers off the -wood and permits the
vegetation to withstand the colder -r:eather that follo--s, v.:hile farther down in
the state vegetation oho-e greater suffering even though the temperature does not
drop as low as in the northern portion of the state at this later period. This
tolerance to lc.-: temperature i. ti.cd largely w-:ith certain chemical changes
occurring in the wood of the pla,.t, rLich are induced by the first touch of cold
that causes the sap to fall. Dry soeds can .-,iti.sta.nd a temperature of 100 degrees
Centigrade or a little above for varying- periods but water-soa:ed seed are readily
killed at 70 degrees Centigrade, so plants rich in sap are more susceptible to
injury from temperature extremes than those lo,- in san.

Many plants are limited solely by tem-peratur... 1.-ny costly attempts have
been made to grow auinces, cherries, as well as cert..in assircai varieties of
peaches in certain regions uf the South, but too prolong-dc high temperatures of
cuiamer, and insufficient cold in -:.nter to sti:.'.-:ate the plants for proper growth
:rrd production have resulted. Tr.;.peratt'r: is a ba-rrir to northern migration of
citrus, water hyacinth, c:-ress, bidens, l-.uco.nth., crepe myrtle and many of our
strictly southern plants, while peony, aqcillegia, tulip, prince's feather,
tamarack, spruce, lilac and other typical northern plants have not succeeded in
the South, except where extra care has been t.al:cn to pro-vide the proper habitat.
Potatoes give highest yields in regions vwit the lo e-st suixn..;r trmoprature.

'Many of our worst .- Ids, rots and ru.-t.c the arden develop best during
warm, muggy weather. ...

Relation bet;w .r plants and animals is brought out through the process of
pollination, proportion and sClng -..:.'"certain plants. Time here will not
permit a detail*..accout~ .of~t~* pc .a! devices developed by plants to insure
against "seifr"and to..tt'Jt' insct' dtr-:other small creatures to effect
pollination,,. h tHi. dei d on variu animal,. .and. agencies for their
disseminatib ;'but many.of.-. ,Lem arT'inelicus-c~.a3highly entertaining. Many of
the labiat~aeand slender t., ilar flowers are hight. specialized for this
o *. .,*,. ..%
I'oles, crickets, w-is', rodents and- insects d6 b; iderable damage to
plants. The nematode l-worm, is also a ve'v s.' .pest in most of our
soils, and can be cont:;lled largely by selecting plaiit' t are resistant to
its infection. Some d'.the burrcui. i.pour'soil :. thos organisms helps
to stimulate root gro':vh and also to," .L ti' -il; t:o4a-1-.-it may do moro
damage than good at hc tim. i' .-,
'. .. .., ,v'
The importance' t S ra s i-fertilizing the Sumati .g; the
bumblcbce in relation to scd..';roduction of "rd clovur; the value 4.; honeybee
in our groves, and many othcr r'cxa~plos show,': th ,:..'ct of thosc age'n ;
plant production, and the value of such an' e ..-.ir c4nt. 'pps@;L.t Iasolvcd
problems .in proper-seod productionn mayy;. e:t'! *i ft'ihn through this
means. The''rlation of'uicro-organis. .soil-to lant growth -is very
important. h

One can well-afford to giyve: Zr 'i thought to the-solection of plants for
the particular sit tion.int'to .'i"'.^n they.arc to be i-troduced by giving special
regard to the irnfluencos of.-their ne,; x:-ir'o-ant.

.- .


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 6
Radio Series October 18, 1933


By- W. A. Leukel, agronomist,
Florida Experiment Station

The fertilization of an ornamental garden is a matter -where considerable
judgment must be used by the individual. Only a few fundamental facts concern-
ing the chief essentials of garden fertilization can be given in the time al-
lotted here.

The establishment of a proper soil environment for plant growth is one of
the first essentials in ornamental gardening. Such a plant environment means
a friable soil high in organic matter. This soil condition not only provides
various plant nutrients but conserves soil moisture so essential for plant
growth. Organic matter when needed can be supplied to garden soils from four
sources -- namely: woods-mold, barnyard manure, muck or well rotted compost.
Barnyard manure, when used, should be well rotted. A sufficient amount should
be used to prevent leaching in sandy soils and also to bring about a more fri-
?ble condition in heavier soils. MIanure should be plowed under and well incor-
porated with the soil before the soil is used for the growth of garden plants.
If added while moist, its value will be enhanced. Where manure is not avail-
able, a good muck may be incorporated with the soil to equal advantage. Mucks
should likewise be incorporated with the soil sometime before garden crops are
planted. Most mucks are low in bacterial flora and therefore when well incor-
porated with the soil a better bacterial activity is created in the soil-muck

Well rotted compost can be applied and used to increase soil organic mat-
ter in the same manner as in the case of mucks and barnyard manure. This ma-
terial can be prepared by composting all waste vegetation during the growing
season./ Compost should always be prepared in connection with garden fertili-

Where soils have a high clay content, packing or puddling often occurs
after heavy rains. Such soils are hard to cultivate when in this condition.
Where the garden area is not too large, sand may be incorporated with the soil
to give them a loamy consistency and make them easier to cultivate. Where the
garden area is of considerable size, lime may be supplied to the soil in vary-
ing quantities depending upon its clay content. This treatment has a tenden-
cy to make the soil more friable and easier to cultivate. The application of
lime to sandy soils should be practiced very sparingly or not at all. It may
stimulate growth temporarily but later retardation of plant growth often oc-
curs. Competent advice should be sought before using lime on these kinds of
garden soils.

- 2

To further provide a proper soil environment for plant growth, some sys-
tem of drainage should be provided to carry off the excess surface water af-
ter heavy rains and the free soil water. The underground plant parts such as
roots, bulbs, etc., need a proper air supply as well, just as do the aerial
growth parts. A water-logged soil deprives the lower plant parts of a proper
air supply, and a retarded growth results. Plants utilize the water held by
the soil particles or the so-called film water. Water that flows freely te-
tween the soil particles should be allowed to drain off and permit a proper
circulation of soil air for plant respiration and bacterial activity.

Water is the so-called universal solvent. The availability and utiliza-
tion of fertilizing materials depend upon the extent to which such materials
are dissolved by the soil water and thus made available for plant growth.
The utilization of fertilizing materials by plants can be realized only
through an adequate water supply. The growth behavior of different plants can
be controlled by proper fertilization only to the extent to which such mate-
rials are made available to plants by water. Vegetative growth is often stim-
ulated through higher nitrogen fertilization supplemented by an ample water
supply. Flowering and seed production in many plants is brought about not
only by decreasing the supply of nitrogen but also by retarding the availa-
bility of such nitrogen by diminishing the available water. Besides facili-
tating the availability of plant nutrients, water is essential for the va-
rious metabolic processes that take place within the plant. The transloca-
tion and assimilation of the various plant nutrients within the plant are per-
formed in a soluble form and water is required for this purpose. To further
carry on these processes a certain turgidity must be maintained within the
plant. This condition is brought about by maintaining a required osmotic
pressure within the plant. Without an available water supply this condition
cannot be maintained. Respiration and photosynthesis in plants require a
moist surface within the pore spaces of the leaves for the absorption of oxy-
gen and carbon dioxide. Plants in a wilted or semi-wilted condition are un-
able to carry on those vital processes efficiently and therefore are retarded
in their growth.

The various requirements for water by plants necessitate some form of
irrigation to furnish them with the nooded supply. The individual can best
judge for himself what form of water supply system meets his needs. 'lJter
should never be applied to plants in quantities beyond their growing needs.
Such excess results in surface erosion and in the leaching of plant nutrients
from the soil in the drainage water. Ecessivo evaporation of water from the
suil surface can be avoided by irrigating garden plants during the cooler
part of the day when such evaporation is at its lowest. Soil moisture can be
further conserved through the use of mulches and the eradication of weeds,
Weeds utilize a groat part of the soil moisture necessary for garden plants,
and their eradication should not be overlooked.

The fertilizers to be used for gard n plants depend upon the kind of
plants grown and the stage of growth at which such plants are to be utilized.
Besides the various forms of animal manure used for garden fertilization, va-
rious commercial fertilizers are available, both in the organic and inorganic
form. Those known as complete fertilizers generally contain the three chief
fertilizing constituents -- nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium -- in various
proportions or percentages.

- 3 -

Single fertilizers grncrally contain one of those constituents. If nc-
cessary a complete fertilizer high in nitrogen should bc incorporated with the
soil before planting or shortly after the plants begin to produce top growth.
The procedure to be followed after this depends upon the kind of garden plant
and tho purpose for which it is grown.

For fertilizing purposes, ornamental garden plants may be divided into
four classes:

1. Foliage plants
2. Flowering plants
SFruiting plants
SBulbs or fleshy roots

Foliage plants may be annuals or perennials. These plants are grown for
their leafage or foliage. To produce this kind of growth they must be kept
in a vigorous vegetative growth condition. After adding a complete fertilizer
early in the season, fertilizing materials high in nitrogen should be applied
at short intervals during the growing season. This fertilization should al-
ways be accompanied by a sufficient water supply to make such materials a.-i...-
able to the plants. Where the iron content of the soil is insufficient tor
ample photosynthetic activity in the plants, a light application of coppera,
added to the soil in the form of a thin spray will be helpful. In case :I
perennial foliage plants nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied too -ateo
in the season so as to have the young succulent growth killed by early f':ras.
Fertilizers lower in nitrogen applied during the late growing season wil.'. be
stored within the plants and result in early vigorous growth the following

To bring about a maximum production of flowers on plants a certain rela-
tive organic composition of the plants must be attained, especially bet-wee
nitrogen and carbohydrate compounds in the parts of the plants where such
flowers are produced. A vigorous vegetative growth should be attained by
these plants during the early growing season. To attain this condition fer-
tilizers rather high in nitrogen should be supplied to the plants. This fer-
tilization brings about an abundant leafage for the elaboration of carbohy-
drate materials in the plants. After a sufficient size of plants with ab n-
dant leafage is attained, nitrogen fertilization with its accompanying water
supply should be reduced. This brings about a lower nitrogen supply to the
plants. The continual elaboration of carbohydrates by means of the large leaf
area results in a high carbohydrate content in the plants in relation to ni-
trogen. This composition relation is associated with reproduction or flower-
ing in such plants. If all other factors arefhvorable such as light, temr.erc.-
ture, moisture, etc., abundant flowering will take place.

To keep plants in a flower producing stage, flowers should not be per-
mitted to form fruits or seeds. Continual removal of flowers before fruit
formation reverts the flo ,:er bc.ring parts of the plants to a vegetative growv:
condition, and the plant gradually grows back to the reproductive or floweri:.;
stage. After fertilization of the flowers or gametic union in flowering pla..t
the plants acquire an increased capacity for absorbing plant nutrients. 'he
process of reproduction appears to stimulate this feeding power of plants vp
to the time of fruit formation. The application of fertilizing materials not
too high in nitrogen at this advanced flowering period will keep plants in a

- 4

vigorous growth condition by supplying sufficient mine.ra?. nutrients for
abundant flower production. To promote this increased capacity of plants,
fruit formation must not be permitted to talk place.

Where the fruit of the plant is sought in ornamental garden plants, vi-
gorous flowering is a pre-requisite for such fruit production. In addition
to this, the plant must possess a stored supply of organic and inorganic
foods so as to develop the fruit when it once begins to form. To obtain this
condition in plants they should be fertilized with fertilizers rather high in
nitrogen so as to produce vigorous vegetative parts with abundant leafage.
This increased leaf area is needed for the elaboration of organic foods be-
yond the growing needs of the plants. These excess foods are stored within
the plants and later utilized in the development of the fruit. As in the case
of all flowering plants, when sufficient vegetative growth is produced the ni-
trogen supplied to the plants should be decreased. This with a slightly de-
creased water supply will bring the plants into flowering which is pre-requi-
site to fruit production. As formerly stated, plants have an increased ab-
sorbing power for soil nutrients after fertilization of the reproductive
parts. Commercial fertilizer applied during this period will supply the plant
with abundant nutrients for later production of fruit. After fruit fornmaiior
occurs translocation of plant foods to the fruit forming areas takes placb
within the plant. If, before this period the plants have been properly far-
tilized, well formed fruits will result.

The fruit wood of many plants is formed the year previous to fruit forma-
tion. After reproduction in such plants, fertilization with a complete fer-
tilizer stimulates the storage of plant foods and the production of fruit
growing areas for the following season. During the late growing season phos-
phate and potash fertilization furthers the storage of plant foods for the fol-
lowing season. High nitrogen fertilizers at this time keep the new growth
too succulent and susceptible to frost injur;-.

Plants grown for the production of bulbs or fleshy roots should be ferti-
lized so as to stimulate the growth of the underground plant parts. Ferti-
lizers applied to such plants should be hi;h in soluble phosphorus. This ele-
ment has a tendency to increase root or bulb production on these plants. Early
vigorous vegetative growth is essential for the production of a large top
growth with sufficient leafage. Roots and bulbs require the elaboration of
large quantities of organic materials, especially carbohydrates. Therefore
an abundant leafage is essential for this purpose. Nitrogen fertilization
early in the season is necessary for a good top growth. Fertilizers applied
later should be lower in nitrogen and higher in phosphorus. Where sugars fjrm
a large part of the materials in bulbs and roots, potassium is very essential
for their elaboration. Fertilizers applied after early growth should hav, ':?.s
element increased in their mixture.

To summarize briefly, garden soils should be high in organic matter con-,
tent, they should be well drained and adequately watered. As to fertilizers,
let us keep in mind that after applying a general commercial fertilizer earl-
in the season fertilizers high in nitrogen will produce vigorous growth a-.
fine foliage. If the plants are grown for flowers or fruit they should firs-
be made to grow off vigorously, and then the nitrogen content of the ferti-
lizer should be reduced. For bulbs, fertilizers high in phosphorus are best.


.%iClAIT' 0"- rLORIO A.
CCC. tN -,
Orn-ment-l G-rdening in Florid- Thlk Ho. 7
Rdio Series October 25, 1933

By Mrs. Idr" Keeling Crespp, libr-rinn
Floridr Experiment St-tion

The literature of ornomontpl gardening h-s h-d difficult time to come
into its own. It hos been hidden under 11 sorts of subjects nnd only within
the ltst qu-rter of century hrs it been brought out into the light of dry to
develop in its own importance.

It is possible thpt long before the 'dvent of the book in the form of
cly t-blet or roll of p-pyrus, m-n pr-.cticed some sort of ornomento'l grrden-
ing. We know th.t he had knowledge of pl-nts, s~6d he hpd n cert-in love of
be-uty rs is evidenced by the pictures : ipped in stone that hrve been dis-
covered from time to time by -rch-,eologists in their excnv'tions. Orn-mentr'-
tion of the body wo.s evident, but whether this extended to m-n's surroundings
we do not kIow.

CIpy tablets and papyrus rolls were used for records in ancient times
to certai-z extent, but it w-.s not until the 15th century when the German
Gutenberg invented the method by which poper could be printed from mov.-ble
blocks in n printing press, that n literature on l-ny subject w:s assured. Al-
most imiwedirtely it developed that mo-ny people h.d the urge to write so thnt
with the passing of the yenrs the world has become fairly well stocked with
good, b-d -nd indifferent books.

Up to this time -11 the gardens h.n. been mnde following P severely for-
mol style. They were planned rnd l-id out with leor: trical precision. This
ws true to such Pn extent th-t in 172S B'tty L-, :,, in a book on "I:ew Prin-
ciples of Gardening," devoted ll of P-rt I to ge)xntry. Tie eldbor'te de-
signs nnd figures could be secured only by the most careful computation.

This type of g-rden hnd existed for so long tht gr"du-lly it became
irksome to those people who longed for more ntturl ,rr-ngement. Finally,
the poets nnd pointers beg-n to m-ke written Pnd pointed pppeols for less rrti -
fici-lity 'nd more nntur-l beauty. Milton, Pope Addison Pnd the Dutch poin-ers
bec-me insistent for this change in ornnment-l plantings Pnd planning.

In 1764 Willi'm Shenstone in "Unconnected Thoughts on Grrdening" wrote:
"Gnrdeni-g mry be divided into three species -- kitchen-g-rdening p-rterre-
grrdening rnd lndskip, or picturesque-g'rdening. The 1-tter type is the
one in which we ore most interested. It consists in plOesing the imogintion
by scenes of grandeur, beauty or variety. Convenience merely h"s no shore
here; -ny further th.n os it pleases the im-gin-tion." It is believed that in
this writing of Shenstone origin-ted the term "l-ndsc-pe g-rdening." It would


seem to me thrt in his expression "picturesque garden" he hns also been respon-
sible for our modern "ornoment-l garden" for -n orn-mentr.l garden worthy of the
name cert-inly must be picturesque.

In Shenstone's own beautiful garden, engr-ved on a tablet, were these

"Here in cool grot and mossy cell,
We rural fnys -nd faeries dwell;
Tho rarely seen by mortal eye,
When the pale moon, ascending high,
Darts thru yon limes her quivering beams,
We frisk it near these crystal streams."

iha.t a beautiful picture this brings to mind rnd how suggestive of on
iderl Florida garden!

It w~s some time before the ide. advanced b, the poets for picturesque
gardens spread through Europe. Mriny people persisted in continuing a pr-ctice
about which Bacon hd written over a. century before: "As for the making of
Knots or Figures, with divers Colored E-rths, they be but toys, you m"y see as
good sight mrniy times in Tarts ... I do not like Images cut out of Juniper, or
other garden-stuff; they are for Children."

The garden based on the elaborate geometrical design was doomed, and
while its imr-edi-te successor wr.s different from the garden of today, it was
gradually approaching it.

It is a strange f-ct that much if not most of our early horticultural
literature wcs written by persons who had no primary interest in horticulture.
I have already commented on the part played by the poets and painters in chrng-
ing the form of the garden. It rem-ined for the physician nnd nntur-list to
give the world first knowledge of pl-nts Pnd pl at life. The old "Herbals"
written by them are of immense importance.

It w-s the physician -nd the nturalist who were first interested in the
plrnt life of America. One of the e-rliest known American writers to list
plants from Znglrnd th-t would or would not grow in this country wns John Jos-
selyn. In 1672 he published a book entitled: "Tew Englnd's Rarities Dis-
covered in Birds, Be-sts, Fishes, Serpents, and Plants of the Country." His
list of plants consisted of an nssortMient of vegetables -nd flowers, including
with c-bbnge and lettuce, the hollyhock, gilly flower, marygold (spelled m---ry-
g-ol-d) and he comments tha~t rosemary will not survive there. This is the only
authentic account of wh-t grew in those e-rly NTew Englrnd gardens.

In 1791 William B-rtrrm published his: "Trrv-ls through North and South
Carolina, Georgin, Erst -nd West Floridr.." B-rtr-m was nanturalist rnd he
visited these states for the purpose of collecting plants. His list of plants
found growing in Florida was the first one to be published. It is an important
contribution to the early pl-nt literature of the st-te rnd South.

- 3 -

In his "Tew Cyclopedia of American Horticulture," L. H. Briley describes
the colonial gardens most interestingly. He writes: "The colonial orn-mentrl
gardens were unlike our own in the relative poverty of plants, in the absence
of the landscape arrangement, in the r rity of greenhouses, rnd the lack of
smooth-shaven lowns (for the lnwn movwer w-s not inn.ofted till this century)."
He gives r brief description of the private garden of Governor Peter Stuyvestnt
of New Amsterdam (now New York) which the Governor c-lled the "Bouwerie." It
required 40 or 50 negro slaves "nd several white servants to care for it. The
site of th-t famous old g-rden is the location of Iew York's "Bowery" of today
-- truly grert change.

The Bulletin of the Garden Club of Americ- is replete with articles r-
bout the garden. One in p-rticulrr of speci-l interest wvs published in the
September 1928 number of the Bulletin. It was "Colonial Gardens," by Rachel
McM. Mi. Hunt. One interested in Florid- gardens should re-d it.

With the beginning of the 19th century a number of American books on
agriculture beg-n to be published. The term agriculturee" was inclusive of
horticulture, and floriculture or gardening usually were given some mention.
In 1804, John Gardiner -nd Dpvid Hepburn published -t W-"shington, D. C., n very
small book, measuring only four by six inches, entitled: "The American Garden-
er, containing mple directions for working a Kitchen Garden, every month in
the year; and copious instructions for the cultivation of Flower Gardens, Vine-
yards, nurseries, Hop-Y-rds, Green Houses, and Hot Houses." The authors cer-
tainly wanted to cover everything while they were P.t it.

Another example of including information about vegetables, ornament.ls
or floriculture is shown in a book published in 1823 by William Cobbett; "The
Americ-n Gardener. A tre-tise on the situ-tion, soil, fencing and lying out
of gardens; on the making and managing of hot beds rnd greenhouses, Pnd on the
prop.agtion rnd cultivation of the sever-nl sorts of vegetables, herbs, fruits
and flowers."

The first great l-ndscppe gexdener of Americ: was Andrew Jackson Down-
ing. He was born at Tewburg, .T. Y., on October 30, 1815 and died by drowning
on July 28, 1852. In 1841 he published: "Treatise on the Theory and Practice
of Lnndsc-pe G-rdening and Cottrge Residences." Four years lter he published:
"Fruits and Fruit Trees of Americr.." The l-tter is credited with escrting more
influence in rousing the interest of people in fruit growing than -11 other
books at thrt time. After the Author's derth it rvs continued "nd several
times revised by his elder brother, Charles Downing.

It wrs not until 1823 that P writer published book devoted exclusively
to flowers. This was Rol-nd Green's "Treatise on the Cultivation of Flowers."
It w-.s followed in 1839 by the first Americrn book devoted to one flower. This
wrs published by Sayers and w-s a treatise on the d.ahlia.

F-While the horticultural book was of gre-t import-nce to the gardener,
during the last fifty years of the 19th century it w.s the agricultural m1-g-
zine that proved the most helpful.

In our ov;n st"te, the Florid- Dispntch, 1 ter becoming the Florid,
Frmner -nd Fruit Grower, published with n few interruptions from S169 to 1910,
rnd the Floridr Agriculturist, from 1`79 to 1911, c-rried m-ny articless of in-
terest to the gardener. These furnished the e-rliest inform-tion to be h-d
concerning the growing of flowers -nd -rwns in Florid-.

In considering the liter-ture of orniment.l gardening one must not over-
look the published proceedings of the Florid- St-te Horticultur-I Society. The
Society w-s organized in 1638 -nd for the first Icur ye-rs the proceedings were
published in the Florida, Agriculturist. In 1:92 tle 5th Proceeding w .s pub-
lished sepnrntely, which h"s been the custom ever since.

By the beginning of the 20th century books rnd mrg,-zines were so numer-
ous th"t the g-rdener, -long with others, h"~ dil;'ulty in selecting wh-t
would be most helpful to him. In 1906, L. K. B".iley in his "Cyclopedir of
Americ.n Eorticulture" stated th.,t pt thit time t-ere were more thrn 600 books
on Americ-n horticulture. Th"t number hms been multiplied mrny times now.

Kny of you will rec-ll the series of tlkcs given over the r-dio 1,et
yenr on "Crnrment'l Gnrdening." There -re -, few copies of these trlks left.
If you would crre for them -rite to the Florida. Agricultur-l Experiment St--
tion, 2ninesville, -nd request them -nd you will be sent copies. They will be
.n import-~t addition to your collection of gardening liter-ture.

The prt played by the -griculturl- experiment st tions in developing
the orn-nentnl garden nmd its literature is beyond estimate. Rese-rch mid ex-
periments in soils, fertilizers, insects -nd diseases h..ve been carried on by
the Florid. Ag riculturn. Ex.eriment St tion, so th-t tod-y the Florid. g-rdener
does not h.ve to rely on wh"t he thinks m-y be the best procedure in prep-ring
his garden, but whn.t he knows is best. The bulletins issued by the Experiment
St-tions -nd United States Dep-rtment of Agriculture 're sometimes considered
too ephemerrl to be classed -.s re.1 liter ture but this is f-r from true. Fo
Florid-. library's garden collection will be complete without including these
vnlu.ble publications.

Before concluding I -m going to give you r list of references of in-
terest to : gardener. Some of the publications were written strictly for Flo-
ridp n-id Floridr conditions; others -re of gener-l n-ture; 's the fund.men-
t-ls of gardening rre the snme, no matter where one lives, 1ll should be of in-

Florid". Bull, 1 s

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Strtir.n rnd the Florid. Agricultur-
al Extension Service -t G-inesville have issued number of informative bulle-
tins on ornament ls .nd grrdening. As long .s the supply 1-sts, these m-y be
obt-ined free by Florid-. residents.

In the following classified citations, -11 bulletins listed -s "St.tion':
bulletins or press bulletins should be ordered from the Agriculturrl Experiment
St-tion, G-inesville, Fl"., while those listed ns "Extension" bulletins should
be ordered from the Agricultural Extension Service, Gpinesville, Florid-.

- 4 -

- 5 -

G-rden Flowers
Annu-l Flowering Plints for Florid. -- John V. Wrtkins, Extension Bul. 73.
Growing Annurl Flowering Plrnts -- W. L. Floyd. Press Bul. 443.
Herbaceous Perenni-ls -- John V. Wntkins, Extension Bul. 76.

Rose Growing -- W. L. Floyd rnd John V. Witkins. Extension Bul. 59.

L''vns and Shrubs
L-nns in Floridp -- C. R. Enlow and W. E. Stokes, Station Bul. 209.
Found..tion Pl-ntings for Floridn Homes -- A. P. Spencer. Extension Bul. 72.

The Soils of Florida -- 0. C. Brypn. Extension Bulletin 42.

Trees, Prlms, Vines -nd Ferns
Asp-rngus plumosus -- Hnrold Mowry. Press Bul. 3S4.
-rtive lnd Exotic P-lms of Floridp -- Hmrold 'owry. Station Bul. 228.
Orn-ment!l Trees -- H-rold Yowry. Station Bul. 261.
Orn-mentrl Vines -- Harold Mowry. Station Bul. 188.

Dise-ses nnd Insects
Brovrn P-tch of Lpwns and Golf Greens, and Its Control -- Geo. F. Weber, Press
Bu-l. 437.
Florid. Truck and G rden Insects -- J. R. Watson. Station Bul. 232.
The Flower Ilrips -- J. R. Wptson. Station Bul. 162.
Easter Lily YIosnic -- 3rdmrn West. Press Bul. 445.
Mosnic Diserses of Vegetable Plants -- Geo. F. Weber. Press Bul. 446.
Rose COnker -- Willipm B. Shippy. Press Bul. 447.
Blnck Spot of Roses -- Willirm B. Shippy. Press Bul. 448.
Powdery Hildew of Roses -- William B. Shippy. Press Bul. 449.
Yellowing of Centipede Gr-ss *nd Its Control -- 0. C. Bryan. Press Bul. 450.
Prep-r.tion of Lime-Sulphur Sprny -- Geo. F. Weber. Press Bul. 452.
Methods of Preparing Borderux Mixture -- Geo. F. Weber. Press Bul. 453.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Woody Pliats -- A. S. REoads. Press Bul. 454.
Selection and Shipment of Plnt Spec-nens for Dirgnosis or Identific-tion --
Ceo. F. Weber. Press Bri. 455.

Other Bulletins
The Strte Dep-rtment of Agriculture nt T.'ll*. ssee has issued a number
of bulletins on ornemnntals and other garden subjects for free distribution.
Also, ths Unitcd States Department of Agricultuie, Washington, D. C., has a
list of puclicetions available for distribution. This list can be obtained
from the Depertment, and bulletins on ornamentals End gardening which are of
interest caoi be ordered.

Gardenin- Books for the South
The following books should prove to be of interest to Florida gardeners.

Baker, Mary Francis.
Florida wild flowers. An introduction to the flora of the Florida
Peninsula. :Tew York. Macmillan Co. 1925.


Claiborne, Elizabeth.
annuall of gardening for use in the centr-l southern states.
aTshville. Parthenon Press. 1932.

Dillon, Julia Lester.
The blossom circle of the year in southern gardens. ITew York.
A. T. De La Mare. 1922.

Dorn, Ia.bel Thite and Marjory Stoneman Douglas.
The book of twelve for south Florida gardens. 1928.

Hume, H. H.
Gardening in the lower South. iTew York. Macmillan. 1929.
(Rural science series).

McLaren, J.
Gardening in California, landscape end flower. 3d ed. rev. San
Francisco, Am. Robertson. 1924.

Randall, G. I.
Dutch and French bulb-culture in Florida, also diversified farming.
DeLand, Florida. The E. 0. Painter Printing Co. 1926.

Simpson, Charles Torrey.
In lower Florida wilds. New York. Putnam. 1920.

Ornamental gardening in Florida; a treatise on the native and exotic
decorative plants adapted to Florida and their cultivation, with
suggestions for the ornamentation of our homes and grounds.
Little River, Florida. The Author.

Out of doors in Florida; the adventures of a naturalist; together
with essays on the wild life and the geology of the state. iliari.
2. B. Douglas Co. 1923.

Small, John Kunkel.
Ferns of Florida, being descriptions of and notes in the fern-plants
growing naturally in Florida. 7ew York. Science Press. 1931.

Flora of Southeastern states. (A new edition of which will be pub-
lished shortly.)

Wilson, 'rs. Miller and Mrs. J. A. Ferguson.
In Florida gardens; suggested planting mEterial both native and
cultivated for Florida gardens. Jacksonville, Florida. The Authors.

Storied gardens of the old South; I.icheux's aprden, Middleton Place. Garden
".agpzine and Home Builder. Vol. 40, number 3, pPges 165-167. Tovem-
ber 1924.


The Bulletin of the Grrden Club of America, Washington, D. C.
Other Books on Gerdening

Bailey, L. H.
The cultivated conifers in 'orth America. New York. Macmillan. 1933.

The pruning book. New York. Mpcmillen. 1923.

and Ethel Zoe Bailey.
Hortus, e concise dictionary of gardening, general horticulture and
cultivated plants in North America. New York. Macmillan. 1930.

Barron, L.
American home book of gardening. New York. Doubleday. 1931.

Barnes, Parket T.
House plants and how to grow them. New York. Doubledpy, Pege & Co.

Beal, Alvin C.
The gladiolus and its culture, how to propagate, grow and handle
gladioli outdoors nnd under glass. New York. Orange Judd Pub. Co.

Bennett, J. 1.
Roadside development. Yew York. Macmillon. 1929.

Bottomley, ".. 3.
The design of small properties. A book for the home-owner in city
and country. Tew York. Macmillrn. 1929.

Correvon, Henry.
Rock garden Pnd -~pine plrnts. New York. Mrcmillrn. 1930.

Enton, Wrnter Prichrrd.
everybody'ss garden; trlks on nnturrl design nnd the use of simple mp-
terirl. New York. A. A. Knopf. 1932.

Fairbridge, Dorothea.
Gardens of South Africa. London. A. & C. Black. 1924.

Findlny, H.
Garden making -nd keeping. Pop. ed. New York. Doubleday. 1932.

Fox, Mrs. Helen Morgenthau.
Patio gr.rdens. New York. Macmillan. 1929.

Harwood, TW. S.
irew creations in plant life. An authoritative account of the life
and work of Luther Burbank. iYew York. Mrcmillpn. 1924.

- 8 -

HEwwks, 1llison.
Pioneers of pl.-nit study. This book w-s originally plann-ied, -nd some
parts of it written, in collbor-tion with the l1.te G. S. Boulger.
London. The Sheldon Press. 1928.

Hole, S. Reynolds.
A book o.bout roses. How to grow Pnd show them. London. Edward
Arnold. 1906. (Out of print but recently reprinted)

Hottes, A. C.
A book of perennials. 4th rev. ed. New York. A. T. De Ln Mre Co.

1001 garden questions answered New York. A. T. De La MUre Co. 1926.

Pr.octicl. pl1nt propagation. I.Tew York. A. T. DeLa Mpre Co.

T-e book of shrubs. "evw York. A. T. De Lr "'re Co. 1928.

Hubbard, Henry Vincent nnd Theodorp Kimbn.ll.
An introduction to the study of lndscrpe design. -'ew York. ,,cmillan.

Hume, H. H-rold.
Aznlers rnd cLmelli.s. New York. Mticmillln. 1931.

McCurdy, Robert M.
Book of garden flowers. G-rden City, 1'ew York. Doubleday, Dorai ~n: Co.
1931. (Previously published under titles G-rden Flowers Worth Knowing
&.d r rden Flowers).

McF-rl.nd, J. Korace.
Modern roses. A uniform descriptive list of Pll important roses in
commerce. New York. Macmillan. 1930.

The rose in Americ-. New York. M.-cmillnn. 1926.

Moore, 7. J.
Culture of flowers. Toronto. Ryerson Press. 1931.

Morgenthru, Helen.
G rdening with herbs for flavor ?nd fr-gr-nce. Zew York. ? cmillrn.

Ortloff, H. S.
Annurls in the g-rden. New York. .cmillr.. 1932.

nd H. S. R-ymore.
G-rden m"inten.nce. New York. MUcmillll. 1932.


Inform-1 g-rdens. -ew York. M-cmill.n. 1933.

Perenni-l g-rdens. iYew York. M-.cmill-n. 1931.

Rexford, 2ben 2.
Indoor g-rdening.. Plilr.delphi-. J. 3. Lippincott. 1910.

Rockwell, F. F.
DKhlins. -Iew York. ,'r-cmill.n. 1929.

1-l-diolus. Yew York. 1Mcmill-n. 1930.

L-.wns. New York. :-cmillnn. 1929.

Roses. New York. I'cmill-n. 1930.

Shrubs. Iew York. 1cmill-n. 192S.

Thie book of bulbs. A guide to the selection, planting, -nd cultiv-t-
ing of bulbs for spring, surmmcr "-nd -uturim flowering -nd to winter-
long be-uty from bulbs indoors. :ew ork. :"-cmill'n. 1929.

Ro' do,E. S.
Scented garden. Boston. H le, Cushmpn -nd Flint. 1931.

Rush, :. W.
Ignorrmus g-rden book. Few York. Se-rs Pub. Co. 1931.

Simonds, 0. C.
Lrndscnpe gardening. :TewT York. :-cmill".. 1920.

Stevens, G. A.
Climbing roses. i1ew York. M.cmrillrn. 1933.

Volz, Z. C.
Everybody's ga.rden. 1'ew York. Or-nge Judd Pub. Co. 1928.

Home flower-growing. 'ev York. Mc.-ill-n. 1923.

Wr.ite, W. H.
Lodern d.hlir culture. ITew York. A. T. De Lr Mr.re Co. 1928.

We-thers, John.
The bulb book on bulbous rnd tuberous plants for the open 'ir, stove
nd geenhouse. London. John .Vurr.y. 1911.

- 10 -

Weston, T. A.
All about flowering bulbs for home and garden. Tew York. A. T. De
Ln M're Co. 1931.

Wilder, Louise Beebe.
Adventures in P. suburban garden. New York. Macmillan. 1931.

Wilson, Ernest H.
Aristocrats of the garden. Booton. The Stratford. 1926.

China, Mother of gardens. Boston. The Stratford. 1929.

Felt nnd Rpnkin.
Insects and diseases of ornrm.'ntl tres rnC shrubs. New York.
Mncmillln. 1933.

Held, Frederick De Forest.
Mnnunl of plant diseases. N'ew York. McGrrw-Hill. 1926.

Mason, A. Freeman.
Spraying, dusting -nd fumigation of plants. New York. Macmillan.

Rankin, W. Howard.
Manual of tree diseases. New York. Macmillan. 1923.

Voorhees, Edward V.
Fertilizers. Ncw York. A. T. De La Mare Co. 1926.

Garden Literature

Dyer, Natalie L.
Ancient garden books. Garden club of America. Bulletin. Vol. 5,
number 1, p-ges 64-69. January 1933.

Jensen, L. P.
Fascinating old cooks on grrde-ing. Gardeners' Chronicle of America.
Vol. 31, number 2. p-ges 33-36, 42. February 1927.

Traub, H.
The development of American horticultural literature, chiefly between
1800 and 1850. National horticultur-1 mPg'-ine, vol. 7, number 3,
pages 97-103. July 1928.

Coo.0 RaIING

Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 8
'-.dio Series November 1, 1933


By Erdman West, Mycologist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

'or the past six weeks our fence rows, woods and many of our gardens have
been gay with a native shrub bearing dense clusters of brilliant purple berries.
Ml.Ir.y of my audience will recognize it at once. What is its name? Well, the
popular name is French Mulberry. Bult the botany books say it is a native of
America and does not occur in France. Further, they do not classify it among the
mulberries. Then what do they call it? The scientific name or botanical naz;e i.s
Callicaroa americana. But you say "Botanical names are so difficult. And they
don't mean anything to me." Perhaps a little explanation of the form and
derivation of botanical names will help us to appreciate them.

Many other popular names are just as misleading as the one just mentioned.
Spanish moss is neither a moss nor SpDnish, being closely related to the pi.eapple
Corn in the United States means something entirely different from corn in England.
A few popular common names, however, are used consistently and mean definite
plants, as Cherokee Rose and live oak. Many others are very ambiguous. Papaw
may mean either one of two very different plants. The term "bay" is applied to so
rany. different plants that I will not attempt to list them. Moreover, no English
popular name would be understood in Russia or France or Japan. The objections Co
popular names then are that they are indefinite and not widely understood.

The use of Latin binomials to designate plants dates from the time of
Linnaeus about 1753. Up to the time of this great Swedish naturalist, plants had
been studied and described principally for their reputed medicinal properties.
Close relationships among them had been recognized ard related plants had been
grouped under a common name. For instance, all roses were grouped under "R,:;a",
the Latin word for rose. The various kinds of roses were distinguished by shic.:.
descriptions. Sincd Latin was the common classical language of the period, .he-'e
OicZcr:iptions also were in Latin. Linnaeus hit upon the happy plan of design .iLii
cach kind by one Latin adjective in addition to the group name. A white rose ,.:
-. aeus' time, he catalogued as Rosa alba and followed this with a descrip......
'.ie plant. Piper was the Latin word for pepper and so the plant that produce,. -t.-
black pepper of commerce became Piper nigirum, followed by the complete descrip,..
cf the plant.

Probably Linnaeus did not intend this combination to be the name of the pla:
when he first used it. He was resorting to it merely as an indicator to save LnF
trouble of reading through each entire description. However, it soon became
customary to refer to a plant hy this combination without appending the descripti-
and thus the binomial system, as it is called, was established. Sirce then,
attempts have been made to extend the combination to anzioue three cr more names,

but the two.-name combination has become established throughout the world for the
scientific designation of plants and animals. Certain codes of rules have been
established for the formation of these names both in America and Europe,
differing in minor respects but agreeing for the most part.

The botanical name of a plant, then, consists of two definite parts. The
first part of the combination, as we have seen, indicates the group or genus to
which the plant belongs. The second name tells the species or particular kind
in the genus. Thus Linnaeus' white rose was Rosa alba. The name Rosa indicates
the affinity of the plant with all the other roses. The alba part of the name
distinguishes it fro: all the others in the group. So all the different roses
would have Rosa for the first part of the name. The second or specific part of
the name indicates the individual ;ind of rose. Rosa sinensis is a Chinese rose,
because sinensis in Latin means Chinese. Rosa Carolina is a rose from Carolina.
Rosa lancifolia is a rose with lance-shaped leaves.

In the beginning, the generic names were the Latin names for the plants but
as new plants were found or described, new genus names had to be found for the
various groups that were discovered. Sometimes the name of the man who discovered
the plant was used as a basis after being Latinized. Generic names were frecAuentl,.
coined to honor famous botanists or patrons. Thus, the stinking cedar of the
Chattahoochee River has the genus name Torreya commemorating the famous American
botanist Doctor Torrey. The banana shrub has the genus name Michelia to
memorialize the famous Italian botanist, Peter Michel.

Old C-reek names were also used after being Latinized. The name of the
French mulberry to which we referred earlier is an excellent example. The
botanical name, you remember, is Callicarpa americana. Callicarpa comes from two
G-reek words meaning beauty and fruit. So Callicarpa means beauty fruit. America,
is a Latin adjective meaning America1. A free translation of the whole Latin na~c
would be American beauty Berry, which is far more appropriate than French Mulber.-
the popular name it bears. The tulip tree or tulip poplar, Liriodendron, comes
from two Greek words meaning tulip and tree. Many modern generic names are forme,
by taking some Greek word or combination of words that indicate an outstanding
characteristic of the group and using it for the generic name. For instance,
Cereus is the name of a genus of cacti, while Nyctocereus is a closely related
genus the members of which bloom at night. lycto coiuos from a Greek word meaning
night. Another example is the forget-me-not, Iyosotis. This generic name comes
from two Greek words which mean mouse and ear, and was applied to this plant
because the leaves resemble the ears of a mouse in shane. The derivation ar.n
meaning of most generic r-ames are given in such books as Bailey's "Cyclopedia cl
Horticulture" and Gray's "Manual of Botany."

The second part of the binomial, the specific name, is frequently
.escriptive in character. Quite often the specific name is a Latin or
Latinized Greek descriptive adjective. For instance, the summer grape is Vitis
aestivalis, Vitis being the classical name for grape and aesti-valis meaning
summer; the potato is Solanum tuberosum, the tuberosum part of the name refer;:..;)
to the fleshy tubers.

Many specific names are derived from the country of origin of the plant.
Thus we get Citrus sinensis, meaning the citrus from China; Azalea indica, the
azalea of India; and Fraxinum americana, the Fraxinum or ash of America.



Other specific names indicate the habitat of 1he plant. Pinus palustris
is the pine of the swamps; Aleurites montana is the Aleurites on the mountains,
and so on.

Very frequently, the specific name honors the collector or discoverer of
the plant. Phlox Drummondii thus honors Drummond; and Quercus Michauxii was named
for Andre Michaux who found this oak.

In contrast to my earlier comments concerning common names, let me draw your
attention to how appropriate some botanical names are. In western Florida aud
further north is a small plant, hugging the earth at all times and perfuming the
air in spring. Its common name is Trailing Arbutus. Botanists call it Epigea
repens which literally translated means "creeping upon the earth" and describes
perfectly the habit of this beautiful little wild flower. Another particularly
apt name is that of the common flame vine that covers buildings with its fiery
orange red blooms in spring. The cotanica.l name Pyrostegia venusta means
beautiful fiery roof.

There is a third part of the botanical name of a plant that is important and.
interesting too. This is the name or initials that follow the genus and species
name, as in the botanical name of the mango, Mangifera indica L. This L. stands
for Linnaeus and indicates that the scientist Linnaeus first gave the mango this
scientific name. Sometimes, there are two names following the specific name,
one of them in parentheses, such as Wisteria frutescens (L.) Poiret, with the L
in parentheses. This means that Linnaeus first described the plant and gave it
the name frutescens but put it in somd other genus than Wisteria. Poiret later
examined the plant and decided its affinities were with Wisteria and put it in
that genus, so we get the present name. TWat a sroty this little botanical name
tells when we know the key that unlocks it!

The pronunciation of botanical names is another bugbear for many gardeners.
Anyone who has had an introduction to Latin should have no trouble with
botanical names. Many books on the classification of plants give simple direc-o
tions for pronouncing the names. While on this subject, I might mention some
common plants, the names of which are often mispronounced. Many people say
Ca-me-lia for Ca-mell-ia; Pitt-o-sporum for Pit-tos-porum; Sto-ke-sia for
Stokes-ia; and Ag-er-a-tum for A-.ger-atum

A very delightful treatise on this subject of plant names has been
published recently by the Macmillan Company. It is "How Plants Get Their Names,"
by L.H. Bailey. In it you will find a more complete discussion of the deri.: ..- -:
It includes an appendix giving the meanings of most specific names, and a guvie
to the pronunciation.

Botanical names have other advantages which I have hinted at previously.
A botanical name is definite in its meaning. Common names may be very local in
their application and several may be applied to the same plant in different plan-
but a botanical name, with few exceptions, is always the same and refers to a
single kind of plant. Moreover, being written in Latin it can be understood by
botanists anywhere in the world. -The botanical name of a plant is the same the
world over, no matter what nationality may be using it.

With these practical advantages in favor of the Latin names of plants, it
seems desirable to learn and to use them. This is especially true when we
consider the meanings of the names, their aptness to the plants they designate
or the associations they bear to eminent botanists, intrepid explorers and
other famous men. Really we are missing part of the pleasure of knowing our
plant friends when we do not !mow their real names and how they received them.
A little time with some botanical book such as Gray's Manual or Bailey's
Cyclopedia of Horticulture, will open a new field of pleasure. Or the author
of this paper will be glad to help you if you willvwrite him.






mental Gardening in Florida
Radio Series

Talk No. 9
November 8, 1933

By: John V. Watkins, Assistant Horticulturist,
University of Florida College of Agriculture

By far the greatest variety of annuals that we enjoy in Florida be-
long to the cool-weather group that blossom in the winter and early
spring. The number of kinds that fall into this already long list are
increasing each year as new sorts are being introduced by the seed
houses. In addition to giving us new sorts, plant breeders have been
constantly improving the old and tried species. Larkspur, nasturtiums,
snapdragons, calendulas, California poppies and petunias are some of
the old favorites that have been vastly improved in size, color, sub-
stance and design during the past few years.

The cool-weather annuals that bloom in the winter and early spring
are, for the most part, cold-tolerant, and unless extremely low tem-
peratures are experienced they will thrive during the months of October
through April.

Many successful gardeners make their first plantings of the winter
blooming kinds in late August and early September, at first protecting
the tender seedlings from the direct rays of the sun by shades of cloth,
dog fennel, moss, etc., until they have become sufficiently robust to
grow, unshaded, in the open. Some of the late spring blooming annuals
will not germinate well during hot weather and it is necessary, there-
fore, to wait until November to sow the seed of this general group.

The following lists may be helpful in regard to planting time:

Annuals that may be started in August or September include Alyssum,
Babys' Breath, Blanket Flower, Blue Eyed African daisy, Calendula,
Chinese Forget-me-not. Lobelia, Lupine, Moroccan toad flax, Nasturtium,
Pansy, Petunia, Phlox, Pinks, Snapdragon, and Sweet Pea.

Annuals that may be started in November for late winter or early
spring bloom include Alyssum, Babys' Breath, Butterfly Flower, Cali-
fornia Poppy, Candytuft, Carnation, Cornflower, Double English Daisy,
Hunnemania, Larkspur, Leptosyne, Lupine, l:ignonette, Nicotiana, Orange
African Daisy, Painted Tongue, Poppies, Scarlet Flax, Statice, and

In those varieties there is room for wide choice as to color and
kind of flowers. Discussing some of the leading ones, let's take
Alyssum first.


- 2-

The several varieties of Sweet Alyss.um, with white or lilac flowers,
are among the best of annuals for edging and for planting in the rock
garden. Low growing, seldom exceeding a height of 12 inches, this plant
should have a place in every garden, window box or hanging basket.

Babys' Breath. The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three
varieties of babys' breath are especially valuable in flower arrange-
ments; particularly is this true if sturdy flowers, such as blanket
flowers, dwarf sunflowers, carnations or pinks, are the principal subject
of the bouquet. The tiny flowers on wiry stems add a daintiness, a
softness, to an arrangement that might be somewhat stiff and lacking
in gracefulness.

Blanket Flower. The annual forms of the blanket flower, single,
semi-double and full double, are of great value in any garden. The red
and yellow daisy-like blossoms are desirable for cutting on account of
their cheerful colors, long stiff stems, and excellent keeping quality.

Blue-Eyed African Daisy. Graceful, light blue, daisy-like flowers
about 2- inches across, with steel blue centers, are profusely borne by
these plants. This daisy is one of the most easily grown of the hardy
annuals and, like the blarket flower, it succeeds in trying situations,
volunteering each year.

Calendula. A universal favorite, the calendula is one of our most
important winter-blooming ann--als. The charming double flowers in
shades of orange and yellow are not only excellent as part of the garden
picture but they are unsurpassed as cut flowers.

California Poppy. This is especially effective when grown in large
groups in a sunny garden. Recently the seedmen have offered varieties
in creams, white and reds, that are striking deviations from the typical

Calliopsis (Cal" li op' sis). The Calliopsis or coreopsis is
another type of the numerous daisy-like flowers that play so important
a part in an annual border. The flowers in shades of yellow, some va-
rieties with maroon or terra cotta, are borne in profusion on stiff,
wiry stems, and are valuable both in the garden and in bouquets.

Carnation. The hybrid annual carnations which have recently been
developed by plant breeders will supply everything save size, for which
the perfect florist carnations are prized.

Cornflower. This has long been a favorite and somehow seems
characteristic of the old-fashioned garden. The single and double
flowers of white, pink, red, blue and purple, borne in profusion in ear-
ly spring, contribute beautiful clear colors to the border and are ex-
cellent for cutting.

Double English Daisy. Although the English Daisy (or Bellis) is
really a perennial, in Florida it will not thrive after the advent of
warm weather in May, and is grown as a winter annual so that it may en-
joy the cool growing season. For edgings or for rock gardens, the Eng-
lish Daisy is excellent. The plants are merely flat, tight rosettes of

shining green leaves from which the flower stems arise.

Gilia (Gil' ia). Another blue flower of merit that blooms in the
late spring is Gilia. The foliage is lacey, fern-like and is an at-
tractive feature in itself. The flowers are rough, globular heads, a-
bout an inch in diameter and are borne in profusion all over the plant.
As yet something of a novelty in Florida, the gilia has proven its a-
bility to thrive here and should be tried in everyone's garden.

Godetia (Go de' sha). Although the Godetia, or satin-flower, like
the Gilia, is not often seen it will succeed in Florida, especially in
a partially shaded situation, and it undoubtedly deserves consideration
as a spring flowering annual.

nuinenmania. The hunnernania, sometimes called tulip poppy, resem-
bles a sulphur-yellow California poppy of giant size, is coarser and of
greater substance. The plants, about two feet in height, are very pro-
lific, hardy and easy of culture after germination. Difficulty in ge.t-
ting a good stand is the general rule.

Larkspur. The well-known_ Larkspur is so popular, so widely grown,
that it seems hardly necessary- to cdecribe this most valuable annual,
Single and double flowers of white, buff, rose, blue, lavender and
purple are borne on erect spikes during the ec.rly spring. Some of the
newer creations, named varieties having very double flowers of clear
colors, are very charming, and should find places in every garden.

Lobelia. Lobelias, in their beautiful shades of blue, may be had
in the d-arf, cona-ct form, which is so -esirable as an edging and also
in the trailing or hanging form which. is used in rock gardens, pots,
boxes and baskets. The charming dwarf plants, under six inches in
height, with many tiny branches, are covered with tiny blue flowers
throughout the blooming season.

Lupine. As subjects for a tall border the annual I.pines are very
effective, and they are no less striking as cut flowers. Their keeping
quality is excellent.

Moroccan Toad Flax. Of comparatively recent introduction into
Florida gardens, this little toad flax from Morocco is rapidly gaining
the popularity it so rightfully deserves. It is a dwarf grower of
exceeding hardiness that bears its spikes of tiny, snapdragon-like
flowers throughout the "-inter and early spring.

Pansy. Nothing can approach p.nsies for edging or for bedding in
the late winter and early spring. The newer, highly developed strains
are characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking brilliance and
endless variety of design. The pansy is distinctly a cool weather plant;
seeds will not germinate well in the warmth of late summer, the young
plants that are produced are sickly and slow growing.

Petunia. No garden would be complete without petunias. The humble,
small single sorts are valuable for color effects, while the more pre-
tentious, single and double fringed and veined giants always attract a
great deal of attention because of their unusual texture, size and



The small single varieties are very easily grown from seed, but
the double flowered varieties are best secured from florists.

Phlox. The annual phlox is one of the easiest of all plants to
grow from seed. A wid.3 variety of color is offered by the trusses of
charming little flowers that cover the dwarf, spreading plants through-
out the early spring. It is excellent as an edging, for ribbon beds,
as a ground cover for a sunny expanse, and for naturalizing.

Pinks. Pinks are very 'much at home with us; numerous kinds thriv-
ing as annuals can be used as perennials if they are cut back in the
early summer and fertilized for a second period of bloom. No attempt
will be made to distinguish the species or hybrids, but it is suggested
that different kinds be tried so that the gardener can select those
which are best suited to his conditions.

Poppy. The poppies lave long been garden favorites. The bold,
bright colors of the hybrids of the opium poppy and the fragile, fine-
textured, delicately tinted flowers of the Shirley group, offer us va-
riety in substance, color and design. Poppies do not transplant well,
the seeds do not sprout in hot weather; hence it is best to sow the
seeds in November where the plants are to grow.

Scarlet Flax. This red-flo-wered annual variety of flax that is
gradually gaining popularity as a garden subject in Florida deserves
every gardener's consideration. A hardy, bushy annual, to two feet,
of exceedingly graceful habit, it is covered with charming red open
flowers throughout the spring.

Snapdragon. Although this is really a perennial, in Florida it is
treated as an annual because it rarely survives the high temperatures
and heavy rains of our summers. Like the pansy,;4in-the larkspur, it is
distinctly a cool --eather plant and is really successful only when it
is grown through the winter and early spring months.

Statice. The annual kinds of statice are well adapted to our gar-
dens, thriving, if necessary, under difficulties. Statice sinuata has,
in the spring, tall spikes of blue or white flowers arising from dwarf,
tight rosettes of lobed, spatulate leaves. The bonduelli variety is
very similar in habit but produces yellow flowers, while suworori, th.e
rat-tail statice, bears tall graceful spikes of delicate pink flowers.
This last named species deserves wider trial as it is especially good
and receives favorable comment wherever seen.

Stock. Stocks are old favorites that have developed wonderfully
at the hands of plant breeders. Full, double varieties in many colors
belonging to different strains, the plants of which vary in habit and
time of bloom, are offered by the seed houses.

Sweet Pea. These are without doubt among the most important of
our winter and spring blooming annuals. Their fragrance, delicacy of
texture and design have won for them a place in every heart, but at
the same time it must be conceded that the host of pasts that prey


upon them is most alarming and often most difficult to control.

The Spencer sweet peas, non the most popular group, have reached
a reimrkable state of perfection. Winter flo-ering, or "early" strains
planted in the early fall should start blooming in December if.condi-
tions are favorable, and the spring or "late" flooring strains, if
planted in tho -ninter, should produce a wealth of bloom in march,
April or lMy. The list of varieties is long -- no kinds can be recom-
mended as being preferable to others; ono must try different sorts in
order to discover which are best for the desired purpose, or be content
with the "mixed packets."

Plant the seeds in a staggered double row so that the trellis may
be erected bcoteen the rows. When the seedlings emerge treat the bed
with a soil sterilizing compound to control damping off. It is best
to thin the plants to stand a foot apart. When the plants are six
inches high apply steamed bone meal so as to make the ground white,
then stir it in lightly. A mulch of oa leaves or peat moss is valu-
able in conserving tho moisture. When tendrils appear some sort of
support must be provided. This may be poultry netting stretched be-
tween posts, a trellis of cotton cords running vertically over horizon-
tal bars at top and bottom, or a line of brush stuck firmly into the
ground between the rows.

The vines will stand considerable cold but the flower buds are so
.easily injured that protection on cold nights is suggested after the
plants have Commenced to bloom.

iNc. Lsr c. Ar tcES DEP0 7 TsNT
, A....., ., ornamental Gardening in Florida TO A, ..
..."... Radio Series November 15, 1933.

By: John V. Watkins, Assistant Horticulturist,
University of Florida College of Agriculture

Nature has endowed certain plants with the ability to reproduce and
establish themselves so easily and so rapidly that one often marvels at
the magnificent displays of periwinkle, phlox, coreopsis, gaillardia and
petunias that have escaped from cultivation, re-seeded, volunteered,
and blossomed in profusion without the aid of man. In Florida we find
numbers of exotic plants so thoroughly at home that they successfully
exclude their neighbors from their colonies.

Of the annual garden plants that plant themselves one of the most
satisfactory is Sweet Alyssum. This plant in its several varieties, with
white or lilac flowers, is one of the best winter blooming annuals for
edging or for the rock garden. Fortunately this dwarf, compact plant
produces nmriads of viable seeds that will furnish an abundance of volun-
teer seedlings for each season's planting. These tiny, self-planted in-
dividuals may be lifted and transplanted as they appear in August.

One is continually impressed with the self-planted Blanket Flowers,
or Gaillardias, that are encountered on the high, dry sand dunes of our
East Coast. Year after year the gay sprightly flowers are produced from
the seed of volunteer plants that are being scattered farther and farther
from their original garden sites. Usually there are abundant tiny Gail-
lardia seedlings appearing in the garden in October or November.

That striking daisy-like flower, the Blue-Eyed African Daisy, is
| one of the most accommodating of the plants that plant themselves. If
one has ever grown this flower and has allowed the seeds to ripen and
drop from the plant, he will certainly have enough plantlets in the au-
tumn to supply not only his gardening needs but those of all his neigh-
bors as well. Of easiest culture, admirable as a cut flower, the Blue-
Eyed African Daisy should have a place in every self-planting garden.

The California poppy furnishes an abundance of warm tones of yellow,
orange and flame color throughout the early spring and very fortunately
for those lazy but sensible gardeners who depend in some measure upon
volunteer seedlings, it also produces literally hundreds of plants each
winter. These may be thinned to stand a foot apart or they may be
transplanted if care is taken to move the long taproot intact in a ball
of soil.

The Calliopsis, or Coreopsis, is one type of the several daisy-like
flowers that play so important a part in a garden that plants itself.
Of easy culture, growing in difficult places, and often naturalizing in
large colonies, the calliopsis can be most highly recommended.

- 2-

For blue flowers in the garden that plants itself, one should cer-
tainly consider the Chinese for-get-me-not, or Cynoglossum. The volun-
teer seedlings that are usually found in fair numbers bloom in a very
short time. Possibly its greatest use is for blue color masses in the
garden, because the flower spikes usually wilt badly when they are used
as cut flowers.

The old-fashioned Corn Flower will sometimes, especially in disease-
free soil, furnish enough volunteer seedlings to be considered a subject
for the self-planted garden. However, it is not nearly so dependable as
are most of the other plants we have mentioned.

Probably every one who is garden-conscious has remarked at one time
or another about a gorgeous display of sprightly yellow that is furnished
by a chance patch of late or Klondyke Cosmos. A rather between-season
annual, the late cosmos comes into bloom in October or November when
blossoms are sorely needed. This tall, coarse, composite is apparently
not at all particular as to its requirements, as it succeeds without
care and escapes from cultivation at the slightest provocation.

Ageratum, sometimes called Floss Flower, is a perennial in frost-
free areas, but is a tender, heat-tolerant annual in those localities
that experience sub-freezing temperatures. In any event, it re-seeds
readily and deserves a place in our volunteering garden.

Globe Amaranth, also known as Bachelor's Button, thrives during
hot weather, volunteers profusely, and can be depended upon to succeed
under almost all conditions during the summer.

Annual Larkspur is one of the most striking, yet dependable garden
flowers for the spring. It is distinctly a cool weather plant, the
seeds of which will not germinate during hot weather. If larkspur has
been allowed to mature its seeds, an abundance of tiny seedlings will
be found at this tir.e of the year. These transplant with the utmost
ease. The flowers borne by volunteers will probably be single.

In late September, through October, when there is a paucity of flow-
ers, the ~Mrigolds contribute their bright yellow a.nd orange blossoms to
our gardens whose brightness has begun to wane. Certain types of mari-
golds will plant themselves year after year.

Moroccan Toad Flax, although of comparatively recent introduction
into Florida gardens, is rapidly gaining the popularity it so rightfully
deserves. It is a dwarf grower of exceeding hardiness that bears its
spikes of tiny snapdragon-like flowers in the winter and early spring.
This Linaria self-sows and volunteers most readily, apparently not de-
teriorating as regards the quality or the color of the flower even
though chance seedlings are used as the planting stock year after year.

No spring garden is complete without Petunias. The giant ruffled
sorts do not set seeds readily, but the small flowered, single variet-eo
that you had in your garden this year have lavishly sown their seeds
for your convenience and when you arrange your garden at this time of
the year there should be ample planting stock for you and your friends.


The Periwinkle is a perennial in the lower peninsula, where great
beds of this cherming plant are forever causing comment among garden-
minded people. Where frosts are the rule the plants may be killed but
it is certain that there are enough seeds in the ground to perpetuate
the colony. Exceedingly cosmopolitan, demanding nothing from man, this
Periwinkle from Madagascar is truly at home in Florida and should be
grown in everyone's garden.

The annual Phlox is one of the easiest of all plants to grow from
seed. Self-sown seedlings are numerous in the vicinity of old plantings
and even in places where discarded plants have been piled. Phlox is
relatively free from pests, transplants most easily and succeeds in
dry, light, sandy soil. It is excellent as a ground cover for a large
sunny expanse. In parts of Florida it covers large areas, blooming in
its season.

Poppies have long been garden favorites, and certainly they can
never lose the universal popularity they have always enjoyed. The hy-
brids of the opium poppy are plants that plant themselves par excellence
as they self-sow abundantly and do not transplant readily. Often the
same garden spot is occupied year after year by these bold bright giants
of the spring show.

The Moss Verbena is possibly a perennial strictly speaking, but
should the garden experience very low temperatures the roots would be
killed out in all probability. Self-sown seeds will, no doubt, be pre-
sent in sufficient numbers to assure the continuance of the culture.
The lavender or occasional white blossoms of this dainty verbena that
are borne in the greatest profusion throughout the summer, are a vital
part of the garden that plants itself.

Zinnias are probably the most i:mortant of our heat-tolerant sum-
mer annuals, without which our gardens would be colorless indeed from
July to November. As early plantings become old, chance seedlings may
be found under the parent plants and these ar.' be transplanted to new
locations for late summer and early autumn blooms. However, the seeds
cannot be depended upon, ordinarily, to carry over the winter and fur-
nish seedlings for the spring.

Probably the tallest of the annuals that plant themselves is the
sunflower. Certain small flowered varieties that are excellent for
cutting during the summer persist year after year, successfully main-
taining their colonies. These volunteering sunflowers are particularly
noticeable on the sand dunes of our east coast, growing side by side
with the blanket flowers.

We have discussed only annual flowering plants, as these are best
adapted to a garden that plants itself. When one has grown any of these
persistent, hardy varieties and wishes them to plant themselves, he must,
of course, allow the old plants to remain long enough to future their
seeds and drop them to the ground. Then they can be removed to make
room for a new planting. In preparing the soil, spading should be sha?.-
low so thot the self-sown seeds are not covered too deeply. Even though


the garden beds nay be in constant use, volunteer seedlings of most of
the plants we have mentioned will appear in considerable numbers at
their proper seasons, if cultivation is not practiced too continually.
If sand paths are a part of the garden scheme, it will be found that
myriads of tiny volunteers will spring up along the edges of the paths.
Close observation on the part of the gardener is necessary so that the
seedlings may be discovered and transplanted about the time they have
developed two pairs of true leaves. Probably the most difficult feature
is the ability to identify the plantlets at transplanting time. One
must learn, by experience, to distinguish the varieties so that they may
be used in the garden spots best suited to their habit of growth, size,
color and so on.

In addition to the garden use of these plants that plant themselves
some are admirably adapted for roadside use. Some will persist year
after year in spite of mowing and grazing of the road shoulders. For
roadside use the lowest growing sorts are more desirable, and one of the
best is the blanket flower or gaillardia. This plant is not liked by
cattle, and is very persistent in its growth.

As a roadside plant, annual phlox har already been used by several
garden clubs in the state and has proven fine. It is a hardy grower
and spreads rapidly if not pulled up by admiring pr.ssers-by. Right
here, let's put in a caution against this destruction of roadside
beauty. A tourist will say, "M1y pulling a few of those flowers will
not hurt," but what if every one who passes that way says the same? The
big trouble is that many pull the plants out by the roots instead of
picking them. These plants that plant themselves have to produce seed
or there will be no flowers the next year. So may we all stop and think
before we become a party to destroying roadside beauty that is ours only
to look at and enjoy in passing.

Another good roac'.si.e plant that plants itself is the Periwinkle.
It will do well if not mowed too frequently. Calliopsis is another
that is good, although it attains a height of 18 to 20 inches. Though
seldom used, moss verbena will make any roadside a place of beauty. It
has proven its value in several places in the state on railroad right-
of-ways where it has established itself in magnificent colonies.

In conclusion, let us all pay more attention to letting these
plants have a chance on our roadsides and in our flower gardens.


:OLLECE .Or a;"CuLr.jqr
R.. u- Er C -ri-t Dir.T-; T

Ornar,-nctal Gardening in Florida Talk No. 11
Radio Series Nov. 22, 1933

By G.H. Blackmon, horticulturist, Florida Experiment Station.

The aesthetic beauty of a city, town, or community is dependent largely upon
the appearance of the home grounds. It matters not how well kept the parks and
streets, if the residential grounds are not attractive the beautiful effects can
not result. The plantings about the home grounds are, therefore, important. They
are an integral part of the general landscape and should be made with much careful
thought arid planning.

The plant material should be selected that will grow properly and give the
desired effect for a well planned and executed planting will be a great disappoint-
men-t if plants are used that are not adapted to the locations. Some have
e:.-:'eienced poor results in plant growth by using material that was observed
..'.'in'c satisfactorily in other states, but the mere fact that plants succeed in
c:her sections is no criterion that they will thrive under different environmental
ccndit ions.

Florida is wonderfully blessed with an abundance of native plant material
that will fulfill the requirements in a great many instances in planting the home
groLunds. Then again, there are many introduced species that will give good
results when suitably located according to the demands of the particular plants
0.;rin uszd, Here it should be borne in mind that most hardy shrubs and plants
a:.e generally best transplanted during the dormant season from about November 15
to I.!arch 15..

The transplanting of native shrubs direct from the wilds is generally more
hazardous than transplanting plants from the nursery where they have been grown
for a year or more. Native plants, however, can be successfully moved to the
home grounds and other desired locations when proper precautions are taken and
the material is suitably situated. The new locations should simulate as nearly
as possible the conditions where the plants are growing naturally.

Plants grown wild seldom have the heavily branched root-system usually found
on those produced in the nursery, and this is one of the principal reasons why
t.:;,y present a special problem in transplanting. Shrubs that are to be moved into
t.-e gardens should be pruned back severely and kept well watered at all times if
the best results are to be had. If the needs can be anticipated for some months
in advance, it would be advisable to transfer the native plants to a bed or row
the previous planting season where they can be carefully looked after, watered
and fertilized so that they will produce good root-systems before they are
transplanted to permanent places.


Some fertilizer should be applied at the time of transplanting. Steamed
bone meal and cottonseed meal are excellent materials to work into the soil
around the roots as the plants are being set. Organic material is of much
importance to all garden soils and it can be supplied in composted manures, peat,
and muck. Leaves in large quantities are supplied by oaks and should never be rakdd
away from where they collect in among the shrubs as they are valuable sources of
organic material and provide an excellent mulch in addition to their fertilizing

When shrubs are received from the nursery if they cannot be planted at once,
they should be removed from the packages and "heeled in" to keep them in good
condition until ready for planting. The location for any group of plants should
be such that adequate growth and maximum vigor can be maintained, and the soil
should have the proper drainage and exposure required by such plants. Those that
will not tolerate shade should be used only in sunny locations, while those with a
high shade tolerance can be planted where there is relatively little sun.

The soil should be well prepared before setting the plants. Organic material
and fertilizers should be added to have a suitable condition for adequate growth.
Everything should be done with the idea of pleasing the'plant. Since azaleas,
for example, cannot be grown successfully in a dry soil, during periods of dry
weather they should be frequently watered.

The supply of soil moisture is of extreme importance. Without moisture the
proper functioning of the plants cannot proceed as it is through the medium of
moisture that the plant foods are taken from the soil. Moisture, as sap, conveys
the plant foods to the leaves and the available foods from the leaves to various
parts of the plant for the production of growth. Watering the soil should not be
postponed until there is a wilting of the leaves; on the other hand adequate
moisture should be present at all times. A copious supply of water should be made
rather than the applications of scanty amounts that just wet the surface. The
soil should contain the right amount of moisture throughout that portion occupied
by the roots of the plants. For those plants that require a moist atmosphere, much
sprinkling must be done during dry weather, and where there are trees that remove
large quantities of water from the top l1 inches of soil it is necessary to apply
water at more frequent intervals than where such trees are not adjacent to the

A permanent sprinkling system installed among the shrubs will make watering
an easy task if the cut-off valve is properly located and the nozzles are so
spaced that there will be a slight overlapping of the spray during the times when
there is the lowest water pressure. The ordinary garden hose, however, is
commonly ised and will maintain a satisfactory moisture condition if it is con-
otantly looked after. To give best results it should have attached a good simple-.
:'.::king sprinkler.

We come now to another one of the important problems in connection with the
handling of garden plants, that of supplying the necessary plant foods. If the
soil was properly prepared at the time of setting the plants, it will contain
sufficient nutrients to start and maintain the growth for some months, but by
June or July additional materials should be applied.

In addition to the importance of organic matter as previously mentioned,
some commercial fertilizer should be applied to the soil in which the plants are
growing. This can be in the form of a complete fertilizer such as 5-7-5 or the
materials can be applied separately. The average home gardener will find the
complete mixture more satisfactory. Bone meal and cottonseed meal, however, are
find additional fertilizers for most garden plants.

Newly planted shrubs should have been fertilized when they were set, hence
it will not be necessary to give them a spring application, but for established
plant beds, a complete fertilizer should be applied in the string. This should
be applied evenly over the surface of the soil and raked in at the rate of about
5 pounds to each 100 square feet. A second application possibly containing more
nitrogen should be made in July. No fixed rule can be made that is applicable
under all conditions as the composition and amounts to apply will vary somewhat
with different soil types and conditions. The experienced gardener, however,
does not go so much on measured amounts but knows when the plants need feeding
and applies fertilizers accordingly. It is important to remember that nitrogen
is the most important in producing growth, and is also the element that is most
readily lost by leaching from the soil. It should, therefore, be supplied in
rather liberal amounts.

The art and practice of pruning is as important as the planting itself.
Ut matters not how perfect the plans nor how carefully the plant material is
selected and arranged, if the growth is not kept within the size that it is
supposed to be, the main effect may be lost and the plants become leggy and
straggly. Instead of being objects of beauty, they will present an unkept and
unattractive appearance.

Most shrubs will require a certain amount of judicious pruning to keep them
from out-growing the bounds within which their tops and branches are supposed to
r-iAin. A plant may be of a dwarfed habit of growth and fulfill the requirements
of such a type admirably when young, but may become unsightly in several years if
allowed to develop along lines of least resistance. In groups, certain plants
will often outgrow others and crowd them out of the picture to such an extent
that they become out of shape and fail to produce the effect for which they were
planted. When plants get into such a condition through lack of attention, it is
too late to maintain their original beauty without interruption and, while it is
often possible to cut them back in such a way as to revive them and in a measure
bring about the desired appearance, it is much better to direct growth of the
individual plants by a proper and systematic pruning from the start.

Foundation plantings should be watched and not permitted to grow out of
shape, as shoots can be cut out when the growth is improperly located without harm
to the plants. This will prevent the group from developing into one too large or
cine that is one-sided.

The pruning of plants in general used mostly for a mass of foliage, such
as, banking, foundations and screenings, should be done during the late winter
months just before the initial bud growth. This permits the new top to shape
itself and keep its desired type and form with a minimum of care throughout the
growing season. The flowering plants will have to be pruned at a time that will

not interfere with flower production. A general a:nd safe rule to follow is to
learn the flowering habits of the shrubs. Prune in the winter only those that
bloom on wood of the current season's growth, and prune those that bloom on second
year wood shortly after they are through blooming. Dead wood will occasionally
occur in plants growing in crowded locations. This should be carefully removed
as it develops, and the cut should be made well into the green wood area at the
junction of the branches or to a bud so that growth renewal will readily take

To briefly summarize; Native shrubs should be cut back rather severely when
transplanted, and the soils and locations should simulate those where such plants
are growing naturally. Adequate amounts of organic materials should be thoroughly
incorporated with the soil and additional applications should be made annually
in addition to the applications of commercial fertilizers.

Generous amounts of bone meal or cottonseed meal should be worked into the
soil, being placed around the roots and the soil should be thoroughly watered
when the plants are transplanted. All plants should be set as deeply as they
grew in the nursery, it being better to set them an inch or two deeper than to get
them too shallow.

Copious watering of the soil is much more satisfactory than if the surface
.f the soil only is moistened. Plants that require a moist atmosphere should be
sprinkled frequently during dry times in addition to keeping plenty of moisture in
the soil.

The mere fact that you are interested in gardening is sufficient evidence
that you are vitally concerned about the beauty of the home grounds. May I
:e.-emphasize, therefore, the importance of handling plants in a way that will
permit their proper development, as nature has so generously provided and intended,
co the end that such plants can contribute their bit towards the ultimate beauty
of the landscape.


Ornamental G-rdening in Florida Talk No. 12
RrO.o Series Nov. 29, 1933

Rudolph Weaver, Director, School of
Architecture, University of Florida, and
Architect for the State Board of Control

To those of you who are following this series of garden talks it re-
quires no argument, I am sure, to convince you that the possession of a gar-
den enriches your life. If you do not already own a garden then I hope you
are planning one in the immediate future. If you are, then, of course it
will be necessary to give s.me consideration to certain architectural fea-
tures of your garden.

In this talk I am assuming that any feature of a. garden which cannot
be classified as plant material is, in some form or another, an architectural
feature. Such elements are planned pnd devised as a setting for the plant
material, to enhance, if possible, the beauty of the trees, vines, shrubs and
flowers. All of which should be tied together into one harmonious whole and
into unity with the house or other edifice, which, with the garden, is de-
signed to delight the senses and beautify the lives of those whose good fortune
it is to behold the garden or to walk therein.

Our aesthetic sense demands that there should be a. blPnce established
between the elements of P garden. So, therefore, since Nature is generally
informal it is possible and desirable to introduce into the garden composi-
tion some architectural features which act as a f j.", accenting by their dif-
ferences the charm of growing things. But it should be recognized as a. prin-
ciple that great restraint should be used and no features should be added
that could be omitted. There is nothing thnt so easily spoils a garden as an
overabundance of architectural elements. Avoid overcrowding. Also make your
arrrangements simple. Do not mistake ingeniousness for design.

Another principle which should be accepted is that all garden archi-
tectural accessoriess should be of such character that they will harmonize with
the chnrxcter of the house. This should include stylistic characteristics --
if there nre any -- similarity of materials, scale and color. These are ele-
ments of unity, and unity between house and g-rden should be highly esteemed.

The first step in the procedure of developing the architectural fea-
tures of a garden is to coisidr the house plan it-elf. Where should the walks
lead from the house entrances? What views do you have from the windows? Is
it desirable to terminate these views within the garden with some feature?
Through such rn analysis you may develop the logical location of the archi-
tectural elements, those structural features about which the planting will take
place. Ideal results are, of course, obtained when both house and garden are


planned together by one capable mind or through the cooperation of several
minds working in harmonious collaboration.

After the plan has been devised than the dcRtils should receive care-
ful consideration. In such a brief discourse as this it is obviously impos-
sible to tell what should be included in r particular garden so the most that
can be done is to enumerate some of those architectural features which have
been used in many fine gardens in various ports of the world, and which,
through repeated use, have indicated their desirability as garden elements
nnd which, furthermore, may be found in both simple and world famous gardens.

No discussion will be made here as to the desirability of formality
or informality of structural features; it is only necessary to follow your
personal desires and use restraint.

In enumerating certain architectural features, I will first suggest
the wall. Walls should be of course, when possible, of the same material as
the house itself -- or of the same material as the foundation of the house.
Walls may function in various capacities. They map be used to create dif-
ferent levels, either great or small.

Walls rre, pcrhps,the perfect background for growing things, especial-
ly when consideration is given to the color combination between the wall and
the plant material and between the wall and the bloom, if any. There is a
fine old wall around the garden of the Alcazar in Spain. It is covered with
a lovely bougainville. While the arrangement is simple, the effect is regal.
It is a good example for the Southern garden maker.

Walls of cement or plaster-covered masonry are the perfect background
for the long shadow-forms of swaying stems and blossoms -- sun-printed in
fairy shapes for the eyes of those who can see -- contrasting the light of
the sun with the restful coolness of the sh.dcows Owich it creates. Here we
have the completeness of opposites which are comr. -entary; manifestations
of Nature's generous gifts such as dark and light, v.rm and cool, and when
human skill assists we may arrange to each individual's satisfaction complete
harmonies of color, as soft yellow walls to make a background for lavender or
purple bloom, or any other harmony to satisfy the soul.

If, at a certain place beyond the wall there is a view, then the wall
may be pierced and in the opening may be placed an iron grille or other orna-
mental device, architectural in character. Such screen-filled opening soft-
ens what may otherwise seem a severe handling and also brings into the garden
added charm by permitting glimpses of the outside world.

Where different levels are possible by all means use a few steps.
There is something about r flight of steps which adds a regal touch to a gar-
den; wide low treads, suggestirT leisure to the feet and adding variety to
the terrain.

Where a wall is possible and appropriate, what could be more lovely
than vine covered pergola placed against it? Whether the pergola be formal
or informal makes little difference. Against the wall it creates an outdoor


semi-living room effect ,here one mny enjoy the best the g-rden h-s to offer;
where one m-y entert-in or rerd, or bsk in the softened sunlight nod enjoy
the perfume provided in rll well planted gardens.

The pergola in itself is one of the most c.hrming architecturall features
of -. garden. Do not m"ke the posts too slender. If timber is used let the
posts be subst-ntinl. hen the timbers -re l.rge enough vines Pre more -t home
because they crn twine bout such structural members more gracefully. Of
course the pergoln should take its proportions from the house rnd whether or
not it connects with the house it should still seem to be part of it -- echoing
its character. If, for instance, the house is of cement plaster, the pergola
posts m.y be of the snme m-teril. The s-me kinds of mrterinl recurring here
rnd there tend to unify the elements, which is so desirable. This similarity
of m'.teri.ls avoids fussiness rnd gives thrt ever-so-vwlued restfulness thnt
induces pe-ce Pnd c.lm where one may quickly retrer.t rnd rest from Pn over-hec-
tic worldd .

To the foregoing m"y be rdded, when sp'ce permits, w.ter effects. In
1ll times n-d countries mrn h.s provided reflecting pools vherein he m-y see
the ch-rm of his garden inverted in reflections; where the sky mry be brought
down and mmde nn element in the effect; where the mirrored clouds mny be seen
to mingle with the other reflections in the pool, thereby bringing to the nr-
ture lover more rnd more of the pleasures of the out-of-doors. Those who h-.ve
seen the pools in the garden of the Luxembourg in P-ris; the bnsin in the Al-
hnmbrn. in GrLn&.dP.; the charming cennpl in the garden of the Generplife, thmt
masterpiece of Moorish skill above the city on the hill opposite the Alhambr.,
or the cna-l of the TPj M-hrl, or nny of the pools in mrny of America's beauti-
ful gardens, cannot but be impressed by the ch.rm of this device rs one of
m-n's happiest inventions.

.There wrter is possible the rippling wrterfrll or the bubbling fountain
is of course beautiful to the eye rnd. another element soothing to the soul. In
the garden of the Vill. d'%ste, n.t Tivoli, Italy, is r demonstration of the do-
mestic grandeur which c-n be achievedd through the architectural use of wa.ter.
Here .re low w-lled terr-ces hundreds of feet in le gth Plong which innumerable
woter jets spurt upward, cooling the nir with sp?' f-lling into long n-rrow
bPsins -nd flowing ,gp.in into still other basins on lower levels rnd rg2in col-
lected -nd released in other locations nt still lower levels. Phrt resident in
- w-rm country would not envy the possession of such P. g-rden? One who con-
templ-tes compartively smr.ll garden Pnd desires P knowledge of how to use
w-ter should study this garden "t Tivoli rnd the garden of the Generlife.
Here one finds n. well blmnced interdependent series of architectural features
of infinite ch-rm -- ,. welth of suggestion for g rdens both lrrge nnd sm-ll.
From such gardens, planned by masters of the art, you mpy find just the feature
thnt properly modified mry become your own garden's gem.

I h-ve -lredy s-id th-t the house rnd the garden should be contributing
parts to the ensemble. A properly Pppointed scheme should, of course, be pro--
vided with T brlustr-ded gallery, or balcony where the garden's owner mpy
view from rbove the picture which he h.s created. Where the beauty of color,
form, light rnd shnde, nnd shadow, m.y delight the eye, while the delicate
scent of blossoms by d'y or the pungent perfume of the night blooming jasmine
mpy be enjoyed. Where the witchery of moonlight over the scene m-y transport
one to another world -nd where one m.y spy with the Arab who crrved on the wrlls
of the Alh-mbrm "How beauteous is this garden; where the flowers of the e-rth
vie with the stors of heaven. Whnt cn comp-re with yon olibAster fountain
filled with crystal water?"


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 13
Radio Series Dec. 6, 1933

Harold Mowry, Assistant Director
Florida Experiment Station

Foundation plantings constitute one of the major elements of land-
scape design. Much labor, time and thought have been given to the proper
treatment of this phase of ornamental planting by eminent landscape archi-
tec.ts and the following expressed thoughts on the subject are in large part
dra'.rn from such authorities as Waugh, Johnson and Van !elle.

All groupings of plant materials designed in particular relation to
a house in its immediate surroundings are aptly termed foundation or base
plantings. Such groupings form a complement in living green to the archi-
cecture of the home and serve to blend its structural lines with the general
surroundings landscape. CrZey are probably of less importance on the larger and
more extensive estates; their value and effect to a large degree increase with
the decrease in size of the grounds about the building.

The use of plant materials in home building has made remarkable pro-
gress in recent years, and home owners and home builders more and more are
considering a home as being : incomplete without an accompanying setting of fol-
iagee. It is true, of course, that many houses have no complementary plantingsbut
.:iitZheir value being demonstrated to a greater extent than ever before it is
no longer considered as an overly expensive adjunct but as ar opportunity toward
improvement with comparatively little labor and expense.

When properly made, a foundation planting: serves several definite
purposes. It connects the house with the grounds and adjacent plantings so
that after a ti,,!e the house and grounds will appear to have -rown together
into a permanent unity, each an integral part of the other. Shrubs and vines
tend to soften and blend architectural lines, imparting to the building a
finished and complete anrearanee that is in harmony vith its surroundings.
Then, too, there are in many instances objectionable features that cara-ot be
avoided in the back lot but which one does not care to have exposed to the public
view. These may be effectually screened by the proper use of either shrubs
cr vines. Of course, all such views should be eliminated as far as possible,
but in those instances where this cannot be accomplished, suitable plantings
,'ill help materially, and in addition will aid in the improvement of the general
anoearance of the vwhole place.

Around the high and open and unsightly foundation that is in common
use because of the ventilation afforded during the summer months is indeed one
place where foundation plantings are of decided worth, since they allow the
wanted ventilation and at the same time remove the stilted aTnpearance of the
hcuse. Again, properly placed plantings dress up a property, increase its
value, and transform it from just a house to a home.

Not so long ago the possible effects of plants on architecture were

obscured by house design itself. There was that period when ornate building
frills were in vogue and fancy scroll work in wood and wrought iron were con-
sidered, rather than plants, as the means of ornamentation.

However, with the passing of the unduly conspicuous building modes
and the entrance of the simpler and more logical architcctu.e there came also
a clearer understanding and appreciation of the close relationship between
home architecture and planting. It was readily seen that a well designed
house, with its fitting complement of plants, had resulted in combining
architects' plans with plantsmen's plans into a unit that opened up a new era
in the principles of architectural planting and led to that highly specialized
branch of agriculture now so well known under the name of landscape architec-

Fortunately, there are no highly specialized or so-called standar-
dized designs which require the usage of certain plants to the exclusion of
others and since even the sanm varieties of plants differ -aterially in size
and growth habit it is seldom that two separate planting,; ar, seen that bear any
striking resemblance. Thus, each planting is more or less a distinct entity
and there is little likelihood of sameness or monotony in lands,:iping designs.

Any house reflects the reaction of nearby plants and plantings. Un-
suitable plants detract from its appearance; on tte ovher hand, it will gain
from congenial association. Surrounding plantings impart of th'iir nature, and
no home is complete until planted.

Plantings reflect i-.r personal preferences for plant materials, but
only those sho-ld be used whi-h are compatible with the outer characteristics
of the home. This is well illustrated in the different architectural types
in Florida wherein Colonial, Old english and Spanish modes are found. !..any
of the gaily colored acalyphas, crotons and other tropical plants are used to
advantage in the tropical portions with the Spanish types, but the same plants
could hardly be considered to be so well adapted for the others; and likewise,
the coniferous varieties adapted to the Colonial or English types would not be
so well fitted to the Sp~--sh. The point ca-nnot be too strongly emphasized that
the primary aim is toward plant effects and not the masinmum development of plant

The usual and desirable scheme of planting allows for visibility of
the house from the street or road. This calls for open lawns and imparts the
desircd appearance of spaciousness. In plan-ing, the scheme should first be
thoroughly worked out and clearly visualized with due consideration being given
to each of the different types of plants that will be tucd -- their adaptability
to the soils and location, their ultimate size, and comnarative rates of growth.
Thcir resistance to insect or disease attack should not be overlooked. Plants
should not be chosen merely because they have an appeal in the nursery row nor
because their size at the tiae is suitable. Adaptability and eventual develop-
ment must be considered. For those who are inexperienced in planting or unac
quaintod with the many available plants suitable for foundation plantings,
there are numerous Florida nurserymen who will cheerfully furnish ideas or
schemes of planting, together with lists of plants best adapted. Many books
and bulletins are also available that will supply the wanted information as to
arrangement, adaptability, selection, and care of ornamentals suited to founda-
tion planting.

In the choice of plants there are several factors that if given due
consideration before planting will make for more satisfactory results in the
later development of the planting. Because of the variation in climatic con-
ditions in the latitude extremes of Florida it is of primary importance that
the plants chosen be hardy enough to withstand the coldest temperatures of the
region where planted. ITothing is quite so disappointing and discouraging as
the loss of a portion of one's plantings by freezing, for the gaps left in the
foundation are later difficult to fill quickly and satisfactorily. The sea-
sonal effect of flowering varieties must not be overlooked and blossom colors
can be chosen to obtain the most striking and harmonious effects. Attention
must be given to soil acidity; not all plants will thrive under like soil con-
ditions even though every effort has been directed toward giving them adequate
attention in the way of soil fertility. The type of foundation, whether it
be high or low, more or less open, or closed except for ventilators; will have
a strong influence on the type of shrubbery suited as well as on the arrange-
ment of the plants. Generally with open foundations the effort is toward an un-
broken bank of green, while with the low concrete, brick or stucco foundation
the groupings are more scattered and smaller-growirg plants are used. Heavily
shaded locations usually require an entirely different treatment from sunny
situations, since many plants are not adapted to both exposure extremes.

In foundation plantings there should be free use of evergreens, not
necessarily conifers, but anythir, other than a predominance of deciduous
plants. Florida planters have a distinct advantage over those of northern
latitudes in that the variety of plants adapted to this use is extremely wide
and varied. Early any desired effect can be secured, as there is an almost
endless variety of types, heights, and outlines, as well as foliage variations
among them. Usually the conifers are snaringly used, their placement being
where accent points are desired rith the balance of the planting consisting
of a well-chosen variety of broadlevved evergreen shrubs.

In the arrangement of materials it is not practicable to lay down
any hard and fast rules for the creation of good foundation plantings. Plants
in pots or tubs may be tried at different places before they are finally set.
Each situation has its own peculiarities and presents a problem of its own.
Conventional planting schemes need not necessarily be followed. Bold planting
after a careful study of the requirements of a situation usually brings desir-
able results. Such a method assures an effect different than that of one's
neighbors ano gives a sense of individuality thit should be reflected in every
phase of home building.

As the irfornmal typo of planting is the more desirable and most com-
mon, it is a general practice to choose two or three, or more, accent points
on each side of the house to be planted. Such accent points might be corners,
wide spaces between windows or doors and on each side of entrances. At these
points the principal emphasis is given by planting; the largest growing and
most conspicuous plants. It is not at all necessary that the foundation plant-
ing be continuous, particularly if the foundation is of brick or stone. Vines
have a prominent place and each, unless a solid wall covering, can represent a
considerable accent.

A few don'tt" might be included to advantage.

Don't overplant. Over-planting is a common fault and the crowding
of too much miscellaneous material into a foundation planting is one of the

commonest errors ;.: amateur enthusiasm.

Don't depend too much on annuals as the basis of the planting. They
require continuous replacement and during some seasons of the year cannot
be expected to have much ornamental effect. Perennial evergreen shrubs
should form the primary planting .with the annuals to be used as a supplement if
they are desired.

Don't use too large or too conspicuous materials. Trees can be ad-
vantageously utilized only against the largest of buildings and some of our
variegated foliage plants do not fit in well with all types of architecture.

Dor't use too many conifers. There is almost no restriction in
variety of broadleaved evergreens that are ideally adapted to foundation

Don't be afraid of your own ideas as to plants and planting. Yours
may give as good effect as if it had been planted from a blueprint. This is
not offered in disparagement of landscape designs, but since many of us can-
not afford the services of a landscape architect we should not let such a
short-coming dampen our enthusiasm.

Lastly, don't fail to plant some sort of a foundation planting, if
it has not already been done. There are yet too many houses, both rural and
urban, that are bare of plantings. The ti.ne, money and effort expended will
be returned many times over in the satisfaction derived from the enhanced ap-
peCrance and valuation of your home.



Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk'No. 14
Radio Series Dec. 13, 1933

By W.L. Floyd, assistant dean and professor of
horticulture, University of Florida College of

In a subtropical climate such as ours, plants that grow and look green when
those of .more northern regions appear bare and lifeless are especially desirable.
The broad leaved evergreens are fine for this purpose and Florida has a number
native to the state and many others that have been introduced from foreign climes.
Time does not permit enumerating the many fine plants available for foundation
plantings in Florida. We will, however, discuss a few of the choice ones.

Cherry laurel is the first one we'll discuss. It is a native shrub or small
tree. It may be kept pruned to shrub size for a long time. It has dark green,
oblong leaves, 2 to 4 inches long, bears small, white fragrant flowers in racemes
in late winter and spring. The fruit ripens in late autumn and resembles a cherry
ex:cept that it is black. Cherry laurel is easily propagated from seed, it may be
planted in a garden row much as peas or beans, allowed to grow for a season or two
and then transplanted. It is valuable as a hedge plant. It stands shearing well,
and stools out at the base, thus forming a wall of green from the ground up.
When placed where it has plenty of room and pruned from the bottom it develops
into a small, attractive tree. Cherry laurel requires a well-drained soil, it
being practically worthless on wet, poorly drained soils.

?eax privet is another choice foundation plant. It comes to us from Japan and
is one of the most popular members of the privet family. No foundation plant is
seen more often about Florida homes. Occasionally, we hear uncomplimentary
references to it because it is so common, but such are ill advised as the plant is
attractive and worthy of a place in the most carefully developed planting.

It has broad oval leaves 4 to 6 inches long. They are dark green, shining
as though waxed, which probably suggested its common name. Flowers of white or
cream are produced abundantly in spring. The fruit is blue-black, berry-like with
1 to 4 seeds. These may be used for propagating new plants, but like most
seedlings of shrubs and trees do not come true to the parent type. The plant is,
thus, best propagated from cuttings. Wax privet stands pruning well, and grows in
soil of medium or low fertility in sun or partial shade. It is attacked by root
knot to a limited extent. There is a variety tricolor which has leaves variegated
with yellow and pink whvdn young.

Other privets sometimes grown in Florida are the Japan, California and Amoor
River. The two latter, because they are hosts of whitefly, should not be planted
in citrus growing sections.


Found so often along with wax privet as to be generally thought of as its
companion plant is Pittosporum, having no well known common name. It, too, is a
native of Japan. The leaves are somewhat lighter green, smaller, more leathery
and of different shape from privet, with which they form a pleasing blend. The
branches develop in whorls of from 3 to 6 from the nodes, and the flowers are
cre.am,-white in fragrant umbels borne in spring. The fruit is an inconspicious
capsule. There is a variety with leaves variegated with white but it is not so
v'ell suited for foundation planting as the green.

The viburnums are a large group of well known shrubs, among which are several
nati.'c species most of which are deciduous; the two most desirable evergreen
species the sweet or odoratissimum and suspended or suspensum come from India and
Lin Kin Islands. They are much al-ike, the leaves of the first being somewhat
smaller, the plant more erect, and the flowers in small erect panicles, while
those of the latter are drooping. The leaves are glossy, light green, differing
in cjlor arnd texture enough from those already described to give pleasing variety
when planted with them. They are quite free from insect pests and diseases.

Abelii, we must not leave out, It is a shrub of wide range, of long willowy
growth. Its small oval leaves often show pink or red while young and turn
bronze in autumn. The small tubular flowers of white tinged with pink are borne
in panicles from June to November. It is a native of China, likes full sun, and
is propagated mainly by cuttings.

Severinea is a spiny shrub worthy of our consideration. It has oblong
dark green leaves about 11 inches long. Its flowers are white, fragrant,
opening in late winter and early spring, followed by a fruit which is a small berry
that is black. Severinea is low and spreading, thrives in sunny positions, is
related to citrus and comes to us from the same region, south China.

The Jasmines form a valuable group. Many of them are climbing or half
climbing, the latter may easily be pruned to grow as dropping shrubs, a
characteristic which is desirable in some plants of a mixed planting such as
those made against foundations usually are.

The graceful and the downy varieties each have bright green leaves, and bear
white fragrant flowers in dense hanging heads through a greater part of the year.
They are so much alike that they are often confused, and because of the
appearance of their white, star shaped flowers so conspicuous amid the wealth of
small, green leaves they are often called Star Jasmine, as are two or three
others of the Jasmine group,

Then, there's the primrose Jasmine. It bears yellow primrose like flowers,
has dark green shiny, compound leaves of three leaflets. Its young stems are
als3 green, the flowers are 1 to 2 inches across and flowering continues through
a long period. It is a native of China, grows well in sandy soil under a
considerable amount of shade.

All the Jasmines are easily propagated by cuttings or layers, occasionally
forming natural layers about old plants where drooping branches rest on the


Another choice foundation plant is the Feijoa. The Feijoa comes from South
America and is important because of its gray-green foliage, which gives an added
shade in the coloring. It bears lovely purplish flowers singly in spring, later
ripens a few oval edible fruits about the size of peaches. They are green with a
tough of crimson. The Feijoa is easily propagated from seed.

A pleasant reminder of our readings in classic literature where heroes
were cro'rned with myrtle and laurel is Sweet Myrtle which has been brought to us
from Southern Europe and is the classic myrtle. Its leaves are oval about one
inch long, it has shining and aromatic flowers that are small white or rose
tinted, and the fruit is a small blue-black berry. Sweet Myrtle may be easily
ke-pt to a height of 3 to 4 feet, though left unp)runed it may become 10 feet high.
It is of erect compact habit and has no serious pests or diseases. Frost dis-
colors it, but in spring it recovers its true color if the cold has not been too
severe. There is a smaller iaved form, also a variegated one. These should be
used with careful discrimination as they do not always blend well with broader
leaved plants. Sweet Myrtle will do best on a dry, well-drained soil.

Another of the myrtles, wax myrtle, is a native not given the attention it
deserves. Its foliage is almost olive green, it grows easily and blends well with
other plants. Its berries are coated with wax which gives the plant an
interesting, unusual appearance. There is a dwarf form which is also important
where plants that grow only 1 to 3 feet high are wanted.

All the time must not be used in talking of broad leaved evergreens even
though few have been discussed of the large number that years of introducing,
trying out and selecting by plant lovers have given us.

In a state where such coniferous trees as the pine, cypress, and cedar
*occupy so prominent a place in the landscape, small forms may well be used among
our ornamental plantings.

Tall, erect forms fit into narrow spaces well, and often at corners and in
angles give variety and pleasing contrast to the more abundant broad leaved
evc-rgrecns among which they are placed.

The ,rborvitae are a varied and interesting group. Many are of small
compact growth, some are upright columnar type, others like the Rosedale hybrid
eind Compacta are rounded or ovoid, some are golden, some are blue, green, and the
Greater number are bright green. Thus, a color, size and shape may be selected
fior almost any position.

There are many other choice coniferous plants. Italian cypress is a tall,
in'rrow form of value, though very little used in Florida. Phitzer's juniper is
a spreading form 2 to 3 feet high and 5 to 6 feet wide. Japanese juniper is an
ival form growing not over 5 or 6 feet high. Creeping juniper spreads along the
ground reaching a height of only 6 to 12 inches, the Yew or Podacarpus is erect
and narrow', seldom exceeding 6 feet. Our native Comptie or Zamia looks much like
co-rse fern but will grow in dry, sunny places where ferns will not thrive.
these are a few of the conifers we have to select from that have proven their

Still another group of plants, ferns, have a place against shaded walls,
and underneath larger plants, where plenty of organic matter and water can be
supplied, the Sword, Boston, leather and other cultivated. varieties as well as
attractive ones from the woods make green and attractive angles and spaces,
here few other plants can be grown successfully.

In bays and other small indentations to face do.;n the higher plants and
add color may be placed herbaceous perennials such as four-o-clock, Stoke's
aster, penstemon, physostegia, wandering Jew, and violets.

For such positions a number of bulbous plants are useful, as the day lily,
zephyr lily, oxalis, snow flake, narcissus and others.

H1o state has a greater variety of material for making an attractive year
round planting about the home, and no effort will add more beauty anc grace
to the home grounds, especially when combined wi.ch an open, well kept lawn,
a ,'ell planned border planting, and a house painted to harmonize with the

coot ""f mental Gardening in Flori:.a *'Tl'o; 15
lRadio Series 'De e 20.1933.

Growi-c Roses in Florida
Mrs. S. F. Poole
President Flori'.a Rose Society.

ITo flower today is deservedly more popular than the rose the queen
of flo, ers. Every home should have a rose ge.rden. ;othin; gives to the home the
sa-e ats'osphere of distinction as the rese garden.

:lany people believe roses can-ot be orow.2 successfully in Florida, but
under proper care we may grow beautiful roses successfully in any section of the
scate. There is no flower tiat will give more .ratiff;yin: results than the rose
when a ronerly cultivated and the "rowin3 of roses is not such a big problem.

People coming: cre from other statt-, to snoad their winters are disap-
oi.o'tel to see so few rose .-ardencs. We havo 'ad wi:tar v sitors ask us if they
could visit our rose garle--, r:nearki:-; t' r "J ,. had rot see:- any roses growing
in Florida."

Florida is foremost of e.ll states ir .-.e u-io-:. in climatic advantages,
yct ocr:haps grov!s fewer roses thar many of her sister states. True, t ore are
natural climatic disa''.va -.a-:es in Flori'a.a, suc as our hot and wet sum.,rs. On
the other hand we have fine 'ro'in"' conditions from October to April. Thcro arc
som:- varicties of roses, like the Perncts, that will not stand the rainy season.
T.i- solution we offer is to plant those varieties each fall, on.ior.ing an abundanec
of beautiful flowers during t:c ':,inter and spring before the rainy season starts.

Iow is a good time to plan and plant a rose garden. Rose bushes have
rnov; boon as cheap as they ar, today. Give tu'.-;ht to the pj:o)ocr location of
your rose garden. Choor.o a well-drained location away from the roots of trees,
and '.:'i-o' the sun shines at least half of the1 day. A moist spot is desirable
in so far as this will a--ist in maintaining,- the pro--cr condition of moisture
"' LhoLt excesSive need for' avzrin-". At t..e same iime it is essential that :a~ei
dooe ro stand and nta :ate in the soil. After chocni'-" the location and arrang-
in,; for drainars and for ::he equally important ma:-.r of water osu-~ly, the next
t"Lin- to be co-sidered is the orepar-tion of th.. soil. If your soil is light
and porous proparo it to the doDth of about ei-hteccn inches. In digging out the
bed plecc the top soil cn o:e side and the subsoil on-. the other. Tlen fill in
'"ith alternate layers of top soil and compost. T.is compost is well made of two
Darts of muck and one part of cow manu-e. lhe compost r.hculd be prepared several
'wc;-.: b;eforo usi:n; to allow it to ago. Peat moss, or d.caycd leaf mould, may be
.ddcd to the compost. To this add a liberal amount of bone meal. Mix all those
rtetri:.ls thoro-.ghly. If you wish, clay inay be added to this mixture. Clay
iv:s body to the soil and assis-s in the retention of moisture. On the other
hjnd shouldd your soil be heavy, dig ou, a portion of .ho clay, preferably subsoil
and add sand and .nurims so $'at watcr will drain throu,-h readily.

Buy good t''o year old field grown budded plants from a reliable nursory-

man ic my suggestion for obtaining plants. Regarding Root Stocks: The most
.:.ed understock and probably the one giving the best results is the Texas Wax
or odorata. Many of the newer roses come budded on Rosa multiflora stock. While
roses budded on this stock are vigorous and make a good growth the first year,
'.me fact remains that bushes on this stock 6.o not stand our rainy.season as well
as those on Texas Wax.

In planting the roses prune the bushes to about eight inches. Plant
them from 15 to 24 inches apart, demanding upon the variety. This will place
the plants close enough together to shade the ground above the roots, thu- keep.-
ing them cooler and more moist. A great deal of space is wasted in most .:ose
beds by spacing the plants too far art. Hybrid perpetuals should have a dis-
tance two to two and one-half feet. Wider spaces should be left every four or
five feet for paths to permit proper cultivation and watering and room for cut-
ting flowers. The bushes should be set at the same depth as they were growing in
the nursery. Firm down the soil thoroughly around the newly set plants. Then
water the plants adequately for they should be kept moist until the roots have
taken hold. Excess moisture at this time prevents root growth. After plants are
rooted keep them watered well during dry weather. Take time to set your rose
bushes. They look better and are more successful if a number of the same kind are
planted together rather than scattered miscellaneously through the bed. Then too.,
the stronger growers are sure to encroach upon the weaker sorts and prevent their

As to fertilization, roses are gross feeders and if fine quality blooms
with long stems are to be expected, a well planned fertilizing program must be
carried out. There is nothing better than dairy manure, bone meal or tankage.
An application of hard wood ashes annually may correct acidity as well as stimu-
late bacterial action. This double function makes more plant food available. IT
the fall and again about the first of March it is well to use some complete bal-.
ai.ced fertilizer with an organic base containing all the elements of plant foor.~
such as nitrogen, nhosphoric acid, and potash. The firstof June give your roces
a liberal application of bone meal and then do not fertilize them again until
fall. Allow the plants to go partially dormant during the hot and wet perio 1
We must always bear in mind that all of the flowers come on the new growth and to
get this growth we should fertilize regularly every month or six weeks during
-.'11:i winter and spring.

Cultivation versus Mulchirg; much has been said on this subject. Many
rose growers have better success mulching, others prefer shallow cultivation. We
. believe it depends on your own local condition. We prefer a mulch of oak leaves.
-rass clippings, peat moss, or any suitable material during the summer. It
shades and keeps the ground cool and moist. During the winter we practice shal-
]rw cultivation.

Many questions are asked about pruning. I have found it best to prune
in September or October, depending upon the condition of rose bushes. In cut-
ting back rose plants do so when and where you have mature wood and a strong eye
to cut to. Of course the amount cut back will depend upon the strengthagfigor and
variety of the plant. Plants should be gone over thoroughly, cutting out disease
dead and weakened wood. Leave about six of the best and strongest canes. In al:.
pruning a symmetrically shaped bush should be kapt in mind.

If your rose plants are not doing well perhaps they are not getting the


proper care. It :ay be lack of fool, soi3 conditions caasnl by certain types
of fertilizer, lack of moisturee roots of other plants or tree', or it may be
caused by a fungous disease, such as b'lack: spot, or powdery mildew. If you
have neglected to fertilize give the.. a liberal application of a complete fer-
tilizer, such as a four-eight-five analysis. Then give them a thorough water-
ing. If the bushes should still refuse to grow try moving them to a newly pre-
pared bed, or if you wish to leave them in the same bed dig them up and heel
them in while you remove the old soil. Then make a new bed into which you may
reset your bushes. Choose the time when the plants are at the nearest point
of dormancy. They should be cut back, both tops and roots.

The most troublesome insect pests in rose growing are aphids and thrips,
and the worst fungous diseases are blackspot and powdery mildew. Aphids a-c-
tack the new growth or the soft tender shoots below the bud. Thrips are more
often in the flowers. They are the cause of flowers failing to open, turning
brown and withering up. They are particularly noticeable on some varieties,
such as Mrs. Francis Scott Key. For control of these insects use Black Leaf
40 or other tobacco extracts. For control of black spot first make a thorough
cleanup of the fallen leaves and follow with an application of lime-sulphu ,
or Bordeaux mixture every ten da-s or two weeks until the trouble is under
control. It is better to keep constantly ahead of blackspot and insects than
to wait until they have a good hold before starting to fight them. Black spot
is a matter of prevention and not one of cure.

Much could be said about rose varieties. Some growers are content to
grow Radiance only. It is all right to grow Radiance, but be sure to try some
of the new varieties.

In this way valuable additions may be added to our list. Our rose gar-
dens woul&'be commonplace if no one ever tried new varieties. For instance, if
several years ago no one had experimented with new varieties would we have the
Radiance today? Some of the newer varieties which we tried last year proved
to be quite successful, such as E. G. Hill, a beautiful dark red rose, vigor-
ous and a free bloomer. We believe it is going to be as popular, if not bet-.
ter than the Etoile de Hollande. Talisman is giving good results. President
Herbert Hoover is decidedly worthwhile. While it resembles the Talisman, it
is more vigorous and has longer stems. Betty Uprichard, a two-toned rose, se-m
double, is very vigorous and worthwhile. We consider Kaiserin Auguste Vik-
toria the best white rose, better than the new ones. We have tried Edel. It
did not stand the summer very well. Dame Edith Helen is probably the most
beautiful pink rose. Blooms are very large, full-double, pure glowing pink..
My experience shows that it is a vigorous grower but a shy bloomer.the first
year. The second year the bushes look scraggly, and the blossoms are smaller.
Some of the new roses we planted last season, that do not show any ill effects
from the hot weather and the rainy season and are thus highly prized are Y,'ith
Nellie Perkins, salmon pink. Editor McFarland is a very beautiful rose, a
deep even pink with a faint tracery of white upon the edge of the petals. It
inherited its vigor and productiveness from one of its parents, the Radiance.
Mrs. Pierre S. DuPont, blossoms are a deep golden yellow; one of the best ye. -
low roses that we have tried. Another good one is Ami Quinard, velvety, crim--
son maroon, semi-double blossoms and the bush is of extraordinary vigor.

If you are after new climbers, by all means plant Mermaid. It is a sin-
gle rose of five brilliant white petals heavily washed with gold and glorifie&
by a great burst of golden stamens. You will like it. We also have in our
garden climbing Scorcher and Daydream and they are very promising.

Perha: some of you do not know that there is a Flo'ida Rose Society,
an affiliated unit of the American Rose Society. The qualifications for mem-
bership in the Florida Rose Society is an interest in roses and a desire to know
more about them.

The society publishes a rose bulletin annually. "Growing Roses in
Florida". The articles are all written by Florida growers of authority. Its
aim is to help the members in growing better roses, and particularly to help
the beginners who may become members. For new members joining before the first
of January the membership will be extended through nineteen thirLy-four. These
new members will receive the nineteen thirty-four rose bulletin, and in addition
the nineteen thirty-three rose bulletin as long as they last.



Ornamental Gardening in Florida Tallk o. 16
Radio Series December 27, 1933.


Harold Howry, Assistant Director
Florida Experiment Station

Climatic conditions of Florida are exceptionally favorable to plant
growth and this accounts in large measure for the wealth of ornamentals
found in the state. Few other areas in the United States can compete as
to variety and it is exceedingly doubtful that any other state can boast
of a near approach to the wide range of tropical and semi-tropical
plants found within its borders. The numerous native plants suited to
ornamental usage have been supplemented with introductions from all con-
tinents and it is a conservative estimate that no less than a thousand
varieties now enter in one form or another into Florida's lists of orna-
mental plants.

In recent years, ornamental gardening has received a great impetus,
mainly through the efforts of the statewide organization of Garden Clubs
whose work is now apparent in every section of the state. As a whole,
the value and desirability of ornamental planting is becoming well es-
tablished but there are yet too many residential lots, homes and streets
unplanted. Some few owners are found who ab-arently care but little for
the beautification of their home grounds. Such a condition is quite pro-
bably due in large measure to ignorance of plants and a lack of apprecia-
tion that properly trade and well kept plantings not only enhance the
beauty of a property but its monetary value as well. Again, the planting
of ornamentals is neglected in mar- instances because of a lack of in-
formation concerning varieties best suited for specific uses and their
adaptability to the different areas of the state.

It is discouraging after having planted shrubs or trees, diligently
cared for them throughout the sum- er and fall and brought them into a
thrifty growing condition to have them severely damaged or killed out-
right b7 cold the following winter. Many shrubs and vines may be killed
to the ground by cY..d but will spring from the uninjured roots and make
a vigorous growth the following summer. Some, however, if subjected to
severe frosts, may be killed outright and to prevent such losses it is
advisable to plant only varieties known to be hardy in the locality. For
any given section of the state there are numerous trees, vines and shrubs
that are cl" "-tiosa a
that are climatically adapted and sufficiently hardy to be planted with-
out fear of cold.

37 the term hardiness, as referred to plants, we usually have re-
ference to their ability to withstand low temperatures without appreciable
damage. Hardiness seems to depend on several factors, among them: the
natural cold resistance of different species and varieties, the condition
of the plant as to health and dormancy at the time the cold weather oc-
curs, the age and size of the plant, temperatures prevailing previous to


cold periods, and possibly with some species the amount of sunshine pre-
vailing in the winter months. Since the freezing process in plants does
not cause death through rupture of the tissues but primarily through
water loss in the cells and the formation of ice in the intercellular
spaces, it appears thet the softer the growth and the greater the sap
content the more susceptible is the plant to injury.

To a degree, plants may be enabled to withstand colder temperatures
if it is possible to bring them into a condition of dormancy prior to the
advent of the coldest weather. This is difficult of accomplishment but
is believed to be aided by withholding both late seasonal cultivation and
late applications of soluble nitrogenous fertilizers and by applying some
form of potash salts in early fall.

Paradoxical as it may seem, growers in Florida quite often have cer-
tain plants severely cold-damaged when the sane varieties are unhurt at
points one or two hundred miles further north by even lower temperatures.
Such conditions evidently are occasioned by our fluctuating winter tem-
peratures wherein rather extended periods of warm weather -- warm enough
to prevent complete dormancyy or even cause increase of sap flow or ac-
tual growth -- are followed by sudden temperature drops that are damag-
ing in their effect.

SOur winter sunshine, too, seems to have its effect on the dormancy
of many plants. This is strikingly brought out in the case of the lit-
chee -- the Chinese tree bearing the delectable bright red fruits that
appear like clusters of large strawberries. This tree is indigenous to
the Canton delta region of China heree it thrives and is seldom injured
by cold. Canton is in the same latitude as Havana. Coconut palms are
found in abundance in Havana and also as far as Palm Beach, which is
over 3i degrees northward. Strangely enough, coconuts do not grow in
Canton because of the low winter temperatures, while the litchee in Flo-
rida is occasionally injured by cold. The difference in the zero point
for vegetative growth in the two plants offers the only explanation for
their difference in behavior. The litchee evidently is stimulated into
a flush of growth at about 60 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit while the coconut
requires much higher temperatures. A comparison of sunshine for the month
of February of a given year showed Canton to have but 5A hours for the
whole month, while southern Florida, with a higher mean temperature b.-
about 7 degrees, had nearly 200 hours for the same period. Florida's
fluctuating temperatures and high percentage of sunshiny days make it vir-
tually impossible for the litchee to remain dormant and as a consequence
it is not resistant to the infrequent periods of relatively low tempera-
tures. Many other plants fall in the same category, notably the Mexican
lime, guava and mango,not to as noticeable a degree though the cold sus-
ceptibility is similar.

As is well known, the degree of hardiness in plants varies widely
in the various species. Most plants of the tropics cannot withstand :much
cold of sustained duration and should not be planted in those areas com-
monly subjected to occasional temperatures of freezing or below. Ordi-
narily, there is no pronounced dormant season with tropical plants that
corresponds to that of the plants of the cooler temperate zones. Some
are deciduous, being without foliage for short periods, but the time of
leaf shedding r:ay be induced more by seasonal drought or moisture condi-
tions than by temperature alone.

- 3 -

"or:mal prevailing winter to-.reratures in Florida have brought about
a se-aration of the state into -:-hat m.-a- be termed three climatic or plant
zones. Differences in the lo:er te.-.oezrture extre:-es of the three areas
are not great out within thaPt range is a critical point for many tropical
plants that suffer more or less severe da...a.e, or death, when exposed for
several hours to te.pbratures below froezing.

The most tropical parts of the -)peinsula are the coastal areas of the
extreme south, o:.-tending roug:.l front about Fort :lyers or ?unta Gorda on
the ~7est to Palm each on the east but excludcing much of the interior
area lyin.g bet--een. The narrowness of the peninsula, the '.warming influ-
ence of the Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean, iand the close oroximitd- of the
great ocean river, the Gulf Strean, all tendt toward a termpering effect on
temperature fluctuation and it is seldom that even slight frosts occur in
this portion of the state.

It is in the southern section that the truly. tro'.ical plants are
found in ablmdance. A great part of the native vegetation is identical
with that of the nei4-boring -We-t Indian_ Isleanzs enc it is only in this
part of the United St.tes th ?t a tro-ical flora is found.. Tropical exo-
tics thrive and clats from. ecou torijal regions have been introduced in
great numbers. Here the .ardezer ae'. lait lover ma- p .nt to his heart's
content -rith but little restriction as to va.riet- and without the neces-
sity of :Trnuch consideration as to the plant's cold. resistance. It is true
that some of the plants of more te-.-Tera.te climates do not thrive under the
-arm environment but that is of little consequence since for each plant
of that t:-oe there are many entirely' satisfactor- substitutes. Ornam.en-
tal -gardening in this area is offered an exce-tional opportuity to pro-
duce plant effects th.t can be duil.icated no'-'ere else in the several
states n".d rowerss should be and ere m thin the most of t..e climatic ad-
vpntIages available.

northh of this area and exten(ing a:proxi.r.tely to a line 6.rawn
through 1.':Prion Count- lies v:.at is cor-on-- terme'. the central area or
zone. Clim.-tic conditions here "-r .-b ut sli;htl fro:. those of the
southern zone exce-t thet -winter frosts :ni- "be of ..iore frequent occur-
rence an. o-' somev.hn.t greater intensit-. Freezing te..:-er-tu-res are :hnown
at infrequent intervals and. at such times the tenderest nlaents r.. be in-
jured. Within this region are li:.-ted ar3as .hving, exceptional frost
-orotection .tht per:.lit the Zro-in-g of ear:.ly ll those plants of the
southern area.

All of -astern -lorida in that p.rt of the state north of L:arion
County a.y be considered .2 the northern -plant zone. It is here that
the coldest te:n.-er.tures of winter usualrl- occur :cnd frosts are most :re-
ouent. Few of the tro-ical .lants are .-'.-ts to withstand th'e prevail-
ing ,-'inter :.inirma:-s !:--=! -hen planted s'er.ll" -rove a disappointment. To
a degree, this lessens the v~rict-- .v.il ble as co..na-red to farther south
but it need be no deterrent as nurm.erous .hidl:l' .esirable orn.-entals are
.scll pdanote.. Restrictions of this -.rep "-re b, no means to be co:pered
with those of more northern states and t'e comrrrrisons in.de here are only
for the p-urpose of calling attention to tem rprature variations existent
within Floricd.

There are no distinctl-y rnrhec boundaries in the three arbitrarily-

- 4 -

named areas since few "inter seasons are identical to the extent that
given minimum temperatures of one 'inter can be taken as an exact cri-
terion of the cold that may be expected at a designated location the next
yenr. Florida's cold weather -- such as it is -- in nearly all instances
is brought in by northerly winds and is seldom of over two or three days'
duration. Freezing temperatures, when they do occur, rarely last over a
few hours. This condition allows for fairly wide differences in tempera-
ture minimums even in closely adjacent localities. Some local areas are
noted as being cold "spots" while others, because of some topographical
protective influence are well known as warm or "frost-free" locations.

Because of the temperature differences obtaining, three factors
should' be given consideration in the choice of ornamentals:

First: The relative hardiness of the plants in question.

Second: The area, that is, the northern, central or southern area,
in which the plants are to be grown.

Third: The local situation as to probable protection afforded by
nearness to lakes or ocean, by elevation, or by overhang-
ing trees an? nearby buildings.

Due to the extremely large number of ornamentals available for Flo-
rida planting, it is impossible in the time allotted to give anything like
a comprehensive list of those adapted to the different sections. In many
instances, observation of those plants growing in the vicinity will give
a good idea as to the ones adapted to that particular area. Quite reli-
able information as to the climatic adaptability of the numerous varie-
ties may also be had from the many nurserymen who grow ornamentals. The
Experiment Station, too, has a list of many of the more cormon plants,
arranged as to hardiness, that may be had for the asking.

The questions of hardiness and adaptability of the plants to be used
about the home and in the garden are of paramount importance and should
be given due consideration in garden plans since the ultimate success of
the planting will depend largely on these factors.



Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 17
Radio Series January 3, 1934


John V. 'Vatkins, Asst. Horticulturist
University of Florida, College of Agriculture

In the growing of anything some -olans have te be made for nernetuating
t:-ie kind. This we call -ro-aagation, and it is one -,f the important jobs in
the having of a fine garden. Most gardeners leave a lot of the task of
propagation u'- to nurserymen, who make a speciality of that work, but there
are many who get great satisfaction in -ronagating many of their own garden
giants Knowledge of how the different kinds of -lants are )ro-agated is
really a -)art of good gardening.

Plant -;rr)agation may be defined as the increase in -lants to -ernetuate
the s-ecies or the variety. It involves the art, the science and the knowledge
sf the best time, )lace and manner of -)ronagating each kind of -lant. The art
may be acquired by following an exa:inle, either written or manual, or by the
trial and error method. The science may be acquired from books or from an
*ecerienced gardener.

Methods of -nroagation divide themselves into t-'o general classes -
sexual and asexual, the sexual method id dependent on the 'ormation of seeds,
rand the asexual method is used when seeds are not available. Under the asexual
classification we should consider the various ty)es of propagation, such as
division, cuttings, Inyerage, building and grafting.

In this -a'er we will consider only th, planting of seeds, division,
cuttings and layerage, and will omit the mere technical discussion of budding
and grafting.

[ The planting of seed is by far the simrliest and most used method of
oro'agating flowering -lants. That, h:'-rever, is a much bigger job than just
sticking a few seed in the ground and covering them. There is a time to 'lant
them, certain soil to -olant them in, a depth ti cover them, and they need the
right amount of moisture.

We'll discuss the planting of seed in more detail, but niw supoosT we
discuss some of the more interesting asexual methods of orcnagation.


Division: Propagaticn by division is the easiest, quickest
and best way to increase most herbaceous perennials and many bulbs.
Dig the plants, shake off the dirt and it will be apparent t.at they
will divide up into units or small plants all having rocts, stems, buds
erleaves. These units may be separated and planted. The beds should
be thoroughly prepared beforehand and abundant water should be added
to pack the soil well about the roots. Plants are best divided aftor
the blooming season, but with care theyrnay be so increased at any time.

Cuttings: This method also is much used in the propagation of
perennials and it is not at all difficult if a good grade of sharp,
clean sand and plenty of water are used.

Old stems are cut in three or four inch lengths, just above and
*ust below convenient nodes or buds. The leaves on the upper node
should be left intact. A sharp k-nife that will ma-e a clean neat cut
is the best tool t, use in making cuttin.gs.

A flat or box of any convenient size in the bottom of which
several holes have been drilled t) allow the free passage -f water
is an ideal receptacle for the rcoting of cuttings. Cover the
drainage holes with coarse material so that the sand will not wash
through. Fill the box with coarse sand to wit in an inch 'f the
top; pack well, insert the cuttings to the up-er nodes, and water
to firm thesand about the cuttings. Shade the flat and keep the
sand moist at all times. IThe>- the roots are about one inch long,
set the young plants in fertile soil that can be readily watered,
and protect them from thehot sun or cold until they are well es-

Dormant hardwood cuttings of garden shrubs may be made in
eight or ten inch lengths,tied in bundles and buried in sand upside
down. When inspect-ion shows that a callus has formed on the basal
end, the cutting may be lined out in nursery rows. They are set so
that only one or two buds are above the ground level The moisture
must be adequate and constant if a good percentage of well rooted
plants is expected.

Layerage is that method of propagation in which plants are in-
creased by rooting their stems without detaching them. When these
stems are well furnished with roots, they are severed and the new
plants are translated as individuals. Many of our woody and semi-
woody garden plants aremost easily propagated by layering, which is a
favorite method with many gardeners because successful increase is
practically assured.

Simple layers are m.ee by bending down the lower branches of a
plant so that it come,. into contact with the soil. Usually a trench
is made to receive the stem which has boen notched or nicked with a
knife to facilitate rooting. After the soil has been leveled and firm-
ed over the branch, a peg or a brick is used to hold the layer in place.
Frequent watering is most important to insure the quick development of
an adequate root system.


Continuous layers are those in which -'hole stems or canes are
buried under a few inches of sand. Neew plants arise from eyes or
buds along the -anes. The method cannot be used with many plants,
and even those th:-t may be increased in t-.is way, do not produce large
numbers of progeny.

Chinese layering is a popular method used in increasing plants
whose branches cannot be bent down to the ground. The stems are notch-
ed where the root system is wanted and the wounded area is' bound tight-
ly in a wad of sphagnum moss, fibrous peat or other moisture holding
material. String, tape or raffia is wrap-ed round and round the wad
to hold it firmly in placp. frequent watering of the layer is essen-
tial. Y!hen roots begin to emerge through the ball of moss, the new
plant should be severed and potted as an individual. Qhinese layers
are used to make new root systems on potted or tubbed specimens that
have become l1ggy. Pots, cans and cups of various materials may be
used in this type cf layerin-', especially if soil is preferred to moss
as the rooting medium.

Flanting Seeds: The one item of greatest difficulty with
most gardeners is gettinP a good stand of seedlinr-:s and protecting them
from the dreaded disease known as dampingg Osf". During A.ugust,
September and Octcb:r, when most annual seeds are planted, the warm
weather is very favorable to t:ie growth of dampinrgoff organisms and
the loss of seedlings is tremen-dous, if pro-er precautions aren't ob-

There are, perhaps, as many different methods of planting seeds
as there are gardeners. The method described herewith has been used
successfully at the horticultural grinds of the Coll.ege of Agriculture
for the last five years, and though it isnot necessarily the best way
to plant seeds, it has proven very satisfactory.

First of all, the autumn sown annuals may be divided arbitrarily
intc two classes those which transplant readily and those which do not.
Seeds of the former are planted in flats, while those of the latter are
scwn in the open ground '-where the plants are to stand.

The flat may be a shallow box of any convenient size th. t has
plenty of drainage holes or cracks in the bottom to allow water to pass
freely out of the soil. Thorough drainage is exceedingly important in
soils where tender seedlings are grown, as a sour, water-'ogged soil
is fatal to most young gardenn plants. In the bottom of the flat should
be placed a layer of pine strain, dead grass clipAings or other cor.rse
material so thrt the soil will not wash through the drainage holes.

The soil used in flats may be any good grade of garden soil
which contains a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such as cow
manure, oak leaves, peat moss, etc. The older the soil is, the better.
Soil th-.t is free from root-'not nem-.todes is, of course, desirable.

Firm the scil to --it--in half an inch of the top of the flat with
a brick or a block of wood. Flood this gently packed soil with a solu-
tion of one of the organic mercury compounds tlhat are indicated for the
control of damping off. After this solution has drained off, sift
the seeds, broadcast, on the wet soil. Cover lightly by sifting sand


through a screen
or sandy soil/over the seeds. Covering the seeds too deeply is a common
error. Generally speaking if t.ie seeds be just barely hidden good re-
sults may be expected. After the seeds have been covered with soil, place
a wet newspaper over the flat. Water should be sprinkled on the paper
whenever it becomes dry. In this -ay there is no danger of washin, th-
seeds out of the soil, and the soil is kept uniformly moist. The ,-!et
newspaper should remain on the flat until the seeds germinate. Place the
.flats on boxes or benches that are protected from ants which often carry
aray the seeds. Some of the most popular of our autumn-sown annuals, such
as pansies, sn-pdragons and larkspur, are cool weather r plants and their
seeds Till1 not germinate readily if the temperature is excessively high.
Forthis reason, to assure a fair stand, it is important that the flats
should be placed in the coolest possible situation. The north side of
a building, under a tree, or under an open shed should do nicely.

After germination the flats must be placed '-here the seedlings
can get an abundance of lipght; if they are left in the shade, the seedl-
ings will growv into weak, legy plants. We have found that a muslin
shade such as is used for celery or tobacco seed beds allows sufficient
light to penetrate to the young plants. Shortly after germination, the
flats should receive another aprclication of a compound for the control
of damping-off. Water should be carefully applied through a fine spray.

When the seedlings sho'- about four true leaves, they may be trans-
planted to well prepared beds where they are to bloom. Choose a cool,
cloudy afternoon for transplanting if it is at all possible, and set the
plants about 12 to 18 inches apart. Close planting is desirable to assure
bold color masses. As further insurance against damping off it is often
a good plan to use the da:mping-off control immediately after transplanting.
Great care should be exercised in watering the yo'um plants until they are
well established. Ovor atering can be as harmful as under-watering.

The second class of annuals, thrse whichh are planted in the open
ground where they are to bloom, may be handled much the same as vegetables.
Sow the seeds thinly in shallo:- drills or trenches. Cover lightly with
soil and sprinkle with a damping-off control. The drills or rows may be
covered with ret strips of burlap. If t..;is material is used water will
not wash the seeds out of the soil, and the soil stays uniformly moist.
If ants are abundant, grits or cornmeal sho Id be sprinkled liberally
alcng the rows. These -'ill be taken in preference to the seeds. As
soon as the seeds germinate the burlap must be removed and a second appli-
cation 6f the damping-off control sho--ld be made. When the plants are
well established, thin s& that they stand about 12 to 18 inches apart.

In summing up, we might say that the one bi-; thing to bear in
mind in propagating plants is that different plants demand different
methods and it is up to the gardener to learn the likes and dislikes
of their different kinds of plants. When plants are considered as
individuals and something with life in them, the gardener is muc i more
likely to be successful in having a fine garden.



Ornamental Gardening in Florida TaL: No. 18
Radio Series January 10, 1334.


G. H. Blaclmon, Horticulturist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Trees occupy an important place in any well-designed and executed
landscape planting. They function as does the frame of a picture, and
bring out the lines and boundaries with the proper setting so that the
full and complete effect of the other plant material is developed. Rest-
ful breaks can be established along roadsides, in parks, estates and
| country club grounds with the proper use of the right trees.

Ornamental trees should be selected for their individual ability to
produce certain definite and desired effects. Evergreen trees are often
used because of their beautiful green appearance during the dormant sea-
son, but there are many locations and types of plantings where it is more
desirable to use other l-inds. Trees for shade and beauty during the sum-
mer months are required on practically all small home grounds. Where the
full benefit of the Florida sun is desired during the winter months de-
ciduous trees are the most satisfactory ones to plant. With proper selec-
tion and arrangement it is possible to meet adequately such requirements
with a great variety of trees that shed their leaves during the dormant
season so as to admit practically all of the sunlight duringg the time when
it is most desired.

There are many t-pes of landscapes, especially those of large propor-
tions, where deciduous trees can be used most effectively. Cclor combi-
nations in foliage and flowers of exquisite beauty can be produced in
great abundance during the spring and autumn by the correct arrangement
of such trees in the planting. Colors in great array are magnificently
portrayed in the natural woods of Florida during the spring and fall
months when the foliage of persimmons, oaks, sweet gums, maples and others
in gorgeous hues blend harmoniously with the green of the pines. After
all, what is more beautiful than the natural landscape upon which all suc-
cessful plans must be based if suitable and pleasing surroundings are tc
be developed.

There are two general types of deciduous trees adaptable to Florida
landscapes. Those that shed all their leaves during the fall and those
that shed their leaves during the latter pert of the dormant season and
become completely defoliated just before or about the time of the initial
scoring flush of growth. The native cherry, red oak, hickory and pecan
are representative trees of the first group, while laurel and water oaks
reniresent the latter.

The soils required for deciduous trees are much the same as those
for the general plantings made in landscape arra-gements. Therefore, if

Page two.

a good lawn rnd shrub soil is available, .ood results will be had in
planting and growing trees ada ted to Florid.a conditions. In general the
land should' be well drained, but of such condition that it will retain
sufficientimoisture that maximum results will be obtained from the water
supply and vigorous growth of the trees maintained.

Transplanting is done during the dormant season according to the
general rules for setting trees. The holes should be large enough to ad-
mit the roots without crowding and to a den-th that will allow the roots
to be as deer as they were in the nursery or in their natural location.
In setting the trees it is best to plant with the roots no deeper than
they grew. Use only top soil and press it firmly about the roots and
add about one pound of bone meal as the holes are being filled. When
the holes are three-fourths full, water thoroughly and then fill in with
loose earth. The tops of the trees should be cut back rather severely to
balance with the root systems at the time the trees are transplanted.

When trees are removed from their natural locations one should take
up as gooC a root system as possible and protect it from driving winds and
sun with damo moss or burlap until transnl-nted. The root system on
trees with tru~.:s not over two or two and one-half inches in diameter
should be not less than two feet across, three feet is better, and the
roots should have a depth length of 18 to 36 inches, de-ending u-.on the

The size of trees that will give the best results after transplanting
is an important item. 1ursery-grown trees are graded by feet up to 12
feet high and by caliper of trunk in inches for larger grades. Most trees
will grow off much better if medium sizes are selected rather than the
extremely large ones. Pecans, hichories and walnuts in general should be
of the 5 to 6 foot or 6 to 8 foot grades or smaller, although trees as
large as 8 to 10 feet can be successfully plaited about the home where
individual attention can be given them. For other kind, trees with
trunks not over two and two and one-half inches in diameter should be
planted, although water oaks up to 4 to 6 inches in diameter often are
transplanted successfully with b're roots.

Trees in the landscape ordinarily receive little or no cultivation,
as it is generally desired to have the lawn grass completely covering the
ground. There are some species, notably the pecan, that will grow off to
a much better advantage if a small area about the base is :ept clean of
growing vegetation and mulched with organic material for the first two
or three years. This latter practice, hov ver, is not so important if
the trees are located in lawns that are ?:e-t -'*ell watered and fertilized.
Adequate soil moisture must be maintained, cther-iise the trees will not
make suitable growth.

A general fertilizer aPIal-zing about 5-7-5 should be applied in the
s--ring an?. -ain in the summer to su-o. plant foods in sufficient amounts
to produce growth. Bone mea' end cottonseed meal are also good materials
to use on the soil in which shade trees are growing. If the lawns in
which trees are located are pro'erlv fertilized during the growing sea-

Page three.

son it will not be necessary to make additional applications, but it
would be advisable to increase the amounts somewhat in the areas occu-
pied by the tree roots. If trees are to be given special fertilizer in
lawns it is best done by plugging, i.e., punching holes in the earth in
the root zone and filling with fertilizer, preferably b.ne meal.

The pruning of deciduous trees should be generally attended to dur-
ing the dormant season which in Florida is approximately from December to
March. About all that need be done is to prune out any dead and inter-
fering branches. All pruning should be Tone so that the cut is made
next to another breach or where the limb joins the trunk: of the tree to
insure proper healing of the wound. When removing dead limbs the cut
should' be made well into the green wood area. The cuts should be made
-'ith a sharp saw and in such a way as to avoid splitting. All cut sur-
faces of more than one inch in diameter should be covered with a good
grade of outside paint or wound. dressing to prevent the entrance of
moisture and wood-rotting fungi. Decaying' wood that started from broken
or poorl' pruneda branches and unprotected cut surfaces has caused the
weakening anPd death of manr trees t'wt otherwise would have lived for a
much longer period.

Trees matr become unsi:*;tl.' and lose their vatility and usefulness
due to attacks of insects and diseases, anC gardeners should be prepared
to prevent such losses. Complete information regarding control method's
of destructive r-ests can be obtained from the University of f'lorida Ag-
ricultural E3x'nriment Station.

There are a large number of deciduous trees, both introduced and
native, from which Florida gardeners may select material for planting.
The native trees are sufficienti-, numerous to fulfill almost any reouire-
ments. There are numerous oaks, svcamore, crress, sweet gum, maples,
hickories an:' others native to Florida that are excellent trees for land-
scape and street plantings. There are also many introduced trees '" ich
should not be overlooked that thrive satisf:'rctorily when properly located,
including Ginl-go, Koelreuteria formosana, Aleurites, Pecan, 31ach: Walnut
and many others.

Laurel and water oa:s are probeblr t.iclrost commonly used of all de-
ciduous trees for roadside, street anc landscape plpntings. The red or
Spanish oal' gives good results and is often left where growing naturally
when clearings are~aade. All of these mal:e beautiful trees an. furnish a-
bundant shade, but the last named is the only one that sheds the leaves
completely in the fall, the other two being more or less tardily decidu-

The Bald cypress -nr' the Pond cypress are t-o coi.mon native decidu-
ous conifers that can be tra is-0lrnted and grown successfully as ornamental
trees. They present a ver be'orutiful -cpoaranca, especially in the
spring when the now gro-th has the light green, feathery appearance.

The S-rcpnore is nlanteC as a shade tree to some extent throughout
the northern areas of Florida where it thrives satisfSctorily. Owing to
its grayish white bar'- it can be used effectivel-, where it is desirable
to have P tree that will show among or against a mass of green foliage.
Some object to its leaves as the-, fall.

Sweet Gum is another native tree that is found throughout most of

P-'s '0=r.

Florida that is a vigorous grower. It is pyramidal in general shape,
tell and well suited for roadside, avenue, and group plantings where such
deciduous trees are desired. The foliage is dense and turns to shades of
beautiful reds and yellows in the late fall months.

The Red maple which is native over Florida from the southern parts
through to the northern areas, is used to some extent in ornamental plant-
ings. It presents a beautiful appearance in the spring and the foliage
turns to bright red and yellow colors in the fall, which ~akes it very
attractive. This tree should be employed more extensively, as it trans-
plants easily and is well adapted to natural conditions where the soil
is suited.

Native hickories are not generally transplanted, but are frequently
left as specimen trees when clearings are made. They are beautiful trees,
especially Hicoria alba and Hicoria glabra, and lend much dignity and
beauty to landscapes. The Water hickory, Hicoria aquatica, can be trans-
planted successfully and is especially valuable in rather wet locations.

The pecan is planted extensively as a sha'.e tree throughout central
and north Flori"a. The large trees frequently noted about the homes in
the state are mostly seedlings, but the later plantings are mostly of
named varieties. With the proper variety it is possible to have orna-
mental shade trees that will also produce a supply of nuts for home use
and for sale.

The Maiden hair, or Giinkgo biloba, is planted sparingly as an orna-
mental tree in the northern part of the state. It presents a pleasing
appearance during the growing season, and again in the late fall when the
foliage turns to a golden yellow. As the fruit has a foul odur it is
best to plant only those trees bearing the staminate flowers.

The tung-oil, Aleurites fordi, introduced from China, presents a
a beautiful appearance in the spring when in full bloom. It is also
rather attractive as a foliage tree during the summer months but wing to
its habit of growth it would be best suited as a part of the banks and
clumps of small trees rather than in a location where an extremely large
stately specimen is desired. Other species which are planted to some ex-
tent in the southern part of the state are Aleurites montana; A. moluc-
cana; A. cordata; and A. trisperma.

Koelreuteria formosana is as yet quite rare in Florida, but succeeds
as an ornamental deciduous tree on well-drained lands over most of the
state. This is a flowering tree th-t can be utilized effectively where
color is desired in the late summer and fall. It produces great panic.es
of small yellow flowers that appear in late September and early October
followed by the red capsules containing the seed. The colors are very
showy and attractive and the trees can be used in numerous ways in va-
rious sized landscapes and home grounds.

There Pre two walnuts that are used to some extent as yard trees
that thrive in central andnorth Floric'a. The Black walnuts make beauti-
ful shade trees of considerable proportions that are quite useful as well
as ornamental. The seedling Japanese walnut is found growing about homes
less frequently than the Black walnut and is a much smaller tree. Nuts

Page five.

with delicious kernels are produced in abundance by both of these wal-
nuts which adds materially to the home supply.

There are man-r deciduous trees other than those mentioned and brief-
ly described that can be successfully used in Florida landscapes and for
street and roadside plrntinc;s. Much fuller lists with complete descrip-
tions and instructions for planting, fertilization, cultivation, etc.,
can be obtained by writing the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 19
Radio Series January 17, 1934.

H. S. Wolfe, Horticulturist in Charge,
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Fla.

To the prospective orchardist the only considerations entering in-
to the selection of fruit trees are the quantity and quality of fruit
to be expected and the market returns, but to the home owner who wishes
to have a few fruit trees around his house it is of interest to know
what ones will serve an ornamental function as well as provide fruit
for his table. Florida has no fruit trees which make such a striking
display as northern apple, cherry or peach trees in the spring, yet
there are many among Florida's fruit trees which are as well worth grow-
ing for their ornamental value as for their fruit. In nearly every case
they are attractive the whole year, instead of having only a relatively
brief period of loveliness in the spring.

Most of the attractive fruit trees of Florida have ornamental va-
lue chiefly because of their comoactly symmetrical habit and their ever-
green foliage. In a state where so many brilliantly colored shrubs and
vines abound, it would almost seem enough to ask that fruit trees should
be handsome evergreens. But of the three F's of ornamental value --
flowers, fruit an. foliage -- we have some fruit trees with all three
and some with two, as well as those with only handsome foliage to re-
commend them as ornamentals.

Perhaps the best-known examples of fruit trees with a triple F for
ornament -- attractive flowers, colorful fruit and beautiful foliage --
are found a strong the citrus species. The waxy, white flowers, with a de-
lightful fragrance, are set off in s-ring by the background of glossy
green foliage, -while in winter the same beauti:.ul green serves again as
setting for the yellow, *orange or red fruits. The m-ost ornamental of
the citrus family is the kumquat, whose numerous fruits, like orange-
vellow plums, adorn the shanely little trees for months. Of slightly
larger habit and more spreading, willovwy branches are the tangerines,
whose fruits are the size f: sm,.al apples and var- in color from bright
orange to a decided red, according to the variety. While it is more
difficult to obtain and keep symm..etrical specimens of orange and grap.-
fruit trees, we would undoubtedly value them more for their purely or-
namental effect if they were not so common, VT'here there must be grown
in tubs and kept in a greenhouse through the winter, orange trees are
considered very attractive ornamental trees. A well-grown grapefruit
tree is handsome at all seasons, but especially so when the great yel-
low balls of fruit are hanging in clusters all over it in winter. All
of these citrus tree can be grcwn throughout nearly the whole of poiin-
rular Florida. They are fruits which had their ancestral home in f-.
eastern Asia, but they have s7-read around the whole world in the sub-

Of even '"ider range of distribution in Florida is the loquat,
which adds the charm of bright yellow clusters of fruit end panicles
of fragrant, though not strikingly beautiful, white flowers to the
green of its s.ym:metrical body of foliage. It attains a height of 20
feet usually, and forms a co.-pcct, round-headed tree. The large
leaves are glossy, dark-green on the upper side and covered with a
brownish felt on the under side, and form a dense me.ss of foliage all
the year. The juicy yellow fruits, of the size of small plums, have a
very pleasant p.cidity added to their sweetness, and so are especially
tasteful to tourists whose oalates find the richly sweet tropical
fruits somewhat cloying. Pleasant to eat out of hand, loquats make a
splendid preserve or jelly. For the lower half of Florida, at least,
this is the only very satisfactory representative of that most promi-
nent family in northern horticulture, the Rose family, to which the
apples, pears, cherries, peaches and plumns belong. It also is an Asia-
tic fruit, native to central-castern China originally and cultivated
for centuries in China and Japan. From these countries we have im-
ported several choice varieties, wiile others h.,ve been developed in
recent years by a Ca.lifornia horticulturist. One small village in
China is said to have shi-pped out $20,000 worth of loquats in a single
year, and in Japan the fruit production runs above a million dollars

Limitec to the more tropical portions of Florida, the lower coast-
.al areas mostly, are two handsome trees :which have come to us from the
far East Indlies -- the rose-a--ple r: the jPnabolan (J:tm' bo lan').
3oth are large evergreen trees with medium-sized,somewhat leathery,
glossy green leaves which forn a frirl-r co:Coact body of foliage. The
rose-a-p-le is the more '-idely grown of the two, bot'- in this state and
in the rest of the world. Besides its hand.some as-,ct it is remarT-
able for its fr-'-its nil' flowers. The fruits are the size of a large
round plum, light yellow in color, ncd have a firm but verv tender
flesh -erfumed with the odor of rose-wa-ter .':d slightly sweet. It is
used to give a a:roma. to jellies. T.h flowers would be rather incon-
snicuous greenish-white blooms if it were ::-ot for the great number and
size of the stamens. These stand out like long yellow pins filling a
pin cushion, or likl a yellow po~rpon, being three inches across the
strmen cluster. The ncw lea.vs ,appe ring in spring add. the lovely
wine color of their flush to the green of th. older leaves. The
flowers of the j-::rbolan do not have such a showy pir-cushion effect as
those of tch ros-.-?:,'-13, but Proe attractive 'white buttons on the dark
green coat of foliage, while the fruits arc like small doep-purple
plums. They are used for preserves and jelliis, rather than to eat
out of hand.

Of the trees which combine orn-.menta. fruit with attractive fo-
liago habit, the mangos -probbly rai:.: first. For handsomeness of fo-
liage aspect alone a finch specimen of mango has fiw equals. It makes
a synmmntrical, roune.-hPr.ded trc- of up to 60 feet in height, with
glossy slender leaves which are a rose r-d when they first p.-apear in
the spring; and reim.in a dar-: green for more than a y.car. In such fine
varieties as thL.i Hden rnd ILuljob., the pendant clusters of brilliantly
colored fruit me :.; a sight not soon forgotten. And whe-n in late win-
ter the whole tree is nearly covered with r mantlee of panicles of small
yellowish flowers, the mango would almost seem to qualify for a triple

- 2


X, also. In its best v--.ritir, thce .aon.go is b- f'-r the finest of the
strictly' troricl fruits, having a pleasant aroma and a delightful sub-
acid Oualit-' addcd to its sweetness. It is to the tropics what the
peach is to thec tc:.peratc zone, and can be grown in Florida as far north
as Morritt's Island on the cast coast, Bradenton on the west coast, and
Le.l: Placid in the center of the statc.

The West Indian star-apple is a tree of somewhat more tropical re-
quirements than the u.a.ngo, but of even more b,.autiful foliage aspect.
The tree itself is by no means so large and stately, but the leaves are
glossy green above and a lovely! satiny golcln-brown underneath. So rs
thc leaves dance in the breeze, they gleam like burnished copper when-
cver their ed-crsides met th sunlight. The flowers arc small and
rather inconspicuous, but the fruits are a.s large as a mcdiun-sized
apple and may. be either light grecn or bright purple. Within the
fruit is a rather soft white flesh of melting sweetness. When the
fruit is cut across the middle, it presents rurch the same appearance
as an rln-le, with a strr-shaped cluster of seeds at the core, and hence
the name "star-ap-le." Its sister slDcies, a native tree in southern
Florida, takes its name from the vry similar character of the leaf
undersides, and is hc.-o"rn as the "s.tin-lnef."

Another trec %-ith b'.cutiful fruit and handsome folia.gc is the
lychcc (li'chce). It is rather rTifficult of cultivation, thoughh it
is fully as h-srcdT ,s the m".ngo, nd therc are hardly aC. ozen bearing
tro-s in the stito. But it is trce '-:-ich -ell reopaos tle trouble of
growing it. Li'ke: the loouat rand t'Vc citrus fruits, the lychco is a
gift from th- Colesti.l Empire, I',here it h"s been cherished for over
2,000 ears rs the finest 0of a.ll fruits. The tree is small, round-
hadced, and com .ct, :-'th glossy, .dar:-.green foliage of slunder, rather
drooping, com-roun6d lea.ves. The fruit is bornM in grap.j-likc clusters,
and each fruit is lilr.e an oval red str,"robrry, with tough, roughcnod
skin. Inside is n cle-r, tra-nsluccnt pulp of very agreeably blended
swectness and acidityr. The dri.d fruits constitute the well-known
"lyche nuts" of Chinese confectionery. As is true also of t-he mango
and the loquat, it is neccss.ry to have grafted. trees from named varie-
ties to be sure of fine ouality, fruit.

While the a L-h fruit is usu.ll.y rUtcn after frying, rather than
fresh, and prrtr':cs in many respects of the quality of a vegetable ra-
ther th-n of fruit, r,:t it is alv.r.~s classed as a fruit. And as such
it deserves consideration among those fruit trees having attractive
fruits. It is a plant '-,hich crme to the csct Indies a century and a
h".lf ago from West Africa, in the days of the slave trade. The tree
habit qewhat o-pen and. the foliage rather a light green, and it
would/be-,orthy of plnnting for ornamental va.lue '-'cre it not for the
distinctive fruits. These a.re bright-red cr'sulcs of 2 or 3 inches
length, borne in large clusters, and the open hrbit of the tree s.rvks
to make them the more cons-icuous. When they c.rc fully m'-ture they
split open to disclose a shining white pulp containing large black
seeds. The pulp has a veri- nut-like. flavor r-hen fried in butter. The
tree is decidedl-- tro-ical in requirements, about like the star-apple,
or -orhaps succeeding as frr north ,s the mango.

- 4-

Th. sn-.od'ill-, or "dilly," is a striking-ly handsome tree which
endures w:inrs but not frost. Native to Central America and southern
Mexico, it is one of our native American fruits, as is the star-:,pple
of the same f-nr.lv. The tree habit is tall and stately, often spread-
ing out into great rounded ton but el"'a:s compact, and the medium-
sized l;.aves are a deep, glossy green. The brown fruits are usually
the size of a small a-ple, and contain several seeds of medium size
imbedded in a light-bro7n flesh which is soft and. sweet and is slightly
gritty, like a northern peer. On the Florida Keys the dillyy" is one
of the f.e'7 fruits -hich grow satisfactorily, and it is highly prized.
The millky juice of the b orrk forces the basis for chewing gunm, and in
Central America great areas of sa'odillas are tapped for the chicle
(chic'1l) to supply our great chewing gum industry. But apart from
either the fruit or the chicle, the sapodilla is a tree -orthy of
planting for its handsome aspect. It is unusually free from either
diseases or insect pests.

Another ver- sturJy- nd handsome tree which endures no touch of
frost is the tamnrind. Slow' of growth, like the sapodilla, it devel-
ops at length into a verr large, corIpact, roune-headed tree. The fine-
ly divided foliage is a light green shade and peculiarly beautiful. In-
cdienous to tro:ical Africa andc perhaps to southern Asia, it has been
cultivated for so long in Infida as to ma_-e its origin uncertain. It is
-ell -orthy of cultivation for its beauty of habit alone, but it also
has valuable fruits. These are nods of 4 to L inches length and an
inch across. This tree belongs to the Pea family, an-. within each
bro-a pod is a thick brown paste of high sugar content and high aci-
rit7-. A delicious cooling drink, lihe limeac.c, is made from this pulp
in the fTost Indies, while in the Orient the tamarind is valued as an
ingredient of chutnics and curries. Like the s-podilla, -hose range
it shares, this handsome tree has fc', diseases or posts, and it is
ver' resistant to storm winds.

The Cattle or Str-awberry guava is a rather small tree, rarely
exceeding 20 feet, -rit'- ver- attractive glossy, deep-green leaves and
smooth brownish branches. It is native to Brazil, but was carried to
China b-- Portuguese traders early in the o6th century. And thus it
became hnown at first to Europe as a Chinese fruit. There are both
yellow and red-fruited varieties, both alike being highly valued for
mrkCing jellies as q"rell as for eating out of hand. The fruits are much
the size of rluns. The tree is about as hardy. as the orange, and is
rarely attx.cled. b- either diseases or insects.

A handsome fruit tree of ver- narrow' range of distribution in
Flori..a is the jaL: (jcck). This brother of the fa:.ious bread-fruit is
onl-' harC--' enough to grow '--here the sapodilla and tamarind flourish,
ande is an immigrant originally from the mountains of southern India.
It forms undur nfvorable conditions a tall, dense-foliaged tree of
statel- haeit. The fruits are v..rv: unusual, being as large as a foot-
ball and borne directly: on the truit or mrin branches. They are har-1-
ly a sufficient r::ason in thciasclves for the growing of this tree, co
far as fruit ourlit- is concorn.ad, but their unusual character mei~s
them hi.ghl- interesting; an-'. th tree itself is a decidedly handsome

Another decided' tro-ical fruit tree, -'hich has come to our

- 5 -

shores from the nearb'- West Indies, is the lammee Apple or mamey,. The
large, glossy deep-green leaves are borne on a very compact framework,
and the tree is handsome and stately. The large fruits, lile huge rus-
seted peaches, have a flesh ,which when fully mature is of the texture
of half-ripe peaches. The.: are valued rather for use in preserves, to
'7hich they impart an apricot flavor, than for use as a dessert fruit.

Closely related to the persimmon is a handsome evergreen tree of
me6ciun size, the bl ck sapote, which had its origin in the highlands
of southern Mexico. Like so many of the tropical fruit trees, it has
glossy, somewhat leathery leaves of medium size. The fruits are as
large as small apples, and contain a soft pulp of dark chocolate brown
which is very sweet. As a dessert fruit it is more esteemed in Mexico
then in this country. The tree is vert' tender to frost.

The Otabeite (0-ta-hite') cooseberry is a small tree, native to
Iadcagascar ancd India, which grows well in the southern half of the
state. This handsome, erect, little tree has its leaves ranged in
pairs along the sides of small branches, so that they appear to be
large compound leaves, and these feathery branches stand out stiffly
from the larger branches, giving a. v-ry characteristic appearance of
coroactness to this small, round-toened tree. The small green fruits,
about an inch across, are ribbed, and they have a quality similar to
the goose-berry, so that they make good jellies and jams.

Summing up, e note that the kunmquat, tangerine, loquat, rose-
apple, and jambolan are of ornamental value for foliage, fruit and
flow-ers, all three; the mango, lvchec and star-apple combine colorful
fruits -"ith handsome foliage; and the sapodilla, tamarind, jek, mamey,
black sapote, cattle guava and Otaheite gooseberry are valued for
fine foliage and tree habit. And these are only those of Florida's
fruits whichh have ornamental value as trees apart from the value of
their fruits in themselves.


co.."..*Ce..r-npental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 20
Radio Series January 24, l34


H. Harold Hume, Assistant Director, Research
Florida Experiment Station.

T'-hat roses shall I plant? is a direct question that must be answered in
soiie shion by everyone making a rose plan-ting or setting out only a few bushe;
in the garden. And the answer to t'e question, whether that answer .e dependable
or not, may be obtained from various sources. It mw be had from rose catalogues
that are today, in many cases, veritable works of art. Roses in these booklets
are displayed singly, in beds, in groups, on arbors or pillars, in color and in
blck: and white. Who, having seen these cntal.o"-.es, does not wish to plant a
rose or a dozen? The text goes with the .pi tures; it matches them in flowery I.".-
guage and the story of the rose and its behavior is complete. And so, hunting
through the pages of the catalogue, there co;-.s into -xistence a mental rose
g-srden. the bushes in vigorous growth, the licves healthy, green and lush, with
flowers in gorgeous hues of p.i.-', or red, or co-oper, or yellow, or glistening
hite. Thus in the cool o.'.' a .inter's nii,.ht, by wandering through a catalogue,
the answer is four to t'- q .,st..on, "!Th-t rosss h-ll I plant?"

But the catalogues do not ti.ll all t'~i stoi-.;; thet- do not give a complete
;Lns,:er to the question, "What roses shall I pl3-t?" The descriptions give cer-
tiin Information; they tell certain things about the varieties, their good
.,'irnts are set forth, but as a gceral ral the rose planter must learn their
Shortcomings and deficiencies for himself. This is where the catalogues fail.

Certainly it is a safe conclusion t.iat all the varieties listed are not a-
ptted to Florida conditions, Wiy ar3 th(;y not adapted? To begin with, a lot
'L" rose varieties named and introduced, originated in different parts of the
S::orld never should have been introduced an.-iay. They have nothing of particu-
lar vlue to recommend them. I know there is a constant tendency on the part
of T1 --it lovers to interest themselves in -lants that are new; they want the
ver, latest t thing and the rose originators, introducers and nurserymen have
lou.JL'. it to their advantage to cater to the desire for the new, even to the ex.
i.cnt of displacing better plants. In consequence there has swept over this
,ou1.utr, a wave of rose super-sales....nship in the pro:notion of varieties that is
".jt bs.ed on actual performance, an(' this, unfortunately, is resulting and can
;.ut r-sult in a deplorable situation, a loss of intercsL in the rose on the pat
those who grow it. They have been fooled too often. To be plain and candid.
... out it, I have never been ablo to u.i.dorstand ''hy a perfctly fine, well-adapt-
e-d old rose should be displaced by one of :-ore r. c,;nt origin for no butter rea-
.-ci than that it is new. I believe in new roses; I believe in testing them, inI
tryiiAg them out, but for me they must equal in all particulars those I have and
-rscent some additional point of merit before I discard the old, dependable
a rts. I believe in new roses, but we must not mnie gardens with them or buy
chem in quantity until they have been tried and. found satisfactory for our aroc.

2 -

Roses of today are of very mixed parentages. Hybridizers have bred roses
of many kinds and from them evolved our garden forms. Some of these parents
give plants adapted to our conditions, others do not. If into the makeup of a
rose there enters too much of an original species that belongs to a dry climate,
we are likely to fail with it because our rainfall of 55 inches or so annually
is entirely different froi that to which it is adapted or to which one or more
of its parents has been accustomed. Heat and moisture induce poor growth in
the summer season; diseases lay hold of stems and leaves, and, to use a good
Florida expression, "it just peters out." Furthermore, roses that go back to
parents from cold climates are likely to be failures. They will not succeed un-
less they are well chilled in winter. Occasionally following a cool winter they
may flower, but that is not often. And so, though they may be grown into good
stout plants, they do not bloom. They are failures for just the same reason
that plums, raspberries, currants, horseradish and other plants from northern
climates are failures here. We have succeeded very well in keeping growing
roses and other plants warm by building greenhouses around and over them, but iwe
have not got very far yet with refrigerating them. Some varieties of roses are
notoriously wea: growers, the stems are slender and weak, the foliage scant;
they haven't enough stamina to produce buds of size that hold up their heads.
Away with them!

The first requisite of any rose for Florida is ability to grow vigorously.
They may make good green shrubs if nothing more. The second requisite is free-
dom from diseases and insects. Wh;. :row roses to feed insects and harbor di-
seases if they alone will benefit? And the third desideratum is free flowering,
-- an abundant harvest. Whether the flowers are white, pink, copper, red or
yellow does not matter if they are not produced or are few and far between.
When vigorous growth, freedom from disease and free flowering are assured, other
things, as color, shape of bud, habit of growth, can be considered.

There are still other things that must be considered in growing roses in
Florida. In what part of the state are the-r to be grown and what is the objec-
tive? Our state is of vast extent, north and south, east and west. In conse-
quence the climate is not uniform. It is warmer in the southern portions in
winter than in the north and west. Roses may be grown and flowered out-of-doors
all winter long in southern Florida or in favored spots elsewhere. Seldom do
they bloom throughout the winter in northern aid northwestern Florida. Only a
very few times have I known it to happen in the last thirty-five years.

Because of these differences in climatic conditions, two entirely different
systems of rose growing have come into existence. It is fortunate that many
varieties of/roses begin to bloom within a few weeks after they are planted.
Consequently in southern Florida, in addition to making gardens with dependable
varieties, many other roses can be pl~.nted in autumn on heavily fertilized ground
and treated as roses are in northern greenhouses. Fine flowers are produced.
The plants cost little and in spring the planting is abandoned and a new one
made the following autumn. By this method the so-called greenhouse varietiz-,
for the most part not adapted to all-the-year-round conditions, may be grown.
The plan is adapted to the growing of fine 'cut flowers, but only by the stretch
of some imagination can this be called rose gardening.

In the colder sections, a different situation is presented. Roses planteC.
out-of-doors in autumn or winter do not bloom until spring and if there are to
be roses from them in autumn, the other good flowering season, they must be of
such constitution as to pass through the summer in good condition. Right here
is where many varieties fail, among them a great many of the newer sorts, par-

ticu-larly those carrying pcrnetiina (per-nc;-shc-ana) strain as a part of their
1:na.1up. C t1h other hand, there "r.. ..il .i.ni: enduring sorts ti:.t grow on in
gardens yeer Pfter year. They repros :at the rose groups best adapted for use
in rcse gardening in this state.

Again, there are differerccs in soil conditions that must be considered.
One set is represented by the flatwoords of northeastern Florida, another by- the
lolling clay or clay underlain soils of western Florida, a third by the sandy
ridges that run down through the state Pnd form a part of its so-crllcd back-
bone, and a fourth by the rocky lands found in parts of the extreme south. Roses
o. certain sorts can beo grown in some of tL:se ai as. and th,: sam:e once prec.':cc
"lot in others.

Enough has been said to make ."..cin the fact that Florida conditions for
rose growing are not uniform for the state. There aru distinct climatic and
soil areas that present different problems. It is true that soils can be made
end drainage in some measure will t:de care of surplus water, but we can't do
much about changing climate (rainfall, temperature and length of day), and our
course in rose-growing lies along; the line of using varieties thrt will grow in
spite of it or because of it, whichever way you like to state it.

Then back to the cataloue again. It ill be ioted that following the va-
rieties certain letters hr -e been nlaced: T. for tea roses, H. T. for hybrid
tea varieties, H. P. for hybrid Tierpetuals, Pois. for noisettes, and so on.
These letters indicate 'i..Ito groups of ro .s of known origin. They are at
the same time an indication of bow they tre li'->.ly to behave in a given loca-
tion. The roses important for ui are to be fou:ad, for the most part, among the
Teas and Hybrid Teas, both bushes and climbers. To these may be added Bengals,
Noisettes and a few others. In r..ccnt -ears r ncw strain has been bred into our
rose varieties, designated by the name Pernctiana. One of the regrettable mis-
takes that has happened is to call these Hybrid Teas. True, from the standpoint
of their breeding, they may be rightly so designated, but because they are dis-
tinctly different in their behavior from the old tyes of hybrid teas, they
should not be so listed. Better to call them Pernetiana or Hybrid Pernetiana
roses. Ville de Paris, Los Angeles, Miss Lolita Armour and Talisman, for in-
stance, belong here. The only satisfactory results likely to be had from these
sorts is in growing them as winter roses.

There are other sources from which information on rose varieties can be
secured, but one more only can be mentioned. In nearly every community there
are individuals who have tested an! 'rown iany sorts. Rose growers are cosy to
approach and always' willing to he.l others. Consult them, see what the- are
growing, find out :what kinds are m,. t ceplndable -- then go back to your own gar-.
den and plant those varieties. Having made such a -lanting, add to it a few
that are new and untried sorts. You will add a now- intarcst to your rose ven-
tures and increase your rose knowledge.

So far, I have dealt with fund!nentals only that -e may have a better un-
derstanding of some of our rose problems, our fail-ur s and successes. 1How for
a few remarks on cch of several varieties t iat are .ost dependable, remncmberi s
that new sorts are on trial that a much larger number ma-- be grown far south
under conditions epproxim-ting those of greenhouses.

If I were to maeke z,. rose garden in Florida, with space enough at my dis-
posal, these varieties, considering, the fu-ada:-artals already mentioned, would t
my choice:

- 41 -

-ATO3INE RITOIFE, H. T., has a cre-Tyr white flower, rose-pink tinted toward the
center; very double. A vigorous gi er with clean foliage, a moderate producer.
It ranks as a good garden variety anrd the flowers are fine.

DUC: SSE DE BRABANIT, T,, a very old rose, dating f-'om 1857, with soft, rosy-
pink flowers. Vigorous in growth, free in flowerin-, resistant to black spot.
This was President Theodore Roosovelt's favorite rose.

ETOILE DE HOLLANDE, H. T., originated in 1919, is one of the newer roses. A
good grower, with clean, deep green leathery foliage, color a dark velvety rose-
red, the center lighter. Very fragrant. A good rose.

FRANCIS SCOTT KEY, H. T., a hybrid of Radiance, with large, rounded crimson-red
flowers, is often a satisfactory variety in Florida. It is a vigorous grower
with good foliage.

FRAU KARL DRUSCHKI, H. P., is one of our strongest growers and when its large
white buds and open flowers are secured in good condition they are very lovely.
However, it is not a particularly free bloomer and in spring the flowers are
likely to be injured by thrips.

FREIHERR VON MAARSCHALL, T. The flowers of this rose are a dark, carmine-red,
and the young shoots in their coloring almost match the rose. It is a vigor-
ous grower, but it cannot be called a free flowering variety. However, I have
always esteemed it highly and grow it in my garden.

GJ7SS AT TEPTITZ, H. T. Few roses are redder than this and none sweeter or more
intensely scented. It is a vigorous plant,very resistant to disease; the flow-.
ers are dark, velvety scarlet, usually borne in clusters. It is very prone to
produce seeds abundantly and the hips should be cut off to prevent weakening
the plant. The climbing variet- i also r-ood.

KAISERINZ AUGUSTE VIKTORIA, H. T. A rose of moderate vig or with long, pointed
cream-white buds, of good lasting qualit-. Trhen the flowers are open they are
almost snowy white with a slight lemon tf .t at the center. The stems are ra-
ther weak. It is a moderate gro.7er, but .;lcn "well fed is usually satisfactory
in its behavior.

LOUIS PHILIPPE, Ben. Perhaps there is no ..ore coron or widely distributed
rose in Florida th!n this; in fact, it is sometimes called the Florida rose. It
has excellent foliage; it never seems to be bothered particularly by black spot.
The flowers, often pro .. ced in clusters, ar, double, rounded or somewhat flat-
tened, dark red. It is an c::ccl'.ent garl.n;n s'itr and d.ates back to 1834, so it
is just a hundred years old this year.

IAMIAN COCHET, T. A pink rose with lonpz, pointed buds and large flowers. Paol.
pink, deeper in the center and light yellow: colored toward the base, on good
strong stems. The leaves are leather-~ and dark green. The growth is vigorous
but rather open and inclined to branch widely. It does not flower with parti-
cular freedom, but the blooms are very fine when secured at their best. The!
is a white variety known as 7HITE LAIA'JT COCHET, T., which, in all respects, 1.
the counterpart of the pink one except for the coloring of its flowers, which
are white, t.:t_ -'.red on the outer petals and pale lemon yellow toward the ce3-


MIUL. LAiiBARD, T. This is another of the old-time roses, strong growing and free
fro.a most rose diseases. The flowers are pink, rosy salmon at the center. It
is very double and blooms frcc'.'.

HARIE VAN HOUTTE, T. Than this there is probably no finer rose in its coloring.
It dates back to 1971. I have seen bushes that at twelve years of age were eight
feet high and eight feet across, and so free from disease was the foliage that
not a single bit of blad spot was in evidence. The flowers are pale yellow,
large and very double, flushed with carmine-pirk along the edges and likely to
show more pink coloring in cool weather. It is a very satisfactory bloomer and
a rose that can be recommended unreservedly.

HIINTIE FRANCIS, T. In habit of growth this rose somewhat resembles IMme. Lam-
bard, but in petal style it is quite different. The petals are more open and a
beautiful shade of pink. The foliage is healthy and the bush is a. strong grow-

RADIANCE, H. T. Some people have said we have tco many Radiance roses and yet
it continues to be one of the roses that people plant because it is easily grown
and those who have difficulty ,in ha:iling others under our conditions find it
very satisfactory. Probably as long as roses are grown in Florida, Radiance
roses will be grown. It is vigorous, produces its flowers on good, strong stems,
and has most of the merits that a ;ood rose for our conditions should have. It
is fragrant, pink, light on the inner surface of the petals, deeper on the out-
side, a continuous bloomer during the growing season and regardless of the opin-
ion of some people who speak disparagingly o-' its merits and its commonness, I
would recommend it for ean and every garden. Its counterpart is

RED RADIANCE, H. T. The ,ame style of bush, the same style of flower, but dif-
ferent in color. It is r clear shade of cherry-red, fine, vigorous and depend-

SAFRANO, T. The buds of this rose are unsurpassed. VThen the flowers open they
are only partly double, salmon in color, the' bush is vigorous and under any sort
of decent conditions long-lived. An old and very dependable variety, it was
originated in 1S39.

In addition to these, I would recommend OPHLIA and SUNBURST and MARY
COUNTESS OF ILCHESTER for further trial.


ANEIONE: is a pink Cherokee, not nearl.- so vigorous in its growth as the white
form, producing its lovely, single, pink flowers during the spring months.
closely related to it and much like it is RAO,'ITA, darker in color, so that -i
is sometimes called the Red Cherokee. And then there is the CHEROKEE ROSE it-
self, that came to us from western China but has become so much at home that
it is often regarded as a native A. --rican plant. The white form is a rampant
grower and it needs a lot of space -:here it can climb hi .h into the tops of
trees or over buildings, but it is well -"orth having wherever there is enough
space. SILVER MOON is a Cherokee hybrid, glistening white, with more petals
than Cherokee. It is a very strong grower that apparently has given a good
account of itself in northern an! western Florida. The MACARTNEY ROSE resei;-
bles Cherokee in its pure white, single flowers, but it is a different species

0 -

(Roso bracteata).and the foliage is totally -ulikce that of the Chero:k:e. It is
naturalized in different parts of the st2.te and forms dense clurps from the many
shoots thp.t come up from the ground.

3ANKSIA. The tw.o Banksia roses, alba (white) and lutea (yellow), are both well
worth growing. The flowers are small. and clustered. Perhaps there are no finer
climbers than these two.

BELLE PORTUGUOISE. A strong, rampant growing rose that must have plenty of
space. It was probably first introduced into this state and grown in St. -guts-
tine, where it is highly esteemed. The buds are long and pointed, the flowers
are very large, sometimes as much Es six inches across, partly double, flesh
pink in color. The foliage is dark: green and glossy.

CLIMBING PERLE DES JARDINS, Cl. This is one of the best of the yellow roses. A
climbing sport from the bush form of the s.-:e name. I think on the whole it is
more satisfactory than MARECHAL NIEL. I have never had any success with the
bush form of this name, but the climbing variety is a most satisfactory rose.

CLIMBING PIINK MAM.AN COCHTT, Cl. T. A counterpr.rt of the bush of the same name,
but a strong, vigorous cli .ing rose.

CLIMBING ROSE MARIE, H. 1., is a rose-pink flowcred variety with good foliage,
vigorous and free-flowering.

DEVONIENSIS, Cl. T. A very old rose (141), --hite tinged with blush. Very vi-
gorous, often called the "1,a-:nolia Rose."

DR. W. VAN FLEET, H. W., is a strong rrowing climber v"ith pale pink or almost
white buds. There are fine plants of this in northern Florida, perhaps else-

FORTUNE'S YELLOW: For exquisite coloring in shades of yellow, gold and bronz,
no rose surpasses this. It is a moderate climber with good foliage; the flow-
ers are produced abundantly along the twigs. However, it is only in bloom for
about a month in spring, but because of its dainty coloring and the beauty of
its half-double flowers it merits a place in any roe gar'.en.

PAUL'S SCARLET CLIBER is a good climbing rose with deep, dark, rich scarlet
flowers. It is a moderate grower.

RZINE MARIE KENRIETTE, Cl. H. T. A vigorous growing, free blooming, climbing
rose, with cherry-red flowers. When given proper care -'nd attention it makes a
magnificent plant. It is inclined to lose its loves at the base so that the
branches or stems are bare, and this is its main drawback.

REVE D'OR, Cl. T. This rose holds its folia;-e well ro-own to the base of the
plant, deep green, vigorous and strong growing. The flowers are almost the
counterpart of those of Safrano, buff yellow or salmon in color.


Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 21
Radio Series January 31, 1934


A. N. Tissot, Associate Entomologist,
Florida Experiment Station

Everyone has heard the expression, "Every rose has its thorn," but
only those who have grown a flower garden know how true it is that every flower
also has its insects, -- whole swarms of insects!

During recent years a great deal of attention has been given to home
beautification and the growing of all kinds of flowers. With the increase of
these flowering plants tnere has come a corresponding increase in the number of
insect problems. Perhaps nothing detracts more from the beauty of a plant or
group of plants than to have the leaves or flowers ragged and half-eaten by
caterpillars or grasshoppers, or to have the leaves yellowed and curled from the
feeding of aphids or other sucking insects.

Most of this damage can be prevented by the intelligent use of the
proper insecticides. With a dozen or so of the standard proven insecticides to
choose from, one can control almost any of the insect pests that are likely to
occur in a flower garden.

For convenience we may divide all flower garden insects into two
large groups according to their method of feeding. The members of the group
which we call the biting insects have well-developed jaws which enable them to
bite off and eat portions of plants. Those of the other group which we call the
sucking insects have an entirely different method of feeding. These insects
have a sharp tube-like structure ,which they thrust into the leaves or other parts
of plants and through which they suck up the plant sap -which serves as their
food. It is very important that we know to wnich group an insect pest belongs
because upon this fact will largely depend the method of control that must be

The insecticides which may be used in the flower garden fall into two
group's: the poisons or internal insecticides and the contacts or external in-
secticides. In general the poisons are used for controlling insects of the bit-
ing type while the contact insecticides are used against the sucking insects.

The manner in which one applies an insecticide will be determined
largely by the nature and habits of the insects which one wishes to control and
by the available equipment for applying the control. For example, if one is
troubled by caterpillars which bite through and eat the entire thickness of
leaves, all that is necessary for good control of the caterpillars is to cover
the upper surface of the leaves thinly and evenly with a poisonous material.
This method of applying the poison would, however, have little or no value if

- 2 -

the caterpillars merely skeletonized the leaves by eating away the lower sur-
face and leaving the upper surface untouched. In a case of this kind it would
be necessary to apply the poison in such a way that the lower surface of the
leaves would be coated. Suppose that we have a rose bush infested with aphids.
These are sucking insects which feed upon the sap of the plant. This sap is
obtained from inside the plant, being sucked up through a fine tube-like struc-
ture which is thrust into the tissues of the plant. It is impossible for such
an insect to take up and swallow a material which covers the surface of the
plant. Here we must use material that will cause the death of the insect when
it comes in contact with its body.

The most satisfactory and widely used of the poison insecticides is
arsenate of lead. This is sold in the form of a thick paste or as a white pow-
der that somewhat resembles flour. The powder form is generally considered
more desirable and is the form usually carried in stock by insecticide dealers.
Arsenate of lead may be mixed with water and used as a liquid spray or it may
be used in the form of a dust. When used in water the usual dosage is one ounce
of the powder to three gallons of water. To prevent burning of the plants one
ounce of hydrated lime should be added to each gallon of the spray solution.
Arsenate of lead can also be combined with some inert powder such as hydrated
lime, fullers earth, talc, or low grade flour and used as a dust. The propor-
tion which has proven most generally satisfactory is one part of the lead ar-
senate powder to six or eight parts of the lime or other dilutent. These pro-
portions are by weight and not by measure as different brands of lead arsenate
may vary greatly in texture, some being light and fluffy while others are much
heavier and more compact. Those who object to the white residue left on the
plants by these sprays and dusts can obtain a green arsenate of lead that is ful-
ly as effective as an insecticide and whose residue is scarcely noticeable on the

The fluorides and fluosilicates form another group of insecticides
which can be used for the control of biting insects. These also leave a white
residue on the treated plants and they have few advantages over arsenate of lead
but can be used as a substitute for the latter if it cannot readily be obtained.

The gardener has a large array of different brands from which to
choose when he buys a contact insecticide for use against sucking insects. The
majority of the satisfactory contact insecticides are plant derivatives, the
active killing agents being extracts or compounds made from certain kinds of
plants. One of the oldest of tie contact insecticides and one which still is
used very extensively is nicotine. All tobacco contains nicotine in a greater
or lesser amount and finely ground tobacco is sometimes used as a contact in-
secticide. In a few special cases it may prove effective, but in most cases
the nicotine is given off so slowly that the insects will not be killed. It is
usually more desirable to employ one of the commercial nicotine preparations.
Nicotine sulfate is the form which is most generally available but there also
is on the market a solution of pure nicotine. The most common brand of nicotine
sulfate and one which can be obtained most anywhere is known as"Black Leaf 40."
This is a black liquid which as the name implies contains forty percent of nico-
tine. Nicotine sulfate can be mixed with water and used as a liquid spray or
it may be combined with a powder of some sort and applied as a dust. For use
against aphids and some other soft-bodied insects nicotine sulfate is used at
the rate of one and one-half teaspoonful to one gallon of water. For more re-
sistant insects more of the nicotine must be used. When nicotine sulfate is
used alone in water, the spray tends to collect in large drops and runs off the

- 3 -

plants. To counteract this tendency a small amount of soap or other spreader is
usually added to the spray solution. These substances cause the spray to spread
evenly in a thin film over the surface of the plants and the bodies of the in-

Another group of contact insecticides is composed of extracts or
compounds of pyrethrum and of certain leguminous plants. Pyrethrum powder has
long been used as a household insecticide sold under the name of Persian or
Dalmatian insect powder. This powder is not so satisfactory for outdoor use
against insects on plants but some of the prepared pyrethrum sprays have proven
very effective for this purpose. There are a number of different insecticides
containing preparations of rotenone. Rotenone is the active insect killing a-
gent in the plants known as derris and cubQ. The nyrethrum and rotenone sprays
are effective against the same type of insects that are controlled with nico-
tine and they have a certain advantage over nicotine in that they will also
kill some of the larger and more resistant insects that cannot be controlled
with nicotine. Some of the easily procured pyrethrum sprays are: "Evergreen,"
"Red Arrow," "Kaloil," and "Agripax." Rotenone is the active agent in the
sprays "Derrisol" and "Cubor." An insecticide called "Florote" contains both
pyrethrum and rotenone.

There is another group of contact inscti.des bhich may be mentioned
though their use in the flo.:.r garden will be rather limited. These are the
oil emulsion sprays. They are useful mainly as a control for white flies and
scale insects which sometimes attack roses and other woody ornamental plants.

Whether one siall put on a liquid spray or a dust will depend upon
the available equipment and to some extent on wearhe: conditions. A dust
treatment can be applied more quickly than can a spr.' On the other hand
plants can be dusted only wnen the air is perfecLly still while sprays can be
put on even though there be considerable breeze blowing. To properly apply
the liquid sprays one must have a sprayer of some sort. If one has only a few
plants it may be possible to get along with a small sprayer or atomizer such as
is commonly used for applying fly and mosquito sprays. If one has a fair-sized
garden It will perhaps be advisable to get a compressed air or knapsack sprayer
having a capacity of two or three gallons. The better sprayers of this type
having a copper tark will last longer, but the less expensive ones with a gal-
vanized iron tank will arpiy the insecticide juazt c.s effectively and will last
for a number of years if carefully washed and dried after using.

There are two common types of small hand dusters which are suitable
for use in the flower garden. In one type the dust is blown out and distri-
buted by a bellows arrangement while the other type operates somewhat like a
tire pump. With such ,a &=sver the dry insectiile can be applied thinly and
evenly and it can be blown in any direction so that &'i3 undersides of the leaves
can be protected as well as to- upper. If one has neither a sprayer nor a dust-
er dry insecticides can be applied by placing the material in a cloth bag and
shaking this above the plants. One objection to this method is that the powder
is applied very unevenly so that some parts of the plants will have entirely
too much while other portions will be wholly unprotected. Then, too, this me-
thod allows the insecticide to be applied to only tne upper surface of the
leaves and is practically useless against insects that feed only on the lower
surface of the leaves.

There are a great many different kinds of insects that may and fre-
quently do become troublesome in the flower garden, and no attempt will be made
to enumerate all of them. It may, however, be well to mention some of the more
common pests and briefly consider the easiest methods of controlling them.

The caterpillars which are the young or larvae of the moths and but-
terflies constitute one of thie important groups of tne biting insects. In gen-
eral they can be controlled by covering the plants with a spray or dust of ar-
senate of lead. The younger stages of many of the caterpillars can also be con-
trolled effectively by the use of one of the pyrethrui, or rotenone sprays.

Some of the beetles, notably the flea beetles, sometimes become in-
jurious in flower gardens. The treatment prescribed for the caterpillars will
also prove effective against most of these.

Cutworms, mole crickets, -and grasshoppers cannot successfully be con-
trolled with either sprays cr dusts. The best method of dealing with these pests
is to feed them a poisoned bait. A very satisfactory bait is made by thoroughly
mixing four ounces of paris green with six pounds of bran. This mixture is next
moistened with water to which has been added a little syrup and the juice and
grated rind of an orange or lemon. This bait is best applied late in the even-
ing and may be sown broadcast -where the pests are found or it may be scattered
thinly along the rows of plants.

The aphids or plant lice make up a group of the sucking insects that
is often troublesome in flower gardens, almost all kinds of plants being subject
to attack. Aphids mrultipl, very rapidly and the main requisite for successful
control is that the treatment be applied at their first appearance before the
infestation becomes too general. Leafhoppers, plant bugs and fleahoppers are
other sucking insects that may attack cur garden flowers. Thrips form still an-
other grcup of the sucking insects. They are very small, yellow, brown, or
black insects that are commonly found in flowers but which occasionally injure
other parts of plants. Their small size enables tnem to go into the depths of
flowers where they are protected and it is difficult to reach them with a spray
material. The various sucking insects are controlled by the use of nicotine
sulfate spray or dust or with one of the pyrethrum or rotenone sprays. Some of
these insects are more resistant tnan others and a stronger spray must be used
to kill them. The manufacturers of insecticides give directions for mixing
their sprays for use against different kinds of insects and these should be fol-
lowed for the particular insects in question.

The essential elements in the control of insect pests of the flower
garden can be summed up in one sentence. Keep a close watch of the plants and
detect the first appearance of the pest, determine if it is a biting or sucking
insect and on what part of tne plant it is feeding and, having learned these
facts, apply a suitable insecticide.

u,.cr .rf OFr FLORIDA.

Ornamental Gardening in Florida Talk No. 22
Radio Series February 7, 1934


By George F. Weber, Plant Pathologist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

"Oh, Daddy, can you come out in the garden? There is something real im-
portant about the flowers," thus shouted ten-year-old Joan shortly after re-
turning from Sunday School.

Doctor Allen, a distinguished physician, slowly laid down his widespread
paper and moved from the upholster.l.e chair to the garden.

"See," said Joan, "the lilies are all dying and do you remember what you
told me yesterday about them? You s-id, 'Consider the lilies of the field,
they toil not, neither do they spin and. ct I say unto you that even Solomon
in all his glory was net arrayed like one of these.' I didn't understand all
about it but these sick ones don't loo.U thet yay."

"Well, my child, it looks as though some of our lily plants are sick."

"Daddy, can you 'te.d to them and get them well?" asked Joan.

"I'm afraid not, but you !.now we have sc;,ic plant doctors in Gainesville.
Suppose we send some of the sick plants to them and find out the trouble."

As Dr. Allen sought a trowel, little Joan hurried to join some playmates
in a neighbor's yard. As the lilies were b:ing dug, many thoughts were going
through the active brain of Dr. Allen. He knew that the flowers, leaves, stem,
and roots were necessary for accurate diagnosis. And, when sending these,
thought he, why not send along a few of the mildewed zinnia leaves? He shook
the dirt from the lily roots and wrapped them in paper. "I'll also send some
Ageratum leaves that are yellowing and show yellow spots, and these petunia
flowers that are stunted and mottled." After half an hour, a number of disease.
plants, spotted leaves and malformed flowers were carefully packed for shipment
to the Plant Pathologist at Gainesville. Though mute, Dr. Allen's mind was
functioning as follows as he leisurely surveyed his flower garden and pcrepn'
plantings: "Flowers, of all created thins, are the most innocently simple,
the most superbly complex playthings for children, soothers of human sorrow,
ornaments of the feast and companiors of the corpse, beloved by the idiot and
studied by the thinking scientist. Yet when they gct some disease, it's a dif-
ferent story."

The specimens and letter were duly received at the Experiment Station, a-
long with others from various prts of Florida. The plant pathologist worked
over the morning's mail; he examined the specimens, with and without the aid

uof iowss, rmouneit~; thu parasitic o i:;ism .., ouniC in the diso.5.L .... cr under
the microscope, plated out several of them to grow a day or two under observa-
:.ic, conu, e.ied his co-workers rud s... tc miical books dealing with 1-'1.nt para-
sites rnd the diseases they cause. G.rdoning, you know, is one pursuit of human
ende-vor in which both sexes and all degrees of education and refinement unite.
No one is too polished to sec the beauty of flowers, nor too rough to be capable
of enjoying them. It attracts and delights all. It seems to be a common field
,w-here cvely degree of taste and refinement may unite and find opportunities for
their gratification.

A day or two later, Dr. Allen received the following reply to his letter:

"Dear Mr. Allen: Your letter "-d specimens have been received and I shall
here attempt to give you definite iiifornmrtion concerning the questions asked and
a diagnosis of the troubles on the specimens you sent in.

"Your question asking what mosaic is, is 'iell demonstrated by the easter
lily and petuniep specimens which you sent in to us. They have the disease, and
all plants in your garden showing these symptoms should be carefully removed and
destroyed because the disease is contagious !nd will spread to healthy plants.
Mosaic is the name rpplicd to this disease of plants the symptoms of which are
green and yellow mottled, -tunted, malformed leaves. The entire plants are u-
sually stunted, causing t' e pl-nt to -]pp>r more rosetted than healthy. No para-
site has been found resi-o,isiblc; for the dis ..sZc, but there is something con-
tained in the sap of mosaic pl'u'ts that c-rses the disease in healthy plants,
when sap from a diseased plant is transferred to a healthy one. This 'something'
is known in plant science as a virus and mo-,ic is often referred to as a 'virus
disease.' Sucking insects such as ophids, jrssids, etc., are probably more re-
sponsible for its spread than anything clie and it can be quite well controlled
by controlling them. Fungicides are of no value in its control and mosaic
plants should be removed because they cannot be cured. Press Bulletins from
the Experiment Station dealing with this trouble will give you further details.

"The leaf spots of marigold and phlox are caused by certain parasitic fun-
gi. The one on marigolds is not comr.-only found, while the one on phlox is founi
annually. Both are severe, however, and can be satisfactorily controlled by a
liquid 4-4-50 Bordeaux spray or by usting with 20-80 copper-lime dust. These
'-un ociies should be applied often enough to keep all new growth covered and

"The zinnia leaves showing the white powdery substance on the surface have
a disease !known as powdery mildew r 1 those with the scattered small angular
spots with dark reddish-brown to purple borders have a leafspot disease caused
by another fungus. The powdery mildCcw can be controlled by dusting the plants
with finely ground sulphur applied when the plants are wet with dew. Applica-
tions should be made often enough to keep the mildew checked. The leafspot
is controlled by Ppplying bordeaux or co:pcr-lime dust, the spray when the
plants are dry and the dust when they are wet. If both diseases .appear on the
plants at the srme time a single liquid sprey of limc-sulphur is probably most
effective. Don't try to combine bordeaux and sulphur; they will not mix well.

"The agern.tum leaves showing small circular yellow spots with brown cen-
ters, have a disease knc n as rust. This is a true rust caused by a specific
fungus and has no relationship to the term trust' erroneously applied to va-
rious diseases such as mildew, anthracnoso and- blights. The spotted ageratum

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